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Lean Construction principle:

Construction management and the technology used in construction are two important elements
that impact the development of construction industry. In last 4 decades, many important and
advanced technologies have been introduced in many construction projects but the overall
efficiency and progress of construction industry is not much impressive (Koushki et al, 2005).
For instance, the progress of the American construction industry has been decreasing since 1964
(Teicholz, 2004). Similarly in other countries too, similar decrease in the productivity of
construction industry has been observed for example in Japan. The main cause of this is thought
that the advanced technologies cannot significantly cut the cost of the construction projects
however; they effectively improve the management of the overall construction. Computer Aided
Design (CAD) technology has enhanced the design and drawing of the projects but there is no
reduction in the design error and hence there can be a need to rework the construction that is
problematic for the construction managers to cut down the cost of the project (Love et al, 2000).
This issue is pertinent to the Design and Building projects where the main concern is to cut down
the cost and to improve the quality with enhanced construction of the design. However, the
advanced technology cannot significantly support in the Design and building projects. Hence, the
implementation of both suitable advanced technology and appropriate management strategy is
important to enhance the construction industry significantly. This assignment covers the

literature review for the implementation of lean concept in the construction and why it is
important to adapt the new strategy. All the important benefits that can be reaped from the lean
approach are elaborated. This can be seen that even when there are many benefits of this simple
strategy, it is not very well-adopted and is not very much popular in the construction industry.

The lean construction idea is thought to be very important technique to enhance the efficiency of
the construction industry and has been observed to make significant enhancements for the
constructions companies that pick up this technique (Ballard and Howell 2003). Still there is a
query that why this technique is not very common among the companies of construction. It has
been voiced by many researchers that there is need of the lean construction study that analyze the
application problems, many important facts that can detail out the important hurdles in
application of the lean concept and how these hurdles can be removed. Particular properties of
the construction firms are quite complicated and divided in the projects and are thought to be the
hurdles in the application of lean technology. One of the advanced management concepts that
have been used in the UK construction industry is the Lean thinking (Green, 1999). The main
aim of Lean Construction like many other construction approaches is to meet the demands of the
clients while making minimal use of the resources and the word Lean thinking has been coined
in 1993 by an International Group for Lean Construction (Gleeson and Townend, 2007). This
concept has been studied and researched by a number of researchers in last few years. The
principles and the application of Lean concept in the design and construction have been studied
and it has been speculated to increase the value and minimize the waste. The lean construction
has been implemented successfully in many instances like Conte and Gransberg (2001) studied
the concept that is used in the lean construction in almost twenty construction companies of

Brazil (Aziz and Hafiz, 2013). Wright (2000) gave many cases that involved the idea of lean
Construction but the implementation of Lean construction is not on advanced levels and it is
considered to be just a start. For improving the application of lean construction a harmonization
was proposed by Miller et al (2002) between the contractors and the subcontract managers as an
important step. Thomas et al (2004) gave the idea to lower the variability to enhance the
efficiency and labor flow reliability for improved performance as the lean concept of
construction. Bashford (2005) et al gave an introduction to the production management strategy
for the residential projects and specifically for the high-raise buildings and a simulation of the
lean construction was done by the LEAPCON. Sacks et al (2007) gave a model of the building
information for the lean construction.
Some case studies were made by Gabriel (1997) who developed the concept of lean construction
with the focus on the idea that philosophy and the system are better communicated between the
parties who are the providers and the contributor in the whole project mechanism. The project
manager in this idea is the person who is the customer based leader for the project team and is
responsible to make decisions and is also the main key-element in the communication regarding
the project. This strategy is quite useful on the public arts constitution and this can be used in a
vast variety of projects and management. Al-Sudairi et al (1999) also carried out a study on the
lean construction strategy with computer simulation and gave some significant results. The
information regarding the structural steel erection procedure was modeled to set a strategy for
analyzing the lean concept. In every situation the simulated strategy enhanced the efficiency of
the project. The progress was made much significantly when complete strategy was used at a
time.

