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Process SHE Guide 13

HAZARD STUDY METHODOLOGY


PART 2 - HAZARD STUDY 2

This Guide is issued by ICI Technology on behalf of the


Process Safety, Health and Environment Interest Group for internal circulation within ICI only.

This document will only be kept up to date when issued to the holder of a registered binder
S&TIS/11601

Process SHE Guide No. 13


Hazard Study Methodology
(August 1997 Edition)
CONTENTS

PAGE

2.0

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

2.0.1
2.0.2
2.0.3
2.0.4
2.0.5

Purpose ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2
Team ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Timing ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Documentation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Method .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2.1

STUDY OF PROCESS ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................................. 5

2.2

STUDY OF NON-PROCESS ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................................................... 9

2.3

STUDY OF PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (PES)..................................................................... 11

2.4

DEFINING THE BASIS FOR SAFE OPERATION .................................................................................................... 13

2.5

REVIEW OF HAZARD STUDY 2 .................................................................................................................................... 14

TABLE
2.1

TYPICAL MEASURES TO REDUCE CONSEQUENCES........................................................................................ 9

FIGURES
2.1
HAZARD STUDY 2 - METHOD .......................................................................................................................................... 6
2.2
HAZARD STUDY 2 - EVENT GUIDE DIAGRAM ......................................................................................................... 7
2.3
HAZARD STUDY 2 - CONSEQUENCE GUIDE DIAGRAM .................................................................................... 8
2.4
HAZARD STUDY 2 - MECHANICAL PLANT ITEMS GUIDE DIAGRAM......................................................... 10
2.5
HAZARD STUDY 2 - PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS GUIDE DIAGRAM ......................... 12

Copyright Imperial Chemicals Industries PLC 1997

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2.0

INTRODUCTION

2.0.1

Purpose
The purpose of Hazard Study 2 is to identify significant hazards and ensure that there are appropriate
measures to eliminate the risk or reduce the risk to tolerable levels.
In new plants or installations or in modifications, identification of the hazards provides the opportunity for
redesign to eliminate or significantly reduce the risk (see Process SHE Guide 16). Where the risk can
not be reduced to tolerable levels by practicable redesign, protective measures may need to be
incorporated to meet the relevant criteria. The study should help produce the majority of the
information and assessments needed to meet the requirements of the regulatory authorities on safety,
health and environmental protection.
Key aspects include:
(a)

Consideration of any impact (safety, health or environmental), which the project may have
either on-site or off-site.

(b)

Identification of significant hazardous events with special attention being paid to loss of
containment which could lead to toxic, flammable, biological or explosive hazards to
employees or the public, or to environmental pollution.

(c)

Identification of those changes to process conditions which could lead to the consent levels for
gaseous, liquid or solid effluents being exceeded.

(d)

A review of the measures proposed to prevent employees being exposed to either chronic or
acute health hazards.

(e)

Production of information which can be used in other SHE related studies and design
procedures, e.g. Trips and Alarms, Pressure relief, etc.

At the end of Hazard Study 2, all project information necessary for the completion of the Environmental
Impact Assessment should have been assembled
Where the project could create significant off-site risk, a Quantified Risk Assessment (defined in the
General Introduction to this Guide) should have been completed. Any other Hazard Analysis affecting
SHE should also have been carried out.
When applied to existing plants or installations, Hazard Study 2 has the similar objectives of identifying
significant hazards, their possible causes and protective measures to meet relevant criteria. The
objective of the study is usually to identify aspects of existing hardware and operations which do not
comply with modern standards or criteria. Critical features of the hardware, procedures and
instructions will be identified.
2.0.2

Team
The team composition should be agreed between the Hazard Study Leader and the Project Manager.
The normal composition of the team is:
(a)

Hazard Study Leader.

(b)

Project Manager (or nominee).

(c)

Appropriate functional engineer(s) (e.g. Process Engineer).

(d)

Operations or Site Representative.

(e)

Control/ Electrical Engineer (where appropriate).

