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United Arab Emirates University

College of Sciences
Department of Mathematical Sciences

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Complex Analysis I
MATH 315 SECTION 01 CRN 23516
9:30 10:45 on Monday & Wednesday
Due Date: Monday, October 19, 2009

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

1. (Total 10 points) Let z = 3 + i and w = 1 + i 3.


(1.1) (5 points) Compute w z, zw, and | z |. Express w/z in the form x + iy with real x and y.
Answer.
(
)
(
)

wz =1+i 3
3+i =1 3+i
31
[(
]
(
)(
)

)2

2
zw =
3+i
1+i 3 = 3+i 3+i
3 + 1 = 3 3 + i ( 3 + 1 ) = 4i
( ) 2



3 + 12 = 3 + 1 = 2
|z| = 3 + i =
)(
)
(

3i
1+i 3
w
1+i 3
1+i 3
3i
3+i
2 3 + 2i
=
=

=
=
.

=
( )2
z
4
2
3+i
3+i
3i
3 +1

(1.2) (5 points) Express z =

3 + i in the exponential form rei .

Answer. For the given z, we have


| z | = 2,

< Arg(z) = tan1 = ,


6
3

z = | z | ei Arg(z) = 2ei 6 .

2. (5 points) Write down Eulers formula and de Moivres formula.


Answer. Eulers formula and de Movires formula are, respectively, as follows
ei = cos + i sin ,

[ cos + i sin ]n = cos ( n ) + i sin ( n ) ,

where n is an integer.

3. (Total 5 points) Determine whether the following is true (T) or false (F).
(3.1) (3 points) If Im(z) > 0, then | z i | > | z + i |. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F
Answer. z = i satises the condition Im(z) = 1 > 0. But, clearly z = i does not satisfy the
inequality
|z i| = 0 < 2 = |z + i|.

(3.2) (2 points) If z = 0 lies inside the unit circle centered at the origin, then 1/
z lies outside the
circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T
Answer. With z = x + iy = 0,
1
1
x + iy
=
= 2
,
z x iy
x + y2

and


1
= 1
.
z
x2 + y 2

If z = x + iy = 0 lies inside the unit circle, then | z |2 = | z |2 = x2 + y 2 < 1 which implies


| 1/
z | > 1. That is, 1/
z should be outside the unit circle.


Page 1 of 5

Points Earned: 20/20

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

4. (5 points) For z = 1 + i and w = 1 i, nd all possible arguments of z, w, zw and z/w.


Answer. We nd the principal arguments:
( )
1

1
Arg ( z ) = tan
= tan1 1 = ,
1
4

(
1

Arg ( w ) = tan

1
1

)
= tan1 ( 1 ) =

Since w = z, so zw = z z = | z |2 = 2 and
z
z
z2
z2
2i
= =
=
= i,
2 =
w
z zz
2
|z|

Arg ( zw ) = Arg ( 2 ) = 0,

Arg

(z )

= Arg ( i ) = .
w
2

The arguments, arg ( z ), arg ( w ), arg ( zw ), arg ( z/w ), are obtained adding 2n, integer n, to
the principal arguments.


5. (5 points) Find all zs satisfying Arg(z ) = Arg(z).


Answer. For a real number z = x + i0, we have z = x i0 = x + i0 = z, i.e., z = z. Thus any
real number z satisfy the given equation.
One can argue as follows. For a complex number z = x + iy, Arg(z) is dened by the angle
(, ] satisfying tan = y/x. (When x = 0, z = iy and Arg(z) = /2 with y > 0 and
Arg(z) = /2 with y < 0.) That is,
tan ( Arg(z) ) =

y
,
x

and

Arg(z) (, ].

For the conjugate z = x iy of z = x + iy, we have


y
tan ( Arg(
z) ) = ,
x

and

Arg(
z ) (, ].

The condition Arg(


z ) = Arg(z) implies tan ( Arg(z) ) = tan ( Arg(
z ) ), i.e., y/x = y/x, i.e., y = 0.
Therefore, such all zs should be real numbers.

