You are on page 1of 36

CLUSTER LEVEL QUESTION BANK

(AHMEDABAD & GANDHINAGAR CLUSTER)

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1
An
s
2

What is the speed of Electromagnetic waves in vacuum?


8
(c=3.0x 10 m/s)

For an em wave, what is the phase relationship between oscillating


electric and magnetic fields?

5
6

Write the relationship between electric and magnetic fields vectors in


free space for an electromagnetic wave?
E
B =c

Zero
Which em waves are produced as a result of the bombardment of a
metal target by fast moving electrons?
X-rays, in studying crystal structure.
Which waves are used in mobile phones
radio waves
What is the name given to the electromagnetic spectrum used for
taking photographs under foggy conditions?
Infra red
The frequency of oscillations of electric field vector of a certain em
14

10

wave is 5 X

Hz. What is the frequency of oscillations of

corresponding magnetic field vector and to which part of em


spectrum does it belong?

freq. same, visible light


State any two properties of em waves.
(i)These are transverse waves
(ii)They consist of mutually perpendicular electric & magnetic field
vectors and perpendicular to direction of propagation
Name the constituent radiation which
A ). Is used in studying crystal structure ?
B ). produces intense heating effect?
-(A) UV rays or X- rays
(B)Infrared.

10

Identify the part of em spectrum to which wave of frequency (a)


20

10

Hz (b) 10
20

(a)10

An
s

Hz belong

Hz=gamma rays, (b)

10

Hz = micro waves.

2 MARKS
When a ideal capacitor is charged by a dc battery no current flows,
how ever, when an ac source is used, current flows continuously. How
2
does one explain this, based on the concept of displacement current
Displacement current establishes continuity of current between the
capacitor plates. Displacement current is caused by changing electric

Ray
Optics

Section A ( 1 mark Questions )


1. A glass of refractive index 1.5 is placed in a trough of liquid. What must be the
refractive index of the liquid in order to make the lens disappear?
Ans : 1.5
2. The graph shows the variation of angle of deviation with the angle of incidence
for the two glass prisms A and B. Which glass prism has the larger refractive
index ?

Ans : B ( since angle of minimum deviation Dm for B > A )


3. A converging lens of refractive index 1.5 is kept in a liquid medium having same
refractive index. What would be the focal length of the lens in this medium ?
Ans: ( infinity)
4. How does the power of a convex lens vary , if the red light is replaced by violet
light ?
Ans: P n ( n v>nR hence Power increases. )
5. An object is held at the principle focus of a concave lens of focal length f. Where
is the image formed ?
Ans: Infinity
6. A diverging lens of focal length f is cut into two identical parts each forming a
plano -concave lens. What is the focal length of each part?
Ans: 2 f.
7. Two thin lenses of power + 6 D and 2 D are in contact. What is the focal
length of the combination?
Ans: P = + 4D f = = 0.25 m
8. A converging lens is kept coaxially in contact with a diverging lens both lenses
being of same focal length. What is the focal length of the combination?
Ans: Infinity ( will behave as a glass slab )
9. When light ray travel from a rarer to denser medium, the speed decreases.
Does this decrease in speed imply a decrease in the energy carried by the
wave? Justify your answer.
Ans:No , E= h and frequency does not change on refraction.
10.
If critical angle of a prism is 30 degree, Find the velocity of light in the
Prism.
Ans: = 1/sinC = c/v or v = 1.5 x 108 m/s
11.
A convex lens made up of glass of refractive index 1.5 is dipped, in turn,
in (i) a medium of refractive index 1.6, (ii) medium of refractive index 1.3. Will
it behave as a converging or a diverging lens in the two cases ?
Ans= (i) Diverging and (ii) Converging

2 mark questions
1. Draw a labeled ray diagram to show the image formation in a refracting type
astronomical telescope. Why should the diameter of the objective of a
telescope be large?

