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Process SHE Guide 13

HAZARD STUDY METHODOLOGY

This Guide is issued by ICI Technology on behalf of the


Process Safety, Health and Environment Interest Group for internal circulation within ICI only.

This document will only be kept up to date when issued to the holder of a registered binder
PSHEG13COV

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

PROCESS SHE GUIDE NO. 13


HAZARD STUDY METHODOLOGY
Prepared by:
ICI Technology, Process Safety Section.

Revisions:
It is anticipated that revisions to this loose leaf document will be issued from time to time.
Therefore, users should ensure that they are consulting an up-to-date version and to do this
they should check with ICI Technology Standards and Technical Information Services .

Process SHE Guides and Reports:


This Guide is one of a series of Process Safety Guides/Process SHE Guides and Reports
issued on behalf of the ICI Process SHE Interest Group. It has been reviewed by the ICI
Group Hazard Study College and issued by ICI Technology Standards and Technical
Information Services . Previous Guides and Reports were issued by ICI Head Office.
A full listing of Process Safety Guides/Process SHE Guides is available on the Standards
Database or by contacting Standards and Technical Information Services .

For further information contact:


ICI Technology
M L Preston, The Heath, Runcorn
Tel Ext 5617
J T Illidge, The Heath, Runcorn
Tel Ext 5605
J F G Hopper, Wilton
Tel Ext 6534
C D Swann, Wilton
Tel Ext 6364

ICI Technology,
Standards and Technical Information Services,
PO Box 8,
The Heath,
RUNCORN,
Cheshire WA7 4QD
England. UK
Telephone:
Fax:
Lotus Notes:

(01928) 515646
(01928) 515690
Claire E Foster/GB/ENGG/ICI@ICI

Copyright Imperial Chemicals Industries PLC 1997


PSHEG13COV

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)

REVISION:

August 1997
Changes in this revision are:
w

Updating references to ICI's SHE objectives with reference to SHE Challenge 2000.

Occupational health statement review abbreviated on the basis that the


Occupational Health Statement requirements and specification will be fully
specified in a Guide for Managers to be issued in 1997.

Hazard Study of Programmable Electronic Systems revised following


developments and experience in applying the hazard study methodology to PES.

The guide has been modified to enable world wide application. In general, this
means a greater emphasis on best practice and associated guidance rather than
prescription.

The guide structure has been brought more in line with other Guides.

The opportunity has been taken to reduce the size of the Guide by reducing duplication and
removing reference documents. The proformas, which are not needed to explain the
methodology, have been deleted. Standard forms are available separately in paper or
electronic form from ICI Technology Standards and Technical Information Services.

PSHEG13COV

INDEX

ISSUE
DATE
PART 0 :

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

August 1997

PART 1 :

HAZARD STUDY 1

August 1997

PART 2 :

HAZARD STUDY 2

August 1997

PART 3 :

HAZARD STUDY 3

August 1997

PART 4 :

HAZARD STUDY 4

August 1997

PART 5 :

HAZARD STUDY 5

August 1997

PART 6 :

HAZARD STUDY 6

August 1997

DOCUMENTS REFERRED TO IN THIS PROCESS SHE GUIDE

August 1997

STANDARD FORMS

PSHEG13COV

Process SHE Guide 13

HAZARD STUDY METHODOLOGY


PART 0 - GENERAL INTRODUCTION

This Guide is issued by ICI Technology on behalf of the


Process Safety, Health and Environment Interest Group for internal circulation within ICI only.