(

)12

6. (5 points) Express 1 + i 3

in the form x + iy with real x and y.

Answer. Since z = 1 + i 3 has the modulus | z | = 2 and the principal argument Arg ( z ) = ,
3
so it has the exponential form,
[
(
)
(
)]

+ 2k + i sin
+ 2k
1 + i 3 = 2ei( 3 +2k ) = 2 cos
3
3
where k = 0, 1, 2, . . . . By de Moivres formula, we deduce
(
)
(
) ] }12
(
)12 { [
1+i 3
+ 2k + i sin
+ 2k
= 2 cos
[
(3
) 3
(
)]
12
12
12
=2
cos
+ 12 2k + i sin
+ 12 2k
3
3
= 212 [ cos ( 2n ) + i sin ( 2n ) ] = 212 = 4096 + i0,

where k, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

Page 2 of 5

Points Earned: 15/15

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

7. (5 points) Find all 3rd roots of 1 + i, i.e., (1 + i)1/3 .


Answer. We are asked to nd all zs satisfying z 3 = 1 + i. We start with the exponential forms
of z, and 1 + i,
z = | z | ei arg( z ) ,

z 3 = | z |3 ei3 arg( z ) ,

1 + i = | 1 + i | ei arg( 1+i ) =

2ei( 4 +2n )

where n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . From z 3 = 1 + i, we obtain


| z |3 ei3 arg( z ) = z 3 = 1 + i =

2ei( 4 +2n ) ,

| z |3 =

i.e.,

2,

3 arg ( z ) =

+ 2n.
4

It gives us
( )1/3
2
= 21/6 ,
|z| =

arg ( z ) =

2n
+
,
12
3

i.e.,

z = 21/6 ei( 12 +

2n
3

where n = 0, 1, 2, . . . . Putting n = 1, 0, 1, we have all the 3rd roots:


)
)
(
(
1/6
1
+
2
3

i
1
+
3

c2 = c1 = 21/6 ei( 12 3 ) =
2 2
)
)
(
(
1/6
1
+
2
3

i
1

c0 = 21/6 e ( 12 ) =
2 2
1/6

2
2 i
c1 = 21/6 ei( 12 + 3 ) =
.
2

),

8. (Total 10 points) Solve the following conversion problems.


(8.1) (5 points) Write f (z) = xy + iy 2 in terms of z and z, where z = x + iy.
Answer. With z = x + iy, we have
x = Re ( z ) =

z + z
,
2

y = Im ( z ) =

z z
.
2i

Before putting them into the function, we modify the given function
f (z) = xy + iy 2 = y ( x + iy ) = ( Im ( z ) ) z,
which gives us
z z
z 2 z z
z 2 | z |2
| z |2 z 2
f (z) = ( Im ( z ) ) z =
z = i
= i
=
i.
2i
2
2
2

Page 3 of 5

Points Earned: 10/10

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

(8.2) (5 points) Write f (z) = z 2 z2 in the form u(r, ) + iv(r, ), where r and are the modulus
and the principal argument of z, respectively.
Answer. With z = rei and z = rei , we have
)
(
f (z) = z 2 z2 = r2 e2i r2 e2i = r2 e2i e2i
= r2 [ cos ( 2 ) + i sin ( 2 ) ( cos ( 2 ) i sin ( 2 ) ) ]
= 0 + 2r2 i sin ( 2 ) = u(r, ) + iv(r, ).

That is, u(r, ) = 0 and v(r, ) = 2r2 sin(2).

9. (5 points) Sketch and nd the image S of the semiinnite strip S given below under the transformation w = f (z) = ez :
S = { z = (x, y) C | 1 x 1, 0 y } .
Answer. Using Exponential Form. For z = x + iy S, we use the exponential form,
ei = w = f (z) = ex+iy = ex eiy ,

i.e.,

= ex ,

= y.

