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Wudang quan - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wudang_quan

Wudang quan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wudang quan is a class of Chinese martial arts.


In contemporary China, Chinese martial arts styles are generally classified into two major groups:
Wudang (Wutang), named after the Wudang Mountains; and Shaolin, named after the Shaolin
Monastery.[1][2][3] [4][5] Wudang quan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wdng qun; WadeGiles:
Wu3-tang1 ch'an2) translates as "Wudang fist." Whereas Shaolin includes many martial art styles,
Wudangquan includes only a few arts that utilize the focused mind to control the waist, and therefore
the body; this typically encompasses T'ai chi ch'uan, Xing-Yi chuan and Bagua zhang,[6] but must
also include Baji chuan and Wudang Sword.[7]: Although the name Wudang simply distinguishes the
skills, theories and applications of the "internal arts" from those of the Shaolin styles, it falsely
suggests these arts originated at the Wudang Mountains. The name Wudang comes from a popular
Chinese legend that incorrectly purports the genesis of Tai chi chuan and Wudang Sword by an
immortal, Taoist hermit named Zhang Sanfeng who lived in the monasteries of Wudang Mountain.
[1][8][9][10]

Wudangquan is often used synonymously with Neijia, but strictly speaking Neijia is a broader term
that also encompasses, for example, Aikido and Qigong, which are not Wudangquan.[11]

Contents
1 History
1.1 Qing China
1.2 Republic of China
2 Fu Style Wudang Quan
3 Wudang Dan Pai
4 Wudang Taiyi Boxing
5 See also
6 References
7 Sources

History
Qing China
The term neijia and the distinction between internal and external martial arts first appears in Huang
Zongxi's 1669 Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan.[12] Stanley Henning proposes that the Epitaph's
identification of the internal martial arts with the Taoism indigenous to China and of the external
martial arts with the foreign Buddhism of Shaolinand the Manchu Qing Dynasty to which Huang
Zongxi was opposedwas an act of political defiance rather than one of technical classification.[1]
In 1676 Huang Zongxi's son, Huang Baijia, who learned martial arts from Wang Zhengnan, compiled

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the earliest extant manual of internal martial arts, the Neijia quanfa.[13]
In the late 1800s, Dong Hai Chuan began teaching Bagua Zhang to a very select group of
individuals. The highly-notable Xing-Yi stylist Liu De Kuan was among those who learned this
special art from Dong. Liu was a very friendly martial artist who had also learned T'ai chi ch'uan
from Yang Lu-ch'an. Liu's friendly nature and experience with the three "internal" martial arts
created an easy forum for discussion and knowledge-sharing between practitioners of these arts.
In 1894, an alliance was created with Cheng Tinghua taking the lead and representing Bagua Zhang;
Li Cun Yi and Liu Wei Xiang represented Xingyiquan; and although Liu De Kuan practiced all three
arts, he represented T'ai chi ch'uan. The alliance grouped the three arts under the umbrella of
"Neijia," and swore brotherhood among its associates and practitioners.[14] Cheng Ting Hua was shot
and killed by German soldiers during the Boxer Rebellion (1900), which likely strengthened the
alliance.

Republic of China
Around 1912, the third-generation BaGua master Fu Chen Sung was traveling throughout Northern
China to meet and learn from the best martial artists when he met Wudang Sword grandmaster Sung
Wei-I in Liaoning Province;[15] Fu learned Sung's Wudang Sword and fighting forms: Lightning
Palm and Rocket Fist. Fu joined General Li Jinglin's army in 1920. General Li Jinglin had also met
Sung Wei-Yi in the early 1900s while garrisoned in Lia Ning Province, and had also learned Sung's
Wudang Sword techniques.[5]
In 1925, General Zhang Zhi Jiang began to propagate his belief that martial arts should be used to
improve the health of the Chinese people. He suggested the creation of a Central Martial Arts
Academy (Central Guoshu Institute), and was named Director. General Li Jinglin, retired from his
military career, was named Vice-Chairman to the Academy. General Li's kung fu advisor was the
famous Bajiquan master Li Shuwen.
In 1928, Kuomintang generals Zhang Zi Jiang, Fung Zu Ziang and Li Jinglin organized two national
martial arts tournaments in Beijing & Nanjing respectively; they did so to screen the best martial
artists in order to begin populating the Central Martial Arts Academy. The generals separated the
participants of the tournament into Shaolin and Wudang. Wudang participants were recognized as
having "internal" skills. These participants were generally practitioners of T'ai Chi Ch'uan,
Xingyiquan and Baguazhang. All other participants competed under the classification of Shaolin.
[1][6][14] Thus, Wudangquan came to encompass Tai Chi, Bagua, Xingyi; Baji from Li Shu Wen; and
Wudang Sword from Sung Wei-I and Li Jing Lin. Fu Chen Sung won the fighting competition in
Beijing, and was named head Bguzhng instructor for all of China.
Circumspectively, this seems to be the historical point when the name Wudang became the prevalent
moniker for the internal martial arts across China.
The two major lineages of Wudang Chuan were passed down from Li Jinglin. These lineages went to
Fu Chen Sung and Yang Kui-Shan.

