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Unit 1

Confucius

Objectives
1. Students will learn about Confucius.
2. Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
3. Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting details,
making inferences, and classifying details.
4. Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
chaos, recognition, moral, demand, filial piety, hierarchical, disciple, analects, anthology, dedicate,
integral, impose, urge, order, reflect, utmost, dutifully, function, significant, compile, eventually
abide by, lay down, pass down

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Confucius). Ask the students to make inferences on what they
think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage brainstorming and
personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Who was Confucius?
What is leadership?
What makes a good leader?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Prepare small cards with words and their meanings (separately) in advance. Put all the cards in a small
bowl or a hat and have all of the students stand up and pull one card out each. Optionally, you can ask
the students who get words on one side of the room and students who get meanings on the other side.
Tell the students that the objective of the game is for them to find the student whose card matches the
one they have. Prizes and penalties can be given to the first and last pairs to finish.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by asking the students what the characteristics of a good leader are. Give them
examples and support when needed. Encourage students to share their personal experiences. Ask them
about the things they would like to change and how they would want to lead. Write some of the items
mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Gather the class together to play "Wheel of Detail" Using Bristol board and colored markers, make a
"Wheel of Fortune"-type game wheel. Insert a pin or straightened paper clip through the center of the
wheel, and glue or tape a cardboard arrow to it. On the wheel, label each section with different
examples of the five W's. Divide the students into two teams, and have a representative from each
come up to the front and spin the wheel. After spinning the wheel, each one must identify who the story
was about, what happened in the story, where and when the story took place and why events unfolded
the way they did.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Have the students think about and write (if necessary) speeches for an election campaign. Encourage
the students to write speeches that emphasize their leadership skills and abilities. When the students
are finished with their speeches, have them present their speeches in front of the class one at a time.

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


Do you think Confucius was a good leader? Why?
Are you a good leader? Why or why not?
Explain the concept of Filial piety.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Confucius most important idea was jen, or humanism. Humanism is treating others the same
way we would like to be treated.
On Your Own
- If I were class president, I would try to be nice to all my classmates and help them with their
problems. I would want to be a good leader and earn their respect, so I wouldnt ask them to do
anything I wouldnt do myself.
Vocabulary Building
1. orders
2. integral
3. urge
4. reflect
5. imposes
6. dedicate

7. b
8. c
9. a
10. c
11. a
12.d

13. pass down


14. lay down
15. abide

Reading Comprehension
1. a
2. b

3. b
4. c

5. b
6. c

7. Confucius thought that great leaders had to earn respect by setting a good example.
8 Confucius said the best way to learn is by studying hard and then reflecting.
9. His disciples worked together to write down his teachings in a book called the Analects of Confucius.
Summary
1. Philosopher / Warring States Period / peace / Humanism / rule / example / Filial piety / elders /
hierarchical / Education / everyone / reflecting / Analects of Confucius / Asia
2. Confucius was a philosopher born in China during the Warring States Period. He spent his life
spreading ideas of love and peace. His philosophy of humanism taught that rulers should rule
themselves before they ruled others because they had to set a good example for the people. Confucius
also believed people should respect their elders and superiors. This is called filial piety, and it is an
important virtue in Confucianism. Additionally, Confucius said everyone should be educated. He
encouraged people to learn by studying and reflecting. His ideas were passed down through the
Analects of Confucius. They influenced Asia and the rest of the world.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that the most effective way to learn is to study in groups because you can share information with
others. Study partners can also encourage and motivate one another. Another important study habit is
reviewing the material, because that helps you remember what you have learned.

Unit 2

Traveling the Silk Road

Objectives
5. Students will learn about the Silk Road and its influence.
6. Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
7. Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting details,
making inferences, and classifying details.
8. Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
region, route, commodity, artisan, monopoly, porcelain, caravan, bandit, cargo, vessel, custom, impact,
altitude, stretch, exchange, hardship, weave, confront, barren, reliable, harsh, ensure, sought-after
pass through, make it, cut down

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Traveling the Silk Road). Ask the students to make inferences
on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What is the Silk Road?
Why do you think silk was so valuable?
What was the purpose of the Silk Road?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Speed Game. Prepare small cards with key words and related words in advance. Divide the class into
two teams (ex. Team A and Team B), and have each team choose a captain. Each team is given a turn;
when it is Team As turn show the card to Team As captain (make sure none of the other students see
it). The team captain is given a time limit to describe each thing on the card using only English. The
captain cannot say the words on the cards. After the time has expired each team is awarded points
according to how many correct guesses their team made.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly comparing some of the similarities of the Internet and the Silk Road.
Then encourage students to come up with their own thoughts. Ask them to compare and contrast the
Internet and the Silk Road. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Encourage better summary skills by doing reading summary exercises. Have students read a passage,
either to themselves or aloud in a group. Then have the students relate to you what they have heard.
Students should write up a summary for what they have read and should then tell you, in their own
words, what the summary is. Emphasize that a summary should include all of the main points of the
passage and should also include as many details as they have understood. However, the summary
should not copy the passage word for word. For advanced students, you should ask them to do the
summary without having a copy of the passage in front of them.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Just a Minute. Write topics randomly around the board. Then have a student throw a sticky ball (piece of
rolled up paper) at the board. The topic which is closest to where the ball hits is their topic. The student
must then stand and speak for one minute without hesitation, repetition or undue silliness about the
topic. If the students hesitates, repeats or becomes silly then stop them and write their name and the
time they spoke for on the board.

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


Do you think the Silk Road was worth the effort despite the dangers? Why?
How did the Silk Road change the world?
Do you think the Silk Road would still be useful today? Why or why not?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- The Silk Road exposed people to different ideas and cultures from around the world.
On Your Own
- The Internet is like a modern day Silk Road because we can use it to buy and sell products and
share ideas with people from all over the world.
Vocabulary Building
1. impact
2. hardships
3. altitude
4. stretch
5. weave
6. exchange

7. b
8. c
9. c
10. a
11. d
12. a

13. make it
14. cut down
15. pass through

Reading Comprehension
1. b
2. c

3. c
4. a

5. a
6. d

7. Most of the goods were transported in large camel caravans.


8. There were barren deserts and tall, snowy mountains on the Silk Road.
9. There were many dangers along the road, so traveling all of it wasn't a good idea.
Summary
1. trade / Connected / 200 / Goods / Silk / Chinese / dangers / nature / relay / sea / culture
2. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes that linked the Eastern and Western worlds. It was used
from 200 B.C. to the 14th century. There were many important products on the Silk Road but silk was the
most important. Only the Chinese knew how to make silk. Merchants faced many difficulties caused by
nature and people when traveling the Silk Road, so goods were transported using a relay system. The
Silk Road was eventually replaced by sea trade but it had a lasting importance because it made the
global exchange of culture possible.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


Being a merchant traveling on the Silk Road would have been an incredible experience. The most
exciting part of the journey would have been the opportunity to meet new people because it would
have been a way to learn about new cultures and new ways of thinking. On the other hand, it must have
been very frightening to deal with bandits, who could not only steal your merchandise but also threaten
your life.

Unit 3

The Birth Order Theory

Objectives
9. Students will learn about the Birth Order Theory and its importance.
10.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
11.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
12.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
theory, rebel, parental, strict, entrepreneur, peer-oriented, diplomatic, promoter, manipulative,
persuasive, adoption, discount, inflexible, attempt, affectionate, suited, confident, negotiate,
abundance, capricious, excel, temperament
according to, end up, be likely to

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The Birth Order Theory). Ask the students to make inferences
on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What is the Birth Order Theory?
Is birth order important in your country?
Does birth order influence behavior?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Divide the class into groups of 2-4 students. Assign everyone a vocabulary word. Have each student
write their word out with each letter on a separate small sheet of paper. Place all the letters in a bag.
Students take turns taking one letter out of the bag at a time. If the letter is one found in their word,
they keep it and give the bag to the next student. If the letter they select is not one of the letters in their
word, they put it back in the bag and give it to the next student. For example, say S1 has CAT as their
word, S2 has DOG, and S3 has COW. If S1 draws C from the bag (even if it is not the C that they wrote),
they keep it and give the bag to S2. S2 draws a W, puts it back in the bag, and gives it to S3, etc. The first
student to spell their word wins.

During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.
3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing the birth order of your family; give examples and details. Then
encourage students to describe the birth order of their family (for students without brothers or sisters,
have them describe the birth order of their parents, etc.). Write some of the items mentioned on the
board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Select several students from the class to read different parts of the passage. Once they've read the
passage to the group, have the other students try to summarize the events by drawing or writing the key
plot points. The students who read the passages must answer questions about the story, and help the
other students as they draw or write.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Declare a debate topic (ex. It is better to be the first born in a family). Divide the class into two groups
(For & Against). Have the students debate about this topic. Guide students in the debate by offering the
following questions:

What are the advantages / disadvantages of being first born?

Is there preference given to a certain birth order in your family?