For 1 x 1 and 0 y , we have e1 = ex e and 0 = y . It implies


{
}
S = f (S) = ei C | e1 e, 0 .
The inequality e1 e represents the annulus between two disks centered at the origin with
radii e2 and e2 . The other inequality 0 represents the upperhalf space in the wplane.
Therefore, the region S is the part of annulus lying in the upperhalf space.

Answer. Using Cartesian Form. For z = x + iy S, we have
u(x, y) + iv(x, y) = f (z) = ex+iy = ex eiy = ex ( cos y + i sin y ) = ex cos y + iex sin y,
i.e., u(x, y) = ex cos y and v(x, y) = ex sin y. For 1 x 1 and 0 y , we have e1 ex e
and 1 cos y 1 and 0 sin y 1. It implies
e u(x, y) = ex cos y e,

0 v(x, y) = ex sin y e.

That is, for z S, the real and imaginary parts of f (z) = u + iv, Re(f (z)) = u(x, y) = ex cos y and
Im(f (z)) = v(x, y) = ex sin y, should be in the intervals, e u e and 0 v e, respectively.
Finally we observe that for z S,
(
)
u2 + v 2 = ( ex cos y )2 + ( ex sin y )2 = e2x cos2 y + sin2 y = e2x ,

e2 u2 + v 2 e2 ,

because 1 x 1. Therefore we deduce


}
{
S = f (S) = u + iv = (u, v) C | e1 u e, 0 v e, e2 u2 + v 2 e2 .
The graphs of u2 + v 2 = e2 and u2 + v 2 = e2 are circles centered at the origin with the radius e2
and e2 , respectively. Thus, the region S is the part of annulus between two disks centered at the
origin with radii e2 and e2 and (u, v) [ e1 , e ] [ 0, e ].

Page 4 of 5

Points Earned: 10/10

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 1 SOLUTION

Fall, 2009
Region S'=fHSL

Region S

0
-1
-2

-1

0
-

- 1 0

10. (Total 10 points) Compute the limit.


(10.1) (5 points)

lim

z 1+i

z 2 + z2

Answer.
(

lim

z 1+i

)
2
z 2 + z2 = ( 1 + i )2 + ( 1 + i ) = (1 + i)2 + (1 i)2 = 2i 2i = 0.

(
(10.2) (5 points) lim

zi

xe

xy

exy
i
x+1

Answer. As z = x + iy 0 + i, we get x 0 and y 1.


)
(
)
(
exy
exy
xy
xy
lim xe i
=
lim
xe i
zi
(x,y) (0,1)
x+1
x+1
=

lim

(x,y) (0,1)

xexy i

exy
= 0 i = i.
(x,y) (0,1) x + 1
lim

11. (5 points) Find the set of all points at which the given function is continuous.
{
f (z) =

Im(z)
,
z

0,

z=
0
z = 0.

Answer. We recall that a continuous function and Re ( z ) and Im ( z ) are continuous everywhere.
Im(z)
It implies
is continuous except z = 0, i.e., f (z) is continuous everywhere except z = 0. So
z
we look for the continuity of f (z) at z = 0.
Case 1. Horizontal Approach: z = (x, y) (0, 0) along the xaxis, z = (x, 0) (0, 0),
Im(z)
0
=
lim
=
lim 0 = 0.
(x,0) (0,0)
(x,0) (0,0) x + i0
(x,0) (0,0)
z
lim

Case 2. Vertical Approach: z = (x, y) (0, 0) along the yaxis, z = (0, y) (0, 0),
Im(z)
y
1
1
=
lim
=
lim
= = i.
(0,y) (0,0)
(0,y) (0,0) 0 + iy
(0,y) (0,0) i
z
i
lim

Since two limits are dierent, so the limit does not exist at z = 0 and f (z) is not continuous at
z = 0. Therefore, f (z) is continuous everywhere except z = 0.


Page 5 of 5

Points Earned: 15/15

United Arab Emirates University


College of Sciences
Department of Mathematical Sciences

EXAM 2 { SOLUTION

Complex Analysis I

MATH 315 SECTION 01 CRN 23516


9:30 { 10:45 on Monday & Wednesday
Due Date: Wednesday, November 25, 2009

ID No:

Solution

Name:

Solution

Score:

50/50

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 2 { SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

1. (5 points) Show that f 0 (z ) does not exist at any point for f (z ) = ez.

