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1

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 1

1.3

4 A CONNECTED SPEECH: linking Read

1.1

the Pronunciation tip. Then read the


description and mark examples of
linking between words.

1 A STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED AUXILIARY VERBS Read the


Pronunciation tip. Then look at the sentences and decide
whether the underlined auxiliary verbs are stressed or
unstressed.

PRONUNCIATION TIP
When one word ends in a consonant
sound and the next word begins with a
vowel sound, the two words link together
as if they were one word:
Its amazing.
Sometimes when one word ends in two
or more consonants and the following
word also starts in a consonant, the
middle consonant is lost. This is called
elision. E.g., notice how the /t/ sound is
lost in He doesnt like to have his photo
taken. /dznlak/

PRONUNCIATION TIP
Auxiliary verbs are usually stressed in negative forms, short
answers and tag questions. They are not usually stressed in
positive sentences or question forms unless the speaker wishes to
add extra emphasis to the verb.
1
2
3
4

I have been thinking about changing my name recently.


Was he always so sensitive about his name?
I really didnt like my name when I was a kid.
We were going to call her Lucy, but then my sister got a dog
called Lucy!
5 A: They have given him a really unusual name, havent they?
B: Yes, they have!
6 Do you ever wish you had been given a different name?

2A

Shes really striking, I mean, you know


you have to stop and look twice. Shes so
tall for a start. And then theres her hair.
Its amazing, it sort of has a life of its
own. And her eyes are probably the one
thing you notice most of all. Theyre an
incredible light blue, sort of the colour
of ice.

1.1 Listen and check. In which cases are the unstressed


auxiliaries contracted? Write the contracted form. Then listen
again and repeat.
1.2 Listen to the conversation. Which auxiliary verbs are
given extra emphasis?
A: Oh come on, I dont believe you! She hasnt changed her name
to Rainbow Cloud!
B: But she has changed it, honestly! I saw the papers.
A: Nah, really? You are kidding me, arent you?
B: Yeah! But admit it, you did believe me there for a minute!
Listen again and say As part with the speaker.
Then practise Bs part.

1.4 Listen to the linked words


and check.

1.5 Read the description with


the speaker. Pay attention to the
linked words.

5A

1.2

3A

1.3 IDENTIFYING ATTITUDE Listen and complete the text


with the correct forms: ll, d, will or would.
My brothers changed so much since he was a teenager. He used
to be so moody! He 1
never listen to anything anyone said
to him. He 2
sit and look out of the window as if no one
else was there. And he 3
insist on locking himself in his
room for hours on end. My mother 4
really worry about him.
Now he 5
spend hours chatting to Mum in the kitchen.
Or the two of them 6
go for long walks in the woods. But
he 7
still ignore anyone who tries to give him any advice!
What two things does the speaker find particularly annoying?
How do you know? Practise saying those sentences and
sounding annoyed.

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1.6 CONNECTED SPEECH:


elision Listen to this second
description. Look at the underlined
consonant clusters. In which clusters is
a consonant sound lost? Cross out the
lost consonants.
He looks pretty ordinary, you know, and
he wont make any heads turn as he
walks down the street. You dont really
notice anything unusual unless you take
a direct look straight into his eyes. Thats
when you realise that one is the darkest
chocolate brown and the other is a soft
light honey colour.
Listen again and read the description
with the speaker. Pay attention to the
consonant clusters.

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 2

2A

2.1

1A

2.2

2.1 DOUBLE CONTRACTIONS


Listen and complete the sentences
using the complete form of the verbs
in brackets.
1 If I
(be) surer of
myself, I
(start) my
career so much sooner.
(not leave) home in
2 I
the first place if it
(not be) for my grandfather.
(listen) more
3 I know I
carefully to my grandmother. She
was a wise woman!
(not pay) any
4 I really
attention to him, it was a stupid idea
from the very beginning.
(not do) what I did
5 I
without my family behind me.
(be)
6 I honestly think I
better off if I
(just stay) at home!
(not follow) her
7 If he
advice, he
(not get)
himself in the mess hes in today!
(just keep)
8 I wish I
quiet about the whole thing,
I
(avoid) a lot of
heartache that way.
PRONUNCIATION TIP

convincing eye-opening have second thoughts


narrow-minded perspective preconceptions stereotypes
1 /e/
2 //
3 /a/

2.2 Look at the verbs you wrote


in Exercise 1A. What are the written
contracted forms of these verbs? Which
forms can have a further contraction
in speech? Which verbs have a double
contraction in speech? Listen and check.
Listen again to the sentences in
Exercise 1A and say them with the
speakers.

PRONUNCIATION TIP

Oen the vowel sound in unstressed syllables reduces to either a


schwa // sound or a so // sound.

B Look at the words/phrases in Exercise 2A again and identify all


the weak // and // vowel sounds.
// //
convincing

3 A Read the text below. Find at least five examples of each of the

two weak vowel sounds in Exercise 2B in the unstressed syllables.


Its really difficult not to judge people on first appearance. Its an
instinct we have. We may well change our minds as we get to know
those people a little bit better but that first impression will always
stick in our minds.

2.4

Listen and check.

2.3

4A

2.5 STRESS FOR EMOTION Listen to two short


conversations. Underline two words in each conversation that are
given extra emphatic stress.
Conversation 1
A: You did what?
B: I just let him go.
A: But surely you should have given him some punishment or
something?
B: Oh come on, Id like to see what youd have done in that situation!
Conversation 2
A: You will never believe what happened next!
B: Try me.
A: Well, he climbed onto the stage
B: The stage?
A: Oh yes, he climbed onto the stage and planted a huge kiss on
her cheek.

Listen again. What emotion is each speaker showing through the


extra emphasis?

When writing, we can contract both


would and had using d, e.g. Id have
been (= I would have been), Id been
(= I had been), etc.
When speaking, we can also contract
have to ve, so it sounds like Idve come
(I would have come).
We also oen contract have with
negative forms with would and other
modal verbs when speaking, e.g.
he couldntve known.

2.3 STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED VOWEL SOUNDS Listen


to the words/phrases in the box. Mark the main stress and match
the vowel in the stressed syllable with the vowel sounds 13.

amusement anger defensiveness incredulity

Listen again and say As part with the speaker. Then listen again
and say Bs part.