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


Are you affected by birth order? Explain your answer.
Do you get along with your siblings? Why or why not?
Do you ever wish for an older / younger sibling? Why or why not?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- It says that the order in which a person was born into their family helps shape their personality
and may even affect which type of career they choose.
On Your Own
- I was born after my older sister and before my younger brother. I am a middle child.
Vocabulary Building
1. attempted
2. discounted
3. suited
4. affectionate
5. inflexible
6. Adoption

7. b
8. c
9. b
10. d
11. b
12. d

13. According to
14. are likely to
15. end up

Reading Comprehension
1. b
2. c

3. b
4. b

5. d
6. c

7. They get more parental attention and financial support and have more rules to follow.
8. They may turn outward from the family in order to define their own particular role.
9. Journalism, advertising or sales may be good because they require persuasive skills.
Summary
1. personality / career / First-born / responsible / presidents / Middle / diplomatic / negotiators /
dependent / journalism / independent / lawyers / dynamics / temperament
2. The birth order theory explains why certain people have common personality traits. It can even affect
which career a person chooses. First born children are often responsible, ambitious and intellectual.
They make good lawyers, doctors and presidents. Middle children are generally rebellious, diplomatic
and social. They might choose jobs as managers or negotiators. Youngest children can be described as
dependent, persuasive and funny. They often find jobs in journalism, advertising or sales. Only children
tend to be creative, mature and independent, and often work as lawyers, doctors or architects. However,
there are other factors to consider such as unique family dynamics and a persons natural temperament.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that the birth order theory should not be taken seriously because the theory doesnt always hold
true. For example, I am the youngest child in my family, and according to the theory, I should be
dependent and humorous. However, people say that I am quite independent and serious. Also, my older

sister is very outspoken and somewhat bossy, and these traits are opposite of those described for a
second-born child.

Unit 4

Desert Adaptations in Camels

Objectives
13.
Students will learn about the camels and how they adapt to the desert.
14.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
15.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
16.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
adaptation, hump, dehydrated, prickly, conserve, eyelash, leathery, pad, fare, domesticated, appetite,
undiscriminating, flatten, slippery, trek, soar, remarkable, misconception, contain, infrequent, adopt,
rubbery
in particular, use up, break a sweat

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Desert Adaptations in Camels). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What do camels look like?
Why are camels best suited for the desert?
Where else do you think camels would be best suited for?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


With children in a circle and a softball, play a game titled "Freeze!" Place a set of vocabulary cards in the
middle of the circle and teach the children that they are to throw the ball to any person in the circle.
When the teacher yells, "Freeze!," everyone must stop moving. The person with the ball must draw a
card and say the word. For advanced learners, challenge students to use the word in a sentence.

During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing the items you would take with you for a long trip into the desert;
give examples and details. Then encourage students to describe the things they would take with them to
the desert. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Chronological Order offers a good exercise for students. Prepare by writing a summary of the given
material. Then cut and paste your sentences in random order. Place a blank at the beginning of each
sentence. Students in groups of four to six place the sentences in chronological order by writing a
number in the blank. The first group with the correct numbered sequence is the winner.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
The objective is to guess what key word another person is thinking about by asking 20 yes or no
questions. The guesser can ask only 20 questions. The questions have to be yes/no questions. The
person answering has to say a full short answer to practice grammar. The guesser wins if they guess in
less than 20 questions. The person answering wins if the guesser cannot guess the key word in less than
20 questions.

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


Why do you think camels are needed in the desert?
Do you know of any other animals that can adapt to their environment? Give examples.
What do you think life is like in the desert?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Camels have developed special physical characteristics that help them adapt to the desert. For
example, they store fat in their humps to use as energy when they run out of food and they can
go long periods of time without drinking.
On Your Own
- I would take a lot of water with me because the desert is very dry. I would also take sunglasses
to protect my eyes from the sun and blowing sand.
Vocabulary Building
1. undiscriminating
2. slippery
3. appetite
4. soared
5. flatten
6. trekked

7. d
8. c
9. b
10. b
11. a
12. c

13. used up
14. in particular
15. break a sweat

Reading Comprehension
1. b
2. b

3. d
4. b

5. c
6. a

7. A camel can travel 40 kilometers a day without breaking a sweat.


8. Camels have long eyelashes to keep sand out of their eyes.
9. Camels can be found in the deserts of North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia.
Summary
1. Challenges / dry / adapt / food / humps / fat / Eat / conservation / Sweat / drink / characteristics /
eyelashes / knees / legs / ability / deserts
2. Desert life poses many challenges. Animals must learn to adapt to the hot, dry environment. Camels
carry their food supply around with them in the form of fat that they store in the humps on their back.
They can refill their energy supply by eating just about anything. They also conserve water by sweating
very little and they dont need to drink often. Additionally, they have long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows,
padded knees and long legs to protect them from the sand. These adaptations have helped the camel
survive for millions of years. Camels still exist today in deserts all around the world.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


If I were riding a camel across a desert, I would feel fortunate to be traveling on an animal that has so
many adaptations for that environment. For one thing, the camel's large, wide feet would be very useful.
They would help keep the camel from tripping and tossing me onto the burning sand. Another useful
adaptation is the camel's long legs. They would keep me away from the heat of the sand.

Unit 5

Walking for the Mind and Body

Objectives
17.
Students will learn about walking and the benefits of it.
18.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
19.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
20.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
Intake, cholesterol, stroke, shed, abdomen, kneecap, tone, dementia, endorphin, beneficial, anxiety,
contract, meditation, depression, workout, maintain, fast-paced, benefit, emphasis, host, moderately,
vital
take a break, at the same time, in good shape

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Walking for the Mind and Body). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Do you enjoy walking?
What are the benefits of walking?
What do you do for exercise?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Play bingo using blank bingo cards that can be filled in with vocabulary words. Hold up the meaning of
the key words from the passage which students should find on the card. For intermediate and advanced
students, simply tell them the definition and let them find the corresponding word on the card.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing the benefits of walking. Give the students examples of how some
people enjoy walking and how some people dislike walking. Then encourage students to describe their
own thoughts on walking as a form of exercise. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items
mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Choosing Titles from a list of possibilities can show whether the students have understood the overall
theme of the text. The titles should be worded in such a way as to make the students think about the
overall meaning. One of the titles could focus only on one paragraph, for instance.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Divide class into groups of 6 or more, and arrange each group in a straight line or row. Ask for a
volunteer listener from each group. Take them outside of the classroom and give them a message (one
sentence or more, depending on student level). Open the door, and let the students run to the first
member of their group to whisper the message. Each member passes the message, by whispering, to
their neighbor. When the message reaches the end, the last person should run to the board and write
the message that they heard. The winner could be determined in various ways: first team to pass a
legible, complete message (even if it's wrong), first team to finish, first team with a message closest to
the original.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Who would you recommend walking as an exercise?
What other types of exercise would you recommend another person?
What else is good for the mind and body?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Walking makes people healthier and happier.
On Your Own
- I like to walk but I prefer other types of exercise such as group sports.
Vocabulary Building
1. Meditation
2. workout
3. maintain
4. anxiety
5. depression
6. contract

7. b
8. c
9. d
10. a
11. a
12. d

13. in good shape


14. at the same time
15. take a break

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. c
4. b

5. a
6. a

7. The muscle groups in the legs, abdomen and lower back are affected most.
8. Walking helps prevent Alzheimers disease and dementia.
9. Walking is sometimes considered a spiritual activity because it slows people down and gives them a
break from fast-paced society kind of like meditation.
Summary
1. healthier / Easy / Physical / heart / stroke / fat / muscles / Mental / brain / dementia / depression /
habits / clothing / hydrated
2. Walking makes people healthier and happier and it is easy for anyone to do. The physical benefits
include lowered risk of heart disease and stroke, weight loss and strengthened muscles and bones.
Walking also helps the mind by helping the brain process information, reducing risk of Alzheimers
disease and dementia, and reducing stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression. Good walking habits
include stretching before and after, wearing comfortable clothing and shoes, and staying hydrated.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that racewalking should be considered a sport because it is an aerobic activity that gets the heart
pumping just like any other athletic event. In my opinion, it is a sport that is essentially the same as
running, as both sports require fitness, training, and endurance. The athletes who compete in
racewalking have to be strong and have technique, just like people who compete in running events.

Unit 6

Greeces Powerful City-States

Objectives
21.
Students will learn about Greeces city-states.
22.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
23.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
24.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
territory, dominating, district, elect, official, council, democracy, oligarchy, slave, legacy, rotate, obsess,
contrast, weave, via, conquer, broad, aesthetics, promote, grant, accomplished, deny
take over, in charge, in spite of

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Greeces Powerful City-States). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Where is Greece?
Why do you think the city states of Greece were so different?
Are there cities like this in your country? Explain your answer.
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Sentence Chain. The objective of the game is to have students say a sentence that starts with the last
word the previous person said. Ask the first student on one side of the room to start the game and
instruct the next student in the row to say the next sentence. Go around the entire room until everyone
has participated. Don't allow students to use key words that have already been said.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.

