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National Parks

National Parks

(in designated order)


Jirisan(Mt.) National Park
Gyeongju National Park
Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park
Hallyeohaesang(Marine) National Park
Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park
Songnisan(Mt.) National Park
Hallasan(Mt.) National Park
Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park
Gayasan(Mt.) National Park
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park
Odaesan(Mt.) National Park
Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park
Taeanhaean(Seashore) National Park
Dadohaehaesang(Marine) National Park
Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park
Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park
Woraksan(Mt.) National Park
Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park
Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park

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National park is a representative area of natural ecosystem and natural and cultural landscape,
designated and managed based on Natural Park Act. National park of Korea covers a core
area of rich biodiversity. According to the Nature Park Act, National parks must meet the
following five requirements.
- Ecosystem: Preservation of the natural ecosystem must be satisfactory or the area must be
inhabited by endangered species, Natural Treasures, or protected plant or animal species.
- Natural scenery: The natural scenery must be preserved beautifully with little damage and
pollution
- Cultural scenery: There must be cultural or historic artifacts that have preservation value in
harmony with the natural scenery.
- Land preservation: There must be no threats to the scenery from industrial development.
- Location and convenience of use: The location of the national park must be in balance with
overall national territory preservation and management.

Current Status of National Park


There are 20 national parks in Korea with Jirisan(Mt.) National Park designated as the first
national park in 1967. There are 16 mountain national parks, 2 marine national parks, 1 seashore
national park and 1 historic national park. National parks cover 3,898.948 of Koreas land area
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and 2,680. of marine area, which amounts to 6.6% of the territory area of Korea. For the
402
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ownership of national park, 49.6%(1,935. ) of national park is owned by state, 11.3%(439.
) by public, 30.3%(1,182.818 ) by private and 8.8%(341.643 ) is owned by temple.
National park is a treasure house of ecosystem that possesses beautiful landscape, indigenous
plants and animals, and various species. There are 15,727 species in national park: 3,575
species of plants, 1,224 species of fungus, 64 species of mammalians, 397 species of aves, 21
species of amphibians, 23 species of reptilians, 121 species of fish(freshwater), 7,454 species
of insects, 375 species of arachnids, 457 species of benthic macroinvertebrates, 233 species of
freshwater algae, 202 species of hardbottom marine invertebrate, 615 species of softbottom
marine invertebrate, 334 species of marine plankton, 269 species of fish(marine), 356 species
of seaweeds and 7 species of seagrasses. Also there are 128 endangered species designated by
Ministry of Environment.
As for natural resources in national park, there are 305 peaks, 509 islands, 236 valleys, 138
waterfalls, 38 national treasures, 141 treasures, 207 natural monuments, 339 temples and 21
inland wetlands; 7 alpine wetlands, 2 sand dune wetlands, 3 islands wetlands, 9 inland wetlands.
The annual average number of visitor is 28,128 during the past 5 years. There are 265 trails
(1,122km), 57 nature interpretative trails and 284 visitor programs.
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Management of National Park


The first Park Act was enacted in 1967 and amended into Natural Park Act in 1980. The
concept of national park has also changed over several amendments of the Act. Nowadays, the
main goal of park management is conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. In
Korea, 19 national parks out of 20 are managed by Korea National Park Service(KNPS)
except Hallasan(Mt.) National Park being managed by Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province.
KNPS was established in 1987 and has contributed a lot to conservation and restoration of
natural resources. Also it provides various visitor programs and safety management system for
pleasant and safe use of national park.
The main functions of Korea National Park Service are as follows;
Strengthened Preservation Efforts for the Ecosystem
Rich biodiversity and preservation of the ecosystem
- Collection of basic data and establishment of a management direction through investigations,
monitoring, and research.
- Efforts to improve the habitats of species for rich biodiversity and recovery of damaged
areas and trails
Maintenance of beautiful scenery and value of cultural assets
- Introduction of systematic research and record management system
- Establishment and application of an eco-friendly facilities standard for the prevention of
excessive use and development
Protection of Park Resources
Efforts to protect park resources by regulating the activities of visitors and residents through
legislation
- Reinforcement of on-site staff to manage crowded park areas and enforcement and
prevention of illegal facilities and disorderly behavior.
- Prevention of reckless development through installation of eco-friendly park facilities and
authorization processes.
Sustainable Use
Development of various interpretive programs and high quality services
- Efforts to provide high quality services through expansion of facilities and professional
programs(preservation and sustainable use is pursued through increasing the quality of park
services).
- Installation and management of eco-friendly park facilities considering the safety and
convenience of visitors.

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Participation and Cooperation


Creation of positive public opinion and improvement of international recognition
- Community cooperation: Efforts to pursue joint projects with local residents for the
resolution of stakeholder conflicts and preservation of national parks.
- International cooperation and exchange: Signing of MOUs to secure cooperation and
exchange channels and benchmarking of advanced management practices.

KNPS is making every effort to improve park management; five nation five national
parks(Seraksan, Jirisan(Mt.), Odaesan(Mt.), Sobaeksan(Mt.) and Woraksan(Mt.) national park)
have been reassigned to IUCN Category (National Park) from Category (Protected
Landscape/ Seascape). KNPS is making every effort to improve park management so that it
has cooperative relationships with many foreign park agencies and is also implementing MEE
project with IUCN for effective management of national park.

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Jirisan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Jirisan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Latitude: 3512'47'' N ~ 3526'36'' N, Longitude: 12727'09'' E ~ 12749'29'' E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
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designated 43,890ha of Jirisan(Mt.) area as the 1 national park on Dec 29, 1967. Through
several changes of the park plans, the parks land size has become to 47,176 ha.
Area: 471.758
Land Tenure: 74% of the entire park area is owned by state and public, 17% is by private
and 9% is by Temple. State and public lands are distributed in environmentally core areas
such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed in farming areas around the park
entrance and residential areas.
Altitude: 160m1,915m
Physical Features: Jirisan(Mt.) is a gigantic mountain with the widest area among national
parks in Korea. Jirisan(Mt.) has the most impressive mountain range where every big valley
and peak has a perpetual history. In Jirisan(Mt.) national park, Cheonwangbong(Peak: 1,915m)
is the second highest mountaintop in Republic of Korea. The park embraces other high peaks
such as Jeseokbong(1,808m), Banyabong(1,732m) and Nogodan(1,507m). It also embraces
valleys of Baemsagol, Chilseon and Daewonsa, and boasts excellent views of the impressive
Guryong, Buril, and Yongchu waterfalls.
Climate: The mean annual temperature in the southern part of Jirisan(Mt.) is 13 and
northern part is 12. Average annual precipitation is 1,200mm. Relative humidity is 70~74%,
and average annual wind speed is 1.1~1.3m/s.
Vegetation: There are 7 vegetation communities including Abies koreana community, Quercus
mongolica community, Quercus variabilis community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus
serrata community and Carpinus laxiflora community. Evergreen needle leaf forest such as

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Abies koreana community, Picea jezoensis community and Rhododendron schlippenbachii


community are distributed in the park. Deciduous broadleaf community such as Quercus
mongolica community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Quercus serrata community, Quercus
variabilis community and Cornaceae community are distributed in some part of valley areas
and widely distributed in areas where Larix leptolepis are planted.
Flora: The park contains 1,526 species of flora. 30% of 4,000 kinds of vegetation in Korea is
distributed all over in the park regardless of the altitude. There are 6 endangered species such
as Paeonia obovata and Leontopodium coreanum, 107 endemic plants of Korea and 10 species
that contain Chirisan in the scientific name. Especially, the alpine region(more than 1,300m)
with Abies koreana, Abies nephrolepis and Picea jezoensis shows the widely distributed
vegetation of subalpine zone in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Fauna: 35 species of mammal, 88 bird species, 11 amphibians species, 27 reptile species, 31
fishes species and 2,752 insects species have been recorded. The most commonly seen mammal
includes Sus scrofa, Hydropotes inermi and Capreolus capreolus. As for natural monuments,
there are Ursus thibetanus ussuricus and Lutra lutra.
Cultural Heritage: The cultural assets are widely distributed throughout the park. There are 7
national treasures and 30 treasures designated and protected by the Cultural Property Protection
Law. Hwaeomsa(temple), the signature of Jirisan(Mt.), is situated in the middle of Nogodan
peak. It is one of the ten most famous temples in Korea. A great Buddhist priest,
Yeongidaesa, built this historical temple during the reign of King Jinheung in the fifth year
(544) of Silla. There are six treasures including Daeungjeon, the Dongseo fivestory stone
pagoda, Wontongjoen and Hwaeomseokgyeong.
Local Human Population: Approximately 2,154 people are residing within the park. Some of
them engage in traditional farming and others own businesses including restaurants, lodging
facilities, and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 3,000,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking and mount climbing. Park visitors are provided with park facilities including 9 park offices,
3 visitor centers, 10 mountain shelters, 19 parking lots, 10 campsites and 1,520 information
boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1993 and 2003, natural resources surveys were conducted
for the entire Jirisan(Mt.) area. Especially, 53 experts participated in the research on 12 areas
including human and cultural resources, geographical features, soil, vegetation, mammalian,
aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects, invertebrates and mycomycetes in 2003. Identified
4,772 fauna and flora species from the research shows that there has been increase of 680
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species compared to that in 1993. Monitoring project on the overall ecosystem change has
been implementing since 2001. Also longterm monitoring on special protected areas and
damaged areas is being implemented.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated Jirisan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value in 2006.

Park

Jirisan
(Mt.)

Economic Value
Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(F)

Total
Value
Per annum
(million
USD)
(B+E)

17

49.2

1,033.4

14

201

4,220.1

250.2

Use Value

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)

5,253.5

Conservation Management : Conservation activities in Jirisan(Mt.) national park are carried out
in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Jirisan(Mt.) National Park. The park is divided by 5 different zone and its nature preservation
zone(31.8%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed by the park
managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their business activities are conducted
with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm the natural environment
of the park. Most of wildfires are caused not by natural phenomenon but by human being. To
suppress the wildfires during the dry season which lasts about 3 months, the park managers
make every effort with local community. One of conservation plans is to designate some park
areas for nature selfrestoring period. During this period visitors are not allowed to enter in
these areas. Restoration project of Ursus thibetanus ussuricus has conducted since 2002.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, the concentrated park use of visitors mostly takes place from July through August.
Secondly, it is the fragmentation of wildlife habitat which was caused by the road across
Jirisan(Mt.) national park. Lastly, temples situated around the park entrance. The long historic
temples represent Jirisan(Mt.)s cultural heritage but religious activities mainly carried out by
temples in the park can cause problems in park management. Park managers carry out various
efforts to minimize the impact of these factors.
Staff: Permanent Job: 151, Irregular Job: 80
Budget: 14.6million USD, 2007
Local Addresses
Jirisan(Mt.) National Park Office:
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99218, Sari, Sacheonmyeon, Sancheonggun, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea


Jirisan(Mt.) National Park Southern Office:
5111, Hwangjeonri, Masanmyeon, Guryegun, Jeollanamdo, Korea
Jirisan(Mt.) national Park Northern Office:
San 934, Buunri, Sannaemyeon, Namwonsi, Jeollabukdo, Korea
References:
Korea National Park Service. 2003. Natural resources survey of Jirisan(Mt.) national park
Korea National Park Service. 2006. The Management Plan for Jirisan(Mt.) national park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park
Ministry of Environment, 2003. The general planning for natural parks
Date: Edited in 1982. Revised in 2005 and 2008

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Gyeongju National Park

Name: Gyeongju National Park


IUCN Management Category: (Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Biogeographical Province: Japanese Evergreen Forest
Geographical Location: Latitude: 3539'N ~ 36 04'N, Longitude: 12858'E ~ 129 31'E
Date and History of Establishment: Gyeongju National Park was designated as the 2nd national
park on December 31, 1968. Since its designation, the park area is expanded to 138.715
from 103.205. The park was designated as a world cultural asset by UNESCO in 2000.
Area: 138.715
Land Tenure: 89.7% of the park is owned by private. State and publicowned land is 10% and
temple owns 0.3% of the park area.
Altitude: 40m ~ 827m
Physical Features: Gyeongju national park is located in the southeast region of Gyeonsangbuk
do(province) of Korea. Unlike other national parks, Gyeongju national park is located at the
center of the city and neighboring areas of Gyeongju; the park is widely distributed in 8
districts centering from important cultural assets such as Bulguksa(temple) and
Seokguramseokgul(Seokguram stone grotte and buddha statue). The 8 districts include
Tohamsan(Mt.) district, Daebon district, Namsan(Mt.) district, Seoak district, Danseoksan(Mt.)
district, Gumisan(Mt.) district, Hwarang district and Sogeumgang(river) district.
Climate: Average annual temperature of the park is 12.5 with the highest temperature of
35.4 and lowest temperature of 19.2. Average annual precipitation is 1,157, showing
concentrated precipitation of 46.83% from June to Auguest. Average humidity is 64.5% and
average wind speed is 8.5.
Vegetation: Gyeongju national park is temperate zone with main plant community of Quercus
acutissima Crruthers such as Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis and Quercus mongolica in
Tohamsan(Mt.) district and Danseoksan(Mt.) district, and Pinus densiflora in the rest of the
park area. Special species of trees are Cephalotaxus koreana, Pinus thunbergii, Lindera
erythrocarpa, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Euonymus japonica, Platycarya strobilacea, Celtis
sineansis, Euonymus fortunei var. radicans, Lindera glauca, Acer palmatum, Carpinus

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tschonoskii, Carpinus laxiflora and Pinus densiflora. Main vegetation for each district is as
belows.
District

Main Vegetation

Tohamsan(Mt.)
district

Quercus variabilisQuercus mongolica community, Quercus variabilis community,


Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis
Quercus serrata community and Quercus variabilisQuercus acutissima community
etc.

Namsan(Mt.)
district

Pinus densiflora community, Pinus thunbergii community, Phyllostachys nigra


var. henonis community, Quercus mongolica community, Quercus serrata
community and Quercus variabilis community etc.

Daebon district

Pinus thunbergii community, Quercus variabilis community, Phyllostachys nigra


var. henonis community and Robinia pseudoacacia community etc.

Seoak
District
Hwarang
District

Pinus densiflora community, Robinia pseudoacacia


densiflora Quercus mongolica community etc.

community

and

Pinus

Pinus densiflora community and Robinia pseudoacacia community etc.

Sogeumgant
(river) district

Pinus densiflora community, Pinus thunbergii community and Quercus acutissima


community etc.

Danseoksan(Mt.)
district

Quercus serrata community, Quercus mongolica community, Quercus serrata


Quercus aliena community, Quercus variabilis community, Pinus densiflora
community, Larix leptolepis community and Quercus acutissima community etc.

Gumisan(Mt.)
district

Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis community, Larix leptolepis


community and Pinus thunbergii community etc.

Flora: 119 families, 390 genera and 729 species have been recorded from research. As for
woody plants, there are Pinus densiflora, Quercus serrata, Quercus aliena, Quercus variabilis,
Quercus mongolica, Quercus dentata, Quercus acutissima, Pinus thunbergii, Fraxinus
rhynchophylla, Carpinus laxiflora, Zanthoxylum schinifolium and Robinia pseudoacacia. At the
forest floor, there are Callicarpa japonica, Lespedeza maximowiczii, Rhododendron
schlippenbachii, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Aster scaber, Isodon japonicus, Ainsliaea acerifolia,
Syneilesis palmata including Paeonia obovata and Iris koreana.
Fauna: 20 species of mammal, 94 species of bird, 29 species of reptile and amphibian, 273
species of insect and 18 species of fish have been recorded. As for dominant mammal species,
there are Hydropotes inermis, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Sciurus vulgaris, Tamias sibiricus, and
Prionailurus bengalensis. For dominant bird species, there are Larus crassirostris, Passer
montanus, Paradoxornis webbiana, Veratrum parulum and Hypsipetes amaurotis, Bubo bubo,
Strix aluco, Accipiter soloensis, Falco tinnunculus, Otus scops and Aix galericulata. For
dominant species of reptile and amphibian, there are Bombina orientalis, Rana nigromaculata,
Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus and Agkistrodon brevicaudus, Rana plandyi chosenica, Chinemys
reevesii and Kaloula borealis. Also, 95 species of invertebrates have been recorded.

