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My Notes

SECTION 1

Introduction to Materials in Construction


I.

RELATED DEFINITION
Aggregate
A granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and iron-blast furnace slag, and
when used with a cementing medium forms a hydraulic cement concrete or mortar.
Balanced Design
A design so proportioned that the maximum stresses in concrete (with strain of 0.003) and
steel (with strain of fy/Es) are reached simultaneously once the ultimate load is reached,
causing them to fail simultaneously.
Cementitious materials
Materials with cementing value when used in concrete either by themselves, such as
Portland cement, blended hydraulic cement, or such materials in combination with fly ash,
raw or other calcined natural pozzolans, silica fume, or ground granulated blast-furnace slag.
Concrete
Mixture of water, cement, sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates.
Dead Load
Loads of constant magnitude that remains in one position.
Design
The determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular structure so
that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely withstand the influences
that will act on it throughout its useful life.
Design Load Combinations
Combination of factored loads and forces.
Design Strength
The nominal strength multiplied by a strength-reduction factor, .
Effective Depth of Section, d
The distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.
Extreme Tension Steel
The reinforcement (prestressed or nonprestressed) that is the farthest from the extreme
compression fiber.
Live Load
Loads that may change in magnitude and position.
Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below
proportional limit of material.
Nominal Strength
The strength of a member or cross section calculated in accordance with provisions and
assumptions of the strength design method before application of any strength-reduction
factors.
Over Reinforced Design
A design in which the steel reinforcement is more than what is required for balanced design.
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SECTION 1

Introduction to Materials in Construction


Plain concrete
Structural concrete with no reinforcement or with less reinforcement than the minimum
amount specified for reinforced concrete.
Reinforced concrete
Concrete in which reinforcing bars or other types of reinforcement have been integrated to
improve one or more properties of concrete.
Required Strength
The strength of a member or cross section required to resist factored loads or related internal
moments and forces.
Stress
The intensity of force per unit area.
Specified Compressive Strength of Concrete, fc
The compressive strength of concrete used in design of reinforced concrete members in
MPa.
Under Reinforced Design
A design in which the steel reinforcement is lesser than what is required for balanced design.
Water
Used in mixing concrete that should be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils, acids,
alkalis, salts, organic materials, or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or
reinforcement.

II. CONCRETE PROPORTION (NSCP Section 405.3)


Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established by:
1. Workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into form and around
reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed without segregation or
excessive bleeding.
2. Resistance to special exposures.
3. Conformance with strength test requirement.

III. BASIC COMPONENTS OF CONCRETE


The basic components of concrete are cement, water and aggregates (sand and gravel). Cement
and water form a paste that fills the space between the aggregates and binds them together.
Chapter 3 of the ACI Code and Section 403 of Nationals Structural Code of the Philippines (2010)
contains the minimum requirements for these components and other materials that are commonly
used in concrete.

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My Notes

SECTION 1

Introduction to Materials in Construction


A. Cementitious Materials
Cement shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Specifications for Portland Cement (ASTM C150-05)


Specifications for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595-07)
Specifications for Expansive Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C845-04)
Specifications for Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C1157-03)
Fly ash and natural pozzolans (ASTM C618-05)
Groundgranulated blast-furnace slag (ASTM C989-06)
Silica fume (ASTM C1240-05)

The eight different types of Portland cement referenced in ASTM C150 and their typical
applications are summarized below.
Cement Type

Application

Type I normal

General purpose cement commonly used in all types of structures

Type IA normal, air-entraining

Used in the same structures as Type I where air entrainment is desired

Type II moderate sulfate


resistance

General purpose cement used in structures where protection against


moderate sulfate attack is important or where moderate heat of hydration is
desired.