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In addition, an Occupational Hygienist and/or an Environmental Specialist may join the team for part or
all of the study of process activities.
The same team composition should be suitable for the study of Programmable Electronic Systems
(PES) (Clause 2.3). It is not normally necessary to include a computing specialist or the suppliers
representative.
2.0.3

Timing
The study of process and non-process activities can be started as soon as a description of the process
and the process flowsheet or flow diagram, or the building layout and services distribution, are
available. For Hazard Study 2 of the process, it may be helpful to have a draft relief philosophy.
For the study of Programmable Electronic Systems, the Hazard Study 2 meetings should be complete
to the extent that all significant hazards have been identified on all parts of the project where the PES
system is applicable. The project should have reached the stage where the Project Definition (see
PP.13) is complete, the User Requirement Specification (URS) is complete and the Distributed Control
System (DCS) supplier has been chosen and has provided an outline design of the DCS system.
Completion of Hazard Study 2 helps in the production of a sanction estimate for the project.

2.0.4

Documentation
The Study is generally recorded on standard STD/F/01013.

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Possible contents of the documentation of Hazard Study 2 are as follows.
SECT.

CONTENTS

2.0

GENERAL INFORMATION
This section should contain or refer to the Project Specification, the flowsheet and other
documentation which was studied, and essential correspondence and information relating
to Hazard Study 2.

2.1

HAZARD SUMMARY
This section should contain the Hazard Study 2 Summary (STD/F/01014). The Hazard
Study 2 forms can be included here or in an appendix.

2.2

SPECIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE TO MEET SHE CRITERIA


This should include a summary of key systems, mechanical, electrical and instrument.
Trip/alarm systems for protection against SHE hazards will be graded; this section should
include assumed/predicted demand rates and required probability of failure on demand
or fractional dead times, together with analyses and fault tree logic diagrams where
appropriate.

2.3

ACTIONS IDENTIFIED IN HAZARD STUDY 1


Confirmation that necessary information has been obtained or is no longer needed.

2.4

RISK APPRAISALS
This section should contain any quantified assessments of risks to people or the
environment. It may also cover layout and spacing considerations as developed during
Hazard Study 2; also any special building design requirements or area classification
requirements. Consequence analyses such as overpressure circles or thermal radiation
may also be included

2.5

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

2.6

CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUTHORITIES/STATUTORY APPROVALS


Copies of relevant correspondence, conclusions and agreed recommendations to be
adopted.

2.7

SPECIAL HEALTH HAZARDS


Following on from the identification stage at Hazard Study 1, the report should contain
details of how materials requiring special handling precautions and operating principles
will be dealt with. Results of exposure assessments appropriate for regulations (e.g.,
COSHH (SI 3246) in the UK) should be included.

2.8

RELIEF PHILOSOPHY
Special major hazard aspects which dictate philosophy of the relief systems review should
be included in this report.

2.9

SERVICE REQUIREMENTS
Overview of requirements including safe shutdown in an emergency, and list of services,
dependencies, and design specifications.

2.10

DOCUMENTATION OF REVIEW MEETINGS, ETC.


Action Review Forms (STD/F/01011) and any answers to actions which have been raised
may be included or referenced in an appendix. Any outstanding actions to be reviewed at
later Hazard Studies should be highlighted.

A standard report contents sheet is in form STD/F/01024.

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2.0.5

2.1

Method
(a)

Review any actions brought forward from Hazard Study 1.

(b)

Ensure that preparation of the final Environmental Impact Assessment and Occupational
Health Statement is being completed.

(c)

Review progress on any other safety, health, environment or quality related studies, such as
those agreed at Hazard Study 1, which may have an effect on the Hazard Study 2.

(d)

Clarify key principles of operation, which will assist in carrying out Hazard Study 2 and which
should be included in the Project Specification.

(e)

Study process and/or non-process activities, as appropriate, as described in 2.1 and 2.2,
followed by study of Programmable Electronic Systems (PES) as described in 2.3.

(f)

The subsequent review of actions is described in 2.5.

(g)

For construction/demolition activities a study such as HAZCON should be applied - see


EDG.CON.50.01.

(h)

After completing the Hazard Study 2, the basis for safe operation can be defined and the
summary of the hazards can be prepared as described in 2.4.

(j)

The study should confirm that a list of critical machine systems is being prepared and that any
relevant data from Hazard Study 2 is made available for this.