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Cultural Heritage: Gyeongju Historic Areas within the park including Bulguksa(Historic and
Scenic Sites1), Seokguramseokgul(Seolkguram stone grotto and Buddha statue, National
Treasure No. 24) and Gyeongju Namsan(Mt.) are designated as World Heritage by UNESCO.
Gyeongju national park is famous for its rich cultural and historical assets that are widely
distributed through the park. As for designated cultural assets, there are 11 national treasures,
23 treasures and 13 historical relics. Also many undesignated cultural assets are widely
distributed in the park. Important cultural properties from the United Silla period include
threestory stone pagodas, Dabotop and Seokgatop, Cheongungyo and Baegungyo Bridges,
which are actually staircases, to Jahamun Gate, and Yeonhwagyo and Chilbogyu leading to
Geungnakjeon Hall, representative stone work of Silla. The Seokguram Grotto is the
masterpiece built during the golden age of the Buddhist art in Shilla. What makes it stand
out is a perfect combination of architecture, mathematics, geometry, religion and art. It was
registered at the UNESCO as a world heritage in 1995. Mainly stone constructions consist of
designated cultural assets with wooden construction, sculptures and war relics.
Local Human Population: There are 2 village zones within the park: nature village zone of
686,242 with 416 residents and overpopulated village zone of 236,390 with 680 residents.
Most of them engage in traditional farming and also running business including restaurants,
lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 8.5 million people visit the park annually with 6% of
foreign visitors. The number of visitors increases annually for recreation, hiking, sightseeing of
cultural assets, climbing and excursions. Park visitors are provided with a number of park
facilities including 2 access roads, 7 trails, 2 parking lots and 1 observatory.
Scientific Research and Facilities: Research on the park has been conducted several times
since 1994 for afforestation, study on ecosystem and research on natural and cultural
resources. In 2005, research on areas including human and cultural resources, geographical
features, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes and insects was
conducted and 985 species of flora and fauna have been recorded. Research on natural
resources in the park is now being conducted by Gyeongju National Park Office.
Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Gyeongjusan national park are carried out
in accordance with relevant laws: Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for Gyeongju
National Park and LongTerm Development Plan of Gyeongju. The park has 3 zones: nature
conservation zone, nature environment zone and nature village zone. The nature conservation
zone of 30.86 is habitat for parks wildlife with rich biodiversity. Nature environment zone
of 99.183 allows park facilities at a minimum level for the safety of visitors. Gyeongju
national park is the only one historic park with scenic and ecological value as well as cultural
and historic value.
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Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is widely distributed park: 8 park districts over Gyeongju city. Secondly, it is
concentrated park use of visitors resulting in damage on natural resources and illegal activities.
Thirdly, rampant business activities such as restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops at
the entrance and along the trails of the park, and car access to the temples and residents
villages within the park make park management even harder. In order to deal with those
problems, systematic visitor management plan and cultural and natural resources management
plan are needed.
Staff: Permanent Job: 23, Irregular Job: 28
Budget: 3.3million USD(based in 2008)
Local Addresses: Gyeongju National Park Office: 9586, Younggangdong, Gyeongjusi
References:
Ministry of Environment. 2003. National Plan for Nature Park
Gyeongju. 2005. The Management Plan for Gyeongju National Park
Gyeongju. 2006. 2006~2020. The LongTerm Development Plan of Gyeongju
Gyeongju. 2008. Annual Report of Gyeongju Statistics.
National Science Museum. 1997. Research on Ecosystem in Gyeongju National Park.
Ministry of Environment. 2001. Survey on Natural Resources of Korea: Natural Environment
of Gyeongju and Ulsan Region.
Ministry of Environment. 2002. Survey on Natural Resources of Korea: Natural Environment
of Gyeongju and Pohang Region.
Dongku University, Lee, JungIl. Cheong, Chulun. 2003. Mammals in Gyeongju National Park
(Toham Area)
Date: 2008

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Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Gyeryongsan(Mt.) is situated in inland mountains of the mid part of
the Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 362341N, Longitude: 1271759E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
st
designated 6,100ha of Gyeryongsan(Mt.) area as a national park on December 31 , 1968.
Since its designation, the park's land size has increased to 6,468.3ha.
Area: 6,468.3 ha
Land Tenure: 48% of the park is owned by state and the rest is owned by private. State
lands are distributed in environmentally important areas such as forest and stream. Private
lands are mainly distributed in temples and residential areas.
Altitude: 100m ~ 845m
Physical Features: Gyeryongsan(Mt.) is rocky mountain situated between Noryeong range and
Charyeong range, featuring Ushaped eroded basin towards the East. Gyeryong means rooster
and dragon. The peaks of the mountain line up and resemble a dragon wearing the crown of
a rooster. The entire area has several peaks such as Cheonhwangbong(peak), Sambulbong(peak)
and Sujeongbong(peak). They create beautiful scenic figures. The streams flowing through the
dense forest and the spectacular waterfalls attract many people's attention.
Climate: The mean temperature of Gyeryongsan(Mt.) is 12.6. Average annual precipitation is
1402.6, showing concentrated precipitation of 60% during rainy season from June to August.
Average annual wind speed is 1.7m/sec and it shows stronger wind speed of 1.8~2.2m/sec
from March to August. Annual sunshine hour is 183hr, showing more sunshine hours from
March to June.
Vegetation: According to temperature zone of Yim and Kira(1975), and Yim(1997),
Gyerongsan(Mt.) is an overlapping area of warm latitude of southern and northern part. It has
deciduous broadleaved such as Zelkova serrata, Quercus mongolica, Styrax obassia, Cornus
controversa, Styrax japonica in valley and inclined planes, showing typical vegetation of warm
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latitude of mid part of Pinus densiflora along with ridges. Main vegetation communities are
Quercus mongolica community, Quercus serrata community, Carpinus laxiflora community,
Quercus variabilis community, Quercus acutissima community and Pinus densiflora community.
Flora: The park contains 1,121 species of flora. In terms of designated species by CITES,
there are Securinega suffruticosa, Amitostigma gracilis, Cephalanthera longibracteata, Liparis
krameri, Cephalanthera falcate, Goodyera schlechtendaliana, Cymbidium goeringii, Sapium
japonicum and Euphorbia supine. As for endemic plants of Korea, there are Sasa coreana,
carex okamotoi, Polygonatum lasianthum var. coreanum, Salix hallaisanensis, Salix hulteni,
Clematis trichotoma, Deutzia coreana, Lespedeza thunbergii var. intermedia, Vaccinium
koreanum, Forsythia koreana and Weigela subsessilis. As for endemic flora community, there
are Sasa borealis community, Disporum smilacinum community, Adonis amurensis community,
Ajuga spectabilis community, Cephalanthera falcate community, Carpinus laxiflora community,
Hovenia dulicis community, Sapium japonicum community and Potentilla freyniana community.
Fauna: According to Natural Resources Survey of Gyerongsan national park(2007), there are
28 mammal species, 104 bird species, 13 amphibian species with dominant species of Rana
dybowskii and Rana rugosa, 11 reptile species with dominant species of Takydromus amurensis,
Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus and Agkistrodon ussuriensis, 27 fish species with dominant species
of Moroco oxycephalus, 138 invertebrate and 1,867 insects. As for endangered species of
mammal, there are Lutra lutra(natural monument), Prionailurus bengalensis and Martes
flavigula. Also there are Accipiter gentiles, Dyrocpus martius and Strix aluco as for
endangered species of birds.
Cultural Heritage: Gyerongsan(Mt.) was a place for religious service for the god of a
mountain along with Myohangsan(Mt.) and Jirisan(Mt.). It has been an important area for
spiritual and traditional reasons in Korea. Representative cultural heritages in Gyeryongsan(Mt.)
are Gapsa(temple), Shinwonsa(temple) and Donghaksa(temple) which are more than 1,000 years
old. Buddhism remains are widely distributed in Gyeryongsan(Mt.); 31 cultural assets including
2 national treasures, 7 treasures, 1 historical relic are protected by Cultural Property Protection
Law.
Local Human Population: Approximately 1,694 people are residing in the park. There are 5
zones in the park: nature preservation zone, nature environment zone, natural village zone,
overpopulated village zone and facilityconcentrated zone. There are around 208 residents in
facilityconcentrated zone of whom engage mostly in business such as lodging facilities and
restaurants. Around 1,320 residents engage in traditional farming in overpopulated village zone
and natural village zone. There are 138 residents in nature environment zone and 28 in nature
preservation zone. Among those, 450 buddhist monks reside in temples within the park.

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Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 1,960,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of park
facilities including 3 access roads, 1 visitor center, 14 trails(43km), 4 parking lots, 1 campsite
and 464 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1993 and 2003, the park office conducted natural
resources survey for the entire park area. The survey in 2003 included human environment,
cultural assets, geological and geographical features, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian,
reptilian, fish, insect, invertebrate and mycomycete with 39 experts for one year. Also long
term monitoring has been implemented on soil, mycomycetes, output of fallen leaves and
vegetation, land insect(daytime), land insect(night), invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptilian and
mammalian with relevant experts and those data are used for the management of natural
resources of the park.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contingent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park's minimum annual asset value was
15billion USD in 2007.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Gyeryongsan
(Mt.)

Preservation Value

Single
Use
Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(F)

13

17

357

140.9

2,958.3

Total
Value
Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B+E)

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)

157.9

3,315.3

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Gyeryongsan(Mt.) national park are


carried out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan
for Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park. Permission of activities within the park is varied
according to the level of conservation importance. Especially, nature preservation zone and
nature environment zone account for 97% of total area and those key areas are strictly
managed by the park managers as they are the habitats for parks wildlife with rich
biodiversity. Wild fires in the park are caused by humans from religious activities so that the
park office conducts fire prevention programs in cooperation with local community during dry
seasons. Other conservation activities include survey on ecosystem change in restricted areas,
longterm monitoring on natural resources and one park and one restoration project.
Management Constraints: Gyeryongsan(Mt.) national park office faces several challenges in
118

managing the park. Firstly, it is the visitor's concentrated use of the park. During spring
blossom, summer vacation and autumnal tints, many people come to the park to visit its main
valleys and mountains. Secondly, roads that run across Gyeryongsan(Mt.) national park hinder
animals movements, cause pollution problem and has been in inflow route of foreign animals
and plants. Thirdly, religious activities based on shamanism in the park make significant harm
on the park with the leftovers of the activities. Lastly, religious activities from temples also
make it difficult for park managers to manage the park. The park office is continuing its
efforts to minimize negative impacts of park use to the natural environment of the park by
focusing management capacity to these areas.
Staff: Permanent Job: 35, Irregular Job: 24
Budget: 1.8million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park Office: 777 Hakbongri, Banpomyeon, Kongjusi,
Chungcheonnamdo (Province)
Gapsa Branch Office: 3341, Jungjangri, Gyeryongmyeon, Kongjusi, Chungcheonnamdo
(Province)
Sutonggol Branch Office: 2198, Deokmyongdong, Yuseonggu, Daejeon
References:
Ministry of Environment. 2003. Basic Plan for Natural Park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park II
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Natural resources survey of Gyeryongsan(Mt.) national
park
Gyeryongsan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2006. The Management Plan for Gyeryongsan(Mt.)
National Park II(2006~2010)
Korea National Park Service. 2007. National Park Statistical Data
Date: Jan. 2008.

119

Hallyeohaesang(Marine) National Park

Name: Hallyeohaesang(Marine) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Japanese Evergreen Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Latitude: 343700N ~ 345800N, longitude: 1274600E ~ 1284500E
Date and History of Establishment: The park was designated as the 4th national park on Dec
31, 1968.
Area: 54,563 ha
Land Tenure: The park contains 72% of marine area and 28% of land. 23% of the land is
owned by private: temple, farming land and towns. Other state owned areas are sea, islands
and forests within the park.
Altitude: 0m ~ 701m
Physical Features: Hilliness area stretches towards northeastsouthwest and the coast is featured
with Lias coast. Sacheon district has beautiful coast view with Haksum(Is.) and Solsum(Is.).
Geoje district has fantastic marine view because of Oedo(Is.), Jisimdo(Is.) and Maemuldo(Is.)
which are worn out by waves. Tongyoung district is famous for Evergreen BroadLeaved Forest
of Bijindo(Is.) and Hansandoyichungmugongyujeok(Headquarters of Admiral Yi Sunsins navy in
Hansando, Historic Site No.113). Odongdo(Is.) has two small peaks at the center of the Island,
shaped like a rabbit. The Island consists mainly of base rock with steep slope in the southern part
but the northern part contains dense forests.
Climate: The mean average temperature is 14.0 in the southern sea,
13.9 in Geoje and 14.1 in Yeosu. It has oceanic climate with the
6.4~1.1 in winter. Average annual precipitation is 1,407.5mm ~
than 50% of the precipitation occurs in Summer. Average humidity
annual sunshine hour is 2,238~2,532hr.

14.2 in Tongyoung,
lowest temperature of
1,797.1mm and more
is 67.6%~68.7% and

Vegetation: Main vegetation communities are Pinus thunbergii community, Pinus thunbergiiPinus
densiflora community, Camellia japonica community and Pinus thunbergiiCamellia japonica
community. Mixed forest of needleleaf tree and broadleaved tree is distributed in Bijindo(Is.) and
120

Geojedo(Is.). Typical evergreen broadleaved forest covers most part of the area in warm area.
Camellia japonica community is widely distributed in Odongdo(Is.). In the seashore area, Pinus
thunbergii community is widely distributed but evergreen broadleaved forest is gradually
increasing in this area.
Flora: The park contains 1,163 species of flora. As rare plants, there are Majanthemum
dilatatum, Arisaema negishii, Tricyrtis dilatata, Calanthe discolor, Neofinetia falcate, Corylopsis
coreana, Ligularia taquetii, Ajuga spectabilis, Milletia japonica and Cymbidium nipponicum.
Fauna: 26 species of mammal, 122 species of bird, 9 species of amphibian, 19 species of
reptile, 1,610 species of insect and 24 species of fresh fish are recorded in the park. As
endangered species of mammal, there is Lutra lutra. As for endangered species of bird, there
are Falco peregrinus, Haliaeetus pelagicus, Circus aeruginosus, Terpsiphone atrocaudata,
Milvus migrans and Pitta brachyuran. Threre is Kaloula borealis, Elaphe schrenckii and
Callipogon relictus and Gymnopleurus mopsus, respectively for endangered species of
amphibians, reptiles and insects.
Cultural Heritage: 42 cultural properties are protected under Cultural Property Protection Law.
There are 29 national cultural properties(5 historical sites, 2 scenic spots, 21 natural monuments and 1
important folklore material) and 9 local cultural properties(1 local tangible cultural property and 8 local
monuments)
Local Human Population: There are 14,353 residents in 103 towns. Most of them engage in
traditional farming, fishing and businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities, and souvenir
shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 1,910,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of park facilities
including 10 trails, 9 parking lots, 4 access roads and 295 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1994 and 2005, the park office conducted natural
resources survey for the entire park area and southern park of Geojedo(Is.). 89 experts
participated in the survey on 28 areas including vegetation, climate, geological and
geographical features, mammalian, aves, invertebrate and ocean fish. Also monitoring on
natural ecosystem has been conducting annually.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Hallyeohaesang (Marine) National Park's annual asset value was
22billion USD in 2006.

121

Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Hallyeohaesang
(Marine)

Per
Single
Use Per annum
Visitor (million
(USD)
USD)
(A)
(B)

15

43.9

Total
Value
Per
Total
annum
Asset
(million
(million
USD)
USD)
(B+E)

Preservation Value
Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

920.0

12

183.6

(F)

3,855

227.4

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)
4,775.9

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Hallyeohaesang (Marine) National Park


are carried out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management
Plan for Hallyeohaesang(Marine) National Park. The park is divided by 5 different zones:
nature preservation zone, nature environment zone, natural village zone, overpopulated village
zone and facilityconcentrated zone. Nature preservation zone(1.7%) has rich biodiversity and it
is the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife which is strictly managed by the park
managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and business
activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm
the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires are caused not by natural phenomenon
but by human being. To suppress the wildfires during the dry season, the park managers make
every effort with local community. Other conservation activities include restoration project of
natural resources and implementation of specialpreserved area program.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is widely scattered park area. Secondly, concentrated use of the park in summer
season is also hindering the management of the park. In order to deal with these problems,
park managers carry out various efforts such as promoting special conservation area of the
park and Cleanup Time program.
Staff: Permanent Job: 46, Irregular Job: 42
Budget: 4.8million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Hallyeohaesang National Park Office: 634, Sangjuri, Sangjumyeon, Namhaegun,
Gyeongsangnamdo
Hallyeohaesang National Park Eastern Office: 115, Donamro, Tongyoungsi, Gyeongsangnamdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1994. Natural Resources Survey of Hallyeohaesang National Park

122

Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park
Hallyeohaesang National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Hallyeohaesang Natural
Park
Korea National Park Service. 2003. White Paper of National Park.
Korea National Park Service. 2005. Natural Resources Survey of Hallyeohaesang National Park
Hallyeohaesang National Park Office, Hallyeohaesang National Park Eastern Office. 2006.
Monitoring on Natural Resources of Hallyeohaesang National Park
Hallyeohaesang National Park Office, Hallyeohaesang National Park Eastern Office. 2006.
Monitoring on Natural Resources of Hallyeohaesang National Park
Date: revised in Jan. 2008

123

Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Seoraksan(Mt.) is located in a mountainous region of mideastern part of
the Korean Peninsula. Latitude:38 0525N~38 1236N, Longitude: 128 1803E~128 2643E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
designated 17,400ha of Seoraksan(Mt.) area as national park on March 24, 1970. Since its
designation, the park's land size has grown incrementally to 39,800ha.
Area: 39,800 ha
Land Tenure: 94% is state and public land and 6% is private land. State lands are distributed
in environmentally important areas such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed
in farming areas and residential areas.
Altitude: 50m ~ 1,708m
Physical Features: There are main ridges in Seoraksan(Mt) that stretches to Madeungnyeong
and Misiryeong in the northwest. Seobuk ridge stretches to Gwittegicheong and
Daeseungryeong in the west and Hwachae ridge stretches to Hwachaebong and chilsungbong in
the northeast. According to the ridges, the park can be divided into three parts: Nae(Inner)
Seorak, Oe(Outer) Seorak, and South Seorak. Hobakbawi(rock), Gidungbawi(rock),
Gongnyongneungseon, Yongajangseong, and Ulsanbawi(rock) in the park prove that
Seoraksan(Mt.) national park has one of the most magnificient rock topographies in Korea.
Seoraksan(Mt.)'s spectacular and diverse scenery is a result of largescale granite penetration
and accompanying differential erosion. The park's rounded topograhy such as Ulsanbawi is
caused by expoliation and pointed topograhy is caused by joint development. There are a
number of topographies related to falling rocks in the park. In particular, granites in the park's
Cheonbuldong region strike from east to west and from south to north. As a national park
with one of the most notable riverbed sceneries in Korea, Seoraksan(Mt.)'s many waterfalls
including Sibiseonnyeotang, Gugokdam, Cheonbuldong Valley, and various sizes of wells make
for a beautiful natural landscape.
Climate: In Seoraksan(Mt.) national park, as an alpine region with main ridge of 1000m, there
124

are extreme microclimatic differences in limited areas due to its proximity to the east sea. The
mean temperatures of Sokcho and Inje, two of the regions adjacent to the park, are 12.1,
and 9.9, respectively. Sokcho has an oceanic climate and Inje has a continental climate
characterized by heatwave in summer and severe cold in winter. Average annual precipitation
of Sokcho and Inje are 1,324mm and 1,114mm respectively. More than 46% and 58.8% of the
precipitations in the two regions occur in the summer. Average annual wind speed of Sokcho
m
m
and Inje are 3.1 /s, and 1.9 /s, respectively.
Vegetation: There are a total of 22 vegetation communities including Quercus mongolica
community, Quercus mongolicaPinus densiflora community, Quercus mongolicaPinus koraiensis
community, Quercus mongolicaTilia amurensis community, Pinus densiflora community, Pinus
densifloraQuercus mongolica community, Pinus densifloraQuercus serrata community, Pinus
densifloraCastanea crenata var. dulcis community, Pinus densifloraQuercus dentata community,
Pinus koraiensis community, Pinus koraiensisQuercus mongolica community, Larix leptolepis
community, Quercus serrata community, Quercus serrataQuercus variabilis community, Quercus
variabilis community, Quercus variabilisPinus densiflora community, Tilia amurensisQuercus
mongolica community, Tilia amurensisAcer pseudosieboldianum community, Carpinus laxiflora
Quercus mongolica community, Betula ermaniiAbies nephrolepis community, Pinus pumila
Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. var. ciliatum Nakai community, and Abies nephrolepis
Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz. var. ciliatum Nakai community. There are virtually no
differences in vegetation patterns in the eastern and western region of the park. However,
vegetation patterns vary according to altitude, geograhical features, and human intervention.
Seoraksan(Mt.) is located at the heart of the Korean peninsula, and it has a significant academic
value. The park, designated as a national park, nature reserve area, and biosphere reserve, is a
great reservoir of Korea's plant resources. In addition, it is one of the most notable forest areas
in the middle temperate zone.
Flora: As a region where virgin forests of the middle temperate zone are located, the park contains
1,292 species of flora. In particular, in the alpine region of more than 1300m, due to climatic
factors such as wind, temperature and humidity, mixed forests of deciduous forest and evergreen
needleaf forest are developed. However, in some parts of the park pure forests are found.
Fauna: Some 44 mammal species, 109 bird species, 10 amphibians, 19 reptilians, 43 fishes,
and 1,683 insects have been recorded. Most commonly seen mammals include Talpa robusta,
Sus scrofa, Sciurus vulgaris and Nyctereutes procyonoides. Resident but rarely seen are Ursus
thibetanus, Lutra lutra, Pteromys volans, Felis bengalensis and Martes flavigula. Parus major,
Parus palustris, Halcyon coromanda, Sitta europaea and Parus varius varius(birds), Bombina
orientalis and Hyla japonica(amphibians), Takydromus amurensis and Natrix tigrina
lateralis(reptilians), Zacco temminckii, Moroco kumgangensis Uchida and Zacco platypus(fish)
are most commonly seen.
125