Fu Style Wudang Quan


Fu Chen Sung (Fu ZhenSong) worked the rest of his life to develop Fu Style Wudang Fist. The

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system included exercises, empty hand and weapons sets in Tai Chi, BaGua, Hsing-Yiand Fu Chen
Sung's well-documented, signature forms: Liang-Yi Chuan, Dragon Palm BaGuaZhang and Dragon
Palm BaGua Push hands (most of which he created in the 1940s); the famous but extremely rare
Wudang Sword techniques were embodied in Fu's progression of Tai Chi Sword, to Seven Star
Sword, to Bagua Cyclone Broadsword, and finally, Flying Dragon Bagua Sword forms. In his
lifetime, Fu had many notable students, including General Sun Pao Gung and Lin Chao Zhen. Fu's
oldest son, Fu Wing Fay (Fu Yong Hui), became Fu's prodigal son. Wing Fay grew up among many
of the greatest martial artists in the Golden Era of Martial Arts in China. Wing Fay learned well from
his father and the other great masters. Wing Fay practiced hard, and began developing Fu Style
Wudang Fist even more. Wing Fay had two top students: his son, (Victor) Fu Sheng Long, and Bow
Sim Mark (the mother of Donnie Yen).[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

Wudang Dan Pai


According to T'ai Chi Magazine, volume 29, no. 1, the Yang Kui-Shan lineage of Wudang Dan Pai
claims direct descent of Zhang SanFeng. Its 9th generation lineage holder was Sung Wei-I, who was
the first non-Taoist to hold the lineage. Sung passed the lineage to Li Jinglin (for the 10th). Li passed
the lineage to Yang Kui-Shang (for the 11th), who passed it on to Qian Timing (for the 12th). [26]
The current headmaster of Wudang Dan Pai in China is Ma Jie, who learned his techniques from
Daoist master Xuan Dan and from Meng Xiao-Feng. Ma Jie's closed door disciples, Chang Wu-Na
and Lu Mei-hui (who are also disciples of Qian Timing) are the current masters of the 13th
generation.[7]:xiii-xiv
At the time Li Jinglin held the lineage, Li and his contingent were learning BaGuaZhang from Fu
Zhen Song; XingYi Quan from Sun Lu Tang; Tai Chi Chuan from Yang ChengFu; Baji Quan from Li
Shuwen; and the Wudang Sword techniques had come from Sung Wei-I.[5][6][7][14][15][17][24][26]

Wudang Taiyi Boxing


According to T'ai Chi Magazine, volume 30, no. 1, Yang Qunli claims Jin Zitao started learning
Wudang Taiyi Wuxing Boxing from Li Heling at Wudang Mountain in 1929. The article connotes
that from the time of Li's death until the early 1980s, Jin Zitao was the only person alive who had
knowledge of the secret martial arts of Wudang Mountain. In 1980, Jin Zitao demonstrated Wudang
Taiyi Wuxing Boxing to the National Wushu Viewing and Emulating and Communicating Congress
in Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province. Before that, it had "never been shown before."
The article cites Jin's association with "The Institute of Wudang Boxing" and the "Journal of
Wudang." [27]
According to Kung Fu Tai Chi Magazine, Zhong Yun Long went to Wudang Mountain in 1984, and
studied under the 13th generation masters, Guo Gaoyi and Wang Kuangde. Zhong became the 14th
generation lineage holder of the Wudang SanFeng Sect. The article cites their association with the
'Wudang Taoist Association."[4]
There does not seem to be any connection between Jin Zitao and the Wudang San Feng Sect except
for the fact that they both use the term "Taiyi" as the name of a form. Both lineages claim to be direct
descendants of Zhang San Feng, and claim they learned Wudang martial arts at Wudang Mountain in
the 20th century.