STUDY OF PROCESS ACTIVITIES


The study team works systematically through sections of the flowsheet, identifying significant hazards
associated with each stage of the process. The most significant hazardous events are often loss of
containment 'LOC'.
For each new diagram or system, a brief explanation of the process and proposed operation is
required, to ensure that each member of the team has an adequate understanding for their active,
effective participation in the study.
Where there are several unit operations, the team can study them as a small number of separate
'blocks'. The Hazard Study Leader will provide guidance in choosing a suitable division into these
'blocks'.
A diagram of the method used is given in Figure 2.1. The study proceeds, considering one block at a
time, using the guidewords from the Hazard Study 2 Guide Diagrams.
The study should be recorded on the Hazard Study 2 form (STD/F/01013).
Where quantification of hazards is required, guidance on methodology can be found in PSHEG10. For
environmental accident quantification, refer to E-010 - Safety Health Environment Information for
Managers, Guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment of Major Accidents for CIMAH Safety
Reports and other Accidental Releases.

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FIGURE 2.1 HAZARD STUDY 2 - METHOD

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FIGURE 2.2 HAZARD STUDY 2 - EVENT GUIDE DIAGRAM

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FIGURE 2.3 HAZARD STUDY 2 - CONSEQUENCE GUIDE DIAGRAM

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TABLE 2.1 TYPICAL MEASURES TO REDUCE CONSEQUENCES

FLAMMABLE / ACUTE HARMFUL MATERIAL / POLLUTANT HAZARD


Inventory reduction
Pressure/temperature reduction
Minimise equipment, piping, seals and joints
Design for containing maximum pressures
Pressure relief systems
Flow restriction
Location/layout/spacing
Containment/bunding/safe disposal
Vent/Relief Discharges - Treatment/Containment/Recovery
Rapid leak detection
Emergency isolation and blowdown systems
Dispersion aids - water jets
Emergency procedures on/off-site
Toxic refuges
Control room/occupied building design for explosion pressure/toxic ingress
Rapid fire detection
Eliminate sources of ignition
Fire protection
Fire fighting facilities

CHRONIC HARMFUL MATERIAL HAZARD


Design for hygiene standards
Hygiene design assessments (e.g. COSHH in UK)
Containment of low-level discharges
Monitoring of work-place
On-going health screening
Building ventilation

2.2

STUDY OF NON-PROCESS ACTIVITIES


Consideration should be given to non-process activities which can give rise to potential safety, health or
environmental hazards.
Hazard Study 2 Mechanical Plant Items Guide Diagram (see Figure 2.4) can be used for activities
involving moving objects.
The following drawings and documents may be helpful.
(a)

Site plans, floor plans, photographs.

(b)

Service distribution drawings (in lieu of flowsheets or line diagrams).

(c)

Pressure regimes.

(d)

Material Data Sheets.

The study should be recorded on the Hazard Study 2 form (STD/F/01013).

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FIGURE 2.4 HAZARD STUDY 2 - MECHANICAL PLANT ITEMS GUIDE DIAGRAM

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2.3

STUDY OF PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (PES)


The Hazard Study 2 will have produced a list of identified hazardous events. The intention of a Hazard
Study 2 of a PES is to study potential failures of the PES and to determine what role the PES plays in
each of these identified events.
If any aspects of the PES are involved in protecting against an identified hazardous event which could
cause serious harm to people or the environment, then an analysis of the protective role of the PES
may be needed. Specialist advice should be sought.
The study should consider particularly:
(a)

Are there any potential failures of the PES which increase the likelihood of a particular
hazardous event?

(b)

Are there any potential failures of the PES which affect the protection against hazardous
events?

(c)

Are there any potential failures which could produce a new hazard scenario, or a new or more
serious combination of events?

The study can be based on three documents:


(1)

A list provided by the PES supplier of potential system faults, system alarms and the actions
that need to be taken.

(2)

The Hazard Study 2 Programmable Electronic Systems Guide Diagram (see Figure 2.5).

(3)

The Hazard Study 2 PES Form (STD/F/01012).

Any concerns should be recorded on the Hazard Study 2 form (STD/F/01013) and the PES Form
(STD/F/01012), or in the minutes of the meeting.