Type IIA moderate sulfate


resistance, air-entraining

Used in the same structures as Type II where air entrainment is desired

Type III high early strength

Used in structures where high early strength of the concrete is desired or


where structures must be put into service quickly

Type IIIA high early strength,


air-entraining

Used in the same structures as Type III where air entrainment is desired

Type IV low heat of hydration

Used in structures where a low heat of hydration is required, such as massive


concrete structures like dams

Type V high sulfate resistance

Used in structures where high sulfate resistance is required, such as elements


in direct contact with soils or ground waters that have high sulfate content

B. Aggregates
Concrete aggregates shall conform to one of the following specifications:

Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates (ASTM C33-03) Normal-weight


Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete (ASTM C33005)

The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than:
1. One fifth (1/5) the narrowest dimension between sides of forms; or
2. One third (1/3) the depth of slab; or
3. Three fourths (3/4) the minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or
wires, bundles of bars, or prestressing tendons or ducts.

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


C. Water
In general, water that is drinkable can usually be used for making concrete. Acceptance
criteria for water used as mixing water in concrete can be found in ASTM C94/C94M-06,
Standard Specification for Ready-mixed Concrete and ASTM C1602/C1602M-06, Standard
Specification for Mixing Water Used in Production of Hydraulic Cement Concrete.
NSCP C101-10 states that water used in mixing concrete shall be clean and free from
injurious amount of oils, acids, alkalis, salts, organic materials or other substances
deleterious to concrete or reinforcement.
D. Admixtures
Admixtures are ingredients other than cement, aggregates, and water that are added to
concrete mix immediately before or during mixing. Reducing the cost of concrete
construction, economically achieving desired properties in concrete, and maintaining the
quality of concrete during mixing, transporting, placing, and curing are a few reasons why
admixtures are used in concrete.
The following are brief descriptions of some common admixtures:

Air-entraining admixtures. These admixtures purposely introduce microscopic air bubbles


in concrete to improve its durability when exposed to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. They
also increase resistance to scaling due to exposure to deicing chemicals and improve the
workability of fresh concrete.

Superplasticizers. These high-range water reducers that can greatly reduce water
demand and cement content without sacrificing workability. Using a water reducer can
also lead to accelerated strength development of the concrete; this permits formworks to
be reduced earlier and, thus, reduced overall construction time.

Corrosion inhibitors. These are usually in parking structures, marine structures, and other
structures exposed to chlorides, which can cause corrosion of steel reinforcement in
concrete.

IV. TESTS
A. Concrete Testing
1. Test on wet concrete
Slump Test standard method in determining the relative consistency of concrete.
Procedure in conducting Slump Test:
a) A standard slump cone is filled in three layers, rodding each layer 25 times.
b) The concrete is smoothed off at the top of the cone.
c) The cone is then lifted vertically, permitting the concrete to slump downward.
d) Measure the distance between the original and final surface of the concrete (slump).

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


Recommended Slump for Various Types of Construction
Slump, in (mm)
Type of Construction

Max

Min

Reinforced foundation, walls and footings

5 (127)

2 (51)

Plain footing and caissons

4 (102)

1 (25)

Slabs, beams and reinforced walls

6 (152)

3 (76)

Building columns

6 (152)

3 (76)

Pavements

3 (76)

2 (51)

Heavy mass construction

3 (76)

1 (25)

Compacting Factor Test the degree of compaction achieved by a standard amount of


work is measured. The apparatus is consists of two conical hoppers placed over one
another over a cylinder. The upper hopper is filled with fresh concrete which is then
dropped into the second hopper and into the cylinder which is struck off flush. The
compacting factor is the ratio of the weight of concrete to the weight of an equal volume
of fully compacted concrete. The compacting factor for concrete of medium workability is
about 0.9
2. Test on hardened concrete
Compressive Strength the most important property of concrete. The characteristic
strength is measured by the 28 day cylinder strength.
Tensile Strength is about a tenth of compressive strength. It is determined by loading
a concrete cylinder across a diameter.
Flexure Test a plain concrete specimen is tested to failure in bending. The theoretical
maximum tensile stress at the bottom face at failure is calculated. This is called the
modulus of rupture. It is about 1.5 times the tensile stress determined by tensile strength.
Test Cores cylindrical cores are cut from the finished structure with a rotary cutting
tool. The core is soaked, capped and tested in compression to give a measure of the
concrete strength in the actual structure. The ratio of core height to diameter and location
where the core is taken affect the strength. The strength is lowest at the top surface in
increases with depth through the element. A ratio of core height-to-diameter of 2 gives a
standard cylinder test.