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PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 3

3.2

3A

3.1

1A

3.1 VOWEL SOUNDS: landscapes


Match vowel patterns 18, with the
adjectives in bold in the sentences below.
Listen, check and repeat.
5 // > /a/
1 // > // > /e/
6
// > /:/ > //
2 // > // > // > //
7 // > //
3 // > //
8 // > //
4 /e/ > //
a) The ancient Roman ruins stood at the
top of the hill with the sun setting
behind them.
b) The market place was bustling with early
morning activity.
c) It was lunchtime and the main square was
totally deserted.
d) She lived in a picturesque cottage on the
edge of the village.
e) It was a very tranquil scene, with fishing
boats bobbing on the sea.
f) This part of the country has not yet been
touched by tourism and is totally unspoilt.
g) The caf looked very run-down, with a big
crack in one of the windows.
h) The view from the top of the mountain was
magnificent we could see for miles.
3.2 Listen and say the sentences in
Exercise 1A with the speakers. Pay particular
attention to the pronunciation of the
adjectives in bold.

circle grow sell bar way title centenary power


skirt fortunately monthly retired rated hero
known stated

3.5 Combine each prefix below with two words from


the list in Exercise 3A. Listen and check.
sub

bi

super


mini
un


out
under

semi

3.6 Read the Pronunciation tip then listen to the


words both with and without the prefixes. With which
words does the stress shi? Listen again and say the
words with the speakers. Pay special attention to words
where the stress shis.
PRONUNCIATION TIP
Sometimes when a prefix is added to a word, the stress
shis. For example the stress shis in pilot /palt/ and
co-pilot /kpalt/, but not in national /nnl/ and
international /ntnnl/.

3.3

4A

2 A VOWEL SOUNDS: noun phrases Complete

the phonemic transcription for the phrases


using the symbols in the box. Write the
phrases alongside.
// /:/ /ai/ // (x4) /i:/ (x2) //
// // // (x2) // /u:/ (x4)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

/c st
t ts/
/f g pr nts/
/k l br z/
/ pl p /
/sw m p l/
w l/
/ s
p/
/
/sk lb ks/

3.7 MARKING EMPHASIS IN CLEFT SENTENCES


Listen to the sentences below. Which sentence is more
emphatic? Which words are stressed in the emphatic
sentence?
1 We plan to reduce vandalism in the town centre.
2 What we plan to do is reduce vandalism in the town
centre.

3.8 Look at the sentences below. Decide how you


would say the sentences and which words you would
stress. Listen and check your ideas.
1 What we plan to do is reduce stress for busy commuters.
2 What were proposing to do is play classical music in
public places.
3 What we want to do is make our town centre a safer place
for shoppers.
4 What were aiming to do is help tourists enjoy their stay.
5 What were hoping to do is increase local trade.
6 What we intend to do is create more youth employment.

Listen again and say the sentences with the speakers.

3.3 Listen and check. Then listen and


repeat.

3.4 WORD STRESS: prefixes Look at the words in


the list. Where the words have more than one syllable,
mark the main stress. Listen and check.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 4

4A

4.1

1A

4.1 CHUNKING and SENTENCE


STRESS Listen to a movie trailer.
Mark the pauses with a line |. Listen
again and underline the main stresses.
Which words are not stressed? What
do they have in common?
In a town where nothing ever happens
the arrival of a mysterious stranger is a
big event.

Read the Pronunciation tip then listen


and say the trailer in Exercise 1A with
the speaker.
PRONUNCIATION TIP
Movie trailers are oen recorded with
exaggerated pauses and emphatic
stress in order to create tension and
drama. This exaggeration makes it
easier for us to hear how the language
is divided into chunks and how stresses
are used to highlight content words.

2 A Prepare to read the trailers below in

the style of a movie trailer voiceover.


Mark the pauses and the main stresses.
In a world where dreams come true
Rachel Rose has a dream so big itll
blow your mind!
He was in the wrong place at the wrong
time now theres only one way out but
can he find it?
They live in a world of fear where
freedom is dead and violence is the law.

you need each time.


1 eyes ice
2 niece knees
3 sour shower
4 zinc sink

4.4 Listen and find examples of


the three sounds in the phrase below.
How many times does each sound
appear in the phrase?
An amazing story of social injustices.
Listen again and say the phrase with
the speaker.

5 sew show
6 sign shine
7 bus buzz

8 sip zip
9 sock shock
10 rice rise

4.6 Listen and circle the words you hear in Exercise 5A.
Write the correct symbol, /s/, /z/ or //, alongside.
1 eyes /z/

4.7 Listen to the tongue twister and then repeat it three


times as quickly as you can.
// /s//z/ /s/ // /z/
/s///
She sells seashells on the seashore.

4.3

6A

4.2 Listen and say the trailers


with the speakers.

4.3 SIMILAR SOUNDS: /s/ /z/


// Listen and repeat the three
similar sounds.
1 /s/ /s/2 /z/ /z/3 // //

Listen and say the phrases with the speakers.

5 A Read out the pairs of words. Notice which of the three sounds

4.8 CONSONANT CLUSTERS Listen to the sentences and


the underlined letters and answer the questions.
1 In which word or set of two words
a) are all the underlined consonants pronounced?
b) is one of the underlined consonants dropped?
2 Which sounds are dropped?
i
ii
iii
iv
v
vi

4.2

3A

4.5 Look at the phrases below. How many of the three


different sounds are there in each phrase? Which sounds are
they? Listen and check.
1 citizens rights two sounds /z/ and /s/
2 personal information
3 social issues
4 justice system
5 civil liberties
6 immigration controls
7 human rights violations
8 guns and ammunition
9 a prison sentence
10 facts and figures

The experience almost ruined their friendship.


Her grandmother never completely recovered from the shock.
He confronted her with the sad truth of the situation.
Instead of giving up, it inspired her to try even harder.
Id probably say it was the most important decision of my life.
It always starts off well, but usually ends up a disaster!

Read the Pronunciation tip. Then listen again and say the
sentences with the speakers. Pay special attention to the
consonant clusters.
PRONUNCIATION TIP
Consonant clusters with two or more consonant sounds can occur
within a word or across word boundaries within the same chunk.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 5

5.2

4A

5.1
PRONUNCIATION TIP
Elision is the omission of one or more sounds (such
as a vowel, a consonant or a whole syllable) in a word
or phrase, e.g. I dont like cheese. We had promised.
Fortunately. Dramatically.

1A

2A

5.1 CONNECTED SPEECH: elision Listen to


the story. Notice the elision where you see the
underlined words and crossed out letters.
My grandmother was a secret smoker. Or at least she
thought it was a secret, whereas in fact the whole
family knew. But in order not to upset her we all
used to play along. When she visited our house,
shed go into the bathroom to smoke. Me and my
brothers would go out into the garden and watch
the smoke coming from the bathroom window
and giggle at our shared secret!
Listen again and say the story with the speaker.

