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Neutral Grounding Resistors

&
Temperature coefficient
By Hakam ELASSAD
MS RESISTANCES

When designing an industrial High Voltage (HV) network, sub- station ,a suitable Neutral Ground arrangement
must be selected: the neutral can either be insulated, or it can be connected to earth

Once the neutral ground solution has been adopted to determine the Grounding mode, a compromise has been to
be made between three contradictory requirements:

To damp over voltages


To limit damage & disturbances caused by an earth fault
To provide simple, selective protective devices

GROUNDING METHODS
Direct or Solidly Grounding
It is the most efficient grounding method to limit the over-voltage. However,
In the event of a ground fault, the current is not limited; damage
Interferences occur
Flash hazard are important during the fault.
This method is not used for High voltage distribution.
Impedance Fault Current Limitation or impedance grounding
Impedance grounding
Limits point fault damage.
Eliminates transient over-voltages.
Reduces flash hazard and provides adequate tripping levels for selective ground fault detection and
coordination.
Impedance grounding consists of connecting a neutral grounding resistor or reactor in series between the
transformer neutral & earth as shown below.
In the event of phase to earth fault, the current will flow through resistor or reactor and be limited.

Grounding through Reactor


Tuned Reactor
This solution is sometimes used for public HV networks. Protective relays sensitive to the active component of
the residual current must be used to obtain selectivity.
Current limiting reactor
This solution can result in over voltages; it can be used only where there are low limiting impedances.

Grounding through Resistors


Only the IEEE treats the Grounding
&
IEEE-142 the green book

We are in contact with the committee of IEC to build a new standards for Neutral Grounding Resistors
As Per IEEE-32
ln a resistance-grounded system, the neutral of the transformer or generator is connected
to ground through a resistor.
The resistance has a considerably higher ohmic magnitude than the system reactance at the resistor location.
Consequently, the line-to- ground fault current is primarily limited by the resistor itself

The reasons for limiting the current by resistance grounding include the following:
1: To reduce burning and melting effects in faulted electric equipment, such as
switchgear, transformers, cables. and rotating machines.
2:T0 reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and apparatus carrying fault currents
3: To reduce electric-shock hazards to personnel caused by stray ground-fault
current in the ground-return path.
4:To reduce the arc blast or flash hazard to personnel who may have accidentally
caused or happen to be in close proximity to the ground fault.
5:To reduce the momentary line-voltage clip occasioned by the occurrence and
clearing of a ground fault.
6:To secure control of transient over-voltages while at the same time avoiding the
shutdown of a faulted circuit on the occurrence of the first ground fault (high resistance grounding).

Designing of Neutral Grounding Resistor


Resistor comprises:
Active parts, Insulators, accessories
all are housed and assembled into cubicle
5 steps to be followed during the designing to be in line with the related standards
1: Technology of active parts
2: Resistance material
3: Insulation
4: Protection degree of housing
5: Finishing

Technology of active parts

Different Resistance elements are used to build resistor, elements are connected together in bank, connection is
made in serial or in parallel to obtain the electrical resistance value .
The most known elements are
1 : GRID TYPE or flat obtained by punching , expanding or cutting
2 : EDGEWOUND COIL TYPE : obtained by wounding or wire .
3 : Mats type : obtained by woven the metallic wire and glass wire
4 : Liquide type :(this technology is not used anymore for NGR , it is only used for some application as soft
starter for starting of slip ring asynchronous motors);
The neutral Grounding resistor work in adiabatic zone
An adiabatic process is a thermodynamic process in which there is no heat transfer

Temperature

Adiabatic

No Adiabatic

1
0

T1

T2

Time

= 2-2 ( K ) : Temperature Rise


2 = temperature of resistor after rated time (C )
1= ambient temperature (C)
From 0 to T1, the resistance elements absorb & store the energy . This is adiabatic heating, the energy absorbed
2

is
Cp is the specific heat of the body or material used

WhereEistheenergydissipatedbythebody(inJoules),
m=isthemassofthebody(inKg),and
2

1 isthechangeintemperature(inKelvins).