3. Non-destructive test
Rebound Hardness Test the Schimdt hammer test is used in the rebound hardness
test in which a metal hammer held against the concrete is struck by another spring-driven
metal mass and rebounds. The amount of rebar is recorded on a scale and this gives an
indication of the concrete strength. The larger the rebound number, the higher the
concrete strength.
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test in the ultrasonic pulse velocity of ultrasonic pulses that
pass through a concrete section from a transmitter to a receiver is measured. The pulse

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My Notes

SECTION 1

Introduction to Materials in Construction


velocity is correlated against strength. The higher the velocity is, the stronger is the
concrete.
Other Non-destructive Test equipment has been developed to measure:
Crack widths and depths.
Water permeability and the surface dampness of the concrete
Depth of cover and the location of reinforcing bars.
The electrochemical potential of reinforcing bars and hence the presence of
corrosion.
B. Failures in Concrete Structure
Failures in concrete structures can be due to any of the following factors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Incorrect selection of materials.


Errors in design calculations and detailing
Poor construction methods and inadequate quality control and supervision
Chemical attack
External physical and/or mechanical factors including alterations made to the structure.

V. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE


A. Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
Concrete has no definite modulus of elasticity
For concrete whose weight is between 1500 and 2500 kg/m 3
Ec = wc1.50.043(fc)0.5
For normal weight concrete
Ec = 4700(fc)0.5
Values of Modulus of Elasticity for Normal Weight of Concrete:
fc (MPa)

Ec (MPa)

20.7

21 760

24.1

23 503

27.6

25 130

31.0

26 650

34.5

28 030

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


B. Compressive Strength
S28 = S7 + 2.5(S7)0.5
Where:
S28

28 day compressive, MPa

S7

7 day compressive strength, MPa

C. Required Average Strength (Sect 405.4.2)


Required average compressive strength fcr used as basis for selection of concrete
proportions shall be the larger of equations
fc 35 MPa
fcr = fc + 1.34Ss
fcr = fc + 2.33Ss 3.5
fc > 35 MPa
fcr = fc + 1.34Ss
fcr = 0.90fc + 2.33Ss
Modification factor for standard deviation when less than 30 tests are available
Number of Test

Modification Factor for Standard Deviation

Less than 15

Use Table 405-2

15

1.16

20

1.08

25

1.03

30

1.0

Table 405-2 Required Average Compressive Strength When Data are Not Available to Establish a
Standard Deviation
Specified Compressive Strength,
fc (MPa)

Required Average Compressive Strength,


fcr (MPa)

Less than 21 MPa

fc + 7.0

21 fc 35

fc + 8.3

Over 35

1.1fc + 5.0

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


VI. EVALUATION AND ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE (SECT 405.7) FOR LABORATORY-CURED SPECIMEN
Sect 405.7.3.3 Strength level of an individual class of concrete shall be considered satisfactory if
both the following requirements are met:
1. Every arithmetic average of any three consecutive strength test equals or exceeds fc
2. No individual strength test (average of two cylinders) falls below fc by more than 3.5 MPa,
when fc is 35 MPa or less; or by more than 0.10fc when fc is more than 35 MPa.
Strength Test the average strength of two cylinders made from the same sample of
concrete and tested at 28 days or at test age designated for determination of fc.

Example 1.1 Acceptance of Concrete


The following table lists strength test data for 5 truck loads (batches) of concrete delivered to the job
site. For each batch, two cylinders were cast and tested at 28 days. The specified strength of the
concrete is 27.6 MPa. Determine the acceptability of the concrete based on the strength criteria of
Sect 405.7 of NSCP C101-10.