For large light gathering power and higher resolution, the diameter of the objective
should be large.
2. Define resolving power of a compound microscope. How does the resolving
power of a compound microscope change when
(i)
Refractive index of the medium between the object and objective lens
increases?
(ii)
Wavelength of the radiation used is increased?
Ans:Resolving power of a microscope is defined as the reciprocal of the
minimum separation of two
points seen distinctly.
Resolving power = 2 n sin /
(i)

Increase in the refractive index (n) of the medium increases resolving


power because R.P. n
On increasing
the wavelength of the radiation, resolving power decreases because RP
1/

3. Define resolving power of a telescope. How does it get affected on


(i)
Increasing the aperture of the objective lens?
(ii)
Increasing the focal length of the objective lens?(AISSCE 2007)
Ans:Resolving power of a telescope is defined as the reciprocal of the smallest
angular separation
between two distant objects.
Resolving power = D / 1.22
where D is aperture of the
objective lens
(i)
Resolving power increases on increasing the aperture of the objective
lens, since RP D .

(ii)

Resolving power does not get affected on increasing the focal length of
objective lens, since RP is independent of focal length.

4. In the figure given below, light rays of blue, green, red wavelengths are incident
on an isosceles
Rightangled prism. Explain with reason, which ray of light will be transmitted
through the faceAC.
The refractive index of the prism for red, green, blue light is 1.39, 1.424, and
1.476 respectively.
A
Red
Green
Blue
B

C
Ans.The critical angle for green light Cg is, sin Cg= 1/n g=1/1. 424 = 0.7022
Cg = sin- 1 (0.7022) = 44.6
The critical angle for red light, sin Cr =1/nr = 1/1.39
Cr= sin- 1 (0.7194) = 46
The critical angle for blue light, sinCb=1/ nb=1/1.476= 0.6775
Cb= sin- 1 (0. 6775) = 42.6
As angle of incidence at face AC is 45,which is smaller than critical angle for
red ray but greater
than critical angles, for green and bluerays, therefore, red-ray will be
transmitted through the face AC.
5. Define refractive index of a transparent medium.
A ray of light passes through a triangular prism. Plot a graph showing the
variation of theangle of
deviation with the angle of incidence.
Ans:Refractive index of a medium is the ratio of speed of light in vacuum to the
speed of light in
medium.

i=e

Angle of incidence(i)

6. Answer the following questions :


(a) Optical and radio telescopes are built on the ground while X-ray astronomy
is possible only from
satellites orbiting the Earth. Why?
(b) The small ozone layer on top of the stratosphere is crucial for human survival.
Why?
Ans: (a) The visible radiations and radiowaves can penetrate the earth's
atmosphere but X-rays are
absorbed by the atmosphere.
5

(b) The ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet and other low wavelength radiations
which areharmful to
living cells of human bodies and plants; hence ozone layer is crucial for
humansurvival.
7. (i) State the principle on which the working of an optical fiber is based.
(ii) What are the necessary conditions for this phenomenon to occur?
Ans:(i) The working of optical fiber is based on total internal reflection.
Statement: When a light ray goes from denser to rarer medium at an angle
greater thancritical
angle, the ray is totally reflected in first (denser) medium.This phenomenon is
called total
internal reflection.
(ii) Conditions:
(a) Ray of light must go from denser medium to rarer medium.
(b) Angle of incidence must be greater than critical angle (i. e., i >C).
8. (i) What is the relation between critical angle and refractive index of a material?
(ii) Does critical angle depend on the colour of light? Explain.
Ans:(i) Relation between refractive index (n) and critical angle (C) isn= 1 / sin
C
(ii) Yes, critical angle depends on wavelength or colour of light; it increases with
increase of
wavelength being maximum for red and minimum for violet.
9.

An object AB is kept in front of a concave mirror as shown in the figure.


A
B

(i) Complete the ray diagram showing the image formation of the object.
(ii) How will the position and intensity of the image be affected if the lower half
of the mirrors
reflecting surface is painted black?
Ans:(i) Image formed will be inverted diminished between C and F.
Ray diagram:
C

