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You are on page 1of 18

A

A

0 1 A n

cos

n

sin K K K 1

cos

cos

A

A

sin

n

cos

K K K 2

FH 0 n cos

cos

From (2):

n A tan n A

From (1):

1 A

= n A n A tan 2

n 1 tan 2

cos 2 sin 2

cos 2

1 cos 2 n

1

1+cos2

2

2

= cos1 tan

= sincos

1

1

sin 2

2

n 1 1 cos 2

2 2

1

n sin 2

2

When the soil sample has confining pressure, 3 , as well as axial pressure, 1 ; the normal

and shear stresses are:

3 1 3 cos 2

n 1

2

2

3 sin 2

n 1

2

Plot of n vs n

The equations for normal and shear stress can be found from the geometry of the circle

3 1 3 cos 2

n 1

2

2

3 sin 2

n 1

2

Shear strength comes from two sources

1. CohesionCohesive shear strength, c

2. Friction Angle of internal friction,

or Angle of shearing resistance

n 1 1 2 1 2 cos 2

n 1 2 sin 2

2 f 90 '

3 1 3

n 1

cos 2

2

2

3

n 1

sin 2

2

Strength of Clay

Effective Stress:

'= -u

1'= 1 -u

3'= 3 -u

if 3' > 3 , then,

3'- 3 u is positive

u = negative

c

sin '

3' x c

c

c

sin '

1

3' c

1

sin '

3 0

1 sin '

sin '

3' 3 u c

Suppose,

' = 30o

c 5 psi

1 0.5

0.5

u 5 psi

u 5 psi

In fact, the cohesion in clay (all soils, actually) is due to the negative porewater pressure

in that soil.

Strength of Sand

In the absence of pore water, the strength of sand is due almost entirely to friction.

SAND STRENGTH

1. Direct Shear (Poor test)

2. Triaxial Test (Much better test)

-Uniform stress: fields in the center of the sample

-Uniform strain: fields in the center of the sample

Most soils are a mixture of fine and coarse grained sizes so they usually have both c and

properties. How much c depends on whether the sample is loaded slowly enough to

allow the pore water pressure to dissipate. Tests are classified by the rate with which

-Confining pressure

-Deviator stress

are applied.

Rate of Application

Confining

Symbol for

Deviator Stress

Type of Test

Pressure

Test

(drainage permitted

(consolidation

during test)

prior to test)

Q

(UU)

Rapidly

Rapidly

Unconsolidated Undrained c,

(CU)

Slowly

Rapidly

make measurements of pore water

pressures)

(CD)

Slowly

Slowly

Effective pressure properties are measured in the CD test

Effective pressure properties may be determined in the CU test if pore water pressures are

measured during the undrained portion of the test.

There are 3 pairs of quantities: 1, 3 ; f, f (failure plane);

c,

The projection of the failure line is x=c/tan

Normally, if you are given any three of the quantities you can find the other three.

1.

Find expressions for f, f and or tan

2.

3.

Find expressions for 3, c and

Suppose you know 1, f and c

Find expressions for 3, f and

Problem 01

Given : 1 15 kPa

3 5 kPa

c 2 kPa

Find : f 8.45 kPa

f 4.76 kPa

18o

Solution:

r

1 3 15 5

2

f 5cos

5 kPa

f 10 5sin

x

2

tan

2

R sin sin (10 x) 10

sin 5

tan

10sin 2 cos 5

2

5

sin cos

10

10

o

20 :

0.529 0.5

18o :

0.499 0.5

f 5cos 4.76 kPa

f 10 5sin 8.45 kPa

Problem 02

Given : 1 20 kPa

f 9 kPa

f = 7 kPa

Find :

c 2.80 kPa

25o

3 4.54 kPa

Solution:

c 7 9 tan

20 3

r

2

c

7

x

9

tan tan

20 r r sin 9

20 r r 1 sin 9

20 3

20 3

c

sin r

2

tan

2

20 3

20 3

sin c cos

2

2

20 3

20

(1 sin ) 9 K K K K 1

2

20 3

20 3

sin 7 9 tan cos

K K K 2

2

2

From 1 :

R sin

20 3

(1 sin )

2

2(20 9)

20 3

(1 sin )

20-9

From 2 :