Test No.

Cylinder 1
(MPa)

Cylinder 2
(MPa)

Average
(MPa)

Average of 3 Consecutive
Tests
(MPa)

28.4

29.4

28.9

26.5

28.2

27.4

30.5

30.7

30.6

29.0

25.3

26.4

25.8

27.9

31.9

31.5

31.7

29.4

Calculation and Discussion


The average of the two cylinder breaks for each batch represents a single strength test result. Even
though the lowest of the five strength test results (25.3 MPa) is below the specified strength of 27.6
MPa, the concrete is considered acceptable because I is not below the specified value by more than
3.5 MPa for concrete with an fc not more than 35 MPa; i.e., not below 24.1 MPa.
The second acceptance criterion, based on the average of three (3) consecutive tests, is also
satisfied by the three consecutive strength test averages shown. The procedure to evaluate
acceptance based on 3 strength test results in a row is shown in the right column.
Third row

= (28.9 + 27.4 + 30.6)/3 = 29.0 MPa

Fourth row

= (27.4 + 30.6 + 25.8)/3 = 27.9 MPa

Fifth row

= (30.6 + 25.8 + 31.7)/3 = 29.4 MPa

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


Thus, based on code acceptance criteria for concrete strength, the five strength tests results are
acceptable, both on the basis of the individual test results and the average of three consecutive test
results.

Problem 1.1 Acceptance of Concrete

The following data are mixtures from three different supplier of concrete. The
specified concrete mixture is 35 MPa. Evaluate the data and recommend
which supplier has the best concrete mix.
Sampl
e

Supplier 1
Speci
Speci
men 1
men 2

Supplier 2
Speci
Speci
men 1
men 2

Supplier 3
Speci
Speci
men 1
men 2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

32.4
36
35.6
34.8
36
38
28.5
30.5
32.6

35
34
34.6
29.6
35
36
33.8
36
36.4

37.6
32.5
38.6
30.2
36
35
30.5
37.5
38.6

32.4
34
41.8
34.8
30.5
41.2
34
29.6
38.4

35.5
35
38
32.9
37.5
36
30.6
32.6
36.5

33.5
30.6
34.6
41
35
32
36
37
36.4

10

36

35.4

35

34.6

37.8

34.6

VII. Steel Reinforcement


Reinforcement shall be deformed reinforcement, except that plain reinforcement shall be
permitted for spirals or prestressing steels.
Test on rebars is guided by Philippine National Standard (PNS) PNS 49:1991 Steel Bars for
Concrete Reinforcement Specification by the Bureau of Product Standard covering the
following grades of steel rebars
Grade 230
275
415

For both weldable and non-weldable


Hot rolled steel rebars

Sect 421.3.5 Reinforcement in Special Moment Frames and Special Structural Walls
Deformed reinforcement resisting earthquake induced flexural and axial forces in frame in
frame members, structural walls, and coupling beams, shall comply with ASTM A706M,
ASTM A615M Grades 280 and 420 reinforcement shall be permitted in these members if:
1. The actual yield strength based on mill tests does not exceeds the specified yield
strength by more than 125 MPa; and

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


2. The ratio of the actual ultimate tensile strength to the actual tensile yield strength is not
less than 1.25.
Nominal Dimensions and Unit Mass (PNS 49:2001)
Nominal Diameter
(mm)
10 (9.5)
12 (12.7)
16 (15.9)
20 (19.1)
25 (25.4)
28 (28.7)
32 (32.3)
36 (35.8)
40
50

Nominal Perimeter
(mm)
31.7
37.7
50.3
62.8
78.6
88.6
100.5
113.1
125.7
157.1

Nominal CrossSectional Area


(mm2)
78.54 (79)
113.10 (113)
201.06 (201)
314.16 (314)
490.88 (491)
615.75 (616)
804.25 (804)
1017.88 (1019)
1256.64
1963.50

Concrete Protection for Reinforcement (Concrete Cover)


Cast in Place Concrete
1. Concrete cast against and permanently exposed to earth
2. Concrete exposed to earth or weather
20 36 mm
16 and smaller
3. Concrete not exposed to weather or in contact with ground
a. Slab, walls, joist
42 and 58 mm bars
36 mm bar and smaller
b. Beams and Columns
Primary reinforcement, ties, stirrups, spirals
c. Shells, folded plate members
20 mm bar and larger
16 mm bar and smaller

VIII.