P
F

10. Draw a labelled ray diagram of a reflecting telescope. Mention its two
advantages over the refracting telescope.
6

Ans:Ray diagram

Advantages:
(i) It is free from chromatic and spherical aberrations.
(ii) Its resolving power is greater than refracting telescope due to larger
aperture of mirror.
11. A convex lens of focal length f1 is kept in contact with a concave lens of focal
length f2. Find the focal length of the combination.
Ans: For a thin convex lens of focal lengthf1 in contact with another thin
concave lens of focal length
f2: let u denote distance of object from f1.
1 1 1
=
Then, for L1 ,
. (i)
f 1 v1 u
For L2 , u = + v1, focal length = - f2 , final image position = v (say)
1 1 1
=
Then,
.. (ii)
v v1 f 2
Adding (i) and (ii), we get
1 1 1 1
=
(iii)
f1 f2 v u
I
If 'f ' is focal length of the combination, we get
1 1 1
=
. (iv)v1
f v u
From (iii) and (iv), we get
f1f2
1 1 1
=
f = f 2f 1
f f 1 f 2 or

12.You are given following three lenses. Which two lenses will you use as
an eyepiece and as an objective to construct an astronomical telescope?
Lens
Power (P)
Aperture (A)
L1
3D
8 cm
L2
6D
1 cm
L3
10D
1 cm
Ans- The objective of an astronomical telescope should have the maximum
diameter and its eyepiece should have maximum power. Hence, L1 could be
used as an objective and L3 could be used as eyepiece.
13. A concave mirror held in water. What would be the change in focal length of
mirror?
Ans: There would no change in concave mirror held in water ,focal length does not
depend upon the external medium in which mirror is held.
14. A convex lens forms the image of the sun at the distance of 10 cm.Where will be
the image, when
(a). another lens of same power but double the aperture is used.
(b). another lens of same aperture but double the power is used .
Ans. (a). 10 cm because aperture does not affect f.
doubled, f is halved.

(b). 5 cm when power is

15. A diverging lens of focal length F is cut into two identical parts, each forming a
Plano concave lens. What is the focal length of each part?
Ans:

1
1
1
=( n1)

F
R 1 R2

For single diverging lens R1 = -R and R2 R


:

1
1
1
=( n1)

F
R R

For each half

2(n1)
R

..(1)

R1 = -R and R2

1
1
1
1
= =( n1 )

F1 F2
R

( n1) 1
=
R
2F

F1= F2=2F
8

3 mark questions
1. Two thin convex lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are kept in contact
with each other coaxially. Deduce an expression for the effective focal
length of the combination.
Ans. Let a point object O is placed on the common principal axis.f 1 and f2 be
the focal lengths of lenses L1 and L2 .
In the absence of L2, the image formed by L1 will be at I1.
1 1 1
=
So, f 1 v 1 u (1)
L1 L2
In the presence of second lens L2, I1 will be the virtual
I
I
object and the final image will be formed at I.o
v
1 1 1
=
So,
(2)
f 2 v v1

O
u
v1

Adding equations (1) and (2), we get


1 1
1 1
+

f 1 f 2 = v u (3)
Now, if the lens combination is replaced by a single lens of focal length f ,
then
1 1 1
=
f v u (4)
1 1 1
= +
f f 1 f 2 This is the required relation.

From equations (3) and (4),

2. Derive an expression for dispersive power of a prism.


angular dispersion
Ans Dispersive power, w = deviation for themean wavelength A
=
Substituting the values of
w =

V R
Y
V R

{( n v 1 ) A }{( n R 1 ) A }
( n y 1 ) A

, we get,
nV nR
n Y 1

3. What is meant by normal adjustment in case of an astronomical


telescope? With the help of a neat and labeled ray diagram, obtain an
expression for the magnifying power of the telescope in normal
adjustment.
Ans. Definition: -When the final image is formed by the telescope at infinity,
then the telescope is said to be in normal adjustment

Magnifying power =

tan
tan

h/f e f o
=
h/f o f e

which is the required relation.

4. Derive Lens maker formula. State the assumptions used.


Ans. Assumptions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

The lens used is thin.