This document will only be kept up to date when issued to the holder of a registered binder
S&TIS/8441

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)
CONTENTS

PAGE

0.1

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

0.2

SCOPE ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

0.3

FIELD OF APPLICATION ...................................................................................................................................................... 3

0.4

DEFINITIONS AND GLOSSARY........................................................................................................................................ 3

0.5

TEAM MEMBERS ROLES .................................................................................................................................................... 8

0.5.1
0.5.2
0.5.3
0.5.4
0.5.5

The Hazard Study Leader ..................................................................................................................................................... 9


Project Representative ........................................................................................................................................................... 9
The Site Representative...................................................................................................................................................... 10
The Functional (Design) Engineer .................................................................................................................................. 10
Additional Team Members ................................................................................................................................................. 10

0.6

PREPARATION FOR HAZARD STUDY MEETINGS ............................................................................................. 11

0.7

TIMING....................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

0.7.0
0.7.1
0.7.2
0.7.3
0.7.4
0.7.5
0.7.6

General ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Hazard Study 1 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Hazard Study 2 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Hazard Study 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Hazard Study 4 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Hazard Study 5 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Hazard Study 6.........................................................................................................................................12

0.8

DOCUMENTATION .............................................................................................................................................................. 12

FIGURE
0.1
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN STAGE HAZARD STUDIES .......................................................... 13

Copyright Imperial Chemicals Industries PLC 1997

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0.1

INTRODUCTION
The "White Book" outlines the ICI Groups system for managing SHE matters, defines key components
of the system and sets out the ICI Groups Safety and Health Policy, Environmental Policy and SHE
Standards which are applicable across all of the ICI Groups activities. The White Book contains
guidelines which facilitate interpretation and implementation of the ICI Groups SHE Policies and
Standards by outlining and strongly recommending good management practice to be incorporated into
locally written procedures and arrangements.
The implementation of ICI Groups SHE Policies and Standards is via the written procedures, which are
prepared locally and define the local systems and arrangements for managing SHE within International
Businesses, Territories and Corporate Functions.
Group Engineering Procedures provide recommendations on the necessary content of Local
Engineering Procedures. They are based on ICIs worldwide experience in engineering design,
operation and maintenance and they state ways of meeting the engineering requirements of the ICI
Group SHE Policies, Standards and Guidelines.
GEP 6 defines the purpose and responsibilities for carrying out Hazard Studies on all projects except
those covered by site related control of modifications.
As a step towards achieving the "White Book" Policy, SHE Challenge 2000 has set goals to:
(a)

Lead the world in safety by ensuring that our activities do not harm anyone; our employees,
those who work for us, neighbours, customers and the general public.

(b)

Be committed to the protection and promotion of good health for every employee at work and
at home.

(c)

Gain total compliance with local regulations and consents, wherever we operate.

(d)

Continue to meet our high world wide standard for the construction of new plants.

(e)

Maintain our drive for the continuous reduction of wastes.

(f)

Strive towards continued energy efficiency improvement.

(g)

Demonstrate improvement in the efficiency of the use of resources in our operations.

(h)

Aim to avoid any loss of containment and spills.

(j)

Develop product stewardships to enable ICI to become the preferred supplier in the markets of
our choice.

ICIs Hazard Study process has evolved since the 1960's, to identify and correct SHE hazards. The
process is general, and appropriately adapted and applied will recognise deficiencies in other systems
(e.g., quality, financial and general operability).
This Process SHE Guide on Hazard Study Methodology has been prepared by ICI Engineering
Technology for the ICI Group Hazard Study College and the ICI Process Safety, Health and
Environment Interest Group.

0.2

SCOPE
This guide explains, and describes in detail, the six stages of the ICI Hazard Study Process. Guidance
is given on studies and preparation prior to Hazard Study 1, team structure, individual roles, preparation
for meetings, timing and reporting. The methodology is designed and intended to be applied flexibly to
meet specific circumstances.

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Although extensive guidance is provided, satisfactory results can only be achieved if the process is
carried out with a competent leader. Competence includes appropriate training and associated
experience validated by accreditation.
When in doubt about the methods, you should consult one of the authors named at the front of this
guide or a member of the ICI Group Hazard Study College.