5.2 Look at another short story about a family


secret. Find examples of elision in the underlined
words and cross out the letters that arent
pronounced. Then listen and check.
Our kids had been asking for a dog for about a
year and we had been steadfastly refusing, so when
we finally relented, we decided to keep it a secret. I
went to pick up the pup on my own and asked the
kids and their dad to meet me in the park. When they
saw me with the dog, they asked me whose she was.
When I said, shes yours, their mouths literally fell
open with surprise. They had had no idea. We were
very proud not to have let the cat (or should that be
dog?!) out of the bag!

Underline the multi-word verb in each sentence.


Listen again and notice how the stress always falls
on the particle.

Listen again and say the sentences with the


speakers.

5 A STRESS IN CHUNKS Match the phrases to the


stress patterns.
1 oOooOo
2 oOooOoOo
3 oOoo
4 oOoooO
5 oOooO
6 OooO
7 OoooOo
8 oOoO

6A

3 A ELISION IN MODAL VERBS AND RELATED PHRASES

5.3 Listen and check your answers. Then listen


again and say the sentences with the speakers.

a) a commonly-held perception
b) a fallacy
c) conventional wisdom
d) debunk a myth
e) intuitively true
f) recent research
g) uncover the truth
h) verify the rumours

5.5 Listen and check. Then listen again and


say the phrases with the speakers.

5.3

Practise reading the story aloud, paying attention


to the elision.
Look at the underlined verbs. Mark any elision by
striking through the letters that are dropped.
1 We should never have promised them a dog.
2 Wed better not tell her we know her secret.
3 I think we ought to tell her.
4 You really neednt have said anything.
5 Youre not supposed to lie to your kids.
6 In the end we had to tell them.

5.4 STRESS: multi-word verbs Listen and


write six sentences.

5.6 PACE and INTONATION: sounding


hesitant/assertive Listen to the sentences below.
Does the speaker sound hesitant (H) or assertive
(A)?
1 Well, I think I have to disagree with you there.
2 Im sorry, but I dont really see the point of what
youre suggesting.
3 If you could stop just a moment and think about
it, youll see Im right.
4 Well, I dont know about that. It sounds a bit
strange to me.
5 That may be, but its not what Ive heard.
6 Really? Im sorry, but I dont believe it.
7 I dont know how you can say that.
8 Im not sure that I follow what you mean.

Match the descriptions below with the two tones:


hesitant (H) or assertive (A). Listen again to check
your answers.
1 The voice is fairly staccato.
2 The voice range is wider.
3 The pace is slower.
4 The pace is faster.
5 Theres a tendency to use rising intonation.
6 Theres a tendency to use falling intonation.

Read the sentences in Exercise 6A using both a


hesitant tone and an assertive tone. Which do you
find most difficult? Why?

Pearson Education Limited 2016

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 6

5A

6.1

1A

6.1 CONNECTED SPEECH: auxiliary verbs Match the


phonemic script to the chunks in bold in the sentences. Listen
and check.
a) /alvbn/
d) /jlvbn/
b) /amgnhft/
e) /lvbn/
c) /hzgnwn/
f) /wgnb/
1
2
3
4

Oh no! Look at the time! Shell have been waiting for us for ages!
I guess youll have been wondering whats going to happen next.
Im going to have to give up on this job, its too difficult!
Next month Im celebrating a work anniversary. Ill have been
working here for 20 years!
5 Youll have to tell him, hes going to want to know whats going on.
6 Were going to be meeting them at 12, will you be there too?

2A

Listen again and say the sentences with the speakers.

6.2

Listen again and say the sentences with the speaker.

What decision do you think the two people are going to have to
make? What kind of changes do you think theyll be facing?

6 A ASSIMILATION ACROSS WORD

BOUNDARIES 2: /n/ to /m/ Read the


Pronunciation tip. Then look at the
sentences below. Underline all the
examples of /n/ changing to /m/.

6.2

6.3 SIMILAR SOUNDS: /d/ and /t/Listen to the two


words and notice the sounds /d/ and /t/.
language /d/
future /t/

PRONUNCIATION TIP
When a word that ends with /n/ is
followed by a word that starts with

/b/, /p/ or /m/, the /n/ will be


pronounced as an /m/.

6.4 Look at the words in the box. Match them to the sounds in
Exercise 3A. Then listen and check.

1 A lot of fashion trends kick off in


Manhattan.
2 Sometimes all it takes is one person
to set a new trend.
3 An unknown book can suddenly be a
bestseller overnight.
4 A viral video will suddenly get ten
million hits.
5 Just one pair of shoes on the right
feet can make all the difference.
6 It might not look that great on you
or on me, but on the right person it
can be a hit!

actually century culture educate feature fortunately


gradual individual lecture legends Nigerian Portuguese
procedure punctuation strange structure surge

4 A ASSIMILATION IN WORDS: t + u and d + u Look at your

answers to Exercise 3B. Complete the Pronunciation tip with the


appropriate phonemic symbols.
PRONUNCIATION TIP

Assimilation is when a consonant sound changes to become more


similar to a neighbouring sound. For example, when the letter t
precedes the letter u in the middle of a word, we pronounce it as
1
, e.g. feature. Likewise, when the letter d precedes
the letter u in the middle of a word, we pronounce it as
2
, e.g. educate.

Listen again and say the sentences


with the speakers.

6.3

Listen and write six sentences.

3A

6.5 ASSIMILATION ACROSS


WORD BOUNDARIES 1: /d/ and /t/
Listen to the sentences. Notice what
happens to the sounds in bold.
1 Would you like to learn a third or
fourth language?
2 The words you choose will obviously
depend on what you want to say.
3 The way you speak tells people a lot
about you as a person.
4 What languages did you study at
school?
5 Could you repeat that please?
I didnt catch what you said.
6 Should you modify your accent if its
difficult to understand?

Listen again to the words in Exercise 3B and say them with


the speakers.

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6.6 Listen and say the sentences


with the speakers. Pay special
attention to the assimilation.

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 7

7.1

1 A WORD STRESS: suffixes Look at the

groups of words below. Mark the main


stress on each word.
group 1: adjective + ise = verb
legal legalise
modern modernise
central centralise
group 2: verb + ment = noun
embarrass embarrassment
enjoy enjoyment
harass harassment
group 3: verb (ate) + ation = noun
motivate motivation
hesitate hesitation
renovate renovation
group 4: adjective + ness = noun
lonely loneliness
unhappy unhappiness
tired tiredness

7.1 Listen and check. In which


group does the word stress shi when
you add the suffix?

7.2 Listen again and say the


words in that group with the speaker.