Cultural Heritage: Seoraksan(Mt.) is known as a mountain that is always covered in snow,


since the snow at the top of the mountain in midAutumn stays unmelted until the following
summer. Seoraksan(Mt.) national park boasts the most majestic geographical features of the
Taebaek Mountains, the main mountain range of the Baekdudaegan, the backbone of the
Korean peninsula. The park is a great reservoir of natural resources along with steep ridges,
deep valleys and countless stone peaks. In the park, there are 19 small and big temples
including Sinheungsa, Baekdamsa, Bongjeongam, and Gyejoam. Also Buddhist remains are
widely located throughout the Seoraksan(Mt.) national park. In addition, 14 Natural monuments
and 12 Cultural Properties are designated and protected in the park.
Local Human Population: Approximately 2,671 people are residing in 6 towns within the
park's buffer zone. Some of them engage in traditional farming and others own businesses
including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 3 million people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 5 park offices, 1 visitor center, 5 mountain shelters, 9 parking lots
and 9 visitor information booths.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1984, 1992 and 2001, park management authorities
conducted natural resources surveys for the entire Seoraksan(Mt.) area. In particular, the survey
conducted in 2001 included human and cultural resources, geographical features, soil, vegetation,
mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects, invertebrates and mycomycetes. 39 experts
participated in this oneyear survey, and 3460 fauna and flora species were identified.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 26billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Seoraksan
(Mt.)

Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(F)

17

53.8

1,129.3

14

211.3

4,437.1

126

Total
Value Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B+E)

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)

265.1

5,566.3

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Seoraksan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Nature Park, Management Plan for
Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park. The park has rich biodiversity and its nature preservation
zone(78.8%), the habitat for park's wildlife, is strictly managed by the park managers.
Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and business activities are
conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm the natural
environment of the park. The park office carries out natural resources survey and various
monitoring projects including sabbatical year program, observation of ecosystem change, survey
of wild animal roadkill, damaged area under restoration and migration path for wild animals.
Other activities include operations of wildlife protection team, environment interpreter and
visitor safety management team.
Management Constraints: The goal and management direction of the Seoraksan(Mt.) national
park is "To make sure every park visitor can fully enjoy the park experience". Since its
designation as Korea's national park, the park's management policy has changed in phases.(1.
Development>2. Conservation>3. Public use>4. Sustainable use>5. Natural ecosystem
conservation.) However, there are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors. Secondly, it is traffic congestion caused by park
visitors' automobile use. Thirdly, roads near the park have been problematic. Although roads
were constructed for practical reasons, it caused the creation of isolated ecosystems thus
hindering animals' movements and has been an inflow route for foreign animals and plants.
Also, the park needs more visitor centers and mountain shelters' should be refurnished since
it's impossible to complete the full climbing course of Seoraksan(Mt.) in one day. Lastly,
religious activities mainly carried out by many temples in the park can cause problems in park
management. Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize the impact of these factors.
Staff: Permanent Job: 79, Irregular Jobs: 48
Budget: 6.2 million USD (2007)
Local Addresses:
Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park Office: 431, Seorakdong, Sokchosi, Gangwondo
Osaek Ranger Station: 4811, Osaekri, Yangyanggun, Gangwondo
Baekdam Ranger Station: 8681, Yongdae 2ri, Bukmyon, Injegun, Gangwondo
Jangsudae Ranger Station: 871, Hangyeri, Bukmyon, Injegun, Ganwondo
Daechong Ranger Station: San 124, Osaekri, Somyon, Yangyanggun, Gangwondo
References
Korea National Park Service. 1997. The natural ecosystem conservation plan for Seoraksan(Mt.)
national park
Korea Environment Institute. 1998. Measures to conserve endangered wildlife
127

Korea National Park Service. 1998. The 30year history of Korea's national parks
Ministry of Construction & Transportation. 1988. The plan for Seoraksan(Mt.) national park
HongJun Yang. 1999. Problems caused by introduction of foreign species and countermeasures
Korean National Commission for UNESCO. 1999. UNESCO biosphere reserves data
IUCN/SSC. 1999. Plant conservation strategy for the 21st century
Cultural Heritage Administration. 1999. Map on natural & cultural heritage
Gangwon Institute of Health & Environment. 1999. Research on Seoraksan(Mt.)'s tourist
attraction
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Research on the development of national parks' nature
learning program and environment interpretation technique
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Detailed survey of national parks' sabbatical year area
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Longterm & comprehensive plan for survey and research
projects of national parks
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Research on maintenance and building methods
development of park facilities with emphasis on conservation of ecosystem
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Detailed survey on vegetation of Seoraksan(Mt.)'s subalpine
zone and geological features
Korea National Park Service. 2000. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park
Korea National Park Service. 2001. Research on opinion gathering with regard to building
park facilities in national parks
Korea National Park Service. 2001. Natural resources survey of Seoraksan(Mt.) national park
Gangwondo provincial government. 2002. Measures to make natural parks management more
efficient and systematic
Korea National Park Service. 2002. Research on proper management plan for wild animals in
national parks
Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements. 2002. Report on efficient management plan
research of Baekdudaegan(2nd year)
Korea National Park Service. 2003. White Paper on National Parks
Korea National Park Service. 2003. The Management Plan For Seoraksan(Mt.) national park
Korea National Park Service. 2005. National Park Statistical Data
Date: 1982, revised in 2005 and 2008.

128

Songnisan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Songnisan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in inland mountains of the mid part of the Korean
Peninsula. Latitude: 364638~362805, Longitude: 1274706~1275750
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
th
th
designated Songnisan(Mt.) area as the 6 national park on March 24 , 1970.
Area: 274.541
Land Tenure: 52.3% of the park area is state and public owned, 35.8% is private owned and
11.9% is owned by Temple. State and public lands are distributed in environmentally core
areas such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed in farming areas around the
park entrance and residential areas.
Altitude: 150m ~ 1058m
Physical Features: Songnisan(Mt.) is situated in the middle of Sobaeksanmaek(mountain range)
and main ridge is divided to northern ridge and southern ridge. As a representative
geographical feature, Songnisan(Mt.) has high and steep granite, high and deep peaks and
valleys with denaturalized sedimentary rock.
Climate: The park area has a typical continental climate characterized by distinctive four
seasons, dramatic temperature changes and microclimate. The mean temperatures during last
three decades is 10.7 with average annual precipitation of 1,261.5 and annual sunshine
hour of 2,447
Vegetation: Main vegetation communities include Berchemia berchemiaefolia community, Sasa
borealis community, Ilex macropoda community, Pinus densiflora community and Carpinus
laxiflora community. In deciduous broadleaved forest, there are deciduous broadleaved forest
including Quercus mongolica community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Quercus serrata
community and Quercus variabilis community, and Evergreen needleleaved forest including
Pinus densiflora community. Also Anemone reflexa community, Sanicula tuberculata community
and Ajuga spectabilis community have been recorded.
129

Flora: The park shows typical central inland climate and features with trees from warm latitude.
Main species of trees includes Pinus densiflora but Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis,
Quercus serrata and Carpinus laxiflora are distributed highly in alpine regions and valleys. The
park contains 1,055 species of flora. Due to wet air, it shows stable status of flora.
Fauna: There are 20 species of mammal, 97 species of bird, 14 species of amphibian, 11
species of reptile, 34 species of fish and 1,335 species of insect.
Cultural Heritage: There are temples that are more than 1,000 years old such as
Beopjusa(temple) and cultural resources are widely distributed in the park. There are 3 national
treasures, 16 treasures, 25 local cultural assets and 13 natural monuments designated and
protected by the Cultural Properties Protection Act.
Local Human Population: In nature environment zone, 84 people are residing in 33 towns
within the park's buffer zone. Some of them engage in traditional farming and others own
businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 120,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 6 access roads, 4 park offices, 13 trails(115km), 5 parking lots, 3
campsites, 4 park information centers and 447 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 2002, the park office conducted natural resources survey
on human and cultural environment, visitor pattern, geological and geographical features,
natural landscape, climate, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes,
invertebrate and insects. 2,897 species of flora and fauna have been recorded. Monitoring has
been implemented from 2003 to 2007.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Songnisan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 13billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Songnisan
(Mt.)

Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(F)

10

12.3

258.4

120.9

2,538.9

130

Total
Value Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B+E)

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)

133.2

2,797.3

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Songnisan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Songnisan(Mt.) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different zones and its nature
preservation zone(106.38, 38.8% of the entire area of the park), the core area for the habitat
of park's wildlife, is strictly managed by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is
protected and their business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities
so long as it doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires are caused
not by natural phenomenon but by human. To suppress the wildfires during the dry season,
the park managers make every effort with local community. Other conservation activities
include elimination of alien species, implementation of specialpreserved area program,
monitoring programs and restoration of damaged area.
Management Constraints: There are several challenges in managing the park. Firstly, it is the
visitor's concentrated use of the park. During spring and autumnal tints(Oct~Nov), many people
come to the park to visit temples and valleys during summer. Secondly, access roads that run
across the park cause damages on natural resources, inflow route for foreign animals and
plants, hindrance of animals movements and air pollution issue.
Staff: Permanent Job: 34, Irregular Job: 40
Budget: 3.5million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Songnisan(Mt.) national park office: 191, Sangpanri, Songnisanmyeon, Boeungun,
Chungcheonbukdo
Songnisan(Mt.) Hwayang national park branch office: 277, Hwayangri, Cheongchunmyeon,
Geosangun, Chungcheonbukdo
Songnisan(Mt.) Ssanggok national park branch office: 1473, Ssanggokri, Chilseongmyeon,
Geosangun, Chungcheonbukdo
Songnisan(Mt.) Hwabuk national park branch office: 11, Jangamri, Hwabukmyeon, Sangjusi,
Gyeongsangbukdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 2002. Natural resources survey of Songnisan(Mt.) national park
Songnisan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003~5. The Management Plan for Songnisan(Mt.) National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2003~7. Monitoring on Natural Resources of Songnisan(Mt.)
National Park
Ministry of Environment. 2003. Basic Plan for Natural Park
Songnisan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2006~10. The Management Plan for Songnisan(Mt.) National Park
Date: 2005 and revised in 2008
131

Hallasan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Hallasan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Japanese Evergreen Forest
Geographical Location: Hallasan(Mt.) is located at the center of Jejudo(Is.). The altitude of the
top of the mountain is 1,950m which is the highest in Korea. Latitude: 331910N~
332535N, Longitude: 1262750 E ~1263755 E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
th
th
designated part of Hallasan(Mt.) of 133 as the 7 national park on March 24 , 1970. Through
several changes of plans of national parks, the area is now 153.38. The park was
designated as Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO on December 16th, 2002 and Jeju Volcanic
Island and Lave Tubes in the park was designated as the first World Natural Heritage in
Korea in 2007.
Area: 153.38
Land Tenure: 96.9% of the park area is state and public owned. 2.2% of private land is used
for forest land and ranch.
Altitude: 580m ~ 1950m
Physical Features: Hallasan(Mt.) national park is a coneshaped aspite formulated by eruption
of volcanoes. The altitude of the park is 580m~1,950m featured with youth landform with
initial topography through several hundred times of eruptions and protrusions of volcanoes,
which resulted in picturesque sceneries such as Byungpoongbawi(rock), Wangkwanbawi(rock),
Samgakbong(peak), Sunnyupokpo(fall) and Tamlagyegok(valley). The park has very unique
scenery with development of pillarshaped joint and geographical features from weathering. It
has 2,000 species of plants with various climate differences according to altitude. Due to its
geographical feature as an Island, it has many subspecies from isolation. Also it has polar and
tropic animals because of climate difference varied by altitude.
Climate: It has cold and humid climate. Annual average temperature more than 600m
5.3~10.9 with the highest temperature of 8.8~11.5 and the lowest temperature
2.2~5.5. Baengnokdam(lake), which is situated at the top of Hallasan(Mt.) formed
volcanic activity, has average temperature of 3.8 in spring, 15.5 in summber, 7.5
132

is
of
by
in

autumn and 5.6 in winter. Average annual precipitation is 4,000 in the area of more than
1,500m altitude and 3,0004,000 in the area of 6001,400m altitude. The average annual
precipitation in Baengnokdam(lake) is 4,575 and 4,749 in the area of 1,500m altitude.
Vegetation: Vegetation in an area of 600m is evergreen broadleaved forest, deciduous forest in
an area of 600m~1,400m and subalpine zone in an area of more than 1,400m. Natural
conservation area is mostly subalpine zone and southern boundary area with Abies koreana
community. Main vegetations are Carpinus laxiflora community, Pinus densiflora community,
Abies koreana community, Quercus serrata community, Rhododendron mucronulatum var.
ciliatumRhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense community and haugh. In Carpinus laxiflora
community, there are Camellia japonica, Eurya japonica, Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldii
and Carpinus laxiflora, Carpinus laxiflora, Ilex crenata, Daphniphyllum macropodum as
dominant species and Cornus kousa, Asarum maculatum, Styrax japonica, Smilax china,
Quercus serrata and Taxus cuspidata as appearance species. In Quercus serrata community,
there are Quercus serrata, Carpinus tschonoskii, Styrax japonica, Ilex crenata as dominant
species and Lindera erythrocarpa, Styrax japonica, Ilex crenata, Viburnum erosum, Smilax chin,
Carpinus laxiflora, Viburnum dilatatum, Smilacina japonica and Asarum maculatum as
appearance species. In Abies koreana community, there are Abies koreana, Taxus cuspidata,
Carex ciliatomarginata, Sorbus commixta as dominant species and Abies koreana, Taxus
cuspidata, Carex ciliatomarginata, Asarum maculatum, Sorbus commixta and Quercus
mongolica as appearance species.
In Pinus densiflora community, there are Pinus densiflora, as dominant species and Styrax
japonica, Ilex crenata, Quercus serrata, Smilax china, Pourthiaea villosa, Cornus kousa,
Elaeagnus umbellate and Hedera rhombea as appearance species. In Rhododendron
mucronulatum var. ciliatumRhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense community, there are
Rhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense, Rhododendron yedoense var. poukhanense and
Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum as dominant species, and Agrostis flaccida var. trinii,
Cirsium rhinoceros, Galium pusillum, Deschampsia caespitosa, Empetrum nigrum var.
japonicum and Thymus quinquecostatus as main species.
Flora: As for vascular plants, there are 1,990 taxa: 167 families 770 genera 1,818 species 121
variants and 50 breeds including 93 of endemic plants. As for endemic plants, there are 27
families 49 genera and 53 taxa including both endemic plants of Korea and Jeju. There are
Abies koreana, Carex erythrovasis, Salix hallaisanensis, Betula ermani var. saitoana, Clematis
chiisanensis, Hepatica insularis, Megaleranthis saniculifolia, Thalictrum uchiyamai, Saxifraga
fortunei var. pilosissima, Potentilla dickinsii var. breviseta, Weigela subsessilis, Scabiosa
mansenensis for. alpina, Adenophora triphylla var. hirsuta as Korean endemic plants. As Jeju
endemic plants, there are Chrysosplenium grayanum, Cimicifuga acerina, Prunus yedoensis,
Cirsium rhinoceros and Taraxacum hallaisanensis. As for rare plants, 43 families 92 genera

133

116 taxa are recorded in the park: 15 taxa of Pteridophyta, 2 taxa of gymnosperm, 99 taxa of
angiosperm which are relict of ice age as alpine flora in circumpolar. Diapensia, endangered
wild plant designated and protected by Ministry of Environment, has been found including
Crypsinus hastatus, Gastrodia elata, Paeonia obovata.
Fauna: There are 11 orders 20 families and 24 species. Among these, there are Jeju Mustela
sibirica coreana, JejuRhinolophus ferrumequinum, JejuCrocidura lasiura, JejuApodemus
agrarius, JejuMicromys minutus as endemic species of Jeju and Myotis formosus as endangered
species. There are 64 orders 167 families 364 species of bird in the park. 29% is resident
bird, 23.4% is summer migratory bird, 22% of winter migratory bird, 12.9% of migratory bird
and 9.8% of vagrant. As endangered species of bird, there are Aquila chrysaetos, Aegypius
monachus, Buteo buteo, Pernis apivorus, Terpsiphone atrocaudata, Falco subbuteo, Falco
tinnunculus and Pitta brachyura. There are 11 orders 18 families and 20 species of amphibian
and reptile. As dominant species of amphibian, there are Rana dybowski, Bombina orientalis
and Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus. There are Elaphe dione and Agkistrodon ussuriensis as for
dominant species of reptiles. Sibinophis colaris is endangered species. There are 20 orders 230
families and 2,588 species of insects. As natural monument, Eumenis autonoe inhabit in
subalpine zones with more than 1,500m of altitude. Also there are endangered species
designated by Ministry of Environment such as Eumenis autonoe, Prosopocoilus astacoides
blanchardi, Buprestidae, Copris tripartitus, Gymnopleurus mopsus and Fabriciana nerippe.
Cultural Heritage: There are 3 national cultural properties including Hallasan(Mt.) nature
reserve(Natural Monuments No. 182) and 3 local cultural properties. Hallasan(Mt.) nature
reserve covers 90.93 of top of Hallasan(Mt.) and also part of Jeju Volcanic Island and
Lave Tubes, world heritage of Jeju.
Table 5> Cultural Properties in Hallasan(Mt.) National Park
Category