0.3

FIELD OF APPLICATION
This guide is relevant to Hazard Study Leaders, SHE managers and engineers, Process Engineers and
Project Engineers in the ICI Group World-wide.
The Hazard Study Methodology given in this guide can be used to satisfy the 29 CFR (OSHA) 1910.119
requirements for Process Hazard Analysis and pre start-up safety review of hazardous processes. It is
recommended that for the full requirements of "Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
Chemicals" the publications OSHA 3132 and 3133 are consulted.
This methodology can also be applied to Programmable Electronic Systems (PESs) on process plants
such as Distributed Control Systems (DCSs), Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) and smart
transmitters. This conforms to IEC 1508 Functional safety : safety related systems. The requirements
for a Safety Life Cycle are addressed by a phased study corresponding to Hazard Studies 1 to 5. The
requirements for Safety Integrity Levels are covered by Hazard Study 2 by the identification of hazards
and the use of GEP 13 and GEG 13.1.
For brevity the male pronoun, he, has been used throughout this guide but should be interpreted as
either male or female.

0.4

DEFINITIONS AND GLOSSARY


ACS - Advanced Control Systems
High level process control using predictive models to anticipate the process behaviour.
AIChE
American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
AQS - Air Quality Standard
A concentration of a substance in air deemed to be acceptable to the environment being
considered. The AQS may apply at local, national or international level.
Basis For Safe Operation
The basis for safe operation should make clear why the design is safe to operate. For
example, explosions may be avoided by preventing flammable mixtures, by control and/or trip
systems, eliminating, as far as possible, ignition sources, providing explosion relief or designing
to contain explosions.
BATNEEC - Best Available Techniques Not Entailing Excessive Cost
The most effective, procurable, proven techniques (including technology, methodologies,
management systems etc.) that can be justified having regard to costs.
BPEO - Best Practical Environmental Option
Best option when all aspects, including practicality, secondary and indirect environmental
effects such as abatement costs, have been taken into consideration.

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CCPS
Centre for Chemical Process Safety, run by the AIChE, of which ICI is a member.
Checklist
A method for hazard identification by comparison with experience in the form of a list of failure
modes and hazardous situations.
Chemical Hazard Assessment
Experimental assessment of propensity to give runaway or self detonation properties using
Dewar or similar laboratory equipment
CIMAH
Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations, (UK), to be superseded by COMAH.
COMAH
Control of Major Accident Hazards (UK). Regulations enacted as a consequence of the EEC
"Seveso Directive" 82/501/EEC.
C/E
Control/Electrical refers to the joint specialisation covering issues related to process control
and electrical equipment and supply.
COSHH
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, (UK).
Criterion
A standard of performance with which assessed performance may be compared.
E/I
Electrical /Instrumentation Synonym For Control/Electrical.
EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
The process of considering and justifying the impact of a new plant or significant change on
the immediate and general environment.
ELD - Engineering Line Diagram
A drawing showing the process piping, instrumentation and equipment. Also known as Piping
and Instrument Diagram, Process and Instrument Diagram, PID or P&ID.
EQS - Environmental Quality Standard
A concentration of a substance deemed to be acceptable to the aquatic environment being
considered. The EQS may apply at local, national or international level.
ES - Environmental Statement
A document considering and justifying the environmental impact of new plants or significant
changes. Submission of an Environmental Statement to the planning authorities is often a
legal requirement.
Fault Tree
A logic model that graphically portrays the combinations of failures that can lead to a specific
main failure or accident of interest.