The aperture of the lens is small.
For appoint object lies on the principal axis of the lens

Let a thin lens XY of negligible thickness and made up of material of refractive


index 2 is placed in a medium of refractive index 1. Let a point object O is
kept at a distance u from the first surface of the lens xp1y. Assuming that
10

there is no second surface then first surface will form image I at a distance v
from the P1. For the refraction at the face XP1Y
2/v - 1/u = (2- 1)/R1-------------------------(i)
where R1 is the radius of curvature of the first surface.
Image I serves as the object for the second surface and it forms its real image
at a distance v from it. So
1/v - 2/v = (1 - 2)/R2--------------------------(ii)
Where R2 is the radius of the curvature of the second surface.
on adding equation (i) and (ii)
1/v - 1/u = (2 - 1)/R1 + (1 - 2)/R2
1 (1/v 1/u) = (2 - 1)(1/R1 1/R2)
(1/v 1/u) = (2/1 1)(1/R1 1/R2)
If u then v = f
So 1/f = (2/1 1)(1/R1 1/R2)
5. Write the conditions for minimum deviation for a prism. Also derive an for
refractive index of the material of prism in terms of angle of prism (A) angle of
minimum deviation (Dm)
Ans.. . Angle of incidence i = Angle of emergent e
d = (i1+i2 )+(r1+r2 )
R1+r2 = A but r1=r2 = r so r = A/2
I1=i2=I so I = A+Dm/2
From Snells law = Sin i/Sin r or = Sin(A+Dm)/2

SinA/2

6. A point source of light is placed at the bottom of a lake with refractive index
4/3. Show that only 17% light can emerge out of the water surface.
Ans. The fraction of light energy that can escape is the fraction
of the solid angle which allows it to pass without total
internal reflection.
1
Let the critical angle be C, so that, sin C = n
where n is
the refractive index of water.

11

Fraction of solid angle =

2
(1cosC )
4

1 1
1sin 2 C
= 2 2

1 1
n21
2 2n

1 1 3

2 2 4

( )

4 2
1
3

= 0.17=

17%

7. A ray of light is incident at an angle of incidence i on one surface of a prism of


small angle A and it is found to emerge normally from the opposite surface. If
the refractive index of the material of the prism is n , calculate the angle of
incidence.
Ans.For refraction through a prism: we have

i +e = A + i
But, e = 0
i = A +
Also, = (n 1)A
i = A +(n 1)A = n A
8. A convex and a concave mirror each of radius 10cm, are placed facing each
other and 15cm apart, as shown in figure. A point object is placed midway
between them. Find the position of the final image if the reflection takes place
first at the concave mirror and then at the convex mirror.
Answer: For the concave mirror
f = -10/2 = -5 cm, u=P1O= -7.5cm
From mirror formula,
1 1 1 1
1 1
= =
+
=
P
v f u 5 7.5 15
I
Or
P2

v = -15cm, which is P1I

Thus image of object is formed by concave


mirror at the pole of convex mirror. Hence,
final image is formed at the pole of convex
mirror, just behind P2.

15 cm

9. Draw ray diagram for astronomical telescope with image at near point. Write
the expression for angular magnification in this situation.

12

Angular magnification

fo
f
1+ e
fe
D

( )

10.
A ray of light incident on the horizontal surface of a glass slab at
70 just grazes the adjacent vertical surface after refraction. Compute the
critical angle and refractive index of glass.
Answer: From figure, for total internal reflection at B,
r + C = 90 , r = 90 - C
According to Snells law
sini
sin 70
sin 70
n=
=
=
0
sin r sin(90 C) cos C 70

Also,

Or
Or
Also

n=

1
sin C

sin70
1
sinC
1
=
=
or
cos C sin C
cos C sin 70 C
tan C =

1
=1.0 642
0.9397

C = tan-1( 1.0642 ) = 4647'


1
1
1
n=
=
=
=1.372
sin C sin 46 47 ' 0.7288

11. A man with normal near point (25 cm)reads a book with small print using a
magnifying glass: a thin convex lens of focal length 5 cm.
What is the closest and the farthest distance at which he should keep the lens from
the pageso that he can read the book when viewing
through the magnifying glass?
Ans (a)Focal length of the magnifying glass,f = 5
cm Least distance of distance vision,d = 25
cm Closes to object distance= u
13

Image distance, v= d = 25 cm
According to the lens formula,we have:
Hence,the closest distance at which the person can read the book is 4.167 cm. For
the object at the farthest distant(u), the image distance
lens formula,we have:

According to the

Hence,the farthest distance at which the person can read the book is 5cm.
12. A convex lens of focal length 20 cm ,is placed co-axially with a convex mirror of
radius of curvature 20 cm. The two are kept 15 cm apart from each other. A point
object is placed 60 cm in front of the convex lens. Find the position of the image
formed by this combination.
Ans: For convex lens
1 1
1

f = v 1 u1
1
v1

1
1

20 60

v1 = 30 cm

Distane of virtual object =30 -15=15 cm


Hence for convex mirror
1 1
2
+
R = v 2 u2
2
20

1 1
+
v 2 15

; v2 = 30 cm

Hence the final image formed is a virtual image formed at a distance of 30 cm


behind the convex mirror.