Cultural Property

Hallasan(Mt.) nature reserve(Natural Monuments No. 182)


National Cymbidium orchids(c.kanran makino of Jejudo(Is.)) (Natural Monuments No. 191)
Jejudo horses(Natural Monuments No. 347)
Natural
Monements Natural habitat of cheery trees(prunus yedoensis matsumura) in Sinyeri(Natural
Monuments No. 156)
Local
Cultural
Property

Gwaneumsamokjogwaneumbosaljwasang(Seated wooden avalokitesvara bodhisattva


statue in Gwaneumsa Temple) Tangible Cultural Properties No.16
Jonjaamji(Jonjaamji site) Monument No. 43
Gwaneumsauiwangbeonnamujasaengji(Natural Habitat of Cherry trees of Gwaneumsa
Temple) Monument No. 51

134

Local Human Population: No inhabitants


Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 800,000 people visit the park for recreation, hiking and
mount climbing. Park visitors are provided with a number of park facilities including 4 park
offices, 1 visitor center, 5 parking lots and 7 shelters
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 2002 and 2007, the park office conducted natural
resources survey on the whole area of the park. 1,800 species of plants and 4,000 species of
fauna have been recorded from the survey in 2007.
Conservation Value: No information
Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Hallasan(Mt.) national park are carried out
in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Hallasan(Mt.) National Park and Management Plan on World Heritage. 59.3% of the
park(90.93) is Hallasan(Mt.) nature reserve where habitat of wildlife with rich biodiversity is
strictly managed by park managers. Commercial facilities are prohibited and business activity
is conducted with the permission of the park authority so long as it doesnt harm the natural
environment of the park at minimum level. Research and monitoring around
Baengnokdam(lake), restoration area for natural resources are conducted on a regular basis.
Management Constraints: The challenge the park faces is increasing number of visitors. Since
its designation as a national park in 1974, the visitors have increased gradually and the
number of visitors was 800,000 in 2007. In order to have a balance between conservation of
the park and efficient sustainable use, the park is conducting a study on appropriate level of
admissions of visitors. The result will come out at the end of 2008.
Staff: Permanent Job: 28, Irregular Job: 73
Budget: 7.5million USD
Local Addresses:
Hallasan(Mt.) National Park Office: 2201 Haeandong, 555 1100 Road, Jejusi, Jeju Special
SelfGoverning Province.
Seongpanak Management Office: 13724, Gyorari, Jocheonyup, Jeju Special SelfGoverning
Province.
Youngsil Management Office: 248 Youngsilro, Seoguiposi, Jeju Special SelfGoverning
Province.
Management Office of Visitor Center: 2201 Haeandong, 555 1100 Road, Jejusi, Jeju Special
SelfGoverning Province.
Gwanyumsa Information Center: 255 Sanrokdoro, Jejusi, Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province.

135

References:
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2007. Data of Hallasan(Mt.)
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2002. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2003. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2004. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2005. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2006. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2007. Research Report
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2008. Research Report
Hallasan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2004. The Management Plan for Hallasan(Mt.) National
Park.
Jejudo. 2006. Series of Hallasan(Mt.)
Korea National Park Service. 2008. Statistics of National Park.
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2005. Status of Wildlife in
Hallasan(Mt.) and Management Plan
Korea National Park Service. 2002. Natural Resources Survey of Hallasan(Mt.) National Park.
Jejudo. 2005. Management Plan of World Natural Heritage of Jejudo.
Jejudo. 2003. Biosphere Reserves of Jejudo
Jeju Special SelfGoverning Province Hallasan(Mt.) Institute. 2006. Report on Nature Reserve
of Hallasan(Mt.).
Ministry of Construction. 1987. Management Plan of Hallasan(Mt.) National Park.
Date: 2008.

136

Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Naejangsan(Mt.) is part of Noryeong mountain range that is situated in
block mountains in the northern of Sobaek mountain range. Latitude: 3541, Longitude:
12649
th

Date and History of Establishment: Naejangsan(Mt.) national park was designated as the 8
national park on Nov 17, 1971. Since its designation, the land size of park has increased to
8171.5ha(81.715) in 2003.
Area: 8,172ha
Land Tenure: Large part of the park is temple with 32.5(39.8%), state and public land is
29.3(35.8%) and private land is 19.9(24.4%). Most of forest land is state and public land
and most of farmland is owned by private.
Altitude: 50m ~ 763m
Physical Features: Naejangsan(Mt.) national park consists of steep mountainous district with
Noryeong mountain range running across the middle of the park. As a vein of Noryeong
mountain range, the park passes Naejangsan(Mt.), Baegamsan(Mt.) and Honamjeongmaek
(mountain range). Granite and gneiss are distributed in the part of southeast, southwest and
northwest of the park, showing low geographical features. Most of the areas consist of
volcanic rocks showing steep mountains.
Climate: The park has inland climate area with mean temperature of 14.8. The highest
temperature is 29.3 and lowest temperature is 5.9. Average annual precipitation is 1,153,
showing concentrated precipitation of 40% in July. Average humidity is 66%, lower compared to
the average one of Korea. Annual sunshine hour is 1,512hr.
Vegetation: Naejangsan(Mt.) is an area where mixed plants of North and South coexist. Main
vegetation communities in the park include Torreya nucifera community, Pinus densiflora
community, Quercus variabilis community, Carpinus laxiflora community and Acer palmatum
community. Plants of North and South are Coniogramme japonica, Cyrtomium fortunei,
137

Asplenium sarelii, Phegopteris decursivepinnata, Athyrium wardii, Athyrium mesosorum,


Lemmaphyllum microphyllum, Torreya nucifera, Vexillabium yakusimense var. nakaianum,
Hetaeria sikokiana and Isachne globosa.
Flora: Flora in Naejangsan(Mt.) features southern subregion with distribution of southern plants
such as Fagus crenata var. multinervis and Meliosma oldhamii. 919 species of flora have been
recorded in the park according to survey on natural resources in 1994, natural resources
survey of Naejangsan(Mt.) national park in 2004 and monitoring on natural resources in 2005
and 2007.
Fauna: 5 orders 11 families 18 species of mammal, 14 orders 30 families 82 species of bird,
29 species of reptile, 4 orders 10 families 28 species of fresh water fishes, 1,732 species of
insects 14 orders 45 families 100 species of invertebrates have been recorded.
Cultural Heritage: In Naejangsan(Mt.) national park, there are 1 treasure, 7 local cultural assets, 2
natural monuments, 2 local monuments and 1 historical site.
Local Human Population: Approximately 1,000 people are residing in 9 nature village
zones(0.306) and 2 facilityconcentrated zones(0.306) within the park. Most of them
engage in traditional farming and businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities, and
souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities:
visit of 65~70% during peak
park facilities including 6
information centers, 6 parking

There are 1,200,000 of park visitors annually with concentrated


time in autumn. Park visitors are provided with a number of
access roads(19.4km), 1 visitor center, 15 trails(61.5), 5
lots and 2 campsites.

Scientific Research and Facilities: Conservation plan on natural ecosystem of Naejangsan(Mt.)


national park has been made in 1997 and natural resources survey on the whole park area
were conducted in 1994 and 2004. In particular, 2,229 fauna and flora species were identified
from the research on 14 areas including human and cultural resources, climate, geographical
features, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects, invertebrates
and mycomycetes in the oneyear survey in 2004. Monitoring of Natural Resources on 13
areas including climate, vegetation, flora and mammalian was conducted from 2005 to 2007.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 18billion USD
in 2006.

138

Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Naejangsan(Mt.)

Single
Per
Use Per annum
Visitor (million
(USD)
USD)
(A)
(B)

13

16.5

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Single
Per
Total
(million (million
Household annum
Asset
Per Year (million (million
USD)
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
Preservation Value

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

345.9

(D)

11

(E)

165

(F)

3,465.2

181.5

3,811

Conservation Management : Conservation activities in Naejangsan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Nature Park, Management Plan for
Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different zones and its nature
preservation zone(21.4%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed
by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and
business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it
doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires are caused not by natural
phenomenon but by human. To suppress the wildfires during the dry season, the park
managers make every effort with local community. Other conservation activities include
elimination of alien species, implementation of specialpreserved area, monitoring programs and
restoration of damaged area.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during autumn(OctoberNovember) resulting in a
lack of parking sites, difficulty in entering into the park and illegal activities in facility
concentrated zone. Secondly, it is road that runs across Naejangsan(Mt.): roads were
constructed for practical reasons but it causes pollution problems and hinders animals
movements. Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize the damages incurred from
those activities
Staff: Permanent Job: 48, Irregular Job: 27 (Jan. 2008)
Budget: 4.3million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park Office: 5910, Naejangdong, Jeongyupsi, Jeonlabukdo Province
Naejangsan(Mt.) Baekam National Park Office: 2521, Yaksuri, Bukhamyeon, Jangsunggun,
Jeonlanamdo Province
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1994. Survey on Natural Resources of Naejangsan(Mt.) National
Park
139

Korea National
Park
Korea National
National Park
Korea National
National Park
Korea National
National Park
Korea National
Korea National

Park Service. 2004. Survey on Natural Resources of Naejangsan(Mt.) National


Park Service. 2005. First Monitoring of Natural Resources of Naejangsan(Mt.)
Park Service. 2006. Second Monitoring of Natural Resources of Naejangsan(Mt.)
Park Service. 2007. Third Monitoring of Natural Resources of Naejangsan(Mt.)
Park Service.2006. The Management Plan for Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park
Park Service.2007. Statistics of Naejangsan(Mt.) National Park.

Date: 2008

140

Gayasan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Gayasan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in the inland mountains of the southern park of the
Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 354444N ~ 355105N, Longitude: 1280830E ~ 1281230E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the park was designated
th
th
as the 5 historic and scenic site on June 24, 1966 and also designated as the 9 national
park on Oct. 13, 1972.
Area: 77.074
Land Tenure: 25.1% of the land is owned by private (19.361 out of 77.074), 39%(30.058
) is owned by temple and 64.1% is owned by state and public(11.002 and 16.653,
respectively).
Altitude: 300m ~ 1,430m
Physical Features: Gayasan(Mt.) has mountain scenery such as Sangwangbong(peak) and
Chilbulbong(peak), and riverbed scenery such as Chinri and Baekundong valley.
Sangwangbong(peak) ridge that stretches towards eastwestern shows huge ruggedness resulting
from differential weathering and erosion. Hongnyudong valley is located at the entrance of
Haeinsa(temple) and is aptly regarded as a beautiful valley. It is called Hongnyudongred area
since the maples, pine trees and broadleaved trees are reflected on the streams, resembling a
burning fire. NamsanJaeilbong ridge that stretches along with the top represents the best
mountain scenery in Gayasan(Mt.)
Climate: Average annual temperature of Gayasan(Mt.) is 12.81 with the highest temperature
of 39.2 in 1994 and the lowest temperature of 14.5 in 2001. Average annual precipitation
is 1,159.65mm, showing concentrated precipitation of 60% during rainy season from June to
August.
Vegetation: Vegetation type of Gayasan(Mt.) are as follows: Pinus densiflora forest(20.5%)
Quercus mongolica forest(39.6%), Quercus serrata forest(10%), rock vegetation(1.7%), Larix
leptolepis and afforestation (0.8%). Pinus densiflora community of Pinus densiflora forest and
141

Quercus mongolica Pinus densiflora community of Quercus mongolica forest are


distributed widely in Gayasan(Mt.). Quercus mongolica Quercus variabilis community are
partly distributed around Uisangbong(peak), showing the lowest level of vegetation
distribution. Facility-concentrated zone in Baegundong and top of Gayasan(Mt.) represent
typical community of Quercus mongolica forest. Namsanjeilbong(peak) including
Haeinsa(temple) has mixed forest of Pinus densiflora and Quercus mongolica. As for
afforestation, Larix leptolepis is partly distributed around service zone in Baegundong.
Jukjeonlee and Pinus densiflora is also partly distributed in facility-concentrated zone in
Baegundong.
Flora: According to natural resources survey of Gayasan(Mt.) national park(2007), the park
contains 590 taxa(109families, 390 genera, 590 species, 1 subspecies, 75 variants and 5
breeds), showing 15.94% of Tracheophyta in Korea. Among the taxa, there are 18 taxa of
Korean special species of plants including Abies koreana, 3 taxa of endangered species
designated by the Ministry of Environment which are Lilium cernum, Trientalis europaea and
Paeonia obovata, and rare plant designated by Korea Forest Service of Lilium distichum and
Cnidium tachiroei,.
Fauna: According to Natural Resources Survey of Gayasan(Mt.) national park (2007), there are
22 species of mammal, 61 species of bird, 5 species of reptile, 11 species of amphibians, 423
species of insect, 17 species of fish, 78 invertebrates and 181 arachnida. Among these, Lutra
lutra(natural monement No.330), Pteromys volans(natural monement No. 328), Aix
galericulata(natural monement No. 327), Accipiter soloensis, Accipiter nisus, Falco
tinnunculus(natural monement No. 323) and otus scops(natural monement No. 324) have been
observed. Prionailurus bengalensis, Buteo buteo and Circus aeruginosus(1species) which are
designated as endangered species by Ministry of Environment inhabit in the park. As for
CITES, 3 species including Ephemera separigata are mostly commonly seen.
Cultural Heritage: The park has many cultural heritages and historical remains;
Haeinsa(temple), the main temple of the 12th district of the biggest Korean Buddhism group
Jogyejong, is located in Gayasan(Mt.) national park. The park also has 3 national treasures
including Daejanggyeongpan(National treature No.52), 14 treasures and 200 books.
Local Human Population: Approximately 640 people are residing in 8 towns within the park's
buffer zone. Some of them engage in traditional farming and others own businesses including
restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops. Around 700 buddhists reside in temples.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 6.5 million people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing, and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 access road, 9 mountain trails(24.2km), 5 parking lots, 4 campsites,
142

29 toilets and 271 information boards.


Scientific Research and Facilities: In accordance with natural park law, natural resources survey
is conducted every 10 years. In 1997, natural resources survey on 10 areas including human
and social resources, geographical features and vegetation was conducted for the entire
Gayasan(Mt.) area for the first time. In 2007, the survey area was divided into 14 natural
resources and 6 human resources. The survey will monitor and evaluate natural ecosystem
based on selected representative area so that continued monitoring for the protection of natural
resources will be made. Monitoring on water, damaged area and special protected area is
conducted every year.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Gayasan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 22billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Gayasan(Mt.)

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Per
Total
(million (million
annum
Asset
(million (million
USD)
USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)

Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

14

8.4

177

15

(E)

218.1

(F)

4,579.4

226.5

4,756.5

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Gayasan(Mt.) national park are carried out
in accordance with relevant laws, National plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Gayasan(Mt.) National Park. The park is divided to 4 zones. The park has rich biodiversity
and its nature preservation zone(35.3%), the habitat for park's wildlife, is strictly managed by
the park managers. Cultural assets such as Palmandaejanggyueong(Buddhist scriptures) and
Haeinsajanggyeongpanjeon(Storage halls for the Tripitaka Koreana woodblocks at Haeinsa
Temple) are protected by Cultural Property Protection Law. Indigenous people's livelihood is
protected and their construction and business activities are conducted with the permission of
the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. The park
management carries out forest fire prevention activities in collaboration with communities
during dry season(5months). The park management carries out natural resources survey and
various monitoring projects including nature self-restoring program, observation of ecosystem
change, survey of Wild animal roadkill, damaged area under restoration, and migration path
for wild animals. Other activities include operations of wildlife protection team, environment
interpreter and visitor safety management team

143

Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during Summer holiday season (JulyAugust) and
autumn season(OctoberNovember). Secondly, it is road that runs across Gayasan(Mt.): roads
were constructed for practical reasons but it caused the creation of isolated ecosystems thus
hindering animals' movements and has been an inflow route for foreign animals and plants.
Thirdly, farming lands, recreation areas and facilities near the park are deemed to cause
significant effects on water environment. Those facilities are located in and around the park,
however, it is considered that they make effects on the habitat of wildlife in Gayasan(Mt.)
Lastly, religious activities mainly carried out by temples in the park can cause problems in
park management. Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize damages incurred from
those activities.
Staff: Permanent Job: 27, Irregular Jobs: 13
Budget: 1.3 million USD(2007)
Local Addresses
Gayasan(Mt.) National Park Office
1231, Guwonlee, Gayamyon, Hapchungun, Gyongsangnamdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1997, Suvery on Natural Resources of Gayasan(Mt.)
Park
Gayasan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. Management Plan for Gayasan(Mt.) National
Ministry of Environment. 2003. National Plan for Nature Park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized
national park II
Korea National Park Service. 2007. Suvery on Natural Resources of Gayasan(Mt.)
Park
Date: 2008

144

National
Park.
for each
National

Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: V(Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Latitude: 354436N ~ 355935N, Longitude: 1273850E ~ 1274933E
Date and History of Establishment: Deogyusan(Mt.) national park was designated as the 10th
national park on Feb. 1, 1975.
Area: 231.650
Land Tenure: 52% of the park area(119.89) is owned by state, 25% is by private, 19% and
4% is by public and temple respectively. Stateowned lands are distributed in environmentally
core areas such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed around the park
entrance, farming lands and natural village zone.
Altitude: 380m ~ 1,614m
Physical Features: Deogyusan(Mt.) national park is a typical inlands mountain area located in
the southern part of Baedudaegan(range). There are many high peaks more than 1,000m and
10 long and deep valleys are situated around the peaks.
Climate: The mean average temperature is 11.5. Average annual precipitation is 1,265.9mm
and 50~60% of the precipitation occurs in Summer. Average wind speed is 1.3m/sec and
average humidity is 70.8
Vegetation: There are 13 vegetation communities: Quercus mongolica community, Taxus
cuspidate Abies koreana community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Quercus variabilis
community, Quercus serrata community, Pinus densiflora community, Cornus controversa
community, Betula ermani community, Betula costata community and Rhododendron
mucronulatum var. ciliatum with special plant community of Taxus cuspidata community, Abies
koreana community, Pinus koraiensis community, and Pinus koraiensis community and
Rhododendron mucronulatum var. ciliatum community
Flora: The park contains 779 species of flora. As endangered species designated by Ministry
of Environment, there are Aconitum trilobum, Lilium cernum, Paeonia obovata, Acanthopanax
senticosus, Saururus chinensis, Rodgersia tabularis, Cypripedium japonicum, Iris odaesanensis
145

and Smilacina bicolor.