2A

7.3 Listen to the sentences and


write down all the nouns that end in
-ation.
1 accommodation

Write the root verbs for the nouns in


Exercise 2A. Underline the stress on
both the verbs and the nouns.
1 accommodation accommodate

/a/
//
/i/
//

Listen and check. Then listen and repeat.

pronunciation for the underlined words.


1 a) He read the book in two days.
b) I always read when I need to relax.
2 a) The wind blew in the trees.
b) I listen to music to wind down aer a
long day.
3 a) He lives in a beautiful place.
b) They have incredibly busy lives.
4 a) He was born to lead.
b) The pipes were old and made of lead.
5 a) She pays such close attention to the
minute details.
b) I promise Ill be with you in a minute.

/red/
/red/
/wnd/

/rid/
/rid/
/wand/

/wnd/
/lvz/
/lvz/
/led/
/led/

/wand/
/lavz/
/lavz/
/lid/
/lid/

/mnt/ /manjut/
/mnt/ /manjut/

7.7 Listen and check. Then listen again and say the
sentences with the speakers.

7.3

5 A SENTENCE STRESS: agreeing and disagreeing Look at the

phrases. Underline where you think the two main stresses will
fall in each phrase.
1 Oh come on! You must be joking.
2 Thats absolutely right.
3 Well, I agree with you up to a point.
4 Oh thats ridiculous!
5 Right. I know what you mean.
6 Wheres the logic in that?
7 You cant really think that.
8 I couldnt agree more.
9 Absolutely! Im with you 100 percent on that.
10 How can you say that?

7.5 PRONUNCIATION: i Match


the sounds to the words in the box.
Listen and check. Then listen and repeat.

1
2
3
4

7.6

4 A HETERONYMS Read the pairs of sentences and circle the correct

7.4 Listen and check your


answers. Notice the shi in the stress.
There is no stress shi on one pair of
words. Which one?

eat eye her it

time mind switch unwind wild shi live (verb)


alive lion childhood piano excited first technique
alternative lifestyle third interested physical survival
environment qualified hiking fishing dining
ingredients bird

7.2

3A

Match the words in the box to the phonemes according to the


sound of the is in bold. Three words contain two different
sounds. Which ones?
1 /a/
2 //
3 /i/
4 //

7.8 Listen and check. Which phrases sound a) impatient,


b) enthusiastic and c) tentative?

Listen again and say the phrases with the speakers, paying
special attention to both the stress and the tone.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 8

8.1

1A

8.1 SENTENCE STRESS: future in the past


Match the two halves of the sentences. Listen and
check.
1 Initially we werent going to stay overnight,
2 They were supposed to be arriving at 7.30
3 The mayor was to have opened the new park,
4 I was meant to meet her at eight,
5 We were going to stay a second week,
a) but she was called away on urgent business.
b) but the weather got worse and we couldnt get
home.
c) but their train got held up and they eventually
got there at midnight.
d) but we ran out of money and had to go home
early.
e) but I got caught in traffic and by the time I got
there, shed gone!

8.2 Listen again to the first half of each


sentence and mark the main stress.

Listen again and say the sentence halves with the


speakers.

3 A Look at the phrases below. Find and mark the


intrusive sound in each phrase.
1 Grilled tomato on toast
2 Pasta and cheese
3 Tinned spaghetti and meatballs
4 A baked potato in its jacket
5 Pizza in the microwave
6 Sliced salami in a sandwich

8.3 CONNECTED SPEECH: intrusion Read the


Pronunciation tip. Then listen to sentences 15 and
add the appropriate sound, /w/, /j/ or /r/, in the
brackets.

4A

1 What does the smell of coffee remind you


/) of?
(/
/) is it so (/
/) easy to
2 Why (/
remember the bad things?
/ ever listened to (/
/)
3 Have you (/
an elderly person talk about their childhood?
/) of using hypnosis
4 Do you like the idea (/
to bring back distant memories?
/) especially clear
5 Do you have any (/
memories from when you were three (/
/)
or less?

8.5 INTONATION: questions Listen and mark


whether the speakers voice goes up or down at the
end of the questions.
1 a) What else can you think of?
b) Can you think of anything else?
2 a) Can you tell us more?
b) What more can you tell us?
3 a) What have you got to add?
b) Anything to add?
4 a) Is there anything weve missed?
b) What have we missed?
5 a) Anyone managed to come up with other ideas?
b) What other ideas have you come up with?

Look at your answers to Exercise 4A and notice the


difference in intonation between yes/no questions
and wh- questions. In which type of question does
the intonation a) fall and b) rise?

Listen again and say the questions with the


speakers.

PRONUNCIATION TIP
Intrusion refers to adding an extra sound to mark the
difference between two vowels in connected speech.
This happens when one word ends and the next word
begins with a vowel sound, e.g.
/w/ Do (/w/) it again! /dwtgen/
/j/ I (/j/) ate it. /ajett/
/r/ Maria (/r/) agrees. /mrrgriz/

8.4 Listen, check and repeat. Which of the


foods did you eat as a child? What foods remind
you of your childhood?

8.3

8.2

2A

Listen again and say the questions with the


speakers.

5A

8.6 Listen to the words and phrases below


being said with and without question intonation.
Add a question mark (?) or full stop (.) as appropriate.
1 a) Yes
b) Yes
2 a) Thats all
b) Thats all
3 a) Well do it tomorrow
b) Well do it tomorrow
4 a) Nothing else
b) Nothing else
5 a) No more
b) No more
Listen again and repeat.

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PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
ADVANCED UNIT 9

4 A Look at the table. Start at mother and go to door.


Choose a new pronunciation of o each time. You
can only use each sound once. Go up, down, le or
right.

9.1

1 A SILENT LETTERS Look at the groups of words.

Which consonant is silent in all of the words of each


group? Match the groups to the letters.
b d g k l n p t w

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

B
C

answer, write, wrist, wrestler


autumn, government, solemn, column
climb, thumb, comb, plumber
cupboard, psychology, pneumonia, receipt
handkerchief, sandwich, Wednesday, adjective
knock, knuckle, knowledge, knife
listen, castle, Christmas, mortgage
salmon, calm, talk, half
sign, champagne, gnome, campaign

9.1

Listen and check.

in each word?

every evening different several interesting


vegetable literature temperature jewellery
Listen and say the words with the speaker.

store

more

bother

glove

shone

moon

solar

bone

cloud

spoon

joy

sorry

dome

sound

fool

cook

actor

zone

doubt

dog

ground

door

9.5 Listen and check. What is the phonemic


symbol for the o sound in each word on the route?