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FMEA - Failure Model Effect Analysis
A systematic, tabular method for evaluating and documenting the causes and effects of known
types of component failures.
FS
Function Specification.
GEG - Group Engineering Guideline
Guideline supporting a GEP.
GEP - Group Engineering Procedure
An engineering procedure stemming from the "White Book" and applicable throughout the ICI
Group.
GG - Group Guideline
Guideline in the White Book.
GS - Group Standard
Standard specified in the White Book.
Group Risk
See Societal Risk.
Guide Diagram
A set of guide words used to stimulate thinking about potential hazards. There are different
guide diagrams for different stages of Hazard Studies and for different types of processes or
operations.
Guidewords
Guide words used to prompt thoughts.
Hazard
A Hazard is a physical situation with potential to cause harm to people, the environment or
property. As so defined, Hazards can be associated with physical, chemical or biological
effects in the storage, transport or use of chemicals and in the operation of other assets.
HAZCON
A What if/Check list based study for construction and demolition activities.
Hazard Analysis
The identification of undesired events that lead to the materialisation of a hazard, the analysis
of the mechanisms by which these undesired events could occur and usually the estimation of
the extent, magnitude and likelihood of any harmful effects. Not to be confused with PHA
which has a specific meaning in the USA.
Hazard Assessment
See Hazard Analysis.
Hazard Control Philosophy
The hazard control philosophy will describe the principles which will be used for control of
significant hazards. Examples are; the use of double blocks and bleeds for isolation, high

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pressure design to minimise relief requirements or to contain explosions, maintenance venting
handling, flaring, computer control systems, etc.
HDS - Hazard Data Sheet
Summary of the SHE hazards of the specified material. Sometimes (US terminology), referred
to as MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheets.
Hazard Study
A Hazard Study is one of a set of studies carried out to ensure that Hazards are identified,
understood and properly controlled.
Hazard Studies can be carried out on new or existing processes or on modifications. Hazard
Studies also identify obstacles to operability. The technique applied depends on the stage of
the study; some studies will use a guide diagram approach to identify hazards and others will
be based more on a checklist approach.
Hazard Study Leader
The person appointed to lead a team through the hazard study process. The hazard study
leader is responsible for the thoroughness of the hazard study.
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Study
A study carried out by application of guidewords to identify all deviations from design intent with
the potential for undesirable effects on safety, health, the environment or operability. A
general term for studies such as Hazard Study 3.
Hazardous Event
The occurrence of an incident with a potential for human injury, damage to property, damage
to the environment or some combination of these.
IDLH
Maximum concentration (in air) of a substance that has no Immediate Danger to Life or
Health.
Individual Risk
The frequency at which an individual may be expected to sustain a given level of harm from
the realisation of specified hazards.
MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet
US terminology for Hazard Data Sheet.
Mond Index
The Mond Index is a rapid hazard assessment technique for use on chemical plants or in plant
design. It enables the potential hazards of plant units to be identified, assessed and minimised
and provides a logical basis for plant layout.
NIHHS
Notification of Installations Handling Hazardous Substances Regulations 1982, (UK).
Operational Hazard Assessment
Studies of materials or mixtures to assess their potential for runaway reactions, spontaneous
combustion, explosion ignition conditions and effects.

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OHS
Occupational Health Statement.
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the US Department of Labor. Mention of
OSHA usually refers to USA Regulation 29 CFR (OSHA) 1910.119. Guidance is available in
brochures OSHA 3132 Process Safety Management and OSHA 3133 Process Safety
Management - Guidance.
P&ID - Piping And Instrument Diagram
See ELD (Engineering Line Diagram).
PCB
Poly Chlorinated Bi Phenyls.
PES
Programmable Electronic System usually a computer or PLC. Any electronic device that can
be programmed. These may also be found in measuring elements and analysers.
PFD - Process Flow Diagram
A representation of the process flowsheet including main plant items and their connections.
PLC
Programmable Logic Controller.
PHA - Process Hazard Analysis
As defined by OSHA A thorough, orderly, systematic approach for identifying, evaluating, and
controlling the hazards of processes involving highly hazardous chemicals. ICI's Hazard
Study Methodology meets PHA requirements.
PHR - Process Hazard Review
Periodic review and audit of the safety management of a process subsequent to
commissioning. In ICI, PHR based on Hazard Study 2 is a technique developed to meet SHE
Assurance requirements. In the USA, PHR refers to a specific process review process (e.g.
DuPont PHR).
PSM
Process Safety Management.
Project Manager
The Project Manager is the manager of a project (including Works/Site controlled projects),
appointed by the Responsible Executive to be responsible for the implementation of the
project from inception to completion of commissioning.
PP - Project Procedures
As issued and applied by ICI Engineering Technology for the management of capital projects.
Project Specification
The project specification is developed from the process specification and provides the formal
basis for the cost estimate leading to sanction and detailed design. See PP.14.