2) On Your Own
Open up this question by thoroughly explaining the differences between Athens and Sparta; give the
students examples of how different life was in both cities. Then encourage students to discuss which city
they prefer and why. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for
more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Have the students scan for particular facts. Tell the student that you are only interested in them finding
this particular information quickly. A more intensive reading of the text can take place after, if you wish.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Q&A. Write the question on the board and ask the students to ask you. This provides an excellent
opportunity for you to model some example answers, and to check on their pronunciation. Then have a
few students ask the question (substituting: "Which do you prefer, dogs or cats/tea or coffee...). Then,
when the students understand some of the possible ways of answering the question, move to open
pairs (student A asks student C etc). Two or three times with open pairs should be enough. Next put the
students in (closed) pairs, and walk around the room listening as they ask and answer. Then get some
feedback.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
What would do you think your life would be like if you lived in Sparta / Athens?
Why do you think Sparta and Athens were so different from each other?
Which way of life do you think is best, Sparta or Athens? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Athens was interested in cultural things like art and literature. Sparta mainly cared about
building its military power.
On Your Own
- If I were the ruler of a city-state, I would make education the most important thing. I would also
make sure that everyone could go to school for free.
Vocabulary Building
1. weave
2. rotate
3. via
4. obsessed
5. conquer
6. contrast

7. b
8. b
9. b
10. c
11. c
12. c

13. take over


14. in spite of
15. in charge

Reading Comprehension
1. b
2. a

3. c
4. b

5. c
6. d

7. The slave population outnumbered Spartan soldiers (the only citizens) seven to one.
8. They studied art, architecture, drama, literature, philosophy, science, and medicine.
9. Spartan boys were sent to military training camps to live when they turned seven years old.
Summary
1. Ancient / city-states / systems / democracy / oligarchy / values / aesthetics / military / Legacy /
accomplished / Celebrated
2. Ancient Greece was divided into numerous city-states. Athens and Sparta were the two most
powerful. Athens had a democratic-type government where all citizens except foreigners and women
could participate. Sparta was ruled by an oligarchy and the people were given little political power. The
two city-states also had differing values and systems of education. Athens, for example, focused on
culture and aesthetics. On the other hand, Sparta emphasized a military lifestyle. The legacy of Athens
and Sparta is that they were Greeces most accomplished city-states. They have been celebrated
throughout history.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that women should have to serve in the military because it is not right to only depend on men to
protect the nation. Given that there is a shortage of manpower, it makes sense for the military to utilize
both genders. And although it is true that men are physically stronger than women, there is more to
being a good soldier than physical strength. In all other aspects, women can do anything men can do.

Unit 7

The History of Chess

Objectives
25.
Students will learn about the history of chess.
26.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
27.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
28.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
strategy, chariot, peasant, battlefield, mobility, pivotal, commanding, offense, surrender, pastime,
court, sharpen, sway, representative, capture, tactic, outmaneuver, insight, toil, serf, devise, depict,
represent, mighty, conduct

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The History of Chess). Ask the students to make inferences on
what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Do know what chess is?
Can you play chess?
What board games do you like to play?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Writing it on the Board Race. Write all the words up on the board, and make sure the students
understand each one. Then erase the words, leaving only the first letter. Follow this up by getting the
students to say the words a few times, by memory. Then encourage the students to spell the words and
write them on the board as the students spell.
For a more student interaction, divide the students into teams and one person from each team comes
up to the board, in their allotted space. Have the students at the board write the key words / phrases
you state. The first student to write the key words / phrases correctly get a point and then they would
go sit back down and change writers for their team.

During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.
3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing the traditional games played in your home country. Give the
students examples of the various different games played in different cultures. Give them personal
examples of the games you like are enjoyed playing when you were younger. Then encourage students
to describe the traditional games played in their country. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the
items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension

Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


The teacher chooses a sentence from the passage and reads it aloud. On the count of three, the
students then try to find the sentence. The first student to find the sentence then comes to the front
and chooses another sentence for the other students to find, and so on. You can limit the search to a
particular chapter or a particular page, depending on the book and the students reading level.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Q&A. Write the question on the board and ask the students to ask you. This provides an excellent
opportunity for you to model some example answers, and to check on their pronunciation. Then have a
few students ask the question (substituting: "Which do you prefer, dogs or cats/tea or coffee...). Then,
when the students understand some of the possible ways of answering the question, move to open
pairs (student A asks student C etc). Two or three times with open pairs should be enough. Next put the
students in (closed) pairs, and walk around the room listening as they ask and answer. Then get some
feedback.

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


What are the benefits of playing chess?
Describe a comparable game from your culture.
What is your favorite pastime? Why?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Chess was used to represent society in both India and Europe. Therefore, we can learn about
the past by understanding the deeper meaning of chess.
On Your Own
- In my country, we have a game called shogi. The board looks very similar to chess, but there's a
rule that you can use the pieces you capture from your opponent.
Vocabulary Building
1. court
2. sway
3. sharpen
4. outmaneuver
5. representative
6. tactic

7. capture
8. insight
9. a
10. c
11. b
12. b

13. c
14. b
15. a

Reading Comprehension
1. a
2. d

3. b
4. d

5. a
6. a

7. It improves concentration and sharpens critical thinking skills. It can also provide insights into history
that might not have been recorded into traditional textual sources.
8. They play a crucial role at the end of the game during the final attack or defense.
9. To win the game, you have to capture the opponent's king.
Summary
1. strategy / India / Europe / medieval / battlefield / represent / Central / queen / king / protected /
context / past
2. Chess is the oldest game of strategy still played, appearing in India around A.D. 500. From there, it
spread to Europe around A.D. 1000. In Europe, the Indian pieces were changed to reflect medieval
European society. Pawns represent the poor serfs, and knights are warriors who fight with mobility.
Castles are the places where the royalty lived, and bishops show the importance of the church. The
queen is the most powerful piece, and she stands next to the king. Although the king is a poor attacker,
he must be protected. When we understand the historical context of chess, it can teach us much about
the past.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that it would be good to study chess in history class because it can teach us in a different way
than a textbook. We can see firsthand how the different groups of medieval European society acted. For

example, the peasants had little importance, while bishops held much more power. Chess cannot
replace textbooks, but it could be studied along with them.

Unit 8

Genetics

Objectives
29.
Students will learn about Genetics.
30.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
31.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
32.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
characteristic, trait, generation, recessive, dominant, gene, blossom, offspring, freckle, dimple,
cultivate, relative, include, combination, label, sibling, overwhelmingly, resemble, determine, conduct,
skip, majority
show up, die out, give birth to

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Genetics). Ask the students to make inferences on what they
think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage brainstorming and
personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What are genetics?
Why do you think some people look different from other people? Explain your answer.
What is something you can do that others cannot?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Use vocabulary words in complete sentences. For lower level students, provide fill-in-the-blank
sentences with a word bank. For advanced students, direct students to use vocabulary words in their
own sentences to demonstrate the meaning of the word. Encourage students to use different sentence
forms including declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamatory. For vocabulary words that are
verbs, ask students to write sentences using the past, present and future tenses.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing how you look and the characteristics shared by the rest of your
family. Give the students examples of the various differences each member of your family has. Then
encourage students to describe the characteristics shared by their families. Ask the students if they take
after their mother or father. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board
for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Students are divided into two to four teams. Each team gets into a group. Then give the teams time to
look through their story. The students come up with comprehension questions to ask the other team.
Teams alternate asking and answering questions. Teams much designate which student from their team
will answer the next question before the question is read. Each student gets to ask ONE question and
answer ONE question. This will ensure that every student on a team gets to participate. Scoring: The
teacher may give points to questions answered correctly. The teacher may also give points to properly
phrased question.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Student Interviews. Choose a topic from the passage that you feel will interest the students. Ask
students to write five or more questions about this topic (students can also come up with the questions
in small groups). Once they have finished the questions, they should interview at least two other
students in the class and take notes on their answers. When the students have finished the activity, ask
students to summarize what they have found out from the students they have interviewed.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Why is the study of genetics important? Explain your answer.
Do you have some traits that none of your family has? Explain your answer.
What are the traits you got from your grandparents?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- People and animals get their looks from their parents. Parents pass down certain physical traits
through their genes.
On Your Own
- I got my eyes and nose from my mother but I am tall and thin like my father.
Vocabulary Building
1. relative
2. sibling
3. includes
4. cultivate
5. label
6. combination

7. a
8. b
9. d
10. c
11. b
12. b

13. dies out


14. showed up
15. gave birth to

Reading Comprehension
1. a
2. b

3. d
4. d

5. c
6. a

7. Some recessive traits from the first generation do not show up in the second generation. However,
they can show up in the third generation. This is called skipping a generation.
8. The gene for red colored blossoms is dominant so only red flowers will be produced.
9. Two dominant genes, one dominant and one recessive gene, or two recessive genes.
Summary
1. scientist / pea plants / traits / cultivation / common / Dominant / Recessive / White / Passed down /
Genetic / humans / height
2. Austrian scientist Gregor Mendel researched pea plants and learned that our physical traits come
from our parents. When he cultivated pea plants, he learned that red blossoms are more common than
white blossoms because of the dominant red color gene. The white color gene is recessive, but it can
still be passed down through red flowered plants. Genetic traits affect humans and animals, too. They
determine things like our blood type, hair color, eye color, and height.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that traits such as long eyelashes and pale skin survived because of the advantage they gave to
people who inherited them. For example, having longer eyelashes may help protect the eye from harsh
environmental conditions like wind and dust. Having pale skin is a trait that is beneficial for people who
live in high altitudes, because it allows them to absorb more sunlight through their skin.