6 A Look at the sentences below. Find the connected

9.2

3A

Monday

CONNECTED SPEECH: linking, elision and intrusion


Match the explanations to the underlined examples
in sentences a)c).
1 linking: the final consonant of one word links to
the initial vowel of the next word.

2 elision: the final /t/ is dropped in consonant

clusters across word boundaries.
3 intrusion: an intrusive sound, /j/, /w/ or /r/,
is used to separate final and initial vowel

sounds.
a) I had no idea of the time.
b) You mustnt say a word.
c) Sorry, Im in a hurry.

Listen again and say the words with the speakers.


Can you think of one more word for each group?

9.2

honey

9.3

2 A Look at the words in the box. Which vowel is silent

mother

speech features in brackets.


Raving
It was absolutely incredible.
(elision, linking, intrusive /j/)
Its really the best media event.
(elision (x2))
I was one of the lucky ones.
(linking (x2))
I couldnt believe my luck when I saw it.
(elision, intrusive /r/)
Its an all-time great (elision, linking (x2))
Ranting
If theres one thing I cant stand, its lies.
(linking (x2), elision (x2))
It drives me up the wall. (elision, intrusive /j/)
It was absolutely awful. (elision, linking, intrusive /j/)
It was a total waste of money. (elision, linking (x2))
Its not my cup of tea at all.
(elision (x2), linking, intrusive /j/, linking)

9.3 PRONUNCIATION: o Listen and read the


short text below. Look at the words with o and find
at least one example of each of the sounds.
My first choice for finding inspiration is to go for a
walk in the woods. Sometimes I listen to music or a
podcast, but more oen than not, I just listen to the
sound of the leaves under my shoes.
1 // (some)

2 // (took)

3 // (on)

4 // (coin)

5 // (actor)

6 /u:/ (shoot)

7 /a/ (mouth)

8 /:/ (door)

9 // (show)
9.4

Listen and check.

9.6
speakers.

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Listen and say the sentences with the

10

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA

ADVANCED UNIT 10

10.2

3A

10.1

1 A SCHWA IN CONNECTED SPEECH Look

at the sayings about travel. Have you


heard any of them before?
1 Travel is the only thing you buy that
makes you richer. (anon.)
2 The journey of a thousand miles
begins with a single step. (Lao Tzu)
3 We travel not to escape life, but for
life not to escape us. (anon.)
4 The world is a book and those who
do not travel read only one page. (St
Augustine)
5 I love the feeling of being
anonymous in a city Ive never been
to before. (anon.)
6 Its better to see something once
than to hear about it a thousand
times. (anon.)

10.1 Read the Pronunciation tip.


Then look at the sayings about travel
again and underline all the vowels
that are pronounced as a schwa //.
Listen and check.
PRONUNCIATION TIP
Many unstressed vowel sounds are
pronounced as a schwa //, e.g.
//
// //
Travel broadens the mind.

every bit as good loads more difficult marginally less stressed


much, much better nowhere near as terrifying
nothing like as nervous significantly better prepared
way, way more excited
1 I really wasnt looking forward to it, but it turned out to be
than Id expected.
as I thought it would be.
2 It was
than the first time, but it was
3 I was
still quite an ordeal!
as Id imagined it would be!
4 It was
the second time round.
5 I was
than theyd told me, but it
6 It was
was still great fun!
as I thought Id be.
7 I was
than anyone else, and Im not
8 I was
really sure why!

Look again at the phrases in the box in Exercise 3A. Mark the
main stress.

Listen again and check your answers. Then listen and say the
sentences with the speakers.

10.3

4 A INTONATION IN NEGOTIATIONS Read the sentences below. In each


case, are the people refusing an offer (R) or stalling for time (S)?
1 Im not sure we can do that.

2 That would be quite difficult for us.

3 Im afraid that wont be acceptable.

4 Well need to think about that.

5 We cant really accept that offer.

6 Ill have to get back to you on that.

7 Ill need to confer on that last point.

8 Im afraid thats going to cause problems.

Listen again and say the sayings with


the speakers.

2 A SCHWA and WORD STRESS Look at


the words in the box. Underline the
main stress in each word.

consequence partnership
excitement adventure remarkably
horizon unbreakable continent
civilisation experience explorer
legendary

10.2 Listen and circle all the


vowels that are pronounced as a
schwa //.

10.3 STRESS PATTERNS IN COMPARATIVE STRUCTURES


Listen and complete the sentences using the phrases in the box.

10.4 Listen to the sentences in Exercise 4A. What is the


overall tone in all of them?
a) aggressive b) hesitant c) polite but firm

Listen again and say the sentences with the speakers.

5A
B

10.5 Listen and write five sentences.


Match the sentences you wrote in Exercise 5A with politer
versions from Exercise 4A. What differences do you notice in both
the wording and the intonation?

Pearson Education Limited 2016

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
4B

ADVANCED
ANSWER KEY

You may want to ask Ss to repeat the


linked words in isolation before you ask
them to shadow read the whole text.

UNIT 1
1.1

1A
You may want to do the first item with
the class as an example if you feel they
need the extra support.

1B
In item 4 the stress is on a positive
structure to show that the plan changed.

1 unstressed (Ive) 2 unstressed


3 stressed 4 stressed
5 unstressed (Theyve), stressed, stressed
6 unstressed, unstressed (youd)

2A
Clarify that the stress on hasnt
emphasises the speakers disbelief, the
stress on has confirms the information
speaker B gave previous to the extract,
the stress on are stresses the questioning
tone and the stress on the emphatic
auxiliary did emphasises speaker Bs
statement and is gently teasing
speaker A.

hasnt, has, are, did

If you wish, divide the class in half down


the centre and have one half be A and
the other B and then swap over.

1.2
1 d 2 d 3 would
6 will 7 will

5A

He looks pretty ordinary, you know, and


he wont make any heads turn as he walks
down the street. You dont really notice
anything unusual unless you take a direct
look straight into his eyes. Thats when you
realise that one is the darkest chocolate
brown and the other is a soft light honey
colour.

5B
Again you may want Ss to repeat the
consonant clusters in isolation before
shadow reading the whole text.

UNIT 2
2.1

1A

2B

3A

Shes really striking, I mean, you know you


have to stop and look twice. Shes so tall
for a start. And then theres her hair.
Its amazing, it sort of has a life of its
own. And her eyes are probably the one
thing you notice most of all. Theyre
an incredible light blue, sort of the
colour of ice.

4 would

5 ll

3B
You may want to ask Ss to shadow read
the whole text in Ex 3A to highlight the
differences in intonation.

Locking himself in his room and ignoring


advice.
We know this because the auxiliary verb is
not contracted even though it could be.