Proof.

With z = x + iy ,

= ex iy = ex cos y iex sin y:


Let u(x; y ) = ex cos y and v (x; y ) = ex sin y . Then we observe
ux = ex cos y = u;
uy = ex sin y = v;
vx = ex sin y = v;
vy = ex cos y = u:
Only when u = 0 and v = 0, u and v satisfy the Cauchy{Riemann equations, i.e.,
ux = u = vy ;
uy = v = vx :
However, ex 0 for any x and there is no y satisfying both cos y = 0 and sin y = 0 simultaneously. Therefore, f (z ) is not di erentiable at any point.

ez

2. (5 points) Show that the function f (z ) = e  cos (ln r) + ie  sin (ln r) is di erentiable in the
domain of de nition r > 0, 0 <  < 2 , and also to nd f 0 (z ).

Proof.

Let u(r; ) = e  cos (ln r) and v (r; ) = e  sin (ln r). Then we observe
1 
1
ur =
e sin (ln r) =
v;
u = e  cos (ln r) =
r
r
1
1
vr = e  cos (ln r) = u;
v = e  sin (ln r) =
r

u;
v

At any z = rei in the given domain, u and v satisfy the Cauchy{Riemann equations, i.e.,
rur = v = v ;
u = u = rvr :
Thus, f (z ) is di erentiable in the given domain and has the derivative

1
1 
f 0 (z ) = e i (ur + ivr ) = e i
v+i u
r

= ir

i

(u + iv ) = iz

[cos (ln r) + i sin (ln r)] :

 Remark:

We observe
f (z ) = e  cos (ln r) + ie  sin (ln r) = e  ei ln r = ei(ln r+i) = ei log z = z i ;
where log z is a branch of the logarithm. So when we di erentiate it, we get f 0 (z ) = iz 1 i . In
fact, the answer above implies
f 0 (z ) = iz 1 e  [cos (ln r) + i sin (ln r)] = iz 1 f (z ) = iz 1 z i = iz 1 i :

3. (5 points) Show that u(x; y ) = 2x


conjugate v (x; y ).

x3 + 3xy 2

is harmonic in some domain and nd a harmonic

Proof.

A simple computation shows that for all x and y ,


ux = 2 3x2 + 3y 2 ;
uxx = 6x;
uy = 6xy;
uyy = 6x;
uxx + uyy = 6x + 6x = 0:
Thus, the function u is harmonic everywhere. A harmonic conjugate v should satisfy ux = vy
and uy = vx and so we compute
v

vx

vy dy
@ 
2y
@x
6xy;

ux dy

Z 

3x2 + 3y 2

3x2 y + y 3 + (x) = 6xy =

6xy + 0 (x) =
0 (x) = 0;
(x) = C:
Therefore, we deduce the harmonic conjugate v (x; y ) = 2y
constant.
Page 1 of 4

dy

= 2y

3x2 y + y 3 + (x);

uy ;

3x2 y + y 3 + C , where

is any

Points Earned: 15/15

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 2 { SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

4. (5 points) Find the harmonic conjugate v (x; y ) of the harmonic function u(x; y ) = 2x (1
such that f (z ) = u(x; y ) + iv (x; y ) satis es f (0) = 1.

Answer.
v

We start with the Cauchy{Riemann equations ux = vy and uy =


=

vy dy

2x =

uy

ux dy
@
@x

= vx =

= 2 (1

2y

y ) dy

y 2 + (x)

=2

vx ,

1 2
y + (x) = 2y
2

= 0 (x);

y)

i.e.,

y 2 + (x);

(x) = x2 + C:

We deduce
v (x; y ) = 2y

y 2 + x2 + C;

f (z ) = u(x; y ) + iv (x; y ) = 2x (1

The condition f (0) = 1 is satis ed when C =


v (x; y ) = 2y

y 2 + x2

i,

2y

y 2 + x2 + C :

and thus,

f (z ) = 2x (1

i;

y) + i

y) + i

2y

y 2 + x2

i :

5. (5 points) Find all values of z such that ez = 1 + i 3.