Value based Question(4 Marks)


1. Rahul was driving a car and suddenly became aware of a loud sound
14

coming from behind. He looked through his rear-view mirror and saw
an ambulance. He recalled reading that such emergency vehicles often
have their name written in the mirror writing(i.e He quickly made way for the
ambulance, murmuring a quick prayer for the speedy recovery of the patient
inside the ambulance.
i)What type of mirroris as a rear view mirror and why?
ii)what values did Rahul exhibit ?
Answers
i) Convex mirror ,to get a wide view of traffic behind
ii) Compassion, courtesy, concern for others, knowledgeable.
2. Rekha and Preethi were classmates. Preethi was a bright girl and had
a quick grasping power. However Rekha noticed that Preethi was not
her usual self for the past few days. Rekha found out that Preethi was
not able to see the letters on the board properly and also complained
of frequent headaches. Rekha suggested to Preethi to get her eye
checked .Preethi followed Rekhas suggestion and thanked her saying
she felt very comfortable after wearing the spectacles.
i)What was the eye defect that Preethi had?
ii)How can it be corrected?
iii)Rekha was a true friend. Justify.
Answers
i)Myopia
ii) wearing spectacles made of concave lens
iii) sympathy ,kind, helpful and caring nature, concern
3. Nitin wanted to buy a gift for his sister and so entered a gift shop. The
gift shop had many glass items. On looking closely, he found many of
the beverage glasses used for cool drinks had big thick glass walls. He
decided not to buy these glasses because he knew that this gives a
false impression that there is more amount of liquid inside the glass.
i) As a physics student, light rays from inside the glass bend away
from the normal and appear to diverge, why are the beverage
glasses made with very thick glass walls?Which physical quantity remains
constant when light travelsfrom one medium to another?
ii) What values can you associate with Nitin decision?
Answers
i) Light rays from inside the glass bend away from the normal and
appear to diverge
ii) affection, patience, knowledge about refraction.
4. The whole class was excited as they were on their way to Kavalur in
TamilNadu, an observatory, housing the largest telescope in India. The
teacher was explaining type of telescope, the diameter of the objective
(2.34m) and other details. The children were looking forward to see
through the telescope.
i) What type of telescope is the teacher referring to?
ii) Mention any two advantageous of this telescope
iii) Why iare such a field trips important?
Answers
i)Reflecting telescope
15

ii)No chromatic aberration, mirrors are relatively lighter and cheaper


compared to the lens
iii)Firsthand experience ,inculcating a scientific temper, team work,
enthusiasm, kindling curiosity.
5. Mr.Viswanthan ,a retired professor of physics was walking with his
grandson. It was last week of December and so it was dark around
5.30pm.The streetlights were on and the yellow light flooded the area
around. The boy asked professor why yellow lights were used when white
light were brighter. The professor answered that during foggy days the tiny
droplets act as prisms splitting white light into its constituent colours and
thus reducing the clarity.
i) What phenomena was the professor referring to? Why does it
happen?
ii) Give one application of prism.
iii) What values of the boy reflect from the conversation?
Answers
i) Dispersion, speed of each colour is different when they enter glass.
ii) Studying and analysing the spectrum of distant light sources
iii) Curiosity, research mindedness, awareness.
6. Satish complained of a severe stomach pain and started crying. His
elder brother consoled him and took him to a gastroenterologist. The
doctor advised for an endoscopy and asked him to come the next day on
anempty stomach. Satish was not for the test as he was afraid. However
his elder brother a medical student explained the need for the test and
told him it was not a painful experience. He further explained that a tube
containing a fine glass fibre would be inserted through the food pipe and
light through this pipe would allow the doctor to examine the inside of the
stomach. The test was done and satish felt okay after taking medicine for
two days.
i)What is the working principle of the glass fibre in the endoscope?
II)What are the conditions for the light to travel along the pipe?
iii)What values of Satishs brother impress you?
Answer
i)Total internal reflection
ii)two conditions
iii)Taking up responsibility, affectionate, timely action, knowledgeable,caring.
7. Selvi, a student of class XI, came across her servant maid on way to her house
after visiting a friend. Selvi noticed that the servant maid was finding it difficult
to read the bus number and on nearing she helped her to get in to the bus..
She enquired and found that the servant maid had defects in her eyesight and
had difficulty in viewing far away objects and was not in a position to afford for
a check- up with an eye specialist. She immediately took her to a nearby
ophthalmologist. She arranged for eye check-up of her servant maid and paid
the doctors fee from her pocket money/savings and also purchased her
medicines prescribed by the doctor. The doctor after checking advised the
servant maid to wear spectacles and gave her the power of spectacles to be
worn by her.
a) What values do you see in Selvi?
16