Fauna: 5 orders 10 families 20 species of mammal are distributed in the southern part of the park
and 6 orders 13 families 21 species of mammal are in the northern part of the area. As
endangered species, there are Lutra lutra, Martes flavigula, Prionailurus bengalensis and
Pteromys volans. Among 80 species of bird, there are Falco subbuteo, Buteo buteo, Aix
galericulata, Accipiter soloensis, Accipiter nisus, and Falco tinnunculus as endangered species and
natural monuments. From a survey 9 species of amphibians 11 species of reptiles 21 species of
fish and 1,338 species of insects have been recorded. As endangered species of fish designated by
Ministry of Environment, there are Pseudopungtungia nigra and Gobiobotia brevibarba.
Cultural Heritage: There are 5 local tangible cultural properties, 7 local monuments, 1 main historical
site and 1 natural monument protected under Cultural Property Protection Law.
Local Human Population: There are 27 towns, 722 houses and 1,935 residents residing within
the park. Most of them engage in trading farming and businesses including restaurants, lodging
facilities and souvenir shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 1,000,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking and mount climbing. Park visitors are provided with a number of park facilities
including 11 trails, 4 parking lots, 2 campsites and 408 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1992 and 2003, the park office conducted natural resources
survey for the entire park area. The survey in 2003 included human environment and cultural
resources, vegetation, mycomycetes, invertebrate, geological and geographical features, natural
landscape, climate, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes and insects. The
park has also conducted monitoring on natural resources from 2004 to 2007.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 14billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Deogyusan(Mt.)

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Single
Per
Total
(million
(million
Household annum
Asset
USD)
USD)
Per Year (million (million
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

14

12.7

266.5

(D)

146

(E)

132.7

(F)

2,786.7

145.4

3,053.2

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Deogyusan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park. The park is dividend to 5 different usage zones: nature
preservation zone, nature environment zone, natural village zone, overpopulated village zone
and facilityconcentrated zone. Nature preservaton zone(30.3%) has rich biodiversity and it is
the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife which is strictly managed by the park
managers. Nature environment zone(67.9%) is a buffer zone of nature preservation zone.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during the whole year. Secondly, it is national
road and local road that run across the park. The national road causes pollution problems,
hindering animals' movements and their habitats. Park managers carry out various efforts to
minimize the damages incurred from those activities.
Staff: Permanent Job: 36, Irregular Job: 21
Budget: 3.0million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park Office: 4118, Samgongri, Soelchunmyeon, Mujugun,
Jeollabukdo
Jeoksang Branch Office: 1191, Bukchangri, Jeoksangmyeon, Mujugun, Jeollabukdo
Northern Deogyu Branch Office: 34 Sojeongri, Buksangmyeon, Gechanggun, Gyeongsangnamdo.
References:
Korea National Park Service. 2003. Natural Resources Survey of Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park Office(20042007) Monitoring of Natural Resources of
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park.
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. Monitoring of Natural Resources of
Deogyusan(Mt.) National Park.
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park II
Ministry of Environmnet. 2003. The Management Plan for Natural Park.
Date: revised in 2008

147

Odaesan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Odaesan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in the middle of Taebaeksanmaek(mountain ranges), the
backbone of the Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 37 40N~37 51N, longitude: 128 28E~128 46E
Date and History of Establishment : In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
designated 298.5 of Odeasan(Mt.) area as the 11th national park on Feb 1, 1975. Since its
designation, the land size of park decreased to 291.044 in 2001 and increased to 303.929
in 2003.
Area: 303.929
Land Tenure: 202.525(66.63%) of the park is owned by state and public, 58.468(19.24%)
is by temple and 42.936(14.13%) is by private. Odaesan(Mt.) National Park is a typical
mountaneous area located in alpine region.
Altitude: 160m ~ 1,563m
Physical Features: Taebaeksanmaek(mountain ranges), backbone of the Korean Peninsula, runs
between Geumgangsan(Mt.) and Seoraksan(Mt.) leading to Daegwallyeong ridge, Taebaeksan
and Sobaeksan(Mt.). Before Taebaeksanmaek(mountain ranges) reaches Daegwallyeong, it
crosses paths with the Charyeongsanmaek(mountain ranges) in the west, north and south
of Chungcheongdo. Odaesan(Mt.) is the starting point of Charyeongsanmaek where it diverges
from Taebaeksanmaek. Horyeongbong(1,561m), Sangwangbong(1,491m), Durobong(1,422m) and
Dongdaesan(1,434m) set up like a screen with Birobong(1,563m) being in the middle of it.
Noinbong(1,338m) is located far in the east. Ridge that stretches through Birobong and
Horyeongbong to the south reaches at Bangadari valley (770m). Steep ridge that stretches to
northnortheast reaches at midstream of Yeongokcheon. The hydrosphere of Odaesan(Mt.)
consists of Odaecheon that is in the upperstream of Namhangang(River), Myungeri valley and
Eulsugol(valley), and Yeongokcheon. Representative geographical sceneries are weathering
landform, mountainous landform, river landform, periglacial landform, tectonic form, and lake
and marshes landform.

148

Climate: Odaesan(Mt.) is divided by Woljeongsa zone and Sogeumgang zone. Woljeongsa zone
affected by continental climate has an average annual temperature of 10.1 and Sogeumgang
zone affected by oceanic climate has an average annual temperature of 12.9. Woljeongsa
zone shows average mean temperature of 14.1(low) in winter with average annual snow day
of 46 while Sogeumgang zone shows average mean temperature of 5.0(low) with average
annual snow day of 12. Highest temperature in summer for Woljeongsa zone is 25.2
showing cooler temperature than Sogeumgang zone with 30.6. Average annual precipitation
of Woljeongsa and Sogeumgang is 1720 and 1404 respectively. Average annual wind
speed of Woljeongsa is 4.6m/sec and 2.6m/sec for Sogeumgang. As shown, the two districts
show dramatic difference in weather pattern.
Vegetation: Among plant communities, Quercus mongolica accounts for the largest area of
Woljeongsa zone: upper mountains and ridges in high altitude. Abies holophylla is distributed
near Woljeongsa and Sangwonsa: it is distributed solely or mixed with Quercus mongolica and
other broadleaved trees near Sangwonsa areas, Birobong and western area of Horyeongbong.
In the middle and lower mountain in Woljeongsa zone, where the altitude is relatively low, a
number of species of trees are distributed with Quercus mongolica: Tilia amurensis, Betula
costata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Cornus controversa, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Acer
mono, Fraxinus rhynchophylla and so on. Sogeumgang zone shows variation of altitude from
low altitude area (100m) to Noinbong. Quercus mongolica alone is mainly distributed in the
area of high altitude. For middle and lower area of the mountain, either Pinus densiflora
solely or with Quercus mongolica and Quercus variabilis is distributed in the area. Ranch is
located in the southern ridge that reaches through Hwangbyeongsan, Sohwangbyeongsan and
Maebong. This area is composed of meadow with Quercus mongolica being scattered
Flora: The park contains 655 taxa in total. 30 kinds of Korean special plants and 17 species
of rare plants are distributed in the park. Representative rare plants community such as
Hanabusaya asiatica, Acanthopanax senticosus, Populus koreana, Taxus cuspidate, Sorbus
commixt and Abies holophylla community are found in the park.

<Table 1> Natural Resources in Odaesan(Mt.) National Park


Category

Resources

Flora

Quercus mongolica , Dioscorea septemloba, Tilia amurensis, Acer mono, Betula


ermani, Carpinus laxiflora, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Abies nephrolepis,
Betula costata, Cornaceae, Lindera erythrocarpa, Rhododendron brachycarpum,
Aquilegia buergeriana var. oxysepala, Rodgersia podophylla, Iris odaesanensis

Legally
Protected Plants

Trillium tschonoskii, Gastrodia elata, Acanthopanax senticosus, Iris odaesanensis

149

Main Plant
Community

Quercus mongolica community, Dioscorea septemloba community, Pinaceae


community, Tiliaceae community, Acer mono community, Betula ermani
community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Betula platyphylla var. japonica
community, Abies nephrolepis community, Quercus serrata community, Adonis
amurensis community, Abies holophylla community

<Table 2> Rare and Endangered Plants in Odaesan(Mt.) National Park


Category
Family Name

Scientific Name

Total
Polypodiaceae
Caryophyllaceae
Ranales, Ranunculales

40
Crypsinus hastatus
Silene koreana
Anemone koraiensis
Clematis chiisanensis
Eranthis stellata
Anemone narcissiflora
Paeonia japonica
Paeonia obovata
Aristolochia manshuriensis
Cardamine koreana
Penthorum chinense
Iris ensata varspontanea
Iris odaesanensis
Rodgersia podophylla
Saxifraga penctata
Viola albida
Viola diamantica
Acanthopanax chiisanensis
Acanthopanax senticosus
Rhododendron brachycarpum
Lysimachia coreana
Syringa velutina var.
kamibayashii
Syringa wolfi
Scopolia japonica
Scrophularia koraiensis
Pedicularis manshurica
Patrina saniculaefolia
Adenophora grandiflora
Hanabusaya asiatica
Allium victorialis var.
platyphyllum

Aristolochia contorta
Cruciferae
Sedum sarmentosum
Mirabilis jalapa
Saxifragaceae
Viola mandshurica
Aralia elata
Ericaceae
Primulaceae
Oleaceae
Solanaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Valerianaceae
Campanulaceae
Liliaceae

Endangered
(Cat. 1)

150

Endangered
(Cat. 2)
4

Protection
Species
Designated by
Forest of
Administration
40

Orchidaceae
Rosaceae
Umbelliferae
Pyrolaceae

Lilium distichum
Trillium kamtschaticum
Trillium tschonoskii
Disporum ovale
Cypripedium macranthum
Gastrodia elata
Rosa marretii
Glehnia littoralis
Cnidium tachiroei
Monotropa uniflora

Fauna: Various biomes inhabit in the park: 5 orders 11 families 19 species of mammal, 99 species
of bird, 2 orders 5 families 6 genera 12 species of amphibian, 3 families 4 genera 8 species of
reptile, 9 families 26 species of fishes and 23 families 82 genera 117 species of insecta.
<Table 3> Natural Resources in Odaesan(Mt.) National Park
Category

Natural Resources

Mammalian

Sus scrofa,Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Capreolus capreolus, Tamias sibiricus,


Sciurus vulgaris etc.

Aves

Sitta europaea, Garrulus glandarius, Emberiza elegans, Parus major,


Parus varius etc.

Amphibian
Reptilian

Bufo stejnegeri, Zamenis spinalis, Elaphe schrenckii, Amphiesma vibakari ruthveni, Elaphe
schrenckii, Enhydris rufodorsata, Agkistrodon brevicaudus, Agkistrodon saxatilis etc.

Fish

Moroco kumkangensis, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpus,


Hemibarbus mylodon, Microphysogobio longidorsalis, Iksookimia koreensis, Cobitis
rotundicaudata, Silulus microdorsalis, Pseudobagrus koreanus, Liobagrus andersoni,
Coreoperca herzi etc.

Insecta

Lucanus maculifemoratus dybowskyi, Rutelidae, Cerambycidae

Rare
animals

Pteromys volans, Lutra lutra, Nemorhaedus caudatus, Cuculus micropterus, Bubo bubo,
Falco tinnunculus, Strix aluco, Moroco kumkangensis, Ladislavia taczanowskii,
Hemibarbus mylodon, Brachymystax lenok, Oncorhynchus masou ishikawai etc.

<Table 4> Rare and Endangered Fauna in Odaesan(Mt.) National Park


Family Name

Scientific Name

Category
Endangered
(Cat.1)

Endangered
(Cat.2)

Natioanl
Monument

Total
< Mammalian >
Tamias sibiricus
Hydropotes inermis
Bovidae

7
Pteromys volans
Moschus moschiferus
Nemorhaedus caudatus

151

Mustela

Felis catus
<Aves>
Buteo buteo
Falco subbuteo

Picidae
Strix aluco

Anas poecilorhyncha
<Fishes>
Cyprinidae
Cottidae
Gasterosteus aculeatus
<Insecta>

Martes flavigula
Lutra lutra
Mustela nivalis
Prionailurus bengalensis
12
Aquila chrysaetos
Buteo buteo
Accipiter soloensis
Accipiter gentilis
Accipiter nisus
Falco tinnunculus
Dyrocpus martius
Otus scops
Otus bakkamoena
Strix uralensis
Strix aluco
Aix galericulata
Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpus
Cottus poecilopus
Pungitius sinensis kaibarae
Callipogon relictus
Osmodera opicum
Damaster mirabilissimus
Fabriciana nerippe

Cultural Heritage: Odaesan(Mt.) is known as one of the greatest mountains along with
Geumgangsan(Mt.), Hallasan(Mt.) and Jirisan(Mt.) in Korea, and also holy place of Budda
because Jeongmyeolbogung(Tangible cultural properties 28) is located in the Mountain with
Budda's real saria in it. In Odaesan(Mt.) National Park, there are old temples such as
Woljeonsa(temple) and Sangwonsa(temple), 4 national treasures, 4 treasures, 5 cultural
properties, 1 national monument, 1 historical relic and 1 scenic spot. Cultural properties are
managed by Cultural Heritage Administration based on Cultural Property Protection Law. As
for cultural properties in the park, owners of the properties (temple managers) impose
entrance fee and also manage those properties based on Cultural Property Protection Law.
<Table 5> Cultural Properties in Odaesan National Park
Category

No

Cultural Property

National
Treasure

Woljeongsa : Octagonal ninestoried pagoda(No. 48)


Sangwonsa: Bronze bell (No.36), Seated wooden manjusuri statue(No.221),
Munsudongja Jwasang(No.292)

Treasure

Woljeongsa : Seated stone statue of Buddha(No.139), Worinseokbo(No.745), Relics


found inside octagonal nine storied pagoda(No. 1375)
Sangwonsa : Relics from seated wooden manjusri statue (No.793)

152

Local
Cultural
Property

Woljeongsa:Jeongmyeolbogung(No.28),Budo(No.42), Bodhisattva
Palmandaejanggyeong(Tripitaka Koreana) (No.54)
Sangwonsa : Seated wooden bodhisattva statue (No.52)

Natural
Monument

Sogeumgang Pine tree(No.350)

Historic
and Scenic
Sites

Odaesan(Mt.) archives site(Historic Sites37),


Sogeumgang(No.1)

etc

Important Folklore Materials Orgamental Jeogori jacket from King Sejos


reign(No.219)

statue(No.53),

Local Human Population: There are around 730 residents in the park. Some of them engage
in traditional farming and others run businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities, and
souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 1.1 million people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mountain climbing, and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 access road(1line), trailers(5lines, 33.7km), 1 mountain shelter, 5
parking lots, 17 toilets, 2 campsites and 413 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: Research on natural resources in the entire Odaesan(Mt.)
area was conducted from 1994 and 2004. In particular, 50 experts participated in the research
on 16 areas including human and cultural resources, geographical features, soil, vegetation,
mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects, invertebrates and mycomycetes in the
oneyear survey in 2004. 3,614 fauna and flora species were identified, which was increased
from 2,033 species in 1994.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contingent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Odaesan National Parks annual asset value is 13 billion USD in 2006.
<Table 7> Economic Value of Odaesan National Park
Economic Value
Use Value

Preservation Value

Park

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(F)

Odaesan(Mt.)

5.9

124.4

133.8

2,810.6

153

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
(million (million
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
139.8

2,935

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Odaesan National Park are carried out in
accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Odaesan(Mt.) National Park. The national park has 5 zones and the nature preservation
zone(44.5%), the habitat for parks wildlife with rich biodiversity, is strictly managed by the
park managers. Residents livelihood is protected and their business and construction activities
are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesnt harm the
natural environment of the park. The park management carries out prevention of forest fire in
collaboration with communities during dry season. Other conservation activities include natural
resources survey and various monitoring projects including sabbatical year program, restoration
of damaged area, elimination of foreign plants and animals.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect management of the park. Firstly,
it is concentrated park use of visitors during Summer holiday season (JulyAugust) and autumn
season(OctoberNovember). Secondly, it is road that runs across Odaesan(Mt.): 444 road that
runs from Woljeongsa to Hongcheonggun and 6 national highway from Woljeongsa to
Sogeumgang cause damages on natural resources, illegal activities, inflow route for foreign
animals and plants, and hindrance of animals movements. Thirdly, private lands in the park
area cause complaints of residents as national park laws limit exercise of property rights. Thus
consents with the owners of private lands are always needed for systematic park management.
Lastly, temples religious activities conflict with the management policy of the park, even
though a number of temples including Woljeongsa which has been in Odaesan(Mt.) more than
1,000 years are symbols of cultural properties of the park. Park managers carry out various
efforts to minimize the damages incurred from those activities.
Staff: Permanent Job: 33, Irregular Job: 26
Budget: 5.5million USD(based in 2007)
Local Address:
Odaesan National Park Office:
756, Ganpyoenglee, Jinbumyun, Pyeongchanggun, Kangwondo, Republic of Korea
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1994. Survey on Natural Resources of Odaesan National Park
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Scrutiny on Wetland Ecosystem of Odaesan National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2000. Research 1 on the Monitoring of Weltand Ecosystem of
Odaesan National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2000. Study on the Management Policy by Each National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2001. Report on the Monitoring of Natural Resources of
Odaesan National Park

154

Korea National Park Service. 2003. Longterm Monitoring of Woljeongsa and Sangwonsa
EcoRoad.
Korea National Park Service.2003. The Management Plan for Odaesan National Park
Ministry of Environment. 2003. Plan of Nature Park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Survey on Natural Resources of Odaesan National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2005. First Monitoring of Natural Resources of Odaesan National
Park
Korea National Park Service. 2006. Second Monitoring of Natural Resources of Odaesan
National Park
Date: 1982 and revised in December 2006 and February 2008.