Thomas et al (2003) studied the lean principle that had more reliability in the flow leading to an
efficient work progress. Real information from the construction cases of three bridges were
analyzed for accounting the examples of the bad flow of reliable resources and its impact on the
work progress. All the calculations are made for the ineffective work time. The conclusions
depict that there was good background that better material, data and instruments approach help in
good progress. Salem et al (2005) checked the efficiency of some lean concept equipment
especially the equipment that can be used in moderate sized construction companies. As the lean
concept setup has been succeeded in the construction industry, these techniques have been
adopted to remove the waste and to improve the profitability. A case research was made to check
the efficiency of some lean concept techniques. The information gathered by immediate
observations, queries, investigation and documentary check. The efficiency was checked of the
lean construction equipment by the lean application measurement and progress criterion. This
was concluded that the last strategy maker enhanced the visualization, regular meetings and
initial research attained better results than anticipated. But, the outcome of the application of the
5S procedure and idea for the quality couldnt satisfy the anticipation of the equipment analysts
and the crew. This was observed that some attitude alterations are needed as well as some
training sessions for better utilization of the lean equipment. Majority of the lean equipments
chosen for the project are normally readymade or are suggested with some changes.

Agbulos et al (2006) showed the development that had better procedures and improved progress
strategy for many different drain systems. The process concept was applied to create more
progress strategy for the left staff for enhancing the performance while keeping the six staffs in
concern. The implementation of the industrial work idea of the lean construction strategy and the

methods of the simulation study for present procedures has been studied. These researches are
important to generate some alternative procedures and create new process standards for the drain
system. Salem et al (2005) gave a new lean analysis system to check the outcome of the lean
applications. The checking system analyses the six important lean factors i.e. last strategy maker,
regular meet-ups, improved visualization, initial research, fail safe for quality and five Ss. Mao
and Zhang (2008) created a construction procedure by modifying the frame and the relevant
techniques that used the lean concept and the computerized simulation methods to run and check
the efficiency and progress of the modified construction procedure that is attained depending on
the lean concept. Computer run turn it simpler to analyze and check the performance of the
modified construction procedure.

Implementing lean concept and the computer run methods, the suggested construction modified
system as helpful and useable in marinating the construction procedure for enhanced activity, and
cost effective building that was confirmed by the research of the tunnel building project.

Song and Liang (2011) checked the waste in two levels of construction i.e. project based and
operation based. A well implemented timing setup that has place dependant characteristics was
used to plan the work and this was intended to enhance the project based construction. For
applying the waste removal system at the operation base, the construction computer run and
three dimensional was used to help in use of lean concept. At the same time the effect of lean of
the durability was checked and analyzed. Deshpande et al (2012) showed the strategy utilized by
a moderate sized industrial company that are the aim dependant technique, decisions making on

the last responsive time, lean auditing, 5S in the structure of the industrial works to apply the
methods of lean construction in the system.

Shewchuk and Guo (2012) shared a lean strategy of panel piling, panel sequencing and stack
locating in which the panels in every stack make a consistent design and are made up with the
consistent flow. The purpose was to lower the number of the stacks, the panel material and the
labor needed to stack and arrange the panels. The given strategy and the system showed an
enhancement in progress with no structure limitations and give the possible solutions. Further,
the computed work depict that the system is better than the techniques that were used in the
construction industry earlier. The application of the lean idea is the use of the equipment and the
methods in all the phases of the project. A normal base is given in the transformation flow and
more areas of the management concepts and the complex theory. This shows that he applying of
lean ideas needs basic alteration of the conventional designs in all the areas including behavioral
and organizational. It is advised by some researchers that there is need to adapt the system
thinking and the comprehension of the complexity of the modified mental standards. Further,
there is need to adapt to more resistance to the throughout decisions. Normally one aspect is
neglected and that is the organizational modification procedure that is given by the folks. In any
combined application attempt by 7 Chilean construction firms as mentioned by Alarcn and
Diethelm (2001), the results were checked that showed the requirement for the dedication at all
the phases for successfully using the lean model (Johansen and Walter, 2007) similar results have
been attained by some other researches as well as in a study on the implementation of last panner
to a project in the United Kingdom there were some design and cultural issues especially with
the subcontractors (Johansen and Porter, 2003). If the application of Last planner is viewed from