Unit 9

The Stages of Sleep

Objectives
33.
Students will learn about the Stages of Sleep.
34.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
35.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
36.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
conceivable, drowsiness, external, stimulus, disoriented, restore, exert, rate, span, acuity, maintain,
noticeably, assist, proper, flutter, divert, initial, generate, crucial, disorder, assume, sufficient
break up, slow down, cool down

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The Stages of Sleep). Ask the students to make inferences on
what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Is sleep important? Why or why not?
Why do you think happens to you when you sleep? Explain your answer.
What happens to you if you do not get enough sleep?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Play charades with the students. Ask one student to come to the board and draw a picture associated
with a vocabulary word. Have the class guess the word. The person that correctly guesses the word must
use it in a sentence.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by describing how you feel the next day when you do not get enough sleep. Give
the students examples of the various problems and difficulties you face with a lack of sleep. Then
encourage students to describe what happens to them when they do not get enough sleep. Encourage
brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


As students read aloud, have them stop at the end of every chapter or every section of larger chapters.
Ask them to tell you what just happened in their own words in just a few sentences. Make sure that
their descriptions are right on target with what has been read. Give students several opportunities to
discuss what they are reading as they finish reading aloud. Go around the room and have students read
passages aloud to each other. Then divide the students into groups and ask them to repeat the story or
discuss key points of the story with the group.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Story telling & Memory Game. Have the students sit in a circle. Ask one student to say a sentence in a
story form ex. "once there was a boy". The next student will have to repeat that sentence and add
something more to it like "once there was a boy whose name was John". In this way the children keep
building up a story as well as remembering what the previous sentences were. The student who forgets
a line will go out of the game.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
What kinds of dreams do you have?
Do you sleep a lot? Why or why not?
Why is it so hard to remember dreams? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- When we fall asleep, we progress through different stages of sleep. Sometimes I lose my temper.
On Your Own
- If I dont get enough sleep, I feel very tired and crabby.
Vocabulary Building
1. maintain
2. noticeably
3. assist
4. proper
5. flutter
6. divert

7. b
8. d
9. a
10. b
11. b
12. d

13. cool down


14. slow down
15. break up

Reading Comprehension
1. a
2. d

3. d
4. a

5. d
6. c

7. REM stands for "rapid eye movement," because a persons eyes flutter under their eyelids when they
dream.
8. The body is relaxed during deep sleep and some people sleepwalk or talk.
9. Stage 2 lasts 20 minutes or so while stage 1 lasts only about 5 to 10 minutes. Also, during stage 1 we
are simply drowsy but during stage 2, the body starts to cool down and the heartbeat slows.
Summary
1. Stages / non-REM sleep / Light / drowsy / awakened / Deep / disoriented / sleepwalking / REM / heart
/ benefits / stress / immune system
2. When asleep, we experience different stages of sleep that can be divided into REM and non-REM
categories. During stage 1, we are simply drowsy and are easily woken. We relax in stage 2 but can still
be awakened easily. Stage 3 is considered deep sleep, and we will be disoriented if woken. In stage 4,
the body is very relaxed but sleepwalking or talking is possible. REM sleep, stage 5, is the stage when we
dream, and this happens four or five times during the night. Sleep has many health benefits. REM sleep
helps us process our emotions and stress. Additionally, deep sleep helps the immune system, the mind,
and growth hormones function properly.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that a person who is unable to sleep would be very depressed because dreams help us process
our emotions and our stress, and we cannot dream without sleeping. All of those unprocessed feelings
might make a person feel overwhelmed and sad. In addition, since sleep helps strengthen the immune
system, a person who isnt getting the proper amount of sleep might get sick more often.

Unit 10 Math in Nature and Art


Objectives
37.
Students will learn about the existence of mathematical topics in nature and art.
38.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
39.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
40.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
sequence, preceding, appealing, ratio, petal, species, Mother Nature, divide, width, appeal,
acknowledge, renowned, derive, guideline, aesthetically, equal, eminent, inconspicuous, pleasing,
belong, incorporate, sum
name someone after, make use of, give credit for

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Math in Nature and Art). Ask the students to make inferences
on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Do you know of any examples of math in nature or art?
Are math, nature and art related? Explain your answer.
What are the main differences in math, nature and art?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


The teacher selects a word from the dictionary that students are sure not to know. On slips of paper,
students write what they think is the definition of the word. The teacher writes the real definition on a
slip, then mixes up all the slips. After reading and talking about all the definitions, students guess which
ones they think are correct. Students get a point for guessing the correct definition, and also get a point
if someone else picked the definition they wrote.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly reviewing and explaining the Fibonacci sequence to the class. Make
sure the students understand the basic concept and then show the students your hands. Then
encourage students to look at their hands with the Fibonacci sequence in mind. Encourage
brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Active Brainstorming. The teacher must select three or four vocabulary subcategories within the
passages theme. Students are then paired up and asked to generate ideas together for each
subcategory, preferably under a time limit; much as in any brainstorming exercise. Then pairs should be
grouped into 2, 3, or 4 larger teams (depending on class size, logistics, etc.) to share/compare ideas and
lengthen their lists if possible. Then divide the board into sections, one for each subcategory, and one
student from each group is called up and handed a piece of chalk or a marker of a color assigned to each
team. There must be one color per team, eg. the blue team, the yellow team, and so forth. The
designated writers for each team are not allowed to bring any paper up with them. Instead, their team
members must shout out ideas which can be put under each/any subcategory, including the correct
spelling of same. The object is to be the team with the most words on the board at the end. It is best to
stop every minute or two and change designated writers so that all can get a chance. Finally, the teacher
shouts "Stop!", and the scores for each team are tabulated.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Just a Minute. Write topics randomly around the board. Then have a student throw a sticky ball (piece of
rolled up paper) at the board. The topic which is closest to where the ball hits is their topic. The student
must then stand and speak for one minute without hesitation, repetition or undue silliness about the
topic. If the students hesitates, repeats or becomes silly then stop them and write their name and the
time they spoke for on the board.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Do you know of any other examples of math in nature or art?
Do you think math in nature is a coincidence? Explain your answer.
Do you think good art depends on good math? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- The Fibonacci sequence is important because it shows that there is special relationship between
math and beauty. Numbers from the sequence can be found in nature and art.
On Your Own
- We have two hands with five fingers on each hand. We also have three joints on each finger
and two joints on our thumbs. All these numbers occur in the Fibonacci sequence.
Vocabulary Building
1. acknowledged
2. equals
3. derives
4. aesthetically
5. renowned
6. guideline

7. c
8. c
9. d
10. b
11. d
12. a

13. name (my first-born child) after


14. gives (me) credit
15. make use of

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. c

3. a
4. c

5. a
6. d

7. The next number is 233 because it is the sum of the last two numbers (144 and 89).
8. She produces mainly flowers whose number of petals adds up to a Fibonacci number.
9. You take two consecutive numbers from the Fibonacci sequence and divide the larger one from the
smaller one. The length divided by the width of some rectangles also gives us the golden ratio.
Summary
1. sequence / beauty / art / numbers / rare / petals / ratio / width / preceding / Math / relationship /
preferred
2. The Fibonacci sequence is important to beauty and design. It can be found throughout nature and art.
In nature, for instance, four-leaf clovers are rare. That is because the number of a flowers leaves or
petals flowers is usually related to the numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. The golden ratio can be
found in art. It is the length divided by the width or a rectangle. It can also be found by dividing a larger
number in the Fibonacci sequence by its preceding smaller number. Math has a closer relationship to
nature and art than many people think. It explains why some forms have traditionally been preferred
over others.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I disagree with the argument that the golden rectangle is the most beautiful shape in the world because
beauty comes in all sorts of shapes and sizes. For example, the Mona Lisa might appeal to some people,
but not everyone thinks that it is a beautiful painting. Personally, I prefer many other paintings to that

one, and I know that I am not the only person to feel this way. Also, the Mona Lisa is most famous for
her smile, which, as far as I know, has nothing to do with the golden rectangle.

Unit 11 The History of the Potato in Europe


Objectives
41.
Students will learn about the History of the Potato in Europe.
42.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
43.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
44.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
diffusion, imprisonment, nutritious, superstitious, famished, staple food, shredded, prominent, throne,
longevity, ingredient, circulating, counter, indispensible, eager, edible, convince, initially, versatility,
unique, suspicion, wholeheartedly
in turn, pass on, live off

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The History of the Potato in Europe). Ask the students to
make inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Do you like potatoes? Why or why not?
Why do you think potatoes were so important in Europe?
Are potatoes healthy for you? Why or why not?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Prepare small cards with words and their meanings (separately) in advance. Put all the cards in a small
bowl or a hat and have all of the students stand up and pull one card out each. Optionally, you can ask
the students who get words on one side of the room and students who get meanings on the other side.
Tell the students that the objective of the game is for them to find the student whose card matches the
one they have. Prizes and penalties can be given to the first and last pairs to finish.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly reviewing and explaining the different types of foods you do not like to
eat. Give them examples of the types of foods you do not like and the types you absolutely do not eat.
Then encourage students to describe the types of foods they do not like and the types of foods they will
not eat; ask them why they feel this way. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned
on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Gather the class together to play "Wheel of Detail" Using Bristol board and colored markers, make a
"Wheel of Fortune"-type game wheel. Insert a pin or straightened paper clip through the center of the
wheel, and glue or tape a cardboard arrow to it. On the wheel, label each section with different
examples of the five W's. Divide the students into two teams, and have a representative from each
come up to the front and spin the wheel. After spinning the wheel, each one must identify who the story
was about, what happened in the story, where and when the story took place and why events unfolded
the way they did.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
This game can be played in pairs or as a full class. Give a starting line, such as "A funny thing happened
to me in the grocery store yesterday." Then have each student take a turn adding a sentence to the
story; tell the students that they must use key words and phrases from the unit. Not only will students
be entertained by their classmates' creative adventures, but they will have to use comprehension and
vocabulary skills to contribute to the story.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
What is your favorite food? Why?
Describe the type of food you eat on a typical day.
Are you a picky eater? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Spanish explorers brought potatoes to Spain in the 16th century and sent them to other
European countries. Then, Europeans shared them with people in other continents.
On Your Own
- I dont like to eat broccoli because it looks funny and kind of gross. I dont really like the taste,
either.
Vocabulary Building
1. indispensable
2. ingredient
3. counter
4. edible
5. eager
6. circulating