b) Explain the eye defect of the servant maid using Physics term and also
give the rectification to be adopted with ray diagram.
(ANS: helping the poor and needy, taking prompt and timely action; spending
money for a good deed; b) Refer NCERT Text book)
Section E( 5 Marks Questions )
12.
(a) Sate two main considerations taken into account while choosing the
objective in optical telescopes with large diameters.
(b) Draw the ray diagram for the formation of image by a reflecting type
telescope. What is its magnifying power.
(c ) What are the advantages of reflecting type telescope over the refracting
type telescope ?
Ans: (a) Light gathering power and resolving power
(b) refer page no 342 figure 9.33 NCERT book part 2.
No spherical and chromatic aberration, High resolving power , Less
mechanical support required, polishing and grinding is required from one side
hence economical.
13.
(a) Derive lens maker's formula for a double convex lens. State the
assumptions used and the convention of signs used.
OR
n2 n 1 n2n1
Obtain lens makers formula using v u = R
Here the ray of light is propagating from a rarer medium of refractive index
n1 to a denser medium of refractive index n2 is incident on the convex side of a
spherical refracting surface of radius of curvature R.
(b) A light from a point sourcein air falls on a spherical glass surface ( n = 1.5
and radius of curvature = 20 cm ) . The distance of the light source from the
glass surface is 100 cm. At what position the image is formed ?
Ans: (a)Refer article9.5.2 and figure 9.18 page no 325 & 326 of NCERT Text
Book.
n2 n 1 n2n1
(b) Use v u = R
:putting u = -100 cm, R = + 20 cm , n 1= 1 , n2 =
1.5, we get v = + 100 cm
14.
With the help of a ray diagram, show the formation of image of a point
object by refraction of light at a convex spherical (convex) surface separating
two media of refractive indices n1 and n2(n2> n1) respectively. Using this
n2 n 1 n2n1
diagram, derive the relation v u = R

Also write the sign conventions

used and assumptions.


Ans:
Sign Convention used:a) All the distances are measured from the pole.
b) The distances measured in the direction of incident light are taken as
positive.
17

c) The distances measured in the direction opposite to the direction of light are
taken as negative.
Assumptions:a) The aperture of the spherical refracting surface is small.
b) The object is a point object and lies on the principal axis.
c) The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal to the spherical surface
make small angles with the principal axis.
Let XPY = convex spherical refracting surface
O = point object in rarer medium
I = real image in denser medium

N
n1

X
i

P M

n2
Y
From ray diagram, from AOC,

denser medium

i=+

From AIC, = r + r =
According to Snells law,

sin i
sinr

Since the angles are small,


Substituting for
n1 tan ( + )
Or,
Or,

n1 i

n2
n sini
n1 1
=

n2 r

n1 {tan + tan }

n2 {tan + tan }

AM
AM AM
+
=n {

}
{ AM
}
PO MC
MC MI
2

Since the aperture is small, MC = PC, MI = PI

18

n2 sin r

or,

i & r , in the above equation, we get

n2 tan ( )

n1

n1 tan i

n2 tan r

n1 n 1
n
n
+
={ 2 2 }
PO PC
PC PI

According to sign convention, PO =

u , PC =R ,

PI = v

n1 n1
n n
+ ={ 2 2 }
u R
R v

Or,

n2 n 1 n2n1
=
v u
R

This is the required equation.