Unit Mass
(kg/m)
0.617 (0.618)
0.888 (0.890)
1.578 (1.580)
2.466 (2.465)
3.853 (3.851)
4.834 (4.831)
6.313 (6.310)
7.990 (7.986)
9.865
15.413

Minimum Cover (mm)


75
50
40
40
20
40
20
12

Loads
Forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants and
their possession, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional
changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small
magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.
Dead Loads consists of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into
the building or other structure.
Live Loads are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other
structure and do not include dead loads, construction load, or environmental load such as
wind load, earthquake and fluid load.
A. REQUIRED STRENGTH (LOAD COMBINATIONS)
U = 1.4(D + F)
U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or R)

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


U = 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R) + (1.0L + 0.80W)
U = 1.2D + 1.6W + 1.0L + 0.5(Lr or R)
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0L
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.0L
U = 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H
Where:
D
F
T
L
H
Lr
W
E

Dead loads
load due to weight and pressures of fluids
cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement
and shrinkage compensating concrete
live load
weight and pressure of soil
roof live loads
wind load
earthquake load
= Eh + Ev

Strength Reduction Factors (Sect 409.4.2)


Strength Condition
Tension-controlled section
Compression-controlled section
Members with spiral reinforcement
Other reinforced members
Shear and torsion
Bearing on concrete
Post-tensioned anchorage zones
Strut-and-tie models

Strength Reduction Factor


0.90
0.70
0.65
0.75
0.65
0.85
0.75

B. FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEHAVIOUR:


Design the determination of general shape and all specific dimensions of a particular
structure so that it will perform the function for which it is created and will safely
withstand the influences that will act on it throughout its useful life.
1. The internal forces, such as bending moments, shear forces, and normal and shear
stresses, at any section of a member are in equilibrium with the effects of the external
loads at that section.
2. The strain in an embedded reinforcing bar is the same as that of surrounding concrete.
3. Cross sections that were plane prior to loading continue to be plane in the member under
load.
4. Concrete is assumed not capable of resisting any tension stress.
5. The theory is based on the actual-stress-strain relationship and strength properties of the
two constituent materials

IX. Design Assumptions


Equilibrium of Forces and Compatibility of strains
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My Notes

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


Computation of strength of a member or cross-section by the Strength Design Method requires
that two basic conditions be satisfied: (1) Static equilibrium and (2) Compatibility of strain.
The first condition requires that the compressive and tensile forces acting on the cross-section at
ultimate strength be in equilibrium, and the second condition requires that compatibility between
the strains in the concrete and the reinforcement at ultimate condition must also be satisfied
within the design assumptions permitted by the code.
Design Assumption #1
Strain in reinforcement and concrete shall be assumed directly proportional to the
distance from the neutral axis.
In other words, plane sections normal to the axis of bending are assumed to remain plane after
bending. The assumed strain conditions at ultimate strength of a rectangular and circular are
illustrated below. Both the strain in the reinforcement and in the concrete are directly proportional
to the distance from the neutral axis. This assumption is valid over the full range of loading zero
to ultimate. As shown in the figure, this assumption is of primary importance in design for
determining the strain (and the corresponding stress) in the reinforcement.

Design Assumption #2

Assumed Strain Variation

Maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal
to u = 0.003.

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


The maximum concrete compressive strain at crushing of concrete has been measured in many
tests of both plain and reinforced concrete members. The test results from a series of reinforced
concrete beams and columns specimen indicate that the maximum concrete compressive strain
varies from 0.003 to as high as 0.008. However, the maximum strain for practical cases is 0.003
to 0.004. Though the maximum strain decrease with increasing compressive strength, the 0.003
value allowed for design is reasonably conservative. The code of some countries specifies a
value of 0.0035 for design, which makes little difference in the computed length strength of a
member.