1.3

4A
Point out that the final /s/ or /z/ sound
is always pronounced, e.g. He never looks
towards the camera.
/lkstwdzkmr/.

Make sure Ss understand that they


should not use contractions when
completing the sentences.
Could and should are not focused on in
the Students Book, so Ss might need
some extra support with these.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

had been, could have started


would not have le, had not been
should have listened
should not have paid
could not have done
would have been, had just stayed
had not followed, would not have got
had just kept, would have avoided

1B

Written contracted forms:


1 Id been
2 wouldnt have le, hadnt been
3
4 shouldnt have paid
5 couldnt have done
6 d have, d just stayed
7 hadnt followed, wouldnt have got
8 d just kept, d have avoided

Further contractions in speech (double


contractions shown in bold)
1 couldve started
2 wouldntve le
3 shouldve listened
4 shouldntve paid
5 couldntve done
6 dve been
7 wouldntve got
8 dve avoided

2.2

2A

1 have second thoughts, perspective,


preconceptions, stereotypes
2 convincing
3 eye-opening, narrow-minded

2B
The // sound can be both strong as seen
in Ex 2A or weak as seen here

1 have second thoughts, perspective,


//
//
preconceptions, stereotypes
// //
2 convincing
// //
3 eye-opening, narrow-minded
////
//

3A
As youll see there are more than five
examples of each, but Ss need only find
five. It makes the task more achievable
to give a lower number then, when they
compare in pairs, Ss may well find they
have different ones. You may want to
point this out to Ss and ask them to
find at least five examples. Alternatively
for stronger classes you could tell them
exactly how many there are and see if
they can find them all.

3B

// sounds are in bold, // sounds are


underlined.
Its really difficult not to judge people on
first appearance. Its an instinct we have.
We may change our minds as we get to
know those people a little bit better but
that first impression will always stick in
our minds.
You may want to ask Ss to read the text
with the speaker for further practice.

2.3

5A

1 what, you
2 never, stage

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PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
5B
Some Ss may struggle with the words
defensiveness and incredulity, so you
may want to check they understand
them (defensiveness is a feeling of
being attacked or criticised and wanting
to defend yourself; incredulity is not
believing something) and ask them for
situations where they, or others, might
feel these emotions.

1 Speaker A shows slight anger and


speaker B shows defensiveness.
2 Speaker A shows amusement and
speaker B shows incredulity.

3.2

3A
You may want to ask Ss to identify the
words with more than one syllable before
they mark the stress.

circle, title, centenary, power, fortunately,


monthly, retired, rated, hero, stated

3B

UNIT 3
3.1

bicentenary, bimonthly
mini bar, miniskirt
outgrow, outsell
semicircle, semi-retired
subway, subtitle
superpower, superhero
unfortunately, unknown
underrated, understated

1A

3C

You might want to model the first words


together first ask Ss to identify the
vowel sounds, point out that the fact
that there are three sounds means that
the word must have three syllables, ask
Ss to identify the two adjectives with
three syllables and then to choose the
correct answer. If you feel Ss need extra
help with the phonemic symbols, then go
through all the vowel sounds with simple
examples e.g. // pin.

1 picturesque 2 magnificent 3 bustling


4 ancient 5 run-down 6 deserted
7 unspoilt 8 tranquil

2A
Model the sounds with simple one
syllable examples of your or your Ss
choice, e.g. // cat. Alternatively, you
could ask Ss to use a dictionary (print
or online) to check their answers
before they listen to the recording. If
they are struggling, let them listen to
the recording in Ex 2B (track 3.3) and
then complete the exercise with the
phonemes.

2B
When you check the answers, make sure
Ss have used the correct symbols and
have spelt the words correctly.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// // // custard tarts
// // // fingerprints
/u/ /i/ cool breeze
// /a/ apple pie
// // /u/ swimming pool
/i/ // sea wall
/u/ // shoe shop
/u/ // schoolbooks

It may be difficult for Ss to hear the shi


at times. If they want, they can check the
stress patterns in a dictionary.

centenary, bicentenary monthly;


bimonthly
(no, stress doesnt shi)
bar, minibar; skirt, miniskirt
(yes, stress shis to the prefix)
grow, outgrow; sell, outsell
(no, stress doesnt shi)
circle, semicircle; retired, semi-retired,
(stress shis on semicircle, not on
semi-retired)
way, subway; title, subtitle
(yes, stress shis to the prefix)
power, superpower; hero, superhero
(yes, stress shis to the prefix)
fortunately, unfortunately; known, unknown
(no, stress doesnt shi)
rated, underrated; stated, understated
(no, stress doesnt shi)

3.3

4A
Students Book, Lesson 3.3 introduces
phrases and expressions for making a
proposal. Some of these expressions
are cle sentences. A cle sentence is a
structure which uses a short introductory
clause to emphasise the subject of the
sentence. e.g. The thing that I like most
is

Sentence 2 is more emphatic. What we


plan to do is reduce vandalism in the town
centre.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

4B

1 What we plan to do is reduce stress for


busy commuters.
2 What were proposing to do is play
classical music in public places.
3 What we want to do is make our town
centre a safer place for shoppers.
4 What were aiming to do is help tourists
enjoy their stay.
5 What were hoping to do is increase
local trade.
6 What we intend to do is create more
youth employment.

4C
You may want to ask Ss to write two or
three sentences about their plans and
intentions for the evening/weekend using
the sentence openers: What I plan/want/
aim/propose/hope to do is . and then
read them out to the class, or in groups.
Their classmates raise their hands or call
out if they have similar plans.

UNIT 4
4.1

1A

In a town | where nothing ever happens |


the arrival of a mysterious stranger | is a
big event.
Words not stressed: in, a, where, the, of, a,
is, a
They are prepositions, articles, pronouns,
and the verb to be i.e. they are not main
content words.

2A
Ss could read the trailers out to each
other in pairs before listening to the
recording. Encourage them to use
exaggerated stress and intonation and
throw themselves into the part of the
voiceover actor.
As an extension, you could set Ss the task
of finding another movie trailer online,
writing out the voiceover script and then
reading it out to the class in the next
lesson. This could form the basis of a
student-led dictation.

In a world | where dreams come true |


Rachel Rose has a dream so big | itll blow
your mind!
He was in the wrong place | at the wrong
time | now theres only one way out | but
can he find it?
They live | in a world of fear | where
freedom is dead | and violence is the law.

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
4.2

3A
You may want to ask Ss to suggest
words that contain the three sounds
and you may want to discuss if they
have particular problems with any of the
sounds, for example, Spanish speakers
oen have problems with both the /z/
and the // sound as they dont use them
in their L1.
Consider challenging stronger Ss by
asking them to explain how the sounds
are different from each other. (/s/ is
unvoiced, /z/ is voiced, // is unvoiced
and the tongue is higher in the mouth.)