7. c
8. b
9. b
10. b
11. b
12. c

13. pass (it) on


14. in turn
15. live off

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. a

3. c
4. a

5. d
6. c

7. Antoine Augustin Parmentier first tried the potato in a German prison.


8. Irelands population doubled in a period of 60 years thanks to potatoes.
9. They did not like the way it looked and thought it was unsafe to eat.
Summary
1. Spain / Europe / France / appearance / trick / Ireland / immediately / population / Russia / order /
Effects / longevity / world
2. Spanish explorers brought the Peruvian potato to Spain, and then it spread throughout Europe. In
France, the potato was disliked for its appearance and was thought to be poisonous. It was finally seen
as a precious food because of a trick. In Ireland, the potato was accepted immediately. A diet of
potatoes doubled the countrys population. The potato was introduced to Russia by Czar Peter the Great
who saw it while traveling Europe. He brought it back home with him and ordered his people to eat it.
The potato improved the health and longevity of Europeans. Today, it is enjoyed around the world.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that people should be sure to thoroughly explain new things when introducing them because
anything unfamiliar can seem scary at first. Plus, people have a very difficult time accepting what they
do not yet understand. In order to help people understand new things, it would probably be beneficial
to present samples of the thing or provide real-life examples, giving people a good idea of its purpose or
function.

Unit 12 Great Britains Industrial Revolution


Objectives
45.
Students will learn about the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.
46.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
47.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
48.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
manufacture, textile, industrialize, demand, assembly line, merchandise, monotonous, orphanage,
compensation, modernize, bulk, mutilate, generate, skyrocketing, going rate, afford, radically,
profound, hazardous, striving, alter, tedious
from scratch, speed up, come by

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Great Britains Industrial Revolution). Ask the students to
make inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Where is Great Britain? What do you know about it?
What is the Industrial Revolution?
How do machines help us in everyday life?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Speed Game. Prepare small cards with key words and related words in advance. Divide the class into
two teams (ex. Team A and Team B), and have each team choose a captain. Each team is given a turn;
when it is Team As turn show the card to Team As captain (make sure none of the other students see
it). The team captain is given a time limit to describe each thing on the card using only English. The
captain cannot say the words on the cards. After the time has expired each team is awarded points
according to how many correct guesses their team made.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly describing the inventions you wish were available today; things that
would make life easier. Give them examples of the different inconveniences you face and the inventions
you think would improve life. Then encourage students to describe their own ideas for inventions to
improve life. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Encourage better summary skills by doing reading summary exercises. Have students read a passage,
either to themselves or aloud in a group. Then have the students relate to you what they have heard.
Students should write up a summary for what they have read and should then tell you, in their own
words, what the summary is. Emphasize that a summary should include all of the main points of the
passage and should also include as many details as they have understood. However, the summary
should not copy the passage word for word. For advanced students, you should ask them to do the
summary without having a copy of the passage in front of them.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
The objective is to guess what key word another person is thinking about by asking 20 yes or no
questions. The guesser can ask only 20 questions. The questions have to be yes/no questions. The
person answering has to say a full short answer to practice grammar. The guesser wins if they guess in
less than 20 questions. The person answering wins if the guesser cannot guess the key word in less than
20 questions.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Is modernization a good thing? Why?
Do you have a convenient life? Why or why not?
What invention has changed your life (had the most impact) the most?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- The Industrial Revolution improved Great Britains economy and it positively and negatively
changed the way people lived.
On Your Own
- I think we need robots that can do all the hard work around the house and protect us from
intruders.
Vocabulary Building
1. skyrocketing
2. bulk
3. going rate
4. mutilated
5. afford
6. generate

7. b
8. d
9. d
10. c
11. d
12. a

13. sped up
14. from scratch
15. come by

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. d
4. b

5. c
6. d

7. It was led by advancements in the textile industry that sped up the clothing production process.
8. The factories created a lot of pollution, which was bad for peoples health. Workers, including women
and children, were also mistreated and underpaid by factory owners. The machinery they used was also
very dangerous.
9. We can find a variety of goods at affordable prices and we can travel easily from place to place.
Summary
1. Industrial Revolution / Great Britain / bad / Mass / economy / affordable / Problems / Pollution /
working / impact / advancements / U.S.
2. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and brought about good and bad changes. For
example, mass production improved the economy and made products more affordable. However, there
were also many problems created by the new factories. The factories created pollution that made
people sick. Factory employees also suffered from poor working conditions. The Industrial Revolution
has had a major impact on our lives, though. It led to advancements in other industries and spread
through Europe and to the United States.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that I would have been happy with the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution
because they made life more comfortable for everyone. For example, as the Industrial Revolution
modernized Europe, it would have been much easier to communicate with people in other places. Also,

the Industrial Revolution would have created more businesses and therefore more employment
opportunities for everyone.

Unit 13 The Physics of a Roller Coaster


Objectives
49.
Students will learn about the Physics of a Roller Coaster.
50.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
51.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
52.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
ascent, mechanism, mechanical, gravity, momentum, potential, accumulate, kinetic, conservation,
brake, brim, death-defying, atop, stimulating, amass, process, lure, rapid, complex, notably,
subsequent, gradually
butterflies in ones stomach, build up, start out

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The Physics of a Roller Coaster). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What is a rollercoaster?
Do you like to ride roller coasters? Why or why not?
What are the common characteristics of all roller coasters?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Divide the class into groups of 2-4 students. Assign everyone a vocabulary word. Have each student
write their word out with each letter on a separate small sheet of paper. Place all the letters in a bag.
Students take turns taking one letter out of the bag at a time. If the letter is one found in their word,
they keep it and give the bag to the next student. If the letter they select is not one of the letters in their
word, they put it back in the bag and give it to the next student. For example, say S1 has CAT as their
word, S2 has DOG, and S3 has COW. If S1 draws C from the bag (even if it is not the C that they wrote),
they keep it and give the bag to S2. S2 draws a W, puts it back in the bag, and gives it to S3, etc. The first
student to spell their word wins.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.

2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.
3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly describing your favorite rollercoaster; tell the students the particular
characteristics of that rollercoaster. Give them examples of the different types of roller coasters you
have ridden on, and the different emotions you felt riding each one. Then encourage students to
describe their own experiences with riding roller coasters. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the
items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.

Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Select several students from the class to read different parts of the passage. Once they've read the
passage to the group, have the other students try to summarize the events by drawing or writing the key
plot points. The students who read the passages must answer questions about the story, and help the
other students as they draw or write.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Give the students several minutes to design their own rollercoaster. Make sure they use the concepts
explained in the passage. When they are finished, have the students present their roller coasters to the
rest of the class. Encourage other students to ask questions and make comments to each presenter.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Are roller coasters safe? Why or why not?
Why do you think some people afraid of riding roller coasters? Explain your answer.
What kind of rollercoaster would you like to ride? Why?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- They use mechanical energy, which is potential energy and kinetic energy, as well as other laws
of physics such as conservation of energy, gravitational pull, and momentum.
On Your Own
- My favorite roller coaster has a really big drop at the very beginning. I get really nervous going
up the hill but I have so much fun going down it!
Vocabulary Building
1. stimulating
2. brim
3. atop
4. death-defying
5. amass
6. process

7. a
8. a
9. d
10. c
11. d
12. c

13. butterflies in my stomach


14. started out
15. built up

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. a
4. b

5. c
6. a

7. Roller coaster cars have the most potential energy when they are at the top of the highest hill.
8. Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy by gravitational pull.
9. It is converted when it a roller coaster drops down a hill.
Summary
1. complex / physics / mechanical / Potential / Highest / mechanical / Kinetic / gravity / Momentum /
hills
2. Roller coasters do not need complex mechanisms. They function with the simple laws of physics. The
first type of mechanical energy is potential energy, or stored energy. The highest position gives the most
potential energy. The second type of mechanical energy is kinetic energy, or energy from movement.
Gravity turns potential energy into kinetic energy when it drops down a hill. Momentum keeps a moving
object in motion. This helps roller coaster cars climb hills.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


For a roller coaster to be exciting, it must include steep drops and dark tunnels. I love the feeling of
being high in the air and then dropping towards the earth as if in a free fall. Also, it is thrilling when a
roller coaster enters a dark tunnel and you lose your sense of direction, until you suddenly shoot out
from the other end of the tunnel.