Answer.

We express 1 + i 3 in the form rei :

p
p

1 + i 3 = j1 + i 3jei arg(1+i 3) = 2ei( 3 +2n) ;
p

n = 0;

1; 2; : : :

and

With z = x + iy , ez = ex eiy and so ez = 1 + i 3 implies


ex eiy

= 2ei( 3 +2n) ;


ex

Thus, we conclude
z

6. (5 points) Prove that ez

Proof.

= ln 2 + i

= 2;

x = ln 2;

i:e:;

+ 2n

n = 0;

+ 2n:

1; 2; : : : :

 ejzj .
2

With z = x + iy , we have
z2

= x2

y 2 + 2xyi;

jz j2 = x2 + y2; ej j = e
e = ex y  ex +y = ejz j ;
z2

i:e:;

ez



x2

= ex

x2 +y 2

2 y 2 2xyi



z2

= ex

2 y2

because a real{valued exponential function is monotonic, i.e., increasing.

Page 2 of 4

Points Earned: 15/15

Complex Analysis I
7. (5 points) Evaluate log

Answer.
p
log

EXAM 2 { SOLUTION

3+i .

By the de nition,

3 + i = ln 3 + i + i arg

3 + i = ln 2 + i

8. (5 points) Find all values of z such that Log


cipal value of log.

Answer.
have

Fall, 2009

z2

+ 2n

i

n = 0;

1; 2; : : : : 

, where the Log represents the prin-

Because the principal value Log z is one of the values of the logarithm log z , so we
eLog z

= z;

6= 0:

It implies
z

Log z 2 i

i=e

) = e 2 i = cos

+ i sin

= i;

z2

= 2i:

+ 2n;

i:e:;

So the problem is converted to nd the values of z such that z 2 = 2i.


With z = rei and the exponential form of 2i, we have
r2 e2i

= z 2 = 2i = 2ei( 2 +2n) ;


r2

Therefore, we deduce
z

= 2ei( 4 +n) ;


i:e:;

z1

= 2;

i:e:;

= 2ei 4 = 1+ i;

Page 3 of 4

= 2;

and

2 =

z2

= 2ei( 4 +) =


+ n:

(1 + i) :

Points Earned: 10/10

Complex Analysis I

EXAM 2 { SOLUTION

Fall, 2009

9. (5 points) Find the principal value of the complex exponent




P: V:

Answer.

e

Log
because

 < Arg


P: V :

e

e

i
e



3i

= ln

e



3i

2
3

< .

By the de nition,


)) = e3i(1

3=2

3i

, i.e.,

)) :

1 i 3

2
i=1
3

2
i;
3

Thus, we deduce
2 i
3

1 i 3

1+i 3

2 
= ln e
3

10. (5 points) Use the de nition z c = ec log z to show that

Proof.

3 +i

3i

e

= e3i Log( 2 (

= e3i Log( 2 (

A simple computation shows




By the de nition,
P: V :

e

= e(3=2) log(

) = e3i+22 = e3i e22 =

1+i 3
p

3=2

e2 :

= 2 2.

):

1+i 3

A simple computation shows





p
p
p
2
1 + i 3 = ln 1 + i 3 + i arg 1 + i 3 = ln 2 + i
+ 2n ;
3



p  3
3
2
3
3
log 1 + i 3 = ln 2 + i
+ 2n = ln 2 + i ( + 3n ) = ln 2 + i (3n + 1) ;
2
2
3
2
2
p
p
3 ln 2+i(3n+1)
3 ln 2 i(3n+1)
(3=2) log( 1+i 3)
3
=
2
= e2 e
= 2 (1) = 2 2:
e
= e2


log

Page 4 of 4

Points Earned: 10/10