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FIGURE 2.5 HAZARD STUDY 2 - PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS GUIDE


DIAGRAM
Principles

Guidewords

Prompts

Loss of Operator
Interface

Interface equipment
failure

Displays, mouse, tracker ball, touch screen, distraction,


confusion, alarm cascades, other equipment or duties

Operator response
failure
Loss of System
Interface

Data transmission
failure

Local Area Network, Ethernet, Token Passing Ring, timing,


cable length, terminations, Radio Frequency Interference
(RFI) / Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), on card filters,
cabinet doors

Loss of Critical
Functions

Controller
subsystems,
Input/Output failure

Alarm and response to failure of redundant systems

Loss of non
Critical Functions

Printers, loggers,
history modules,
remote access, MBPC

Response to system alarms

Remote access

Local Area Network,


company network,
remote dial in, the
Internet

Pass words, physical separation, fire walls

Ergonomics

Control room layout,


screen displays

Space, equipment, operator interface, other equipment,


detailed analysis

Maintenance

Loop maintenance

System alarms

Input/Output card
maintenance
Suppliers
maintenance under
contract

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2.4

DEFINING THE BASIS FOR SAFE OPERATION


Having completed Hazard Study 2, the Basis for Safe Operation, including Health and Environmental
aspects, may be established and recorded. The Hazard Study 2 Summary sheet (STD/F/01014) can
be used to provide a concise outline of the key hazards and control measures. This can provide a
framework for future training, auditing and preparation of other mandatory SHE reports.
Key measures include:
(a)

Layout/separation distances.

(b)

Pressure relief requirements.

(c)

Instrumented protective systems (trips and alarms).

(d)

Interlocks (e.g., mechanical, electrical, PLCs, computer, procedures).

(e)

Fire prevention, protection, and fire fighting.

(f)

Preventing sources of ignition.

(g)

Management systems for safe operation and maintenance.

(h)

Correct operator interaction (i.e., knowing when and how to shutdown safely).

(j)

Spillage containment and recovery absorption systems.

(k)

Reducing exposure to harmful substances.

(l)

Fire compartmentation.

(m)

Means of escape.

(n)

Process isolation.

These factors should then provide the basis for:


(1)

Pressure Relief Reviews.

(2)

Trip system design and review.

(3)

Identification of Critical Machine Systems (see GEP 5).

(4)

Fire Reviews.

(5)

Electrical Area Classification (see Group Guideline GG 10.3.3).

(6)

Operating and Maintenance Policies and Procedures.

(7)

Operating and Maintenance Information and Instructions.

(8)

Conforming with Major Hazard regulations.

(9)

Conforming with Health Exposure regulations.

(10) Computer control specification and computer security requirements.


(11)

Biological hazard classification (leads to definition of containment principles for materials with
biological hazard).

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2.5

REVIEW OF HAZARD STUDY 2


The actions raised on the Hazard Study form (STD/F/01013) and from other related studies need to be
followed up in the Hazard Study 2 Action Review. A form for Action Review is available as form
(STD/F/01011).
Review meetings will normally be arranged and chaired by the Project Manager (or nominated deputy).
It is usually best before arranging a first review meeting to have completed the major part of the actions
required, and certainly any major changes of the design. There is, however, a stimulant effect on
project teams of knowing that a review meeting is imminent and this may help to complete the hazard
study more promptly.
The Hazard Study Leader should help the team to check that the issues raised by the Hazard Study
Team have been properly satisfied.
(a)

The team, guided by the Hazard Study Leader, needs to consider:


(1)

does the solution deal with the concern?

(2)

does the solution introduce new concerns?

(b)

Quantification of risk should have been carried out, where required to demonstrate that the
design meets the criteria set during Hazard Study 1

(c)

Some new Hazard Study work is often necessary if significant changes to the design or
operation are involved in the proposed solutions.

The Review should confirm that the final Environmental Impact Assessment and Occupational Health
Statement have been completed.
A review should be carried out of progress on additional safety, health, environmental or quality related
studies, such as those called for in Hazard Study 1.
It is normally a function of the Project Manager (or nominated deputy) to notify the Hazard Study
Leader of any changes in the design or operation which have been made subsequent to the Hazard
Study. They can then decide whether it is necessary to hold a further Hazard Study meeting to consider
the changes.

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