3B
You may want Ss to read out the sentence
themselves and decide on the sounds
before they listen to the recording to
check their answers. You could also ask
them to write the phonemic symbols
under the corresponding letters.

/z/ /s/
/s///
/s//s/
An amazing story of social injustice.
/s/ appears four times, and /z/ and //
appear once each.

4A

1 two (/z/ /s/) 2 two (/s/ //)


3 three (/s/ // /z/) 4 one (/s/)
5 two (/s/ /z/) 6 two (// /z/)
7 three (/s/ // /z/) 8 two (/z/ //)
9 two (/z/ /s/) 10 two (/s/ /z/)

5B

1 eyes /z/ 2 niece /s/ 3 shower //


4 sink /s/ 5 sew /s/ 6 shine //
7 buzz /z/ 8 sip /s/ 9 shock //
10 rise /z/

5C
This is a traditional tongue twister taught
to children learning English as their first
language. You can reassure Ss that they
have problems with it, too! If Ss enjoy
tongue twisters, encourage them to do an
internet search for more examples to test
each other with in the next lesson.

4.3

6A
You may want to ask Ss to decide how
they would pronounce the sentences
before they listen to them in the
recording.

i The experience almost ruined their


friendship.
ii Her grandmother never completely
recovered from the shock.
iii He confronted her with the sad truth of
the situation.
iv Instead of giving up, it inspired her to
try even harder.
v Id probably say it was the most
important decision of my life.
vi It always starts off well, but usually
ends up a disaster!

UNIT 5
5.1

1A
Draw attention to the definition in
the Pronunciation tip box and the
underlining and crossed out letters in
the text. It might be worth pointing out
to Ss that we dont expect them to speak
like this, but its useful to be aware of this
phenomenon in order to be able to follow
and understand fluent speakers.
Notice in the case of smoke coming we
have elision of the /k/ sound which Ss
have not seen before.

5.2

4A/B

1 You cant carry on like this, itll kill you!


2 Dont make a decision until youve
thought it over.
3 Weve narrowed it down to three
possibilities.
4 They were hanging around on the
corner of the street.
5 Remember to slow down before you
turn the corner.
6 She immediately brightened up when
she heard the news.

5A
To help Ss with this activity, you might
want to ask them to clap the rhythms
before doing the matching, and to count
the syllables, both in the patterns and in
the phrases. This will help them narrow
down their choices.

5B

1 c) 2 a)
8 d)

3 b) 4 e)

5 g) 6 f) 7 h)

5.3

6A

2A
You may want to remind Ss that /t/ or
/d/ are dropped when they are followed
by a consonant sound in the following
word.
Ss may not be familiar with the words
steadfastly (strongly without moving,
without changing your mind) and
relented (to soen and change your
mind).

Our kids had been asking for a dog for


about a year and we had been steadfastly
refusing, so when we finally relented, we
decided to keep it a secret. I went to pick
up the pup on my own and asked the kids
and their dad to meet me in the park.
When they saw me with the dog, they
asked me whose she was. When I said,
shes yours, their mouths literally fell open
with surprise. They had had no idea. We
were very proud not to have let the cat (or
should that be dog?!) out of the bag!

3B

1 We should never have promised them a


dog.
2 Wed better not tell her we know her
secret.
3 I think we ought to tell her.
4 You really neednt have said anything.
5 Youre not supposed to lie to your kids.
6 In the end we had to tell them.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

You might want to ask Ss to try saying the


first sentence in both an assertive and a
hesitant tone before they complete the
activity.

1H
8H

2A

3A

4H

5H

6A

7A

6B
If necessary, explain that staccato means
short, separate sounds.
Although being assertive can be a
positive quality, in this particular case
on the recording it has been pushed to
an extreme to help Ss get a feeling for it.
They might not want to go quite so far
in real life as it could be interpreted as
rudeness!

1A

2H

3H

4A

5H

6A

UNIT 6
6.1

1A
1 e)

2 d)

3 b) 4 a)

5 c)

6 f)

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
2A
1
2
3
4

Theyll have been married for ten years.


Shes going to have to make a decision.
Hes going to want to go with her.
Hell have been thinking about selling
their flat.
5 Theyre going to have to give up their
comfortable lifestyle.
6 I wonder if their marriage is going to
survive!

2C
As an extension you could ask Ss to write
five sentences about the peoples future
and the changes theyll be facing. Then
ask them to read out their sentences
paying particular attention to the
pronunciation of the contractions.

1 A lot of fashion trends kick off in


Manhattan.
2 Sometimes all it takes is one person to
set a new trend.
3 An unknown book can suddenly be a
bestseller overnight.
4 A viral video will suddenly get ten
million hits.
5 Just one pair of shoes on the right feet
can make all the difference.
6 It might not look that great on you or
on me, but on the right person it can
be a hit!

UNIT 7
7.1

1A

/d/ educate, gradual, individual,


legends, Nigerian, procedure,
strange, surge
/t/ actually, century, culture, feature,
fortunately, lecture, Portuguese,
punctuation, structure

group 1:
legal legalise
modern modernise
central centralise
group 2:
embarrass embarrassment
enjoy enjoyment
harass harassment
group 3:
motivate motivation
hesitate hesitation
renovate renovation
group 4:
lonely loneliness
unhappy unhappiness
tired tiredness

4A

1B

6.2

3A
Note that Ex 3A5B should be done in
one block as they develop one common
theme.

3B

1 /t/

2 /d/

5A

When the word preceding you ends in a d,


the d + y combination is pronounced
/d/. When the word preceding you
ends in a t, the t + y combination is
pronounced /t/.

5B
As an extension, Ss can ask and answer
questions beginning with Did you and
Would you.

6.3

6A
If you feel Ss need extra support, ask
them to read the sentences and circle all
the words that end in n. Tell them that
they should also include words ending
in ne, e.g. one. Check as a class and then
tell students to look at the words that
come aer the ns they have circled and
identify which ones start with /p/, /b/ or
/m/. They can then listen and focus on
how the sounds combine.

Group 3

2A

1 accommodation 2 adaptation
3 cancellation 4 decorations
5 frustration 6 fascination
7 imagination 8 nomination
Audio script
1 Its really difficult to find
accommodation in the summer.
2 The film is an adaptation of a famous
novel.
3 We werent told about the cancellation
until we got to the airport.
4 They had spent a lot of time and
money on the decorations.
5 The disappearance caused a lot of
trouble and frustration.
6 He listened to the story with
fascination.
7 Their plan showed a great deal of
imagination.
8 He was incredibly pleased with his
nomination.