15.
(a) (i) Draw a labeled ray diagram to show the formation of image in an
astronomical telescope for a
distant object in normal adjustment. Write expression for its magnifying power.
(b) A convex lens of focal length 10 cm is placed coaxially 5 cm away from a
concave lens of focal length
10 cm. If an object is placed 30 cm in front of convex lens, find the position
of the final image
formed by the combined system.
Ans : (a) Refer article 9.9.3 on page no 341 and 342 of NCERT Text book Part
2
(b) Use

1 1 1
( i ) = for convex lens find v=1 5 cm (ii ) use t h e same formula for concavelens takingu=10 cm anf f =
f v u
16.

(a) For a ray of light travelling from a denser medium of refractive index n1 to a
rarer medium ofefractive index n2 , prove that n2/n1 = sin C
, where C is the critical angle of incidence for the media.

(b) Explain with the help of a diagram, how the above principle is used for
transmission of videosignals using optical fibres.
Ans(a) In the given diagram Applying Snell s law

n2 sin C = n1 sin 90
n2
1
=
n1 sin C
19

1
n21 = sinC
(b) As shown in diagram ( figure 9.16 page 322 NCERT text book ), When a video
signal in the form of light is directed at one end of the fiber at a suitable angle, it
undergoes repeated total internal reflection along the length of the fibre and finally
comes out at the other end.

WAVE OPTICS
ONE MARK QUESTIONS
1
An
s
2
An
s
3
An
s
4

An
s

5
An
s
6
An
s
7
An
s
8
An

What happens to the fringe pattern when YDS experiment is performed in water
instead of air?
Shrinks
How is a wavefront different from a ray?
wavefront is a surface obtained by joining all points vibrating in the same phase.
A ray is a line drawn perpendicular to the wavefront in the direction of
propagation of light wave.
When the light is polarized by reflection, what is the angle between reflected
and refracted rays.
450
90
4 No interference pattern is detected when two coherent sources are infinitely
close to each other. Why?
Fringe width, = Dd
When d is very very small
fringe width is very large. Even a single fringe may occupy the entire screen.
The interference pattern cannot be observed.
What are Coherent sources?
Two sources of light which continuously emit light waves of same frequency with
a zero or consant phase difference between them.
State Brewsters law.
The tangent of the polarizing angle of incidence of a transparent medium is
equal to its refective index
What is shape of wavefont emitted by a light source in the form of narrow slit?
- Cylindrical shape.
What is the ratio of the fringe width for bright and dark fringes in Youngs double
slit Experiment?
1:1
20

s
9
An
s

What is poloroid?
Its a thin commercial sheet which makes use of property of selective absorption
to produce an intense beam of polorised light.

10

Which among X-rays,Sound Waves and Radio waves can be polarized?

An
s
11

X-rays and radio waves can be polarized because they are transverse waves.

An
s

D
R.P.of a telescope= 1.22 , When D is increased , R P also increases.

12

12 What is the value of refractive index of a medium of polarizing angle is 60 0?

An
s

- = tan ip = tan 600= 3

How does the resolving power of a telescope change when the aperture of the
objective is increased?

2 Marks Questions
Q.1
Ans.

Obtain an expression for the ratio of intensities at maxima and minima in an


interference pattern.
Suppose a1 and a2 be the amplitudes and I1 and I2 the intensities of light
waves which interfere each other
Intensity (Amplitude)2

I1=K a12
I2 =K a22
After interference (applying superposition principle)
Amplitude at maxima = a1+ a2
Amplitude at minima = a1- a2
Imax = (a1+ a2)2
Imin = (a1- a2)2
Q.2 State Huygenss principle for constructing wave fronts?
Ans
According to hygens principle
(i)
each point on the wave front is a source of secondary wavelets, which spread
out with the
Speed of light in the medium
(ii )
The new wave front at nay later time is given by the forward envelope of
the secondary
Wavelets at that time.
Q.3 Can white light produce interference? What is the nature?
Ans. White light produces interference but due to different colour present in white
light interference pattern overlaps the central bright fringe for all the colours is at the
position, so its colour is white. The white central bright fringe is
21