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Currently, a contingent of Taoist martial art masters claiming lineage to Zhong Yun Long practice
and teach Wudang martial arts at Wudang Mountain, which was named a World Heritage Site by the
United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization in 1994.[4] These Taoists practice what
they call Wudang Wushu or Wudang GongFu, and worship Zhang SanFeng as a deity. The website
shows a curriculum of Tai Chi, XingYi, BaGua, QiGong, meditation and LiangYi (Tai Yi Wu Xing
Quan), and claims BaGuaZhang originated there. Ironically, these masters and the Fu Family are the
only two schools that teach a martial art form called LiangYi.[28]

See also
Qi
Dantian
Neidan
Tao Te Ching
Jian
Temple of the Five Immortals

References
1. Henning, Stanley (AutumnWinter 1994). "Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan" (PDF). Journal of the
Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii. 2 (3): 17.
2. Reid and Croucher (1983). The Fighting Arts. Simon and Schuster. p.77. ISBN0-671-47273-9.
3. "Trade Intelligence,Gain valuable business insights from our searchable database of thousands of articles
and reports". News.alibaba.com. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
4. Ching, Gene (October 2003). "The Chief Priest of Wudang Mountain". Kung Fu Tai Chi.
5. Hallander, Jane (March 1990). "The Wudang Sword". Black Belt: 5660.
6. Sun Lu Tang (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p.3. ISBN0-86568-185-6.
7. Huang Yuan-Xiou (2010). The Major Methods of Wudang Sword. Translated by Dr. Lu Mei-hui. Blue
Snake Books. ISBN978-1-58394-239-0. Commentator is Master Chang Wu Na.
8. Henning, Stanley (Summer 1995). "On Politically Correct Treatment of Myths in the Chinese Martial
Arts" (PDF). Journal of the Chenstyle Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii. 3 (2).
9. Kennedy and Guo (2010). Jingwu. Blue Snake Books. p.2. ISBN978-1-58394-242-0.
10. Shahar, Meir (2008). The Shaolin Monastery. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN978-0-8248-3349-7.
11. "Taijiquan (T'ai Chi) and Other Internal Martial Arts". Qi-journal.com. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
12. Shahar, Meir (December 2001). "Ming-Period Evidence of Shaolin Martial Practice". Harvard Journal of
Asiatic Studies. 61 (2): 359413. doi:10.2307/3558572. ISSN0073-0548.
13. Shahar 2001
14. Lin, Chao Zhen (2010). Fu Zhen Song's Dragon Bagua Zhang. Blue Snake Books.
ISBN978-1-58394-238-3.
15. Miller, Dan (1992). "The Pa Kua Chang of Fu Chen-Sung". Pa Kua Chang Journal. 2 (6).
16. Liang Shou-Yu; Yang Jwing-Ming; Wu Wen-Ching (1994). Baguazhang. YMAA. p.40.
ISBN0-940871-30-0.
17. Kirchhoff, Tommy (December 2004). "Evasive Fu Style Bagua Zhang". Inside Kung-Fu: 7478.
18. Fu Yonghui & Lai Zonghong (1998). Fu Style Dragon Form Eight Trigrams Palms. Smiling Tiger
Martial Arts. ISBN1-929047-15-0.
19. Kwan, Paul W.L. (April 1978). "The New Wu Shu". Black Belt.
20. Lukitsh, Jean (October 1992). "A Wushu Dream Comes True". Inside Kung-Fu. 2 (3): 3439, 76.
21. Smalheiser, Marvin (April 1996). "Fu Style T'ai Chi and Bagua". T'ai Chi.
22. Smalheiser, Marvin (June 1996). "The Power of Mind and Energy". T'ai Chi.
23. Smalheiser, Marvin (December 2000). "The Power of Yin/Yang Changes". T'ai Chi.
24. Allen, Frank; Tina Chunna Zhang (2007). The Whirling Circles of Ba Gua Zhang: The Art and Legends
of the Eight Trigram Palm. Blue Snake Books. pp.4851. ISBN978-1-58394-189-8.
25. Cobb, Nathan (13 March 2001). "Grande Dame of Wu Dang". Boston Globe. Retrieved 22 January 2010.

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26. Qian, Timing (February 2005). "The Essence of True Wudang Sword". T'ai Chi. 29 (1): 1424.
27. Zhou, Lishang (February 2006). "The Revival of Wudang Taiyi Wuxing Boxing". T'ai Chi. 30 (1):
2430.
28. "Wudang GongFu". Wudang GongFu. Retrieved 2016-12-27.

Sources
"The Wu Dang Sword" Black Belt Magazine (March 1990) (https://books.google.com
/books?id=Q9YDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=wudang+sword+pa+kua&
source=bl&ots=TK6ZJD4x63&sig=bxQ2CfOcwmji2_Ehc75l6YYaLxY&hl=en&
ei=SgmyS96oOoXYsgP8u7n5BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&
ved=0CCMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false)"
Pa Kwa Chang Journal (volume 1, #3; volume 2, #6; volume 5, #2; and volume 6, #6)
Fu Style Dragon Form Eight Trigrams Palms by Fu Wing Fay and Lai Zonghong (translated
by Joseph Crandall); Copyright, 1998, Smiling Tiger Martial Arts
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Categories: Neijia Chinese martial arts
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