Unit 14 Jellyfish
Objectives
53.
Students will learn about Jellyfish.
54.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
55.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
56.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
invertebrate, current, digestive sac, central nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system,
migratory, swarm, sensory organ, tentacle, venom, approach, sting, visibility, venture, marine,
irritation, caution, expose, substance, house, adapt, detect, compose, instantaneous, threat

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Jellyfish). Ask the students to make inferences on what they
think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage brainstorming and
personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Have you ever seen a live jellyfish before? What was it like?
Why do you think jellyfish look the way they do?
Why do you think some people are scared of jellyfish?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


With children in a circle and a softball, play a game titled "Freeze!" Place a set of vocabulary cards in the
middle of the circle and teach the children that they are to throw the ball to any person in the circle.
When the teacher yells, "Freeze!," everyone must stop moving. The person with the ball must draw a
card and say the word. For advanced learners, challenge students to use the word in a sentence.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly describing your feelings on jellyfish; tell the students the particular
reasons you like or dislike jellyfish. Give them examples of why you feel this way, and also offer other
opinions. Then encourage students to describe their own feelings towards jellyfish. Encourage
brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Chronological Order offers a good exercise for students. Prepare by writing a summary of the given
material. Then cut and paste your sentences in random order. Place a blank at the beginning of each
sentence. Students in groups of four to six place the sentences in chronological order by writing a
number in the blank. The first group with the correct numbered sequence is the winner.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Q&A. Write the question on the board and ask the students to ask you. This provides an excellent
opportunity for you to model some example answers, and to check on their pronunciation. Then have a
few students ask the question (substituting: "Which do you prefer, dogs or cats/tea or coffee...). Then,
when the students understand some of the possible ways of answering the question, move to open
pairs (student A asks student C etc). Two or three times with open pairs should be enough. Next put the
students in (closed) pairs, and walk around the room listening as they ask and answer. Then get some
feedback.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Would you like a jellyfish as a pet? Why or why not?
Why do you think jellyfish are transparent? Explain your answer.
How are jellyfish different from other fish? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- They are marine invertebrate that can be found in every ocean.
On Your Own
- I think jellyfish are interesting and fun to look at, but they seem a little scary.
Vocabulary Building
1. caution
2. whim
3. marine
4. visibility
5. irritation
6. stung

7. expose
8. venture
9. c
10.d
11. a
12. a

13. b
14. b
15. a

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. c
4. b

5. c
6. a

7. Radial symmetry means there is no left or right side and bilateral symmetry is when something can be
divided in half to form two mirror-like images
8. They suck water into their bell and spit it out like a jet stream. The oceans current also pushes them
around.
9. Jellyfish have sensory organs called rhopalia that help them detect passing organisms. They use their
venomous tentacles to attack potential predators and prey. They also swarm for protection.
Summary
1. Jellyfish / ocean / sizes / composition / radial / water / Aquatic / movement / Swarm / feeding /
Sensory / tentacles / Danger / poison / death
2. Jellyfish are more than 650 million years old and can be found in every ocean. There are more than
2,000 species of jellyfish that come in a variety of sizes. A jellyfishs body has radial symmetry and three
layers, including the epidermis, gastrodermis and mesoglea. Jellyfish are made up mostly of water. They
only have limited movement and swarm for protection. They also protect themselves with their sensory
organs that detect light, smell and pressure and they feed using their venomous tentacles that kill prey.
Jellyfish can be a danger to humans, although not all of them have poison. Those that do can cause
irritation or death.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that jellyfish might have survived for so long because they have very few predators. They are also
able to adapt to any type of water body, no matter what the temperature or depth may be. This would
probably have helped them endure climate shifts that could have threatened less resilient species.

Unit 15 Loanwords
Objectives
57.
Students will learn about loanwords.
58.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
59.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
60.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
linguistic, existence, invasion, occupation, lexicon, scholar, parliament, demote, trilingual, deformation,
administration, court, anonymous, exotic, kiosk, peasant, sophisticated, traitor, catastrophe, amplify,
slight, transformation
as a result of, take over, break out

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Loanwords). Ask the students to make inferences on what
they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage brainstorming and
personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Can you explain what loanwords are?
How do you think words from some languages find their way into other languages?
Do you often use words that are not from your native language? Why or why not?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Play bingo using blank bingo cards that can be filled in with vocabulary words. Hold up the meaning of
the key words from the passage which students should find on the card. For intermediate and advanced
students, simply tell them the definition and let them find the corresponding word on the card
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly describing the languages and word used in English that were originally
from other languages (ex. deja vu). Explain to the students the background of the languages and words
from other languages that are used in English. Then encourage students to talk about languages and
words from other countries that are used in their native language. Encourage brainstorming. Write
some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Choosing Titles from a list of possibilities can show whether the students have understood the overall
theme of the text. The titles should be worded in such a way as to make the students think about the
overall meaning. One of the titles could focus only on one paragraph, for instance.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Story telling & Memory Game. Have the students sit in a circle. Ask one student to say a sentence in a
story form ex. "once there was a boy". The next student will have to repeat that sentence and add
something more to it like "once there was a boy whose name was John". In this way the children keep
building up a story as well as remembering what the previous sentences were. The student who forgets
a line will go out of the game.

Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:


What languages are mixed into your native language? Do you know why?
What loanwords do you often use? Explain your answer.
Why do you think English has so many loanwords? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Words can be traded back and forth between languages in a process called borrowing.
On Your Own
- My native language is Hindi, and it was heavily influenced by the Persian and Arabic languages.
Vocabulary Building
1. court
2. administration
3. peasant
4. exotic
5. anonymous
6. kiosk

7. a
8. a
9. d
10. a
11. d
12. d

13. as a result of
14. take over
15. break out

Reading Comprehension
1. c
2. b

3. b
4. c

5. c
6. d

7. Normally, a community adopts the words of a socially, economically or politically stronger one.
8. The Norman invasion of England introduced many French words to the English language and the
Hundred Years War made Latin more popular.
9. Globalization increased the borrowing and reborrowing of loanwords.
Summary
1. Borrowing / cultures / Adopted / Norman / French / politics / Hundred Years War / Latin / foreign /
Globalization / loanwords
2. Borrowing is an exchange between cultures and languages. Foreign words that are adopted into
another language are called loanwords. The Norman invasion of England introduced many French
words to the English language and French became the language for politics and government. However,
the Hundred Years War made less French powerful and Latin more popular. Various words from around
the world entered the English language. The English language continues to grow and change because of
globalization. More loanwords are borrowed into English and there is an increased reborrowing of
English words into other languages, too.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that English is spreading so quickly because of modern technology. People all over the world can
listen to English radio stations, watch English-language programs, and get in touch with English speakers,
thanks to television and the Internet. In addition, English has really taken off because so many cultures
were exposed to it during the time of the British Empire.

Unit 16 The Boston Tea Party


Objectives
61.
Students will learn about the Boston Tea Party.
62.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
63.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
64.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
colonial, debt, revenue, authority, act, legal, imported, protestor, boycott, dock, representation,
defiance, repeal, board, resistance, intensify, emerge, tremendous, ultimately, prompt, assert, outrage
chop up, come up with, contrary to

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The Boston Tea Party). Ask the students to make inferences
on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What was the Boston Tea Party?
Why was the American Revolution fought? Explain your answer.
How do you think the Boston Tea Party changes America?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Sentence Chain. The objective of the game is to have students say a sentence that starts with the last
word the previous person said. Ask the first student on one side of the room to start the game and
instruct the next student in the row to say the next sentence. Go around the entire room until everyone
has participated. Don't allow students to use key words that have already been said.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly explaining exactly what the Boston Tea Party was about; tell them why
people aggressively protested rule from Great Britain. Explain to the students what it means to protest
something and the consequences involved. Then encourage students to talk about their feelings
towards the protest. Ask them what they would do or what other alternative actions could have been
taken. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Have the students scan for particular facts. Tell the student that you are only interested in them finding
this particular information quickly. A more intensive reading of the text can take place after, if you wish.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Just a Minute. Write topics randomly around the board. Then have a student throw a sticky ball (piece of
rolled up paper) at the board. The topic which is closest to where the ball hits is their topic. The student
must then stand and speak for one minute without hesitation, repetition or undue silliness about the
topic. If the students hesitates, repeats or becomes silly then stop them and write their name and the
time they spoke for on the board.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Would you ever protest anything? Why or why not?
What do you think America would be like of Great Britain had won the American Revolution?
How could the situation been handled differently? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- It was a symbol of the American resistance movement leading up to the American Revolution.
On Your Own
- I dont think it was fair of the British to tax the colonists without giving them fair representation
in Parliament. Therefore, I would have joined the protestors.
Vocabulary Building
1. board
2. representation
3. intensify
4. repeal
5. defiance
6. resistance

7. b
8. c
9. a
10. b
11. d
12. c

13. come up with


14. contrary to
15. chopping up

Reading Comprehension
1. b
2. b

3. b
4. c

5. d
6. a

7. Great Britain became Europes strongest colonial power but it had a lot of debt.
8. Colonists had to pay a tax on all printed materials, including writing paper, legal documents,
newspapers and even playing cards.
9. He thought the Americans would eventually give up their fight and allow the ships to unload their tea.
Summary
1. Result / colonial / debt / Taxes / authority / representation / boycotts / tea / docking / Angry /
American Revolution
2. The Seven Years War made Great Britain Europes strongest colonial power but also left it with a lot
of debt. The British government taxed its colonies in order to pay back its war debts and to establish its
authority in America. However, the colonists did not want to pay the taxes since they had no
representation in parliament. They organized boycotts until Parliament removed all the taxes except a
tea tax. The colonists did not want to pay that either, and tried to prevent Britains tea ships from
docking in America. Despite their efforts, three ships successfully docked in Boston Harbor. Angry
colonists boarded the ships and dumped their tea overboard. This was called the Boston Tea Party and it
was a symbolic act leading up to the American Revolution.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I do not think that there are certain cases where it is okay to be violent or destructive in order to get
what you want. The American colonists, for example, succeeded in getting what they wanted, but they
hurt many others in the process, including the tea company. They should have expressed their

displeasure through other means than the destruction of other peoples property. By refusing to follow
laws they disagreed with, the colonists inevitably caused an increase in tension and made any peaceful
resolution impossible.