The energy from a current flowing through a resistance is based on the definition for electrical energy:

Where
and

is the current (in Amps),

is the resistance of the body which the current is flowing through (in )

is the duration of the current flow (in seconds).

From T1 to T2, the resistance elements exchange the heat with surrounding atmosphere, NO adiabatic heating is
anymore applicable. The power exchanged is P=K.S. .
P = exchanged power
S = surface of active part of resistor elements
K = Thermal Exchange Coefficient of the used resistor Elements Technology

CONSTRUCTION OF RESISTORS
Different kind of construction:
1 : Air cool Resistor
1.1 Natural convection
Most common arrangement, 90% of resistor are built to be cooled by natural air circulation
The size of resistor is depending of the total energy to be dissipated by the resistance elements (W)
Maintenance of resistor is easy the maintenance frequency is depending on the pollution in the area where
resistor is installed.
1.2 : Forced air cooling .
Is used when the energy to be dissipated by resistance elements is important and the available space reserved for
resistor is reduced.
This kind of arrangement requires air blower and ventilator.
Is generally used for Railway transit resistor (Dynamic braking resistor) or load bank

This kind of arrangement requires good maintenance.


2: Oil Cool Resistors.
Is used when the energy to be dissipated by resistance elements are important and the available space reserved
for resistor is reduced , it is generally used for high voltage resistor ;Oil tank and oil cooling circuit are required
3: Water cool Resistor.

Resistance material
The Neutral Grounding Resistor is used to keep the voltage constant during Fault
Since the active material used in resistors has an appreciable temperature coefficient, the resistance is
materially
charged during the time of operation causing the voltage ta increase or the current to decrease, the resistor shall
be rated for constant voltage and the rated voltage shall be taken equal to the line-to-neutral voltage.
The conductor element resistance changes to some extent with temperature. The change may be calculated
from the temperature coefficient of resistivity
.=

R2=R1(1+ (2-1))
RI and R2 are resistances in ohms. at temperatures 1 and 2 in degrees Celsius, respectively, and is the
temperature coefficient of resistance.
As per Ohm law

U=I x R

U = Voltage to be kept constant


The Fault current (I) must be limited and decreased
The Resistance (R) will increase

due to Temperature Rise

AS per definition the resistance


R=
= resistivity of resistance material
l = length of resistance element
S= section of resistance element
2 = resistivity at 2 , 1 = resistivity at 1
Considering the l & s will not change or slightly change

2 = 1 x(1+(2-1)

2 = 1 x(1+(2-1)
The temperature coefficient =

We know that the resistivity increases with temperature.


If the value of temperature coefficient is indicated in the specification , the temperature interval should be
indicated also Example: from ambient temperature to 500C
Despite the requirement of the new IEEE-C57-32 and as per our experience, the stainless steel AISI 430 or AISI
304 , are the best resistance material for Neutral grounding resistors , , because the variation of resistivity is
high with temperature , which allow the fault current to decrease during fault and keep the voltage constant

The argument given in the New IEEE-C57-32 to use stainless steel with very low temperature
coefficient does not hold, because a current transformer is always coupled with a protection relay
connected to the neutral circuit. Simply choosing a relay with an adequate detection range is enough to
avoid detection fails due to a strong drop of current caused by a strong increase in ohmic value.
The New IEEE-C57-32 is partially valid for High Resistance Grounding (HRG) communally used in
the USA

LIMITATION OF TEMPERATURE RISE


As per IEEE-32 the temperature rise should be limited to see table

M.S. RESIST AN CES

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

Time (sec)

10

12

O\Ref: AISI 430

M.S. RESIST AN CES

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0

Time (sec)

10

12

O\Ref: AISI 430

M.S. RESIST AN CES

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

4
Time (sec)

10

O\Ref: AISI 430

12

M.S. RESIST AN CES

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

Time (sec)