155

Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in inland mountains of southeastern part of the
Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 361956N~362746N, Longitude: 12904'51"E~12914'55"E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, Juwangsan(Mt.) national
nd
park of 105.4 was designated as 12 national park on March 30, 1976. The park was then
managed by local government(Gyeongsangbukdo) but the management of the park has been
transferred to Korea National Park Service from 1987 with the birth of the Service. The area
of the park has gradually increased since then.
Area: 107.425
Land Tenure: 69.8% of the land is owned by state and public, and 37.5% is by private. State
and public lands are distributed in environmentally core areas such as forest and stream, and
private land is distributed in farming, residential and trail areas around the park.
Altitude: 320m ~ 933m
Physical Features: Juwangsan(Mt.) national park features Ushaped basin. Main peaks of the
park are more than 750m and they cover more than 5.9% of the whole area.
Climate: Affected by seashore climate located in the eastern sea, it has dramatic temperature
difference between spring and fall. Average annual precipitation is 1,004mm with concentrated
precipitation of 60% only during summer season. The mean temperatures is 8.10 with the
highest temperature of 35.1 and lowest one of 8.3.
Vegetation: Main vegetation communities include Quercus aliena community, Quercus variabilis
community, Quercus serrata community, Quercus mongolica community, Zelkova serrata
community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Pinus densiflora community, Robinia pseudoacacia
community and Larix leptolepis community. Quercus mongolica and Pinus densiflora are
widely distributed in the upper stratum, Acer pseudosieboldianum and Carpinus laxiflora
community are in the middle stratum, and Lespedeza bicolor, Rhododendron yedoense var.
poukhanense, Lindera obtusiloba and Actinidia arguta are distributed in lower stratum.
156

Flora: The park contains 114 families and 888 species of flora. Woody plants near valleys
include Morus bombycis, Acer ginnala, Zelkova serrata, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Philoadelphus
schrenckii and Acer mono and as for herbage, there are C. flexuosa var.hebecarpa, Commelina
communis and Sedum rotundifolium. Woody plants more than 400m include Quercus variabilis,
Fraxinus sieboldiana, Juniperus rigida, Pinus densiflora, Quercus acutissima and Lindera
obtusiloba. As for herbage, there are Carex humilis, Melandryum seoulense, Angelica decursiva
and Carex siderosticta. Woody plants more than 550m include Fraxinus sieboldiana,
Securinega suffruticosa, Rhus chinensis, Acer pseudosieboldianum, Acer mono and Quercus
mongolica. Herbage of this area includes Potentilla freyniana, Carex siderosticta, Carex
neurocarpa, Trigonotis nakaii, Sedum erythrostichum and Aristolochia contorta.
Fauna: There are 13 species of mammal, 58 species of bird, 8 species of amphibian, 9 species
of reptile, 17 species of fish and 798 species of insect. As for protected wildlife, there are
Lutra lutra and Pteromys volans.
Cultural Heritage: There are Daejeonsa(temple), Juwangam(temple) and Baekyurnam(temple)
with 2 local tangible cultural properties in the temples.
Local Human Population: In nature environment zone, 350 people are residing in 3 towns
within the park's buffer zone. Most of them engage in traditional farming and businesses
including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 600,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 visitor center, 7 trails(38km), 2 parking lots, 1 campsites, 2 park
information centers and 310 information boards
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1997, natural resources surveys were conducted for the
entire Juwangsan(Mt.) area for one year. The fields of survey included human and social
resources, geographical features, soil, vegetation, mammals, aves, amphibian, fishes and insects.
From this survey 1,791 fauna and flora species were identified
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 49billion USD in
2006.

Use Value
Park

Juwangsan(Mt.)

Single
Per
Use Per annum
Visitor (million
(USD)
USD)
(A)
(B)
4

2.3

Economic Value
Preservation Value
Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

47.6

157

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
Per
Total
annum
Value
annum
Asset
(million (million
(million (million
USD)
USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
(E)
(F)
47.3

993.4

49.6

1,041

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Juwangsan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Nature Park, Management Plan for
Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park. The park, which is dividend by 3 different usage zones, has
rich biodiversity and its nature preservation zone(18.5%), the core area for the habitat of
park's wildlife, is strictly managed by the park managers. Other 81.3% of the park is nature
environment zone. Juwangsan(Mt.) national park is made out of volcanic activities so that it
has important conservation meaning in terms of geological, scenic and ecological aspect.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park. It
is concentrated park use of visitors. More than 50% of visitors come to the park in autumn
(Oct.~Nov.). The concentrated use of the park makes considerable affect on conservation of
natural ecosystem and restoration of damaged area. It needs to diversify the concentrated use
of the park. Roads to temples and natural village zone also damage ecosystem and incur other
problems such as pollution issue. Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize the
impact of these factors.
Staff: Permanent Job: 25, Irregular Job: 11
Budget: 3.2million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Juwangsan(Mt.) National
Gyeongsangbukdo

Park

Office:

406,

Sangeuiri,

Budongmyeon,

Cheongsonggun,

References:
Korea National Park Service. 1997. Natural resources survey of Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park
National Park Service. 2005. The Management Plan for Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park
Korea National Park Service. 1995. Tracheophyta of Juwangsan(Mt.) National Park Area.
Date: revised in 2008

158

Taeanhaean(Seashore) National Park

Name: Taeanhaean(Seashore) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: The park is located in the west coast of the middle part of the Korean
Peninsula. Latitude: 362345N ~ 35 5500N, Longitude: 1260042E ~ 1262530E
Date and History of Establishment: Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park was designated as the
th
13 national park on Oct 20, 1978. The park covers marine and seashore area.
Area: 326
Land Tenure: The park consists of land(37, 11%) and marine(289, 89%). 300.74 of
marine and seashore is owned by state and public which is environmentally core areas. 26
(70% of the whole land) is owned by private including farming lands and maritime forests.
Altitude: 0 ~ 182m
Physical Features: Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park consists of hillrocks less than 200m. It
is located in the midwest of the Korean Peninsula and has about 130 islands including
Taeanbando(Is.) and Anmyeondo(Is.). Taeanhaean (Seashore) has a Rias coast and the length
of the seashore reaches to 230km with many bays and headlands. For geographical features,
seashore sand dune and foreshore are developed and the park has various marine ecosystems
for the whole region.
Climate: Plains less than 100m and hills cover 60% of the inlands. It has a typical oceanic
climate for seashore area. For west mountain adjacent to Taean(seashore), average annual
precipitation is 1.232mm with concentrated precipitation of 654mm only during summer. The
annual mean temperature is 11.7 and annual wind speed is 2.3m/sec.
Vegetation: Pinus thunbergii forest is widely distributed around seashore sand dune as a main
vegetation community. In the inlands, Pinus densiflora community is distributed for forest tree
and Quercus serrata, Rhus trichocarpa, Smilax china and Indigofera kirilowii are widely
distributed in shrub layer. Koelreuteria paniculata community in Anmyeondo(Is.) is a natural
monument(No.138) and Carpinus coreana community is distributed in other islands and
seashore area.
159

Flora: There are 774 species of flora in the lands. Deciduous forest is widely distributed in
the southern area of the park with Ilex integra, Ilex cornuta, Camellia japonica, Meliosma
myriantha and Pseudosasa japonica. In the seashore sand dune, there are sand dune plants
such as Glehnia littoralis, Calystegia soldanella, Lathyrus japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vitex
rotundifolia, Carex kobomugi, Carex pumila, Elymus mollis and Ischaemum anthephoroides.
Pinus thunbergii is distributed in the seashore area. Salt area in Anmyeondo(Is.), salt plant
such as Zoysia sinica, Limonium tetragonum and Suaeda maritima are distributed. Also 200
species of marine plants have been surveyed including 54 species of phytoplankton, 114
species of marine plants and 2 species of seaweeds.
Fauna: Land covers only 11%(37) of the park so not many mammals live in this area. 19
species of mammal live in farming and forest lands. 113 species of bird including Cygnus
Cygnus, Accipiter soloensis and Haematopus ostralegus, 9 species of ampibian, 9 species of
reptile, 85 species of arachnida and 960 species of insects have also been recorded.
Cultural Heritage: For its geographical characteristics, fishing culture is developed from
seashore and marine areas. Representatively, Pungeoje(Important Intangible Cultural Properties
No.82) is a rite and festival for big catch of fish and environmental way of poisoning of fish
is very well developed. Poisoning of fish is to build halfmoonshaped rocks at sand shore
using the difference between the rise and fall of the tide, catching fish at low tide.
Local Human Population: 2,369 people are residing in 994 towns in 5 facilityconcentrated
zones and 36 overpopulated village zones in the park. Most of them engage in trading
farming and businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 500,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with 3 trails, 7
trails, 3 parking lots and 2 campsites.
Scientific Research and Facilities: Research on natural resources in the entire Taeanhaean
(Seashore) National Park was conducted in 1995. The second research on natural resources
from 2005 to 2007 includes human and cultural resources, geographical features, soil,
vegetation, flora, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian and insects. Also research on marine
wetlands including sand dune and foreshore, salt plant in the seashore and monitoring on sand
dune have been conducted.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park's annual asset value was 18billion
USD in 2006.

160

Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Taeanhaean
(Seashore)

Total
Value Per
annum
Single
Per
Total
(million
Household annum
Asset
Per Year (million (million
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

57

2.5

51.5

(D)

13

(E)

187.2

(F)

3,930.9

189.6

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)
3,982.4

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park are


carried out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan
for Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different usage zones:
nature preservation zone(0.01% of the park), nature environment zone(98%), natural village
zone, overpopulated village zone and faicilityconcentrated zone.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during summer(JulyAugust) resulting in damages
of natural resources. Secondly, development of the ports and reckless catch of fish threaten
marine ecosystem. Also agrichemicals and establishment of waterways imperil natural resources.
Thirdly, most of land areas consist of farming lands and seashore forest that are easily
accessible by human beings so that habitats of flora and fauna are easily disturbed. In order
to minimize damages, the park office conducts monitoring and research on natural resources
and factors that damage natural ecosystem. In order to deal with those issues, the park office
makes efforts on conservation of natural resources of the area.
Staff: Permanent Job: 34, Irregular Job: 17
Budget: 0.6 million USD(2007)
Local Addresses:
Taeanhaean (Seashore)
Chungcheonnamdo

National

Park

Office:

161,

Jangsanri,

Taeanyup,

Taeangun,

References:
Korea National Park Service. 1996. Natural Resources Survey of Taeanhaean (Seashore) National
Park
Korea National Park Service. 2001. Research on Vegetation of Seashore Salt Grass of Taeanhaean
(Seashore) National Park
Korea National Park Service. 2005. Natural Resources Survey of Taeanhaean (Seashore) National
Park
161

Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park Office. 2006. Monitoring on Natural Resources of


Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park
Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Taeanhaean
(Seashore) National Park.
Taeanhaean (Seashore) National Park Office. 2006. The Management Plan for Taeanhaean
(Seashore) National Park
Date: 1982. revised in 2005 and Jan. 2008.

162

Dadohaehaesang(Marine) National Park

Name: Dadohaehaesang(Marine) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Japanese Evergreen Forest
Geographical Location: The park is scattered around southwestern, central southern sea and
part of districts of seashore. Latitude: 340005N 344725N, longitude: 1251030E
1275430E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the park was designated
th
as the 14 national park on Dec 23, 1981. The park is managed by two offices; southwestern
part of the park is managed by Dadohaehaesang (Marine) west national park office and west
southern and central southern part of the park is managed by Dadohaehaesang (Marine)
national park office.
Area: 2,321.51 (Land: 334.83, Marine: 1,986.68)
Land Tenure: 88.5%of the park is owned by state and public with 95.5% of marine area. The
actual land size owned by state and public is 71.4
Altitude: 0m ~ 431m
Physical Features: Massive diastrophism in Dadohae area resulted in around 20,000 islands
about 80 million years ago in Jeonam Province. 80% of those islands consisted of igneous
rocks and the rest of it was rock layer. There were ice age 4 times and interglacial period
th
during Cenozoic era. The sea level fell around 80130m during the 4 ice age making islands
into land At the last interglacial period, mountain peak and ridge became islands and
peninsula due to the rise of sea level and valleys turned into sea, making what Dadohae
geographical feature is today.
Climate: It has oceanic climate with the average temperature of 23 in summer and 0 in
winter. As the area is in the track of a typhoon, annual wind speed varies. Annual precipitation
is 1,300mm.
Vegetation: Affected by warm oceanic climate, the vegetation of the park is Japanese Evergreen
Forest. There are Castanopsis cuspidata var. sieboldiiArdisia japonica group, Machilus thunbergii
Arisaema ringens group and Quercus acuta community in the lower area and Litsea japonica
163

Cyrtomium falcatum group and Pittosporum tobira Euonymus japonica group in the seashore
area.
Flora: The park contains 1,543 species of flora, most of them consist of Evergreen Broad
Leaved Forest and Japanese Black Pine Forest. Current vegetation is divided into natural virgin
forest and second growth. Natural virgin forest is distributed around uninhabited island, steep
seashore and mountain ridges.
Fauna: There and 18 species of mammal including Lutra lutra(endangered species) and
Myotis formosus(endangered species), 341 species of bird such as Hypsipetes amaurotis,
Zosterops japonica and Monticola solitarius, 997 insects such as Paplio protener and
Luehdorfia puziloi. As for herptile, there are 17 species including Elaphe schrenckii designated
as endangered species by Ministry of Environment, 149 fish and 11 fresh water fish.
Cultural Heritage: In the park, there are 26 natural monuments, 2 historical sites, 3 local
monuments, 6 tangible cultural assets and 6 local intangible cultural assets. Representative
cultural assets of Dadohaehaesang (Marine) national park are Hongdo(Is.) nature reserve(Natural
Monuments No. 170) and Baekdo(Is.) (Scenic Site No. 7).
Local Human Population: Approximately 22,400 people are residing at natural village zone and
overpopulated village zone in the park. Most of them engage in traditional farming, fishing
and businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: Park visitors amount to about 1,157,000 annually for the
purpose of recreation, hiking, mount climbing and swimming. Park visitors are provided with a
number of park facilities including 10 trails(25.32km), 6 parking lots, 1 campsite and 377
information boards
Scientific Research and Facilities: Natural resources survey was conducted for the western and
southern are of the park in 1997. The survey area was divided to ecosystem resources and
scenery resources. Ecosystem resources include fauna, flora, macrophyte, fish, plankton, and
ocean environment and scenery resources include topography, geological feature, valley, peak
and curious rock. Migratory Birds Research Center was established in Hongdo(Is.) in 2005.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park's annual asset value was
16billion USD in 2006.

164

Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Dadohaehaesang
(Marine)

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Single
Per
Total
(million (million
Household annum
Asset
Per Year (million (million
USD)
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

3.5

73.6

(D)

11

(E)

161

(F)

3,381.7

164.5

3,455.3

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Dadohaehaesang Seashore national park


are carried out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management
Plan for Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different zones.
Nature preservation zone, the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed
by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and
business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it
doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Regular monitoring and survey on islands,
change of ecosystem and special islands are conducted. Also recreation and tours are allowed
partly within the national park as long as it doesnt harm the natural environment.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park. Firstly,
the concentrated use during summer holiday season (JulyAugust) resulted in damage of natural
resources; carrying out natural resources such as rocks, and huge amount of trashes. Secondly,
limited workforce to manage numerous islands compared to its vast area of the park. There are
more than 1,000 islands within the park area. Lastly, conflicted interests between park managers
and stakeholders over the development of the park make it difficult to manage the park. Park
managers carry out various efforts to minimize the impact of these factors. Those efforts include
management of Park Management Council and consultation with stakeholders.
Staff:
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park Office: Permanent Job 35, Irregular Job 14
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) West National Park Office: Permanent Job 29, Irregular Job 9
Budget:
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park Office: 7.6million USD, 2007
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) West National Park Office: 5.6million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park Office :

165

12408, Gaepoli, Wandoyup, Wandogun, Jeollanamdo


Dadohaehaesang (Marine) Western National Park Office:
10915, Yokamdong, Mokposi, Jeollanamdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1997. Natural resources survey of Dadohaehaesang (Marine)
National ParkSouthern District
Korea National Park Service. 1997. Natural resources survey of Dadohaehaesang (Marine)
National ParkWestern District
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Dadohaehaesang
(Marine) National Park
Korea National Park Service.2005. Basic Statistics of National Park.
Dadohaehaesang (Marine) National Park Office. 2006. The Management Plan for Dadohaehaesang
(Marine) National Park
Date: 2008

166

Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: V(Protected Landscape/Seascape)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Bukhansan(Mt.) is located in Seoul, in the middle part of the Korean
Peninsula. Latitude: 373539N ~ 374409N, Longitude: 1265608E ~ 1270241E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the park was designated
th
as the 15 national park in April 1983.
Area: 7.992 ha
Land Tenure: The park contains large part of privateowned land compared to other parks.
Privateowned land accounts for 40.5%, showing the highest rate, state and publicowned land
is 58.1% and templeowned land is 1.4%.
Altitude: 50m ~ 836.5m
Physical Features: The park covers two administrative districts which are Seoul city and
Gyeonggido province. The park has steep rocky cliffs and precipitous mountains, dissected by
many valleys. From the Paleozoic era, the granite ground rose and eroded over a long period
of time, and the rocks were made into fantastic formations.
Climate: The mean temperature of Bukhansan(Mt.) is 12.2 during last 3 decades with the
highest temperature of 33.2 and lowest temperature of 8.6. Average annual precipitation is
1212.33, showing concentrated precipitation of 60% during rainy season from June to
August. Average annual wind speed is 2.4m/sec and it shows stronger wind speed of
1.8~2.2m/sec from March to August. Annual sunshine hour is 154hr, showing more sunshine
hours from April to June.
Vegetation: There are 11 vegetation communities including Quercus mongolica community,
Pinus densiflora community, Quercus acutissima community, Quercus variabilis community,
Quercus serrata community, Zelkova serrata community and Robinia pseudoacacia community.
Vegetation of the park consists of afforested land in low district, Zelkova serrata community
in the valleys, Quercus mongolica above mountainside, Pinus densiflora in the ridge and top
of the mountain, which are all featuring mosaicshape of the mountain.
167

Flora: The park contains 692 species of flora such as Sorbus alnifolia, Quercus serrata Quercus,
mongolica Quercus acutissima and Alnus hirsuta. As endenmic plant, forsythia saxatilis has been
found in Songchu area and Abeliophyllum distichum has been found in Hyojari valley.
Fauna: 20 species of mammal, 114 species
reptilians and 1,350 species of insects have
migrans, Falco tinnunculus, Eremias argus,
There shows a strongly increased community

of bird, 11 species of amphibians, 10 species of


been recorded. As rare species, there are Milvus
Agkistrodon brevicaudus and Fabriciana nerippe.
of species due to special preserved area .