the social idea this can be seen hat the cultural limitations are still present in the industry. This
shows that much specific modification has not been made still. Two studies in the United
Kingdom and the Netherlands showed that the construction industry is very slow to adapt to the
lean concept (Common, 2000). Simultaneously the study was made; the construction firms had
picked the lean concepts only in some areas. These researches showed restricted information of
the lean idea of the construction and changing ideas are there in the construction firms.
Conclusively, the great number of researches on the lean application shows the possibility for
using the learner concept in construction. Similarly, the design and cultural hurdles are there that
affect the motivation of people to pick the lean ideas. Modifying conventions and attitudes are
still very important to apply the lean ideas of construction.

There is much literature on how the change must be made in the lean strategy of the construction
as Brady and Davies (2004) conclude some change that need to be made in the strategy and in
construction projects of a company by comparison of the efficiency at the project and
organizational level. Prencipe and Tell (2001) also showed that the firms can learn different
styles by finding out their primary concerns. Bresnen et al (2005) utilized a practical approach to
show how applying modifications in the building projects is very important to be backed by
sufficient information and the integration of this information in the normal works. In a
comparative study of the four construction firms it is seen that how the implementations that
affected the control and the information design was the significant hurdle in every firm. The
main step that must be taken by the management is to recognize the different between the
advanced and present techniques and utilize a different approach based on the level of
disturbance that will be influential for every leve (Bresnen et al. 2005). The overall studies that

have been made on the approach of lean construction and its implementation, most of them are
concerned about the changes that it made to the organization particularly while the
internalization of the change and the hurdles that were there at the time of implementation, this is
also identified that the construction is related to the inter-organizational atmosphere involving
the project system and the overall organizational system from where the resources are given for
the project(Dubois and Gadde 2000).
As Styhre et al. (2004) stated that the construction projects are main firms that contain various
elements with various dimensions that affect the construction work in various time frames.
Hence, the modifying project tasks will impact and be impacted by these factors. Some important
ideas can be taken from these studies that how the people who are implementing and using the
lean strategy in construction are involved. With the studies made on the implementation of the
lean concept, it is concluded that routines are made by an association between the firm and the
properties and this is done by some complex learning procedure (Feldman 2000). Hence, this
must be comprehended that the lean concept is made and adapted by the people at different
levels in the inner system of the project and the firm. These all involved learn and practice the
new ideas. Another important idea here is that the lean concept will engage folks from many
firms so this must also be considered how the exterior project based firm gets involved in the
changing process of the lean idea of building. These ideas are utilized to check the researches
made on the lean construction strategy.
Normally the construction projects in the country are managed by the private companies who
hire the laborers and sometimes the owner can directly supervise the whole work. While there
are also many rooted and experienced contract companies that work in the industry and these
contractors have legal registrations for supervising and managing the construction projects and