Pearson Education Limited 2016

2C
You may want to check spelling too at
this point.
As an extension, ask Ss to think of at least
another five examples of nouns that end
in -ation and to repeat Exs 2B and 2C with
their nouns.

1 accommodate accommodation
2 adapt adaptation
3 cancel cancellation
4 decorate decorations
5 frustrate frustration
6 fascinate fascination
7 imagine imagination
8 nominate nomination
There is no stress shi on frustrate
frustration.

7.2

3A

1 /a/ eye 2 // it
4 // her

3 /i/ eat

3C

1 /a/ time, mind, unwind, wild, alive,


lion, childhood, excited, lifestyle,
survival, environment, qualified,
hiking, dining
2 // switch, shi, live, piano,
alternative, interested, physical,
qualified, hiking, fishing, dining,
ingredients
3 /i/ technique
4 // first, third, bird
Qualified, hiking and dining have two
different i sounds.

4A
Explain to Ss that heteronyms are words
that are spelt the same but pronounced
differently and have different meanings.

4B
You may want to check that Ss are clear
on the meaning of wind down, lead
(noun) and minute (adjective) aer they
complete the exercise.

1 a) /red/
2 a) /wnd/
3 a) /lvz/
4 a) /lid/
5 a) /manju:t/

b) /rid/
b) /wand/
b) /lavz/
b) /led/
b) /mnt/

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
5A

7.3

5B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Oh come on, you must be joking.


Thats absolutely right.
Well, I agree with you up to a point.
Oh, thats ridiculous!
Right. I know what you mean.
Wheres the logic in that?
You cant really think that.
I couldnt agree more.
Absolutely! Im with you one hundred
percent on that.
10 How can you say that?
a) impatient 1, 4, 6, 7, 10
b) enthusiastic 2, 8, 9
c) tentative 3, 5

1 b)

2 c)

3 a)

4 e)

1A

2n

3b

4p

5d

6k

7t

8l

1C

Ideas for extra words: w (sword, wrong),


n (condemn, hymn), b (lamb, doubt),
p (psychiatrist, pseudo), d (bridge, edge),
k (knight, knee), t (whistle, fasten),
l (walk, would), g (design, foreign)

2A

the letter e: every, evening, different,


several, interesting, vegetable, literature,
temperature, jewellery

8.2

2A

1 /w/ 2 /j/ /w/


5 /j/ /j/

3 /w/ /w/

4 /r/

2B
Ss can ask and answer the questions in
pairs.

3B

1 tomato /w/ on 2 Pasta /r/ and


3 spaghetti /j/ and 4 potato /w/ in
5 Pizza /r/ in 6 salami /j/ in

9.2

3A
If you have a strong class, they could do
the exercise without listening.

3B

1 sometimes 2 woods
3 podcast, oen, not 4 choice
5 for, inspiration, to 6 shoes 7 sound
8 or, more 9 go

4B

8.3

4B

UNIT 9
9.1

1w
9g

1 Initially we werent going to stay


overnight,
2 They were supposed to be arriving at
7.30
3 The mayor was to have opened the new
park,
4 I was meant to meet her at eight
5 We were going to stay a second week,

1 a) down
2 a) up
3 a) down
4 a) up
5 a) up

1 a) Yes. b) Yes?
2 a) Thats all? b) Thats all.
3 a) Well do it tomorrow.
b) Well do it tomorrow?
4 a) Nothing else. b) Nothing else?
5 a) No more? b) No more.

1B

5 d)

1B

4A

Ss could do mutual dictations in pairs at


this point.

You may want to check that Ss know the


following items: wrestler, solemn, knuckle
and gnome before they complete this
exercise.

UNIT 8
8.1

1A

6A

b) up
b) down
b) up
b) down
b) down

a) wh- questions
b) yes/no questions

mother //, bother //, bone //,


cloud /a/, spoon /u/, joy /o/, cook //,
actor //, door //

9.3

1 linking: c) Im in a
2 elision: b) mustnt say
3 intrusion: a) no /w/ idea /r/ of

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Raving
It was absolutely /j/ incredible.
Its really the best media /r/ event.
I was one of the lucky ones.
I couldnt believe my luck when I saw /r/ it.
Its an all-time great.
Ranting
If theres one thing I cant stand, its lies.
It drives me /j/ up the wall.
It was absolutely /j/ awful .
It was a total waste of money.
Its not my cup of tea /j/ at all.

UNIT 10
10.1

1B
In item 3, the to in to escape is not
pronounced with a schwa because of
the two adjacent vowel sounds. It is
pronounced: /tuwskep/
In item 5, the to before before is an
exception to the rule. It is also not
pronounced with a schwa as this would
sound strange to a native speaker.
You may want to ask Ss to discuss which
saying they like most and least and why.

1 Travel is the only thing you buy that


makes you richer.
2 The journey of a thousand miles begins
with a single step.
3 We travel not to escape life, but for life
not to escape us.
4 The world is a book and those who do
not travel read only one page.
5 I love the feeling of being anonymous
in a city Ive never been to before.
6 Its better to see something once than
to hear about it a thousand times.

2A

consequence partnership excitement


adventure remarkably horizon
unbreakable continent civilisation
experience explorer legendary

2B
Ask Ss to write three sentences about
travel using at least one word from the
box in each. Then ask them to look at the
stress patterns and the schwas and read
them out as a dictation to a partner or
group.

consequence partnership excitement


adventure remarkably horizon
unbreakable continent civilisation
experience explorer legendary

PRONUNCIATION EXTRA
10.2

3A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

much, much better


nowhere near as terrifying
marginally less stressed
every bit as good
significantly better prepared
loads more difficult
nothing like as nervous
way, way more excited

3C
Ask Ss to choose three sentences and
think of experiences to match. Then ask
them to talk about their experiences in
pairs.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

much, much better


nowhere near as terrifying
marginally less stressed
every bit as good
significantly better prepared
loads more difficult
nothing like as nervous
way, way more excited

10.3

4A
1S

2S

3R

4S

5R

6S

7S

8R

4B

c) polite but firm

5A
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

That would be completely impossible.


Thats going to cause problems.
Thats totally unacceptable.
We cant possibly accept that offer.
We just cant do that!

5B

a) 2 b) 8 c) 3 d) 5 e) 1
The wording is shorter and more direct.
The tone is more emphatic with a strong
falling tone.
Note: It would only be acceptable to use
this tone in certain circumstances and
would be considered inappropriate in
many situations. Therefore, suggest Ss
avoid using such wording and emphatic
tone as they could be seen as being very
aggressive.

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