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om metric

Gulmammad Mammadov

Replacement project for the final exam of the Adv. Electromagnetic Theory II. Instructor: Marina Artuso

(Dated: May 04, 2009)

In this note we give derivation of the Reissner-Nordstr

om metric. For that we solve the coupled

Einstein-Maxwell equations for a non-rotating charged spherical black hole. It is assumed that the

charge is static, i.e. the current throughout the black hole is uniformly zero and therefore there is no

magnetic field produced by the electric charges. However, the existence of the magnetic monopoles

is assumed and their magnetic field is taken into account.

1.

INTRODUCTION

the Einsteins field equations is the Reissner-Nordstr

om

metric describing the geometry of the spacetime surrounding a non-rotating charged spherical black hole. In

reality, a highly charged black hole would be quickly neutralized by interactions with matter in its vicinity and

therefore such solution is not extremely relevant to realistic astrophysical situations. Nevertheless, charged black

holes illustrate a number of important features of more

general situations [1]. In almost all General Relativity

books known to me (some are [16]) authors always leave

out the derivation of this metric for the reader as an exercise or tend to obtain it from the more generic KerrNewman metric. In this note we give detailed derivation

of the Reissner-Nordstr

om metric assuming existence of

the magnetic monopoles along with electrical charge. To

this end, we shall need to solve the coupled EinsteinMaxwell equations. We will follow the notation convention used by Sean Caroll in ref. [1]. Because of the spherical symmetry, the Birkhoff s theorem suggests the following generic form for the metric in 4D spherical coordinates {t, r, , } [1]:

g R , and T is the energy-momentum tensor which

in our problem is the one for electromagnetism

1

T = F F g F F ,

4

(5)

Note that T has zero trace,

1

T = g T = g F F g g F F = 0, (6)

4

since in 4-dimensions g g = 4. In Eq. (4) s are the

connection coefficients given by

=

1

g ( g + g g ),

2

(7)

0) and connection is torsion-free ( = ).

Eq. (6) allows us to rewrite the Einsteins equation in

the following form

R = 8GT .

(8)

ds2 = e2(r,t) dt2 + e2(r,t) dr2 + r2 d2 ,

(1)

g F = 0,

(9)

[ F] = 0,

(10)

d2 = d2 + sin2 d2 .

(2)

where is the covariant derivative operator. The covariant derivative of a rank two tensor T is defined to

be

1

R Rg = 8GT ,

2

(3)

T = T + T + T .

tensor,

R

Email:

gmammado@syr.edu

Email: martuso@syr.edu

(4)

(11)

2. COMPONENTS OF THE

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH

TENSOR

components of the magnetic and electric fields are the

radial components which should be independent of and

2

2

+(r )2 r r + r ],

r

has a form of

Er = Ftr = Frt = f (r, t).

(12)

2

Rrr = [r2 + (r )2 r r r ]

r

introduce a completely antisymmetric Levi-Civita symbol, defined as

= 1, if is an odd permutation of 0123;

0, otherwise.

(13)

Because is not a tensor - rather a tensor density the following is defined to be the Levi-Civita tensor :

p

,

(14)

= |g|

where g = det g . Note that using metric g we can

lower or raise indices of not of . Now we go

back to find the magnetic field. The radial component of

the magnetic field is given by

+e2() [t2 + (t )2 t t ],

Rtr =

R = e2 [r(r r ) 1] + 1,

R = R sin2 .

e2(r,t) + g(r,t)

e2(r,t)

Ttt = f (r,t)

2

2

f (r,t)2 2(r,t)

g(r,t)2 2(r,t)

Trr = 2 e

2 e

Ttr = 0

2

2

2

2

T = r g(r,t)

+ r f (r,t)

e2((r,t)+(r,t))

2

2

T = T sin2 .

g11 0123

2g11

= p (

F23 + 0132 F32 ) = p F . (15)

|g|

|g|

From Eq. (1) we see that g11 = grr (r, t) and |g| r4 sin2

and since Br doesnt have angular dependence, F must

have the following form

(16)

field strength tensor are either zero or related to these

two through symmetries. Therefore for the electromagnetic field strength tensor we obtain

0

f (r, t)

0

0

0

0

0

f (r, t)

.

F =

0

0

0

g(r, t)r2 sin

0

0

g(r, t)r2 sin

0

(17)

(18)

For the components of the electromagnetic stress tensor using Eqs. (5) and (17) we obtain

g11

Br = g11 01 F = p 01 F

|g|

2

t ,

r

(19)

(r). Using this fact and Eq. (12), we obtain e2(r,t) Rrr +

e2(r) Rtt = 0. Solving this yields (r, t) + (r) = const.