these firms make use of the highly experienced and trained laborers. These companies work on
both domestic and external levels (Dantata 2008). In the past few years the construction industry
in some countries have been observed to be slow in progress, expensive and time consuming
(Oyewobi et al. 2011). All this happens because of the bad planning and strategy of the project.
There are also some cases where there are incomplete structures during the building projects
(Windapo and Martins 2010). In some cases there are some unethical attitude from some
imposter companies and the frauds. There can be problems of generating waste and might be
delay in the work by late supplies and bad management of the project. These problems normally
exist in some developing countries and there is much low progress of the construction industry
regarding the expenses, the time duration and the quality of the construction. However, in all
these problems there are numerous studies that show that the lean construction strategy helped in
improving these conditions inside the construction projects in almost all the developing and
particularly the developed countries like United Kingdom, Chile, Singapore, Brazil, Finland,
Denmark, Peru and Australia etc. moreover there are some developing countries like Columbia,
Indonesia, and Ecuador etc. that have shown enhancement in their operations with the adoption
of the lean strategy.
This was seen that the lead strategy in past few years have become quite popular in the
construction industry as it improved the reliability of the construction projects, decrease the total
time run and enhances the quality and sustainability of the buildings made (Sacks and Goldin
2007). Many researches have contributed in studying the impact of the lean strategy in business
and also studies all the important parameters and challenges in the implementation of this
approach in the construction industry within different economies especially in good economy
countries. The results so far have been really good and it is concluded that the progress and the

efficiency of the projects have been improved with the use of this technology. The main purpose
of the most of the studies is to enhance the overall procedure from strategy making to the
implementation of the construction and then handing over of the buildings to the owners. In the
industry there is also a sub-industry that is concerned with the residential projects that is the
strongest area for the adaptation of lean approach in construction as it can get the maximum
benefit from this approach. The concluding results of the lean approach in the construction
industry is the decrease in the time duration, good work flow and better efficiency of the project
overall and this is by increasing the profit and decreasing the waste that sometimes become the
biggest problem leading even to shut down the project. Some countries are enjoying the
advantages of the lean strategy and they have been making enhancement in the construction
projects. So it is important to understand the benefits of the lean strategy for the project and then
it must be implemented effectively to get the maximum results.
Perception of people:
Lean production is a very sensitive idea that is based on the inspiration and self-evaluation
among the people (Liker, 2004). Hence it offers many improvement opportunities within the
industry when this philosophy is implemented (Bhasin & Burcher, 2006). Among the people who
were given the chance to work with the lean production had different ideas and perception about
the concept and most of them had positive experience with the tools that are introduced within
this production style. The perception of people about positive aspects of lean production is more
organized and better housekeeping. As lean production provides chances for improvement hence
it helps in problem solving and affects the work situation positively. As with the help of this
concept the problems become more defined and that is why its easier to handle them. So people
perceive lean production to be an improvement and help as the works were qualified and

provided more freedom as compared to other construction jobs however, there is not too much
influence of lean production in this aspect to consider it significant.
People are however, also concerned with some critical point that in this new way of working not
much preference is given to optimize the machine uses. Also, as in lean production a much more
structured and organized process is followed, some individuals took it as a decreased degree of
freedom. Further, people sometimes fail to give attention to the changing routines that causes
quite disturbance in the work flow. The flow of work is perceived to be uneven and sometimes
the burden becomes too high. Further, some people perceive that enough training is not provided
to workers on the new tool utilization. Also some people are hesitant to provide any opinion
about the lean production concept as they are not familiar with the whole process to a sufficient
level (Eklund and Berglund, 2007)
Moreover, people think that in lean production there is trouble in collaborating among the
departments particularly between the engineering design department and production sector (Li,
2007). There is very much positive perception regarding the management in lean production
concept but some problems exist regarding the visibility as much time is spent in planning and
meetings. Some people perceive this new concept as a loss of idea of joint cooperation in the
firm. People also perceive the new idea to be important to survive and compete in the
international market. The investments and increasing volumes are important for job security.
However, there is different in the ideas of people to view the concept with reference to the leisure
time and it varies with the culture and societal values. Some workers find it hard to work
difficult tasks in a shirt time notice especially the overtimes that are needed sometimes in the
lean production. There is also controversy in working within the assembly lines. The work is
seen to be stressful and much more demanding than other methods of construction. The main

concern is about the provision of too less information to the workers regarding the work and
sometimes the work-pace is a burden for the workers. Overall, people have more positive
perception about the lean production concept and less negative ideas.

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