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QRA
Quantified Risk Assessment.
Risk
Risk is the likelihood of a specified level of harm to people, the environment or property. It
may be either a frequency (the number of specified events occurring in unit time) or a
probability (the probability of a specified event following a prior event), depending on the
circumstances.
Risk Assessment
The evaluation of the likelihood of undesired events and the likelihood of harm or damage
being caused, together with the value judgements made concerning the significance of the
results.
SEVESO
Refers to European Union SHE legislation 82/501/EEC enacted in response to the chemical
disaster at Seveso, Italy. In UK embodied in CIMAH and, more recently, COMAH.
SHED
Safety, Health and Environmental Dossier (STD/F/01022).
SHE Impact Study
A study carried out, according to GG 17.2, at an early stage in process development which
focuses on assessing the SHE impact of a process and employing the use of Inherent SHE
principles.
Societal Risk
The relationship between frequency and the number of people suffering from a specified level
of harm in a given population from the realisation of specified hazards. Now becoming known
as Group Risk.
URS - User Requirement Specification
General specification specifying performance requirements usually applied to control/electrical
systems.
VCS
Vent Collection System.
White Book
ICI Group Safety, Health and Environment Policies, Standards and Guidelines Manual.

0.5

TEAM MEMBERS ROLES


Responsibilities and accountabilities for the Hazard Study process are defined in GEP 6.
Most Hazard Study Teams will consist of:
(a)

Hazard Study Leader or Safety Advisor.

(b)

Project representative.

(c)

Site representative.

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(d)

Functional (design) engineer.

(e)

Specialists.

The ideal composition depends on the stage and project. The roles of the team members are given
below.
0.5.1

The Hazard Study Leader


The Leader's function is to lead the discussion, encouraging thinking about what might go wrong, and
what that would result in. He will be more effective at doing this if he is not a member of the project
team, since he will be less inhibited with probing questions. The Hazard Study Leader should have had
training and experience compatible with the complexity and hazards of the process being studied.
Appropriate levels are defined by the Hazard Study College.
The Hazard Study Leader has the following role:
(a)

Advising the Project Steering Committee, Business Technical, Project Group and Site
Management on setting quantitative safety, health and environmental protection targets.

(b)

Advising on the selection of the Hazard Study Team.

(c)

Leading the Hazard Studies 1, 2 and 3 to ensure their maximum effectiveness by the use of
the best Hazard Study methods, and ensuring that the meeting and actions are adequately
recorded.

(d)

Where a problem requires quantitative analysis (of likelihood and consequences), either
carrying out the analysis, if suitably trained and experienced, or passing a clear definition of the
requirements to a competent person trained in hazard assessment.
Quantified hazard analysis may also be required to be carried out to enable, for example, the
integrity required of trip systems to be specified, especially at Hazard Study 2.

0.5.2

(e)

Ensuring the adequacy of the information recorded for the Hazard Studies.

(f)

Stimulating objectively new thinking about hazard and operability problems.

Project Representative
The Project Representative is the Project Manager or his nominee.
responsibilities are defined in GEP 6. The Project Representatives role is:

The Project Managers

(a)

In consultation with the Hazard Study Leader, ensuring that a suitable Hazard Study Team is
chosen.

(b)

In consultation with the Hazard Study Leader, initiating each Hazard Study as soon as the
design has reached a suitable stage of completion.

(c)

Ensuring that safety, health and environmental protection targets, acceptable to the Business
and the authorities, have been set.

(d)

Ensuring that safety, health and environmental hazards of the process have been identified by
a rigorous Hazard Study and that the design meets the appropriate targets.