Unit 17 The Creation of the Euro


Objectives
65.
Students will learn about the Creation of the Euro.
66.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
67.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
68.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
currency, banknote, pose, foster, architectural, gateway, epitomize, landmark, dynamism, heritage,
initial, embody, cooperative, distinct, evoke, inflation, complicated, reflect, ascending, host, convey,
additionally, accomplish, objective, facilitate

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (The Creation of the Euro). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What is a Euro?
Why do you think many different nations made one currency? Explain your answer.
How does the Euro help European countries? Explain your answer.
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Writing it on the Board Race. Write all the words up on the board, and make sure the students
understand each one. Then erase the words, leaving only the first letter. Follow this up by getting the
students to say the words a few times, by memory. Then encourage the students to spell the words and
write them on the board as the students spell.
For a more student interaction, divide the students into teams and one person from each team comes
up to the board, in their allotted space. Have the students at the board write the key words / phrases
you state. The first student to write the key words / phrases correctly get a point and then they would
go sit back down and change writers for their team.

During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.
3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly explaining exactly different symbols and meanings to the currency of
your country. If possible, show the students a real example of money from your home country; show the
students the different markings and symbols used. Then have students look at money from their
country; have them examine all of the symbols and markings. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of
the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension

Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


The teacher chooses a sentence from the passage and reads it aloud. On the count of three, the
students then try to find the sentence. The first student to find the sentence then comes to the front
and chooses another sentence for the other students to find, and so on. You can limit the search to a
particular chapter or a particular page, depending on the book and the students reading level.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
This game can be played in pairs or as a full class. Give a starting line, such as "A funny thing happened
to me in the grocery store yesterday." Then have each student take a turn adding a sentence to the
story; tell the students that they must use key words and phrases from the unit. Not only will students
be entertained by their classmates' creative adventures, but they will have to use comprehension and
vocabulary skills to contribute to the story.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Do you think the entire world should use the same currency? Why or why not?
What symbols do you think should be on your countrys money? Explain your answer.
Compare the currency from your country to that of the Euro. How do they differ?

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- The euro is the common currency used by 16 of the 27 member states of the European Union.
On Your Own
- There are pictures of former presidents on the U.S. dollar bills.
Vocabulary Building
1. complicated
2. embody
3. cooperative
4. evoke
5. reflect
6. initials

7. inflation
8. distinct
9. b
10. d
11. c
12. d

13. d
14. c
15. d

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. a

3. d
4. b

5. c
6. b

7. The European Monetary Institute held a design competition in 1996.


8. They represent the open, cooperative spirit of the European Union.
9. Latin and Greek letters both appear on the banknotes.
Summary
1. European Union / economically / currency / design / architectural / history / Symbols / Bridges /
twelve / Languages / five / Greek / Accomplishments / travel / identity
2. The European Union was created to economically and politically strengthen Europe. It hoped to
improve trade throughout the continent with a single currency, the euro. The design for the euro was
based on seven European architectural styles that represent Europes long history and open spirit. The
currency has many symbols such as bridges that represent communication between Europe and the
world, generic landmarks, a European map, and the twelve stars of the EU. Various languages also
represented as the European Central Banks initials are written in five ways and the word euro is also
written in both Latin and Greek letters. Europes common currency made travel easier, lowered inflation
and improved the EUs economy. Whats more, it gave Europeans a distinct identity.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that using a single currency on a continent is beneficial because it makes travel easier and fosters
a common identity. When Europe adopted the euro, it became possible to travel between European
countries without having to go through the inconvenience of changing currency. Also, since the euro

was introduced, people from different European countries feel a stronger sense of belonging to a shared
community.

Unit 18 Lunar and Solar Eclipses


Objectives
69.
Students will learn about Lunar and Solar Eclipses.
70.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
71.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
72.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
eclipse, illusion, orbit, tilt, coincide, project, glow, partial, portion, obscure, conversely, witness,
duration, slip, occur, fairly, rare, permanent, filter, align, precaution, specific
line up, catch sight of, take place

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Lunar and Solar Eclipses). Ask the students to make inferences
on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary. Encourage
brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
What is an eclipse?
What is the difference between a lunar and a solar eclipse?
Have you ever seen an eclipse? What was it like?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Use vocabulary words in complete sentences. For lower level students, provide fill-in-the-blank
sentences with a word bank. For advanced students, direct students to use vocabulary words in their
own sentences to demonstrate the meaning of the word. Encourage students to use different sentence
forms including declarative, imperative, interrogative and exclamatory. For vocabulary words that are
verbs, ask students to write sentences using the past, present and future tenses.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly explaining exactly what a solar eclipse is; then explain what a total solar
eclipse is. Give the students a few examples of what would happen during a total solar eclipse. Then
have students think of the other things that would happen during a total solar eclipse. Encourage
brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.
Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Students are divided into two to four teams. Each team gets into a group. Then give the teams time to
look through their story. The students come up with comprehension questions to ask the other team.
Teams alternate asking and answering questions. Teams much designate which student from their team
will answer the next question before the question is read. Each student gets to ask ONE question and
answer ONE question. This will ensure that every student on a team gets to participate. Scoring: The
teacher may give points to questions answered correctly. The teacher may also give points to properly
phrased question.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
The objective is to guess what key word another person is thinking about by asking 20 yes or no
questions. The guesser can ask only 20 questions. The questions have to be yes/no questions. The
person answering has to say a full short answer to practice grammar. The guesser wins if they guess in
less than 20 questions. The person answering wins if the guesser cannot guess the key word in less than
20 questions.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
Why is it important to study eclipses? Explain your answer.
What would you do if there was a total solar eclipse right now?
What do you think life would be like without the Sun? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- An eclipse is when the Earth, sun, and moon line up so that either the moon or sun seems to
disappear.
On Your Own
- During a total solar eclipse, everything would get very dark because the moon would be blocking
most of the sun's light.
Vocabulary Building
1. slip
2. witness
3. occur
4. conversely
5. duration
6. fairly

7. d
8. b
9. a
10. b
11. b
12. c

13. catch sight of


14. line up
15. take place

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. a
4. a

5. a
6. c

7. Whether an eclipse is total or partial depends on how much of the shadow falls on the Earth or the
moon.
8. When viewing a solar eclipse, it's important to protect your eyes. You should use a special solar filter
if you want to look directly at the Sun.
9. An eclipse season is a period of time when conditions align for a potential lunar or solar eclipse.
Summary
1. Moon / line up / Solar / Earth / dark / Lunar / total / shadow / Rarity / orbit / often / protect
2. Eclipses occur when Earth, the Moon, and the Sun line up properly. In a lunar eclipse, Earth passes
between the Sun and Moon. Our planet's shadow darkens the Moon, which may also change color.
During a solar eclipse, the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun. Due to the small size of the Moon's
shadow, it is more common for a partial solar eclipse to occur than a total eclipse. The rarity of eclipses
is caused by the tilt of the Moon's orbit. It is necessary to protect your eyes when viewing a solar eclipse.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that people living thousands of years ago would have had many different types of responses to an
eclipse depending on their culture. Some might have considered eclipses a religious message from their
gods, possibly predicting the future, because they did not have knowledge of astronomy. On the other
hand, other societies that practiced astronomy might have realized that eclipses are natural phenomena
rather than mystical messages.

Unit 19

Why Study Shakespeare?

Objectives
73.
Students will learn about why Shakespeare is studied.
74.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
75.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
76.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
playwright, literary, sonnet, witty, metaphor, allusion, soliloquy, dramatic irony, plot, ethical, sensitive,
combine, interpret, corruption, revenge, deception, mastery, temptation, icon, loose, array, accessible,
heighten, dilemma, detest

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Why Study Shakespeare?). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Who was William Shakespeare?
Why is it important to study people like Shakespeare? Explain your answer.
What are some of the stories Shakespeare wrote?
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


Play charades with the students. Ask one student to come to the board and draw a picture associated
with a vocabulary word. Have the class guess the word. The person that correctly guesses the word must
use it in a sentence.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly explaining some of the more famous works of Shakespeare to the class.
Give the students a few examples of how these stories influence many modern stories and movies. Then
have students think of the works of Shakespeare (or related works) they know; ask them how they feel
about these stories. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for
more effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


As students read aloud, have them stop at the end of every chapter or every section of larger chapters.
Ask them to tell you what just happened in their own words in just a few sentences. Make sure that
their descriptions are right on target with what has been read. Give students several opportunities to
discuss what they are reading as they finish reading aloud. Go around the room and have students read
passages aloud to each other. Then divide the students into groups and ask them to repeat the story or
discuss key points of the story with the group.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Divide class into groups of 6 or more, and arrange each group in a straight line or row. Ask for a
volunteer listener from each group. Take them outside of the classroom and give them a message (one
sentence or more, depending on student level). Open the door, and let the students run to the first
member of their group to whisper the message. Each member passes the message, by whispering, to
their neighbor. When the message reaches the end, the last person should run to the board and write
the message that they heard. The winner could be determined in various ways: first team to pass a
legible, complete message (even if it's wrong), first team to finish, first team with a message closest to
the original.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
How has Shakespeare influenced society? Explain your answer.
Why are the stories by Shakespeare so popular? Explain your answer.
What other writers do you like? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Teachers think students should study Shakespeare because he was an important playwright and
poet who greatly influenced English literature and Western culture.
On Your Own
- I havent read any of Shakespeares work, but I have heard of Rome and Juliet.
Vocabulary Building
1. temptation
2. combine
3. revenge
4. mastery
5. interpret
6. deception

