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Govt.

Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab


1. AIM: 1) To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at
i) 0.5 pf lag and 0.5 pf lead by three phase circuit arrangement using substandard
ammeter and voltmeter
ii) unity pf by using single phase circuit
2) To test the meter with direct loading and phantom loading arrangements.

2. APPARATUS:

3. THEORY:
FORMULA USED

Power consumed in Pressure circuit = V2/R (W)


Power consumed in Current circuit = V x I (W)
R Pressure circuit resistance
SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION TYPE ENERGY METERS

Induction type of energy meters are used to measure the energy consumed in domestic and industrial
A.C. circuits. Induction type meters possess lower friction and higher torque. Also these meters are
inexpensive and accurate and retain their accuracy over a wide range of loads and temperature
conditions.
The four main parts of operating mechanism in an energy meter are:

Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab


i)

Driving System ii) Moving System iii) Braking System iv) Registering System

The driving system of the meter consists of two electromagnets. One of the electromagnet is excited
by the load current and the coil wound on it is called current coil. The coil of the second
electromagnet is connected across the supply and the coil is called pressure coil. The moving system
consists of an aluminum disc mounted on a light alloy shaft. This disc is positioned in the air gap
between the two electromagnets. The aluminum disc moves in the field of the magnet and thus
provides the braking torque. When the supply is applied across the pressure coil, the current produces
a flux, which goes across the aluminum disc and hence is responsible for production of driving
torque.
PHANTOM LOADING
When the current rating of a meter under test is high, a test with actual loading arrangements would
involve a considerable waste of power. In order to avoid this phantom or fictitious loading is done.
Phantom loading consist of supplying the pressure circuit from a circuit of required normal voltage,
and the current circuit from a separate low voltage supply. It is possible to circulate the rated current
through the current circuit with a low voltage supply as the impedance of this circuit is very low.
With this arrangement the total power supplied for the test is that due to the small pressure coil
current at normal voltage, plus that due to the current circuit current supplied at low voltage. The total
power, therefore, required is comparatively very small.

4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Circuit 1: Energy Meter Calibration at 0.5 pf Lead Load

Circuit 2: Energy Meter Calibration at 0.5 pf Lag Load

Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab

Circuit 3: Energy Meter Calibration at UPF Load

Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab


Circuit 4: Phantom Loading

5. PROCEDURE: 1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram shown.


2. Note down the energy meter constant from the energy meter.
3. Adjust the value of load current to a desired value by varying the resistive load.
4. Note down the ammeter and voltmeter readings.
5. Start the stopwatch, when the red mark on the disc of the energy meter passes the
observation point and note down the number of revolutions made by the disc for 5 seconds.
6. Repeat the steps 2 to 5 for different values of load current.
7. Calculate the % error and plot the curve between current and error .

Phantom Loading
1. Give the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set the supply voltage to 220 V and ac excitation voltage to 10V.
3. Vary the position of the rheostat and note down the ammeter and voltmeter readings of
pressure and current coil.
4. Calculate the power consumed.

6.

OBSERVATION TABLE: Energy Meter Constant (K) = _________ Rev / KWH

Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab

MODEL GRAPH:

Pre Lab Questions


1. How electrical energy is measured in dc and ac circuits?
2. What is the principle of operation of induction type meters?

Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer


Department of Electrical Engineering (Lab Manual)

Electrical Measurement Lab


3. What are the main parts of the operating mechanism involved in induction type meters?
4. What is testing of energy meters?
5. What is direct loading arrangement?
6. What is phantom loading?
7. How is phantom loading more advantageous than testing with direct loading?
Post Lab Questions
1. In which method of testing the total power consumption is small?
2. What is the drawback of direct loading arrangements?