(e)

Responsibility for seeing that Hazard Study actions are progressing satisfactorily to meet the
project needs. He will need to arrange review meetings as necessary.

(f)

Ensuring that the Project SHE Dossier is prepared (STD/F/01022).

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0.5.3

The Site Representative


For new plants, the Site Representative may be the Commissioning Manager or representative. His
role is:
(a)

Accepting any operating principles, constraints or procedures agreed at the Hazard Studies
including implications on manning levels, maintenance procedures, etc.

(b)

Agreeing assumptions made in hazard analyses, including operating methods, proof testing of
instruments, repair times on equipment, etc.

(c)

Understanding the basis for safe operation and the hazard control philosophy, so that he can:
(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

satisfy himself that any changes made at commissioning, or subsequently, do not


increase the hazards;
fully inform the rest of the commissioning team and other disciplines about hazards
and operating constraints;
check that all the requirements from the Hazard Studies have been incorporated and
function correctly (including communications systems, relief devices, major
control/protective systems, emergency supplies, etc.) and that the plant as
constructed is as shown on the line diagrams (Hazard Study 4);
initiate the production of process operating instructions;
consider the special hazards of the initial start-up, emergency procedures, start-up
and shut-down, maintenance isolation and testing procedures;
ensure the training of operating personnel in the particular hazards;
set up the Safety, Health and Environment Dossier (SHED) (STD/F/01022);
arrange Hazard Study 6 by the Site Representative or the Operating Manager. In the
latter case, the Site Representative should ensure that all the necessary information
has been passed on to the Operating Management.

As a member of the Hazard Study team, it is obviously helpful (mandatory in the USA) if the Site
Representative has experience of similar processes to help with identifying hazards. A wide experience
is also helpful in reducing the number of Hazard Study questions which have to be referred to other
people outside the meeting.
0.5.4

The Functional (Design) Engineer


The Functional Engineer's role is:

0.5.5

(a)

To have been sufficiently involved in the detailed design of the project being studied and know
the basis for the design.

(b)

To help the team to understand how the process or installation operates and the effect of
deviations from design intent.

(c)

To play a key role in helping to identify hazards and in deciding on appropriate actions. It is
likely, therefore, that he will handle many of the actions arising from the studies.

Additional Team Members


Where their particular expertise is needed, further members can be invited to specific meetings. For
instance, this may include a control engineer where complex control systems or computer controls are
involved. His role should include consideration of the practical aspects of routine proof testing and
classification of Electrical/Instrument systems.
Involvement of Occupational Hygienists, Environmental Specialists is usual for Hazard Studies 1 and 2.
At Hazard Study 3, the need for an ergonomist, particularly if there is manual handling, should be
considered.

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For existing plant, the Hazard Study Leader needs to ensure that the team assembled has the
necessary operating experience and process knowledge, which can be provided by a plant supervisor,
if appropriate.
All team members should be prepared to adopt a systematic questioning approach in identifying the
causes and effects of deviations from design intent.

0.6

PREPARATION FOR HAZARD STUDY MEETINGS


The work carried out by the team will only be as good as the quality, in terms of relevant experience
and knowledge, of the individual team members allows. It is important, therefore, that the Hazard
Study team consists of people with appropriate experience and with the ability to work well in a team.
It is important for maximum effectiveness and efficiency that meetings take place in a comfortable room
with adequate light, ventilation and quietness.
Where team members are new to Hazard Studies, the attitude of team members to questioning of their
design by an 'outsider' may be defensive. The need for some Hazard Study awareness training before
the first meeting or at the beginning of the first meeting is desirable.

0.7

TIMING

0.7.0

General
ICIs six stage Hazard Study process is intended to be a formal, thorough, structured, documented
assessment of all the available data describing the activity, performed by a team of trained staff.
With the advent of fast track projects involving parallel engineering, the Hazard Study stages have
evolved from being discreet sequential events to extended parallel processes. Consequently, the
closing out of actions should be part of the respective study.
The six stage process from project conception to final regular operation is as described in 0.7.1 to 0.7.6
(inclusive).