Design Assumption #3
Stress in reinforcement fs shall be taken as Es times strain s. for strain greater than
fy/Es, stress in reinforcement shall be considered independent of strain and equal to fy.
For deformed reinforcement, it is reasonably accurate to assume that below the yield stress, the
stress in the reinforcement is proportional to strain (Hookes Law). For practical design, the
increase in the strength due to the effect of strain hardening of the reinforcement is neglected for
strength computation. See figure below.

Stress Strain Relationship for Reinforcement


The force developed in the tensile or compressive reinforcement is a function of the strain in the
reinforcement s, such that:
when s y (yield strain):
fs = Es s
As fs = As Es s
when s y:
fs = Es y = fy
As fs = As fy

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


where s is the value from the strain diagram at the location of reinforcement. For design, the
modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement, Es, is taken as 200,000 MPa (29, 000, 000 psi).

Design Assumption #4
Tensile strength of concrete shall be neglected in flexural calculations of reinforced
concrete.

The tensile strength of concrete in flexure, known as the modulus of rupture, is a more variable
property than the compressive strength, and is about 8% to 12% of the compressive strength.
The generally acceptable value is 7.5 f ' c for normal weight concrete. This tensile strength
in flexure is neglected in strength design. For practical percentages of reinforcement, the resulting
computed strengths are in good agreement with test results. For very small percentages of
reinforcement, neglecting the tensile strength of concrete is conservative. It should be realized,
however, that the strength of concrete in tension is important in cracking and deflection
(serviceability) considerations.
Design Assumption #5
Relationship between compressive stress distribution and concrete strain shall be
assumed to be rectangular, trapezoidal, parabolic, or any shape that results in
prediction of strength in substantial agreement with results of comprehensive test.

This assumption recognizes the inelastic stress distribution in concrete at high stresses. As
maximum stress is approached, the stress-strain relationship of concrete is not a straight line
(stress is not proportional to strain). The general stress-strain behaviour of concrete is shown
below.

Typical Stress-Strain Curves for Concrete


The shape of the curves is primarily a function of concrete strength and consists of the rising
curve from zero stress to a maximum at compressive strain between 0.0015 and 0.002., followed
by descending curve to an ultimate strain (corresponding to crushing of concrete) varying from

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Introduction to Materials in Construction


0.003 to as high as 0.008. As discussed in Design Assumption #2, the code sets the maximum
usable strain at 0.003 for design.

Development of Ultimate Strength Theories of Flexure


Design Assumption #6
Requirements of Design Assumption #5 may be considered satisfied by an equivalent
rectangular concrete stress distribution defined as follows: A concrete stress of 0.85fc
shall be assumed uniformly distributed over an equivalent compression zone bounded
by edges of the cross-section and a straight line located parallel to the neutral axis at a
distance a=1c from the fiber of maximum compressive strain. Distance c from the fiber
of maximum compressive strain to the neutral axis shall be measured in a direction
perpendicular to that axis. Fraction 1 shall be taken as 0.85 for strengths fc up to 4000
psi (28 MPa) and shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi (7
MPa) of strength in excess of 4000 psi, but 1 shall not be less than 0.85.

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Introduction to Materials in Construction

The code allows the use of rectangular compressive stress block to replace the more exact stress
distribution. The equivalent rectangular stress block assumes a uniform stress of 0.85fc over a
depth a=1c. The constant 1 is equal to concrete with fc 4000 psi (28 MPa) and reduces by
0.05 for each additional 1000 psi (7 MPa) of fc in excess of 4000 psi. For high strength
concretes, above 8000 psi, a lower limit of 0.65 is placed on the 1 factor. Variation in 1 vs.
concrete strength fc is shown below.

Strength Factor 1

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