2

2

3

1 sin 10 10sin 9sin 7 cos

2

3

1 sin 10 1 sin 9sin 7 cos

2

1 sin

sin

cos

3 20

18

14

1 sin

1 sin

1 sin

22

1 sin

20 1 sin 22 20 1 sin 18sin 14 cos

1 sin

1 sin

3 20

22sin 22 14 cos

2 f

f

1 sin 14

cos

22 2 1 f 1 f

1 sin 7

0.636

cos

11

1 sin 0.636 cos

30o :

1 1.051

29o :

1 1.041

25o :

1 0.999

c 7 9 tan 25o

c 2.80 kPa

22

1 sin 25o

3 4.54 kPa

3 20

Problem 03

Given : 1 20 kPa

f 8 kPa

Find :

c = 3 kPa

3 3.65 kPa

f 7.24 kPa

27.9o

Solution:

f 3 8 tan

K K K 1

20 r r sin 8 K K K 2

20 3

K K K 3

2

3

x

K K K 4

tan

20 3

20 3

3

sin

2

tan

2

20 3

f

cos K K K 6

2

From 2 :

R sin

20 r (1 sin ) 8

20 3

(1 sin ) 8

2

20 3

(1 sin ) 20 8 12

20

From 5 :

20 3

20

3

sin 3cos

2

2

2

2

K K K 5

3

1 sin 3cos 10 10sin 10 1 sin

2

3 1 sin 20 1 sin 6 cos K K K B

3 1 sin 20 1 sin 24

K K K From A

40sin 6 cos 24

20sin 3cos 12

sin 0.15cos 0.6

Trial and Error:

30o :

0.630 0.6

27 :

0.588 0.6

28o :

0.602 0.6

f 8 tan 3

f 7.24 kPa

3 20

24

1 sin

3 3.65 kPa

Problem 01

Draw the sketch of the Mohrs Circle, marking all that is known and all that is to be found.

Solution:

1 3

2

r cos f

1 3 r sin

2

c

tan

1 3

1 3

c

sin r

2

tan

2

1 3 sin c cos 1 3

2

2

2c

cos

1 3

sin

f

f

1 3

2

1 3

2

1 3

1 3

cos

1 3 sin

2

Problem 02

Given : 1 , f , f

Draw Sketch

Find : c, , 3

Solution:

c f f tan

1 3

2

c

x

tan

r

1 r 1 sin 1 r r 1 sin f 1

1 3

1 sin

2

1 3

3

c

sin 1

2

tan

2

1 f

1 3

(1 sin )

2

1 3

(1 sin )

1 3

3

sin c cos 1

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

sin 1 c cos 3 (1 sin )

2

2

2

1

1

1 f (1 sin )

sin 1 f f tan cos 1

2

2 1 sin

Then 3 1

And

c=

2

1 f

1 sin

1 3 1

3

1

tan

2

cos

2

f cos f sin

(1 sin )

1 sin 1 sin 1 1 f

2

2

(1 sin )

1

1 sin sin 1 1 f

= 1 2 sin 1 f

2

f cos f sin f 1 1 sin

=

cos

1 sin

1 f

cos

1 sin

Problem 03

Given : 1 , f , c

3, f ,

Solution:

3

r 1

K K K 1

2

c

x

K K K 2

tan

Find :

1 3

3

c

sin 1

2

tan

2

f 1 tan K K K 4

R sin

c

K K K 3

1 3

cos K K K 5

2

3 1 3

f 1

sin K K K 6

2

2

From 6 :

f

1 1

sin 3 3 sin f

2 2

2

2

1 1 sin 3 1 sin 2 f K K K A

From (3):

c cos

1 3 sin 1 3

2

1

sin 1 3 sin 3 0

2

2

2

2

2

2

3 1 sin 1 1 sin 2c cos

K K K B

c cos

From (A):

3 1 sin 1 1 sin 2 f

From (B):

2 1 1 sin 2 f 2c cos

f c cos

1 sin

Then, f c f tan

And, 3

2 f 1 1 sin

1 sin

Check Derivation

From(6):

1 3 1

3

sin

2

2

3

f 1 1 3 1

sin

2

2

2

3 1 3

f 1

sin

2

2

f 1 1 sin 3 3 sin

2 2

2

2

f 1

2 f 1 1 sin 3 1 sin

Alternatively,

1 3

1 sin

2

f 1

2 1 f 1 3 1 sin

2 1 f 1 1 sin 3 1 sin

3 1 sin 1 1 sin 2 1 f

3 1 sin 1 1 sin 2c cos

2 1 sin 2 1 f 2c cos

sin

sin

c cos

1

c cos 1 f

1

1

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