But we can redefine the time coordinate in Eq. (1) by

replacing dt econst. dt so that

(r, t) = (r) = (r).

4.

(20)

of the electromagnetic field strength tensor given in

Eq. (17). For the r component of the Eq. (9) we have

t Ftr

tt Fr tr Ft = 0,

3.

AND THE STRESS TENSOR

Einsteins equation know that the calculation of components of the Ricci tensor is long and tedious work. For

this, one should first use Eq. (1) to compute the connection coefficients from Eq. (7), then compute the Riemann

tensor in Eq. (4) and eventually contract two of its indices to obtain the Ricci tensor. In this note we wont go

through this painful task, instead, take the results that

were obtained by Sean Caroll in ref. [1] p.202:

Rtt = [t2 + (t )2 t t ] + e2() [r2

t Ftr Ftr (rtt + rtr ) = 0.

Since the metric is diagonal and doesnt depend on

time, ttt = 0 and rtr = t = 0 and from above equation we have t Ftr = 0 implying that the tr component

of the electromagnetic field strength tensor is not time

dependent:

Ftr = f (r).

(21)

following identity: for given any antisymmetric rank two

3

tensor, T , and diagonal metric the following identity is

true (see Eq. (A3))

p

1

T = p ( |g|T ).

|g|

(22)

If

pwe take2 into account Eq. (20), for our metric we have

|g| = r sin . Now if we use metric compatibility condition to raise the indices of the electromagnetic field

strength tensor in Eq. (9) and apply the above identity,

we obtain

F =

1

(r2 sin F ) = 0.

r2 sin

r (r2 g rr g tt Frt ) = r (r2 f ) = 0, or

f (r) =

r (r2 F rt )

const.

.

r2

(23)

5.

which is given in Eq. (20). To this end, one equation is

enough to determine the unknown. Lets consider the

component of the Einsteins equation, Eq. (7):

R = 8T .

(29)

Substituting R and T from Eqs. (18) and (19) into

the above equation and using Eqs. (20) and (28), we

obtain

(24)

r (re2 ) = 1

(25)

which contain connection coefficients vanish and we are

left with the ordinary partial derivatives

F + F + F = 0.

(26)

using the fact that Ft = Ft = 0, we obtain t F = 0

which means that g(r, t) is time independent. Doing the

same for = r, = and = combination leads to

r F = 0 or r (r2 g(r)) = 0. Thus

g(r, t) =

const.

.

r2

G 2

(Q + P 2 ),

r2

or

Q/ 4 where Q is the total electric charge of black hole.

Now lets find g(r, t) which is related to the magnetic

filed. For this we need to solve Eq. (10) which in explicit

form reads

F + F + F = 0.

THE REISSNER-NORDSTROM

METRIC

e2 = 1 +

RS

G

+ 2 (Q2 + P 2 ).

r

r

(30)

Schwarzschild solution which allows us to take the constant to be RS = 2GM where M is interpreted as the

mass of black hole and G is the Newtons gravitational

constant.

Finally, upon substitution of Eqs. (20) and (30) into

Eq. (1), the Reissner-Nordstr

om metric is readily

found:

ds2 = 4dt2 + 41 dr2 + r2 d2 ,

(31)

where

(27)

flux theorem

for the magnetic field gives const. = P/ 4 where P is

the total magnetic charge of black hole. Finally, for the

electromagnetic field strength tensor we obtain

4=1

2GM

G

+ 2 (Q2 + P 2 ).

r

r

(32)

0

Qr2

0

0

1 Qr2

0

0

0

=

. (28)

0

0

0

P sin

4

0

0

P sin

0

In summery, we have solved the coupled EinsteinMaxwell equations and found the metric which describes the geometry of the spacetime surrounding a nonrotating black hole assuming it has static electric and

magnetic charges.

[2] C. Misner, K. Thorne, and J. Wheeler, Gravitation, (Freeman, 1973).

[4] R. Wald, General Relativity, (Chicago, 1984).

[5] R. DInverno, Introducing Einsteins Relativity, (Oxford,

1992).

4

[6] A. P. Lightman, W. H. Press, R. H. Price, and S. A.

Teukolsky, Problem Book in Relativity and Gravitation,

(Princeton, 1975).

p

1

= T + p ( |g|)T + T

|g|

p

1

= p ( |g|T ) + T .

|g|

(A2)

We start with

p

1

= p |g|

|g|

(A1)

asymmetric tensor T the last term is zero which leads

to the following identity:

the above identity for granted, for a rank two tensor T

we can write

T = T + T + T

p

1

T = p ( |g|T ).

|g|

Q.E.D.

(A3)

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