7. corruption
8. sensitive
9. b
10. c
11. c
12. b

13. a
14. c
15. d

Reading Comprehension
1. d
2. b

3. c
4. b

5. d
6. a

7. He wrote his plays and poems in Old English that is very difficult to understand.
8. He made soliloquies and dramatic irony popular.
9. They are timeless and accessible to many different people.
Summary
1. Difficult / Outdated / literary / language / literature / themes / behavior / Western / cultural / films
2. Some students dont like to study Shakespeare in school. His works are often difficult to understand
because they were written in an outdated language. However, some educators say that Shakespeares
rich use of literary devices makes students sensitive to language. They also think it gives students a
better appreciation for literature and the arts. Shakespeares works also have universal themes that can
be enjoyed by everyone. They give students an insight into human behavior. Finally, Shakespeare has
influenced modern Western society. He is a widely quoted cultural icon and is frequently present in films,
music and art.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that Shakespeare should be taught in school today because the themes of his works are still
pertinent to modern day life. For example, corruption is a theme that students should become familiar
with, since it is an issue that governments continually struggle with. Also, the way Shakespeare
examines friendship can help students gain perspective and understanding on their own relationships.
Even though he wrote about a different time, Shakespeare had important insights that are still relevant.

Unit 20 Euclid, the Father of Geometry


Objectives
77.
Students will learn about why Euclid and geometry.
78.
Students will understand the meaning of new words and be able to use the words in sentences.
79.
Students will practice reading comprehension skills identifying main idea and supporting
details, making inferences, and classifying details.
80.
Students will learn skills in summarizing passages and giving opinions.
Words & Phrases
treatise, theorem, plane geometry, geometric algebra, parallel, axiom, trigonometry, prime number,
rational number, irrational number, denominator, contribution, edition, translation, prove, logical,
infinitude, field, era, cornerstone, accompany, involve, formula, notion, influential

LESSON GUIDE
Before Reading
1) As a class discuss the three Getting Started Questions. Facilitate the questions as a brain storming
activity, where no answer is incorrect. Encourage students to answer in complete sentences.
2) Ask the class about the title of the unit (Euclid, the Father of Geometry). Ask the students to make
inferences on what they think the unit is about. Guide the student discussion when necessary.
Encourage brainstorming and personal thought. Some of the following guide questions may be asked:
Who was Euclid?
What is geometry? Why is it important?
What are some examples of geometry in everyday life? Explain your answer.
3) Introduce the units key words and phrases. Offer examples of the key words and phrases in other
context if possible.

Extra Activity: (optional)


The teacher selects a word from the dictionary that students are sure not to know. On slips of paper,
students write what they think is the definition of the word. The teacher writes the real definition on a
slip, then mixes up all the slips. After reading and talking about all the definitions, students guess which
ones they think are correct. Students get a point for guessing the correct definition, and also get a point
if someone else picked the definition they wrote.
During Reading
1) Select students to read each paragraph aloud one at a time.
2) As the passage is being read, have the students underline the sentences with the units key words and
phrases.

3) When a key word or phrase is read, direct the students to the definitions at the bottom of the page.
For more advanced students ask for a definition of the key words or phrases in their own words with
examples.
4) Call on one student to read a paragraph aloud to the rest of the class. Then have the students
immediately write, in their own words, what they think the paragraph is mostly talking about. They
should write this in a complete sentence. Don't use the term "main idea" yet. Ask students to share
with you their sentences. Make a list on the board of their responses, no matter how varied. This
gives the children the opportunity to see how other students may perceive something different from
the same passage. Then explain the term "main idea" to your students: "The main idea is what the
paragraph is mostly telling you about. All the sentences are joining together to give you a message.
The main idea of the paragraph is the message the author is telling you." If one or more of your
students already figured out the main idea with their sentences, then ask the class to find the main
idea on the list you just made on the board. If no one reported the correct main idea, then together
as a class write a main idea sentence. Then discuss why some of the other sentences on the list are
not main ideas. Possible reasons could be that the sentence only discusses part of the paragraph, or
the sentence is more of a title than a main idea. After reading the entire passage, pair up students to
work together on the rest of it, writing a main idea for each paragraph.

After Reading
1) The Big Question
Have a class discussion based on The Big Question. Do not simply focus on the answer, but try to
encourage more in depth answers and examples from the students.
2) On Your Own
Open up this question by briefly explaining some of various different topics covered in math (ex.
Geometry, algebra, trigonometry, etc.). Give the students a few examples of the different topics in math
you studied, and try to offer examples of their everyday usage. Then have students discuss the math
topics they are currently learning in school. Try to get them to relate the math topics they are learning
to everyday life. Encourage brainstorming. Write some of the items mentioned on the board for more
effect.

3) Vocabulary Building
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
When going over the answers, ask additional questions to the students pertaining to the vocabulary (ex.
What is another word that has the same meaning?).

4) Reading Comprehension
Individually: If you feel that the students have a good understanding of the passage or are at the level to
answer the questions by themselves, have them complete the page and check the answers as a class.
Ask additional questions related to the unit, in order to make sure students have a full understanding of
the text.

Altogether: Questions can also be used to promote discussion among students rather than just
answering questions individually.

5) Summarizing
Have the students fill in the blanks with the given words. Check the answers by having the students take
turns in reading their completed summaries.

Extra Activity (optional)


Active Brainstorming. The teacher must select three or four vocabulary subcategories within the
passages theme. Students are then paired up and asked to generate ideas together for each
subcategory, preferably under a time limit; much as in any brainstorming exercise. Then pairs should be
grouped into 2, 3, or 4 larger teams (depending on class size, logistics, etc.) to share/compare ideas and
lengthen their lists if possible. Then divide the board into sections, one for each subcategory, and one
student from each group is called up and handed a piece of chalk or a marker of a color assigned to each
team. There must be one color per team, eg. the blue team, the yellow team, and so forth. The
designated writers for each team are not allowed to bring any paper up with them. Instead, their team
members must shout out ideas which can be put under each/any subcategory, including the correct
spelling of same. The object is to be the team with the most words on the board at the end. It is best to
stop every minute or two and change designated writers so that all can get a chance. Finally, the teacher
shouts "Stop!", and the scores for each team are tabulated.

6) Write and Speak


Writing
Have the students write their answers to the questions in the book. Then ask a couple of students to
present their answers to the class.

Speaking
Q&A. Write the question on the board and ask the students to ask you. This provides an excellent
opportunity for you to model some example answers, and to check on their pronunciation. Then have a
few students ask the question (substituting: "Which do you prefer, dogs or cats/tea or coffee...). Then,
when the students understand some of the possible ways of answering the question, move to open
pairs (student A asks student C etc). Two or three times with open pairs should be enough. Next put the
students in (closed) pairs, and walk around the room listening as they ask and answer. Then get some
feedback.
Questions for Extra Writing or Speaking Practice:
How does math help us in life? Explain your answer.
How do you think Euclid got so interested in math; specifically geometry? Explain your answer.
What would the world be like without any mathematical topics? Explain your answer.

ANSWER KEY
Building Background Knowledge: Sample Answers
The Big Question
- Euclid is best known for his writings about geometry.
On Your Own
- Right now, I'm studying algebra. Its a little bit challenging but very fun because it seems to be
connected to everything.
Vocabulary Building
1. denominator
2. prove
3. contribution
4. infinitude
5. field
6. logical

7. edition
8. translation
9. c
10.b
11. a
12. c

13. b
14. a
15. d

Reading Comprehension
1. c
2. d

3. c
4. a

5. a
6. c

7. It has been translated into many different languages, and more than 1,000 editions have been
published. It also influenced famous people like Isaac Newton.
8. Alexandria was a major Greek cultural center with universities.
9. It says that there is an endless amount of numbers that can be divided by 1 and themselves.
Summary
1. life / Greece / mathematics / Elements / Organized / proofs / Structure / Pythagorean Theorem /
Infinitude / Influence / languages / mathematicians
2. Euclid was a mathematician who was born in Greece but lived in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. He
taught math at a school there. Euclid is most famous for having organized the well known works of other
mathematicians in his text Elements. The text presented problems accompanied by proofs. Books 1-4
and 6 of Elements cover plane geometry and prove the Pythagorean Theorem. The remaining books
discuss number theory and Euclids Proof of the Infinitude of Primes. It was very influential, and it was
translated into many languages over time. Later mathematicians studied Euclid's book, and it was taught
in schools up until the 19th century.

Write and Speak: Sample answer


I think that Elements is still a relevant academic work because Euclid's ideas are still alive today and
people have been reading and using his ideas for centuries. Although we do not study Euclid's book
directly anymore, we still study his concepts of geometry in school. Furthermore, our textbooks seem to

be structured in a similar way as Elements, with introductions to topics, problems for students to work
through, and explanations of the answers.