0.7.1

Hazard Study 1
Performed during the project feasibility study, it takes input from early stage Inherent SHE studies and
identifies the basic hazards of the materials involved and of the operation. (It includes the results of
Chemical Hazards Assessment if reaction hazards exist).
Establishes Safety, Health and
Environmental criteria and ensures the necessary contacts with functional groups and external
authorities.
For projects with no inherent hazard, the study process may be curtailed following Hazard Study 1 at
the discretion of the Hazard Study team. In these cases, the reasons for not following the full procedure
should be fully documented.

0.7.2

Hazard Study 2
Performed at the project definition stage, using Guide Diagrams to stimulate creative thinking to identify
significant hazards. Inherent SHE principles continue to be applied where possible and practicable, or
assessment may be used to determine appropriate design features, including the identification of
trip/alarm systems. (The Study may initiate an Operational Hazards Assessment, if fire and explosion
hazards exist, to establish basis for safe operation).

0.7.3

Hazard Study 3
This is a Hazard and Operability Study, sometimes called 'HAZOP'. It is performed at the end of the
project design stage, using fully developed ELDs to identify hazards and operability problems, using
guidewords to stimulate creative thinking about possible deviations and their effects.

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0.7.4

Hazard Study 4
Performed at the end of the construction stage and before introducing process materials, this checks
that the equipment and procedures are as required by the previous Hazard Studies.

0.7.5

Hazard Study 5
Performed at the end of the construction stage and before introducing process materials, this is a check
that the project meets Company and legislative requirements.

0.7.6

Hazard Study 6
Performed 3 to 6 months after beneficial production is established, this study checks that previous
Hazard Studies have been completed and that early operation is consistent with the design intent and
with the assumptions in earlier Hazard Studies.
In some cases, where there are no hazards inherent in the chemicals, process conditions, equipment,
buildings, services, operations, or their environment, it may be inappropriate to apply the full study
process and carry out every one of the Hazard Studies. For example, the hazard studies may be
curtailed after Hazard Study 1 at the discretion of the Hazard Study Team. Similarly, it may be
inappropriate to apply the full Hazard Study process to all modifications. Where it is decided that the
procedure can be safely curtailed, this should be documented and filed in the SHE Dossier
(STD/F/01022).

0.8

DOCUMENTATION
The Project Manager is responsible for setting up and maintaining a Project Safety Health and
Environment Dossier, SHED, (see suggested index STD/F/01022) which at Hazard Study 4 is handed
over to the Plant Representative who is responsible for its further development and archiving in the
Plant SHED.
Documentation, in the form of the record of the Hazard Study meetings, and supporting documents
together with evidence of the completion of all actions should be filed in the Project Safety, Health and
Environment Dossier. It is important that the marked up Engineering Line Diagrams, or a good copies,
micro-fiche or 35 mm photographic slides of the material, are retained in the Plant SHE Dossier
(SHED) together with the Hazard Study records. Hazard Study supporting documentation (especially
the ELD) which goes into the SHED along with the Hazard Study records should be the version/revision
which was hazard studied and not the final as built.

Part 0 - General Introduction


Page 12
S&TIS/8441

FIGURE 0.1

S&TIS/8441

Conceptual Design

Hazard Study 1

PFS Review

Identify significant SHE hazards.


Ensure that design has adequate safeguards for
control of these hazards

Firm PFS Diagram

Minor changes to ELD or operating procedures

Line Diagram
Development

Part 0 - General Introduction


Page 13

Line Diagram Review

Firm Line Diagram


Final check for hazards and operability problems

Hazard Study 3

(August 1997 Edition)

Hazard Study 2

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology

Potentially significant design changes

Process Flowsheet
Development

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN STAGE HAZARD STUDIES

Identify SHE constraints for the project