10

12

O\Ref: AlClFe

M.S. RESIST AN CES

14,5
14
13,5
13
12,5
0

Time (sec)

10

12

O\Ref: AlClFe

M.S. RESIST AN CES

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

4
Time (sec)

10
O\Ref: AlClFe

12

Insulation

The air temperature into the cubicle can reach a high value up to 500 C after fault duration
The Insulators must be able to withstand high temperature.
The use of Epoxy insulators or bushing is strongly NOT RECOMMANDED)
The use of Porcelain insulators or Bushing is highly & strongly RECOMMANDED

The insulation is given by IEEE-32


The voltage applied from terminals of each assembly to its own frame shall be twice the rated voltage of the
section of which the frame is part plus 1000V when rated voltage =600 V or les
Or 2,25 times the rated voltage+2000V when rated voltage is over 600V
TO simplify we will insulate the resistors using insulators level value higher than the line to neutral voltage in
kV
As per IEEE-32 , No impulse tests required for Neutral Grounding Resistor if voltage is equal or less than

34.5kV
Example : insulation of 11 kV resistor
Line to line voltage = 11 kV
Line to Neutral voltage = 11/3 = 6.35 kV
Minimum of Applied voltage = 6.35*2.25+2=16.28 kV one minute 50 Hz
Size of insulators =7.2 kV as per IEC

Protection Degree
There are different kind of protection degree for resistance :
As per IEC standard 528, there is no air circulation into cubicle which is an IP 54 protection degree.
In such case, the air into cubicle is subject to be heated and pressure increasing, an exploding risk
occurs if no safety protection such valves or others.
Protection degree

Protection

Comments

IP00

No protection

Suitable for indoor installation

IP23

Protected against solid


objects greater than 12
mm and against spraying
water.
Protected against solid
objects greater than 1 mm
and against spaying water.
Dust protection and water
splashing

- Suitable and recommended for indoor or outdoor


installation
- The cooling time is approximately 10 to 30 the
heating time.
- Suitable for outdoor installation. The cooling
time is approximately 20 to 30 minutes.

Dust protection or dusttight and water jets

Are not recommended

IP43
IP54

IP 55 or IP65

- No recommended
- The cooling time is approximately 40 to 50
minutes
- Exploding risk if no safety protection against
pressure rise
- The hot spot must be reduced to very low value.
- A space heater must be installed which required
an AC (380, 220 or 115) or DC supply.

For better cooling , the recommended protection Degree for Neutral Grounding Resistor = IP23

33 kV IP 55

400 kV IP23

HOUSING FINISHING:
- The hot dip galvanizing finishing of housing is the best protection against corrosion or aggressive
environment such acid pollution.
- For installation near the sea, the housing can be made from Nickel chromium stainless steel sheets AISI 316.
The Nickel Chromium stainless steel must be AISI 316
- We do not recommend painting housing.
FINISHING
Hot dip Galvanizing
Nickel Chromium stainless steel
AISI 304
Nickel Chromium stainless steel
AISI 316
Mill Galvanizing
Painted
Mill or Hot dip Galvanizing &
Painting

USE & PROTECTION


- Best corrosion resistance,- best against acid , basic , saline or chemical pollution
- Recommended for indoor or outdoor,- recommended for installation near the sea.
- Not recommended for installation near the sea (salt and humidity).
- Recommended for installation near the sea.
- Not recommended near the sea due to corrosion risk.
- Not recommended (painting destruction, due to the elevation of temperature of
housing and corrosion risk )
- Better than only painting.

Tests into sulfur dioxide environment 500 hours

StainlessSteelAISI304StainlessSteelAISI441StainlessSteelAISI430HotDipGalvanized

Test into saline environment 500 hours

StainlessSteelAISI304StainlessSteelAISI441StainlessSteelAISI430HotDipGalvanized

Routine & Type TESTS