Cultural Heritage: In Bukhansan(Mt.) national park, there are 6 Treasures, 21 tangible cultural
assets, 4 historical areas and 12 natural monuments. Bukhansanseong(mountain fortress wall
Historical area No.162) has a firth of 9.7km and there are 14 gates around the wall. There is
a temple(Dosunsa) built 1,100 years ago at the end of Silla Dynasty by Doseonguksa who is
well acquainted with the law of Budda, stronomy and geography. He traveled around the
country to find the best place for a temple and he chose this place in Bukhansan(Mt.) area.
Local Human Population: Approximately 4,000 people are residing within the park's buffer zone.
Most of them engage in businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: Park visitors amount to about 5,700,000 annually showing gradual
increase due to abolishment of entrance fee and fiveday work week. They visit the park for the
purpose of recreation, hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided
with a number of park facilities including 2 access roads, 1 visitor center, 74 trails, 4 mountain
shelters, 8 parking lots, 2 campsites and 1,312 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1991 and 2001, natural resources surveys were conducted
for the entire Bukhansan(Mt.) area. From the research in 2001, 1,837 fauna and flora species
were identified from the research on 12 areas including human and cultural resources,
geographical features, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects,
invertebrates and mycomycetes The number of inhabitant species increase gradually due to
continued monitoring and implementation of sabbatical year program(special preserved area).
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park Service
estimated that Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 29billion USD in 2006.
Use Value
Park

Bukhansan(Mt.)

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

11

58.1

Economic Value
Preservation Value

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
Total
Single
Per
Total
annum
Value
Asset
Household annum
Asset
(million (million
(million Per Year (million (million
USD)
USD)
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
(C)

(D)

1,219.1

16

168

(E)

233.1

(F)

4,895.2

291.2

6,114.3

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Bukhansan(Mt.) national park are carried out
in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different usage zones and its nature
preservation zone (37.22%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed by
the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and business
activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm the
natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires are caused not by natural phenomenon but by
human being. To suppress the wildfires during the dry season, park managers make every effort
with local community. Other conservation activities include implementation of specialpreserved
area, monitoring programs and restoration of damaged area.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect management of the park. Firstly,
the concentrated park use of visitors. It has record of the most highly visited park in the
Guinness Book of Records in 1994. In particular, the number of visitors has increased as
much as twice since the abolishment of entrance fee in 2007. Secondly, unregistered trails
have been made by visitors to avoid busy trails and they distract ecosystem by making it
possible to inflow alien species. Thirdly, urbanization of nearby areas makes a significant
affect on ecosystem in the park. Lastly, temples situated in and around the park. The long
historic temples represent Bukhansan(Mt.)s cultural heritage but religious activities mainly
carried out by many temples in the park can cause problems in park management. Park
managers carry out various efforts to minimize the impact of these factors.
Staff: Permanent Job: 126, Irregular Job: 113 (Jan. 2008)
Budget: 22million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park Office: 11, Jeongrung 4dong, Seongbukgu, Seoul, Korea
Bukhansan(Mt.)Dobong National Park Office: 229104, Howondong, Uijeongbusi, Gyeongido,
Korea
References:
Korea National Park Service. 2001. Natural resources survey of Bukhansan(Mt.) national park
Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Bukhansan(Mt.) national
park
Ministry of Environment. 2003. The General Planning for Natural Parks
Korea National Park Service. 2003. White Paper on National Parks
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park
Ministry of Environment, 2003. The general planning for natural parks

169

Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2006. Monitoring on Natural Resources in Bukhansan(Mt.)


national Park
Bukhansan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2006. The Management Plan for Bukhansan(Mt.) national
park 2010
Korea National Park Service. 2007. Measures for Better Management of Bukhansan(Mt.)
Date: 1982, revised in 2005 and 2008

170

Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Chiaksan(Mt.) is located in inland mountains in the middle part of the
Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 371351N37 2503N, Longitude: 1275807E1280853E
Date and History of Establishment: Chiaksan(Mt.) national park was designated as the 16th
national park on Dec 31, 1984. Since its designation, the land size of park has changed to
181.631.
Area: 181.631 .
Land Tenure: 72.2% of the park area is owned by state and public, and 27.8% is by private
among which 3.5% is owned by temple. State and public lands are distributed in
environmentally core areas such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed around
the park entrance, farming lands and natural village zone.
Altitude: 400m ~ 1,288m
Physical Features: Chiaksan(Mt.) national park is located at the edge of main ridges of
Taebaeksanmaek(range), center of backbone range of Korea. The ridge is a representative high
land with steep peaks more than 1,000m. Representative geographical features are
Birobong(peak, 1,288m), the highest peak of the northern part, and Namdaebong(peak, 1,187m)
of the southern park of the area. Many peaks are located as multilayered clothes in the east,
northeast and western part and fantastic rocks are stood at the top of the peaks.
Climate: As located in the inland of the central northern part of Korean peninsula, it has four
distinctive seasons and huge temperature difference between mountain and land. The mean
average temperature is 10.3. Average annual precipitation is 1,273 , average annual
snowfall is 147 and snow days last for about 5 months.
Vegetation: Chiaksan(Mt.) is composed of main Charyeungsanmaek(mountain range), ramified
from Taebaeksanmaek(range). It is located in the middle part of the Korean peninsula making
it southern and northern boundary areas for various kinds of vegetation. Representative
171

vegetation includes broadleaved trees such as Quercus mongolica, Quercus aliena and
Carpinus laxiflora, and needleleaved trees such as Pinus densiflora for. Erecta Uyeki, Abies
nephrolepis, Abies holophylla and Robinia pseudoacacia.
Flora: 4 times of survey on natural resources have been implemented, and 102 families and
821 species have been recorded from the survey. Among these, there are Iris odaesanensis,
Iris koreana and Acanthopanax senticosus that are designated as protection species by Ministry
of Environment. Main vegetation community includes Quercus mongolica community and
Carpinus laxiflora community. Chiaksan(Mt.) national park is a representative warmleaf forest
with various vegetations. There is a tutelary forest of Seongnamri(Natural Monument No. 93)
and 307 kinds of vegetation such as Pinus densiflora, Acer triflorum, Ulmus davidiana var.
japonica, Fraxinus mandshurica and Kalopanax pictus are distributed in the park.
Fauna: 31 species of mammal, 74 species of arachnida, 1,641 species of insect, 14 species of
amphibian, 14 specie of reptiles, 23 species of fish and 146 species of bird have been
recorded. Among the species, there are endangered species in each species; Martes flavigula,
Prionailurus bengalensis and Pteromys volans for mammals, Aporia crataegi and Fabriciana
nerippe for insects, Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpus, Cottus poecilopus and Hemibarbus mylodon
for fishes, Dyrocpus martius, Aegypius monachus, Buteo buteo, Falco vespertinus for
endangered species and Terpsiphone atrocaudata and Aix galericulata, Accipiter soloensis,
Aegypius monachus and Falco tinnunculus for natural monuments of bird.
Cultural Heritage: Many temples such as Bomunsa(temple), Gyryongsa(temple) and
Kwanumsa(temple) are located in Chiaksan(Mt.). Daewoongjeon(temple) and Bokwangru(temple)
are designated as local cultural properties. There are 3 Gangwondo local cultural properties, 1
Gangwondo monument, 3 Gangwondo cultural data and 1 natural monument (tutelary forest of
Seongnamri, Natural Monument No. 93) are designated and protected under Cultural Property
Protection Law.
Local Human Population: In nature environment zone, 916 people are residing in 14 towns.
Most of them engage in trading farming and businesses including restaurants, lodging facilities
and souvenir shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 450,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 park information center, 7 trails, 5 parking lots, 3 campsites and
415 information boards
Scientific Research and Facilities: Research on Chiaksan(Mt.) region in 1976 and Resources
Survey on Chiaksan(Mt.) national park in 1996 and 2006 were conducted. Monitoring on
172

natural resources on 10 areas has been implementing from 2007 and it will continue until
2017.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 83billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Chiaksan(Mt.)

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Total
(million (million
Asset
(million
USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)

Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

3.3

68.4

80

(F)

1,679.7

83.2

1,748

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Chiaksan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park, Management Plan for
Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park. The park, which is dividend by 5 different usage zones, has rich
biodiversity, and its nature preservation zone (46.4%), the core area for the habitat of park's
wildlife, is strictly managed by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected
and their construction and business activities are conducted with the permission of the park
authorities so long as it doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires
that have been occurred in Korea are caused not by natural phenomenon but by human. To
suppress the wildfires during dry season, the park managers make every effort with local
community. Other conservation activities are elimination of alien plants, restoration of damaged
areas and creation of region for wild plants.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during summer(JulyAugust) and autumn
season(OctoberNovember) resulting in damage of natural resources. Secondly, it is
facilityconcentrated zone within the park. The zone has been existed even before the birth of
the national park and it is main reason for the conflict between park managers and
inhabitants. Lastly, it is temples that are situated at the entrance of the park. Religious
activities from the temples hinder park management activities. Park managers carry out various
efforts to minimize the damages incurred from those activities
Staff: Permanent Job: 33, Irregular Job: 26 (Jan. 2008)
Budget: 3.3million USD, 2007

173

Local Addresses:
Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park Office: 900, Hakgokri, Sochomyeon, Wonjusi, Gangwondo
References:
Korea Nature Conservation Committee. 1976. Research on Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park Area.
Korea National Park Service. 1996. Natural Resources Survey of Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park
Chiaksan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Chiaksan(Mt.) National
Park
Korea National Park Service. 2003. White Paper of Each National Park.
Ministry of Environmnet. 2003. The Management Plan for Natural Park.
Korea National Park Service.2006. Survey on Natural Resources of Chiaksan(Mt.) National
Park
Korea National Park Service.2007. Monitoring of Natural Resources of Chiaksan(Mt.) National
Park.
Date: 1982. revised in 2005and 2008

174

Woraksan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Woraksan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Woraksan(Mt.) is situated in the mideastern part of South Korea,
120km Southeast of Seoul. Latitude: 364654N ~ 365909N, Longitude: 1260137E ~ 126
4702E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
th
st
designated 284.5 of Woraksan(Mt.) area as the 17 national park on December 31 , 1984.
Since its designation, the park's land size diminished to 284.205 in 2001. However, it
increased to 287.977 in 2003.
Area: 287.977
Land Tenure: 26.4% of the park land is owned by private and the rest of the land is owned
by state and public. State lands are distributed in environmentally important areas such as
forest and stream, and private lands are distributed in farming areas and residential areas.
Altitude: 140m ~ 1,161m
Physical Features: Woraksan(Mt.) with its highest peak, Yeongbong(1,097m), has 2 main ridges
and 3 major valleys including Songgye, Yongha and Seonam. One ridge stretches from
Poamsan(962m) in the southwest to Daemisan(1,115m) and Hwangjangsan(1,077m) in the
southeast, and the other ridge stretches from Daemisan in the south to Munsubong(1,161m),
Maedumak(1,099m) and Haseolsan(1,027m) in the north. General topography of the park shows
mature form of land surface and geographical features of altitude higher than 600m account
for 49.4% of the park's topography due to steep undulation. A number of nearvertical cliffs
are found in many parts of the park. In case of Yeongbong, average inclination angle of the
mountain's foot is less than 16 degrees. However, it gets steeper to reach 45 degrees at near
the top area and at the peak it reaches 90 degrees. This steep inclination of topography
continues along the ridge from south to north of Yeongbong.
Climate: Workansan national park area has a continental climate characterized by dramatic
temperature changes in winter. The mean temperatures of Jecheon, Chungju and Danyang,
three cities adjacent to the park, is 10.1 , 11.4 , and 11.8, respectively. Average
175

annual precipitation of Jecheon, Chungju and Danyang are 1,386, 1,305 and 1,394,
respectively. In addition, more than 60% of the precipitation in the region occurs in summer.
Average annual wind speed and relative humidity is 1.5m/s and 67%, respectively.
Vegetation: There are 9 vegetation communities including Pinus densifloraQuercus mongolica
community, Quercus mongolica community, Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis
community, Carpinus laxiflora community, Quercus serrata community, Koelreuteria paniculata
community, Symplocarpus nipponicus community and Thymus quinquecostatus community.
Quercus mongolica community is the main type of trees distributed in altitudes of about 600m,
and is mostly found in Munsubong, Maedumak and Haseolsan areas. At subtree layers,
Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Symplocos chinensis for. pilosa, Ulmus davidiana
var. japonica, Styrax obassia, Acer pseudosieboldianum and Lindera obtusiloba are distributed.
Carpinus laxiflora community is consisted of 4 layers including tree, subtree, shrub and herb
layers. Along with Zelkova serrata and Quercus serrata community it is found in valleys of
altitude lower than 500m. Quercus serrata community distributed in these areas is expected to
be replaced by Carpinus laxiflora community. In addition, Quercus variabilis community is
distributed in areas that are dry and has very steep inclination. It is mostly found at ridges
from 400m to 700m in Namsamyeon.
Flora: The park contains 779 species of flora. Different species of trees are distributed in the
park according to altitude. There are Pinus densiflora(200~400m), Quercus serrata(300m),
Quercus acutissima, Zelkova serrata(lower than 400m), Rhododendron schlippenbachii (400m),
Quercus variabilis(500m), Quercus mongolica (higher than 700m), Pinus koraiensis(1,000m) and
Abies nephrolepis(higher than 1000m)
Fauna: 21 species of mammal, 67 species of bird, 10 species of amphibian, 14 reptilian, 27
species of fish and 732 species of insect have been recorded. The most commonly seen
mammals include Nyctereutes procyonoides, Lepus sinensis coreanus, Talpa micrura coreana,
Mustela sibirica coreana, Lutra lutra, Sciurus vulgaris and Tamias sibiricus. As most
commonly seen birds, there are Dendrocopos kizuki, Phoenicurus auroreus, Streptopelia
orientalis, Hypsipetes amaurotis, Paradoxornis webbiana, Aegithalos caudatus, Parus palustris,
Parus varius and Emberiza elegans. As for amphibians, there are Hynobius leechii, Bombina
orientalis, Hyla japonica and Rana rugosa. As for reptilians, there are Takydromus amurensis,
Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus and Agkistrodon saxatilis. As for fish, there are Coreoleuciscus
splendidus, Gobiobotia brevibarba, Cobitis rotundicaudata, Iksookimia koreensis, Silulus
microdorsalis, Liobagrus andersoni and Coreoperca herzi. There are Chrysorithrum amatum,
Oedaleus infernalis, Anomala viridana and Menida violacea for commonly seen insects.
Cultural Heritage: Due to its steep physical features and ferociously tall cliffs, the park was often
called "Yeongbong" meaning divine mountain. It has a number of cultural assets including Maae
176

Buddha(Treasure No.40), Deokju Fortress and Standing Stone Buddha(Treasure No.96) in


Mireukri, which is well known for the story of Prince Maui and Princess Deokju mourning
the fall of Shinra Dynasty. In Woraksan(Mt.) national park, 6 Treasures, 7 tangible cultural
assets and 6 monuments are designated and protected by the Cultural Properties Protection
Act.
Local Human Population: Approximately 2,200 people are residing in 29 towns within the
park's buffer zone. Some of them engage in traditional farming and others own businesses
including restaurants, lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 620,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 access road, 12 trails(51.90km), 6 parking lots, 5 campsites and 633
information boards.
nd

Scientific Research and Facilities: In 2006, the park office conducted the 2 natural resources
survey for the entire Woraksan(Mt.) area. The survey included human environment, visitor
pattern, geological and geographical features, natural landscape, climate, soil, vegetation,
mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fish and insects. The park's 3rd natural resources survey
will be carried out in 2016.
Conservation Value: Using a discrete choice model, Korea National Park Service estimated that
Woraksan(Mt.) National Park's minimum annual asset value was 13billion USD in 2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Woraksan(Mt.)

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Per
Total
(million (million
annum
Asset
(million (million
USD)
USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)

Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

5.6

118

(E)

126.8

(F)

2,663.1

132.4

2,781.1

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Woraksan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park and Management Plan
for Woraksan(Mt.) National Park. The park's nature preservation zone(37.5%), the habitat for
park's wildlife with rich biodiversity, is a key area strictly managed by the park managers.
Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and business activities are
conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it doesn't harm the natural
environment of the park. In most cases, forest fires in the park occur due to manmade causes
177

and during about 5 monthperiod of dry seasons, the park office conducts forest fire
prevention activities with close cooperation from the local community. Other conservation
activities include sabbaticalyear program and antelope restoration project.
Management Constraints: Woraksan(Mt.) national park office faces some challenges in
managing the park. Firstly, it is the visitor's concentrated use of the park. During summer
vacation(Jul~Aug) and autumnal tints(Oct~Nov) many people come to the park to visit its
main valleys and mountains. Due to increased visitation during this period, the park's natural
resources and ecosystem come under threat by waste, noise and water pollution generated by
park visitors. Secondly, a number of issues have been raised resulting from several planned
development projects adjacent to the national park area. Finally, roads constructed in the park
caused the creation of isolated ecosystems thus hindering animals' movements and has been an
inflow route for foreign animals and plants. The park office is continuing its efforts to
minimize negative impacts of park use to the natural environment of the park by focusing
management capacity to these areas.
Staff: Permanent Job: 32, Irregular Job: 21
Budget: 3.2million USD, 2007
Local Addresses
Woraksan(Mt.) National Park Office : 6931 Songaeri, Hansumyeon, Jecheonsi, Chungcheonbukdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1996. Natural resources survey of Woraksan(Mt.) national park
Woraksan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Woraksan(Mt.) National
Park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park II
Ministry of Environment. 2003. Basic Plan for Natural Park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. National Park Statistical Data
Date: 2006, revised in 2008

178

Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: II(National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location: Sobaeksan(Mt.) is located across a boundary between middle part and
southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 3650N ~ 37 4N, Longitude: 12821E ~
12843E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
th
designated 32,050ha of Sobaeksan(Mt.) area as 18 national park on Dec 14, 1987. After the
change of the park area and the revision of the park planning on Aug 30, 2003, the parks
land size has become to 32,238.3ha.
Area: 32,238.3 ha
Land Tenure: 76.4% of the land is state and public owned, 23.2% is private owned land and
0.4% is Temple owned land. State and public lands are distributed in environmentally core
areas such as forest and stream, and private lands are distributed in farming areas around the
park entrance and residential areas.
Altitude: 300m ~ 1439m
Physical Features: Sobaeksan(Mt.) is the gigantic mountain of the third widest area next to
Jirisan(Mt.) (471.758) and Seoraksan(Mt.) (398.539) among national parks in Korea.
Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park is sited around Sobaeksan stretching out of the Taebaek
Mountain Range (backbone of the Korean peninsula) in the southwest surrounding the
Yeongju basin, and dividing Gangwon province, Chungcheong province, Jeolla province and
Gyeongsang province. At large, Sobaeksan(Mt.) corresponds to the entire ridgelines connecting
from Jungnyeong ridge northwards to the Guinsa(Temple). However, Sobaeksan(Mt.) national
park includes the Dosolbong and Myojeongnyeong below Myojeokbong to the south of
Jungnyeong, and Hyeongjebong (Yeongchunmyeon, Danyanggun) and the entire Galgotsan
area(Buseokmyeon, Yeongju) to the north. It has many divine peaks such as Gungmangbong
(1,421m), Birobong (1,439m), 1st Yeonhwabong (1,394m), 2nd Yeonhwabong (1,357m) and
Dosolbong (1,314m), which show magnificent but soft scenery.
Climate: As an inland area crossing middle and southern part of the Korean peninsula,
179

Sobaeksan(Mt.) region has distinctive four seasons. The mean temperature at the highest peak
of Sobaeksan(Mt.) is 17.1 for summer, 9.3 below zero for winter, and the mean yearly
temperature is 4.6. Average annual precipitation is 1,763.3mm that is much more than
Korean average annual precipitation of 1,159mm. Precipitation can be observed for 114 days
out of 365 days and relative humidity is 74%. Average annual wind speed is 2.4m/s.
Northeasterly wind is more prominent than northwesterly wind in summer and viceversa in
winter.
Vegetation: There are a total of 9 vegetation communities including yew trees community,
Pinus densiflora community, Quercus mongolica community, Rhododendron schlippenbachii
community, grassland community, Quercus serrata community, Quercus variabilis community,
Ulmaceae community and Fraxinus mandshurica community. There are evergreen needleleaf
forests such as Abies nephrolepis community and shrub community such as Rhododendron
schlippenbachii community distributed in subalpine zone. There is a deciduous broadleaf
community such as Quercus mongolica community, Carpinus tschonoskii community, Quercus
serrata community and Quercus variabilis community.
Stewartia koreana community and
Cornaceae community are distributed in some part of valley areas and widely distributed in
areas where Larix leptolepis are planted.
Flora: The park contains 1,067 species of flora. Different kinds of vegetations is distributed all
over regardless of the altitude, 34% of them grows in the middle part of the mountain of
1,000m, 18% can be seen around the high ridge and peak, and the rest of them doesnt have
a distinctive distribution limitation. In particular, in the alpine region of 1,200~1,350m to the
northwest slope of the mountain, yew trees community which is natural monument 244 in
Korea, is distributed.
Fauna: 23 species of mammal, 82 species of bird, 8 species of amphibian, 6 species of
reptile, 29 species of fish, 2 rare species and 1,560 species of insects have been recorded.
Most commonly seen mammals include Lepus coreanus, Sciurus vulgar and Tamias sibiricus.
Rarely seen are Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Erinaceus amurensis and Capreolus
capreolus. As natural monuments, there aree Accipiter nisus and Falco tinnunculus(natural
monument 323), Otus scops(natural monument 324) and Dyrocpus martius(natural monument
242). As for rare species, there are Dendrocopos leucotos and Turdus hortulorum. Hynobius
leechii, Hyla japonica and Rana ornativentris are most commonly seen amphibians.
Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus, Agkistrodon brevicaudus and Agkistrodon saxatilis are commonly
seen reptiles and there are Dinodon rufozonatus rufozonatus and Onychodactylus fisheri as rare
reptiles. As for fish, Moroco oxycephalus, Liobagrus andersoni, Liobagrus mediadiposalis,
Coreoperca herzi and Odontobutis platycephala, all of which are Korean indigenous species,
are found.

180

Cultural Heritage: In Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park, there are historic temples including
Buseoksa(temple), Birosa(temple), Sunghyulsa(temple), Choamsa(temple) and Huibangsa(temple).
The cultural assets are widely located throughout the Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park. In the
park, there are 5 national treasures, 6 treasures, 6 natural monuments and 8 cultural properties
designated and protected by Cultural Property Protection Law.
Local Human Population: Approximately 735 people are residing within the park's buffer zone.
Some of them engage in traditional farming and others own businesses including restaurants,
lodging facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 650,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 access road, 2 park offices, 6 visitor information booth, 1 mountain
shelter, 6 parking lots, 4 campsites and 703 information boards.
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1998, natural resources survey was conducted for the
entire Sobaeksan(Mt.) area. The fields of survey included human and social resources,
geographical features, soil, vegetation, special botanical species, ecology of vegetation,
mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fresh water fishes and insects. 11 experts participated in
this oneyear survey and 2,775 fauna and flora species were identified.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park
Service estimated that Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 14billion USD in
2006.
Economic Value

Use Value
Park

Sobaeksan(Mt.)

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

1.1

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Total
Single
Per
Total
Asset
Household annum
Asset
(million (million
(million Per Year (million (million
USD)
USD)
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
Preservation Value

(C)

(D)

22.8

10

(E)

142

(F)

2,981.3

143.1

3,004.1

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Natural Park and Management
Pan for Sobaeksan(Mt.) Nional Park. The park is dividend by 4 different zones and its
nature preservation zone(20.7%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly
managed by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their
construction and business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities
181

so long as it doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires that have
been occurred in Korea are caused not by natural phenomenon but by human. To suppress the
wildfires during the dry season which lasts about 3 months, the park managers make every
effort with local community. One of conservation plans is to designate some park areas for
nature selfrestoring period, in which no visitor can get an access to these areas during the
period.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect management of the park. Firstly,
it is the concentrated park use of visitors. The concentrated visit takes pace in two seasons;
blooming season for the royal azalea(from May to June) and summer vacation(from July to
August). Secondly, synthesized fertilizers and agricultural chemicals that farmers use in
orchards considerably contaminate streams in Sobaeksan(Mt.) and the wild habitats for the
fauna and flora. Lastly, longhistoric temples situated around the park entrance represent
Sobaeksan(Mt.)s cultural heritage but religious activities cause problems in park management.
Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize the impact of these factors.
Staff: Permanent Job: 49, Irregular Jobs: 30
Budget: 3.1 million USD(2007)
Local Addresses
Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park Office:
San 8651, Soocheol Ri, Poong Ki Eop, Young Joo Si, North Gyoungsang province
(http://www.knps.or.kr/sobaek/index.asp)
Sobaeksan(Mt.) National Park North Office:
San 91, Cheon Dong Ri, Dan Yang Eop, Dan Yang Goon, North Choongchung province
References
Korea National Park Service. 1998. Natural resources survey of Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park
Korea National Park Service. 2003. The Management Plan For Sobaeksan(Mt.) national park
Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on park management plans customized for each
national park II
Ministry of Environment, 2003. The general planning for natural parks
Date 2005 revised in 2007 and 2008.

182

Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park

Name: Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Oriental Deciduous Forest
Geographical Location:
The park is located in the southwest seashore of the Korean
Peninsula. Latitude: 342140N 344720N, Longitude: 1263740E 1264420E
Date and History of Establishment: Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) national park was designated as the
th
19 national park on Jun 11, 1988. Since its designation, the land size of park has changed to
15,464.4 ha including 991.6 ha of sea through park zone change in 2003 and 2006.
Area: 15,464.4ha (including 991.6ha of sea)
Land Tenure: Most part of the park is owned by state and the rest of the park(29%) is by
private. State lands are distributed in environmentally important areas such as forest and
stream, and private lands are distributed in farming areas and residential areas.
Altitude: 0m ~ 508.6m
Physical Features: Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) national park is divided into Nae(inner) Byeonsan
and Oue(outer) Byeonsan. Situated in the mountains, NaeByeonsan consists of volcanic rocks
such as rhyolite that was erupted during Cretaceous period. The park has gentle curves in the
overall east, north and west, however, the curve gets steeper towards the south. Altitude less
than 200m covers more than 70% of the park and more than 400m covers only 1.3% of the
park. Seashore is divided into rock seashore, sand beach and shingle beach. Seashore sand
dune is developed well behind Gosapo beach.
Climate: Affected by oceanic climate, the temperature of Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) national
park is warm and humid. Annual mean temperature is 12.3 with highest temperature of 35.
7 and lowest temperature of is 19.2. Average annual precipitation is 1219.4, showing
concentrated precipitation of 60% during rainy season from June to August. Relative humidity
is 74~80% and annual sunshine hour is 2,597.6hr.
Vegetation:
community,
community,
community.

Main vegetation communities are Quercus variabilis community, Pinus densiflora


Quercus serrata community, Platycarya strobilacea community, Carpinus tschonoskii
Quercus aliena community, Zelkova serrata community and Carpinus coreana
Pinus densiflora forest is the most widely distributed in the park. As for Evergreen
183

Needleshaped Leaved Forest, there are Pinus densiflora community, Pinus densifloraQuercus
variabilis community, Pinus thunbergii community, Pinus rigida afforestation, Abies holophylla
afforestation and Pinus koraiensis afforestation. Other special vegetations include Lycoris
flavescens community and Abeliophyllum distichum community.
Flora: 881 species of vascular bundle are distributed in the park. As a flora region, the park
is warmlatitude district in the southern area and boundary line as distribution of flora in the
northern area.
Fauna: There are 21 species of mammal including Lutra lutra(endangered species) and 95
species of bird such as Parus major, Phoenicurus auroreus and Aegithalos caudatus. Also 11
species of amphibian, 14 species of reptile, 24 species of fish, 151 of marine animals and 832
insect have been found.
Cultural Heritage: In the park, there are 4 natural monuments, 6 treasures, 1 scenic site and 7
local monuments. Representative cultural assets are Naesosa(temple) and Gaeamsa(temple).
Local Human Population: Approximately 1,800 people are residing in 28 towns within the
park. Most of them engage in traditional farming, fishing or businesses including restaurants,
lodging facilities and souvenir shops
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: There are about 150,000 visitors annually for the purpose of
recreation, hiking, mount climbing, swimming and religious activities. Park visitors are
provided with a number of park facilities including 10 trails(29km), 4 parking lots, 2
campsites, 2 access roads and 250 information boards
Scientific Research and Facilities: Natural resources survey was conducted for the whole area
of the park in 1999. 30 experts participated in the research on human and cultural resources,
geographical features, soil, vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes, insects,
invertebrates and mycomycetes in the oneyear survey in 1999. 2,029 flora and fauna have
been found from the survey.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park Service
estimated that Byeonsan Peninsular National Park's annual asset value was 15billion USD in 2006.
Use Value
Park

Byeonsan
Peninsular

Economic Value
Preservation Value

Single
Use Per
Visitor
(USD)
(A)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(B)

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

Single
Household
Per Year
(USD)
(D)

Per
annum
(million
USD)
(E)

14

16.9

355.1

10

139.1

184

Total
Value Per
Total
annum
Asset
(million
(million
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(F)

2,933.9

156.6

Total
Asset
Value
(million
USD)
(C+F)
3,289

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in the park are carried out in accordance
with relevant laws, National Plan for Nature Park, Management Plan for
Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park. The park is dividend by 5 different zones. Nature
preservation zone(14.38%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed
by the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and
business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it
doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. The park management carries out prevention
of forest fire in collaboration with communities during dry season (5 months). Other
conservation activities include natural resources survey and various monitoring projects
including temporary closure program.
Management Constraints: There are several factors that affect the management of the park.
Firstly, it is concentrated park use of visitors during Summer holiday season (JulyAugust) and
autumn season(OctoberNovember). Secondly, it is road that runs across the park. The roads
were constructed for practical reasons but they cause damages on natural resources, illegal
activities, inflow route for foreign animals and plants, and hindrance of animals movements.
Lastly, dam and reservoir within the park make significant affects on the wildlifes habitat.
Park managers carry out various efforts to minimize the damages incurred from those
activities.
Staff: Permanent Job: 36, Irregular Job: 19
Budget: 2.7million USD(based in 2007)
Local Addresses:
Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park Office: 41524 Daehangri, Byeonsanmyeon, Buangun,
Jeollabukdo
References:
Korea National Park Service. 1997. Plan of Natural Ecosystem of Byeonsanbando(Peninsula)
National Park
Korea National Park Service. 1999. Survey on Natural Resources of Byeonsanbando(Peninsula)
National Park
Ministry of Environment. 2003. Plan of Nature Park
Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park Office. 2006. The Management Plan for Byeonsanbando
(Peninsula) National Park
Korea National Park Service.2006. Statistics of Byeonsanbando(Peninsula) National Park
Date: 2008

185

Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park

Name: Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park


IUCN Management Category: (National Park)
Biogeographical Province: Japanese Evergreen Forest
Geographical Location: Wolchulsan(Mt.) is located in southwest seashore of northern part of
the Korean Peninsula. Latitude: 34 21 40N 34 47 20N, Longitude: 126 37 40E
126 44 20E
Date and History of Establishment: In accordance with the Parks Act, the government
th
designated Wolchulsan(Mt.) area of 4,188ha as 20 national park on June 11th, 1988. The park
area has increased gradually from 2002 to 2003.
Area: 5,610ha(56.10)
Land Tenure: 43% of the park is owned by state and public and 57% is by private. State and
public lands are distributed in environmentally core areas such as forest and stream, and
private lands are distributed around the park entrance.
Altitude: 50m ~ 809m
Physical Features: Most peaks of the park consist of fantastic rocks and stones. Eastern and
western part shows steep area of 30 ~ 40 and southern and western valleys and ridges show
gentle land of 10 ~ 20. It is said the east is full of great, tall and pillarshaped rocky peaks,
while the west is an exhibition hall of tall and short artistic rocky pagodas. Representative
geographical sceneries are joint cave, pillar rock and other variouslooking rocks formed by
vertical and horizontal joint
Climate: The mean average temperature of Wolchulsan(Mt.) national park is 12.8. As a northern
limitation area of evergreen broadleaved species, the park has ecotone of warmlatitude of
southern region and warmtemperature region. The average annual temperature of
Cheonhwangbong(peak), the highest peak of Wolchulsan(Mt.) national park, is around 8 and it
is am important area with vertical climate characteristics. Average annual precipitation is 1,457.8
with relative humidity of 68.3~82.4% and annual sunshine hour is less than 2,096 hours.
Vegetation: Main vegetation communities include Quercus serrata community, Pinus densiflora
community, Quercus mongolica community, Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens community,
186

Quercus acuta community and Camellia japonica community. Miscanthus sinensis var.
purpurascens community is widely distributed in Miwangjae in the park.
Flora: There are 131 families and 693 species of flora in the park. As for plant distribution
canal system, the area is mixed with warmlatitude and warmtemperature areas. Mostly
warmlatitude plants are featured but warmtemperature plants such as Camellia japonica,
Quercus acuta, Eurya japonica, Vaccinium bracteatum, Ardisia japonica, Neolitsea sericea and
Thea sinensis are distributed partly in the park.
Fauna: 19 species of mammal, 79 species of bird, 9 species of amphibian, 5 species of
reptilian, 31 species of fish and 678 species of insect have been recorded.
Cultural Heritage: There were 99 temples in the park in the past. Dogapsa(temple) and
Muwisa(temple) have cultural assets that have been more than 1,000 years old and other Buddhism
relics are widely distributed in the park. 3 national treasures and 10 treasures are designated and
protected under Cultural Property Protection Law.
Local Human Population: In nature environment zone, 64 people are residing in 2 towns
within the park's buffer zone. Most of them engage in businesses including restaurants, lodging
facilities and souvenir shops.
Visitors and Visitor Facilities: About 280,000 people visit the park annually for recreation,
hiking, mount climbing and religious activities. Park visitors are provided with a number of
park facilities including 1 access road, 6 trails(19.9km), 3 parking lots, 2 campsites and 333
information boards
Scientific Research and Facilities: In 1998, the park office conducted natural resources survey
on human and cultural environment, geological and geographical features, climate, soil,
vegetation, mammalian, aves, amphibian, reptilian, fishes and insects. 1,541 species of flora
and fauna have been recorded.
Conservation Value: Using a dichotomous contigent valuation method, Korea National Park Service
estimated that Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park's annual asset value was 14billion USD in 2006.
Economic Value
Use Value
Park

Wolchulsan(Mt.)

Single
Per
Use Per annum
Visitor (million
(USD)
USD)
(A)
(B)
11

2.7

Total
Total
Value Per Asset
annum
Value
Single
Per
Total
(million (million
Household annum
Asset
Per Year (million (million
USD)
USD)
(USD)
USD)
USD)
(B+E)
(C+F)
Preservation Value

Total
Asset
(million
USD)
(C)

(D)

57.6

187

(E)

138.9

(F)

2,917.5

14.17

2,975.1

Conservation Management: Conservation activities in Wolchulsan(Mt.) national park are carried


out in accordance with relevant laws, National Plan for Nature Park, Management Plan for
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park. The park is dividend by 3 different zones and its nature
preservation zone(14%), the core area for the habitat of park's wildlife, is strictly managed by
the park managers. Indigenous people's livelihood is protected and their construction and
business activities are conducted with the permission of the park authorities so long as it
doesn't harm the natural environment of the park. Most of wildfires are caused not by natural
phenomenon but by human. To suppress the wildfires during the dry season which lasts about
5 months, the park managers make every effort with local community. Other conservation
activities include implementation of specialpreserved area and restoration of damaged area.
Management Constraints: There are several challenges in managing the park. It is the visitor's
concentrated use of the park. During autumnal tints(Oct~Nov), many people come to the
resulting in damages of trails. Park managers make various efforts to minimize the damages of
natural environment.
Staff: Permanent Job: 29, Irregular Job: 14
Budget: 2.4million USD, 2007
Local Addresses:
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National
Jeollanamdo

Park

Office:

48450,

Gaesinri,

Youngapyup,

Youngamgun,

References:
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park Office. 1997. Conservation Plan of Natural Ecosystem of
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park
Korea National Park Service. 1998. Natural resources survey of Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2003. The Management Plan for Wolchulsan(Mt.)
National Park Korea National Park Service. 2004. Research on Park Management Plans
Customized for Each National Park II
Ministry of Environment, 2003. The General Planning for Natural Parks
Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2005. The Management Plan for Wolchulsan(Mt.)
National Park Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park Office. 2006(2006~2010). The Management Plan
for Wolchulsan(Mt.) National Park
Date: 1982. revised in 2005 and 2008

188