Q.4 How is the width of central maxima affected on increasing the


(i ) Wavelength of light used
(ii ) width of the slit
Ans. Width of the central maxima is given by
2D
=
d
(i) When wavelength increases increases due to direct proportionality
(ii) When d increases decreases due to inverse proportionality
Q.5 How does the (i) magnifying power and (ii) resolving power of a telescope change
on increasing the diameter of its objective? Give reason for your answer.
fo
Ans. (i) Magnifying power of = fe . clearly it does not change on
Increasing the diameter of the objective
D
(ii) Resolving power of telescope =
1.22

, clearly resolving power of the

telescope increases on increasing the diameter of its objective


Q.6 State the Brewsters Law .Write the expression for Brewsters angle in term of
refractive index of denser medium.
Ans. Brewsters law states that tangent of the polarising angle of the incidence of a
transparent medium is equal to the refractive index
= tanip
Q.7 State Malus Law. Draw the graph showing the dependence of intensity of transmitted light on the angle between polariser and analyser
Ans. When a beam of plane polarised light is passed through a analyser,
the intensity I of transmitted light varies directly as the square of cosine
of angle

between the transmission directions of polariser and analyser.


I = Iocos2

Q. 8 O n what factors does the (i) magnifying power and (ii) resolving power of a
compound microscope depend?
Ans. (i) Magnifying power of a compound microscope
L
D
m =
fo (1 +
fe )
Clearly the magnifying power of a compound microscope depends on the focal
lengths of its objective and eyepiece.

22

(ii) Resolving power of compound microscope

2 sin

, clearly resolving

power of compound microscopes depends on


(i ) wavelength of light used to illuminate the object
(ii) Refractive index of the medium between the object and objective
(iii) Semi vertical angle of the cone of light from the object to the objective
Q.9 How will the intensity of maxima and minima in the youngs double slit
experiment change if one of two slits is covered by a transparent paper which
transmits only half of the light intensity ?
Ans. Intensity of maxima decrease and intensity of minima increases.
Q.10 Find the ratio of intensities of two points P and Q on a screen in a Youngs
Double slit experiment when waves from sources S1 and S2 have phase difference of
(i)
Ans

(ii)
As

respectively.

I = 2 I0(1+cos )
I

(1+cos )

1+cos
2
1+cos

Hence

IP /IQ

3
2

3:2

3 Marks Questions
Q.1 What is polarization of light? What type of waves show the property of
polarization?
Name any two methods to produce plane polarized light?
Ans.
The phenomenon of restricting the vibrations of a light vector in a particular
direction
in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of light is called
polarisation
of light.
Transverse waves show the property of polarization. Two
methods to produce plane polarised light
Polarisation by Reflection
Polarization by scattering
Q.2 State the condition under which the phenomenon of diffraction of light takes
place. Derive an expression for the width of central maximum due to diffraction of
light at a single slit. A slit of width a is illuminated by a monochromatic light of
wavelength 700 nm at normal incidence. Calculate the value of a for position of
(i) first minimum at an angle of diffraction of 30
(ii) first maximum at an angle of diffraction of 30

23

Ans. It is a common observation with the waves of all kind that they bend round the
edge of an obstacle
Light like other waves also bends round corners but in comparison to sound waves
small
bending of light is due to very short wavelength of light which is of the
order of 10-5
a = /a sin =700/sin 300 =1400 nm
a = 3/2a sin =3x700/2 sin30 =2100 nm
Q.3 In a single slit experiment, how is the angular width of central bright fringe
Maximum changed when
1 1)The slit width increased
2 2)The distance between the slit and the screen is increased.
3 3)Light of smaller wavelength is used.
Ans. In single slit diffraction

D/d

(1)

When slit widths is increased. decreases

(2)
When D is increased, width of central bright fringe will become
maximum i.e increase.
When light of smaller wavelength is used, the width of central bright maximum
decrease
Q.4 In a youngs double slit experiment, the slit are repeated by 0.24mm.
The screen is 1.2m away from the slits. The fringe width is 0.3cm calculate
the wavelength of light used in the experiment?
Ans . 0.3cm 3.0
103 m D 1.2m
d 0.24mm 2.4 104 m
= D/d
= d/D
3
72.4 104/1.2
3.0 10
6.0 10 m
Q.5 Draw the curve depicting, variation of intensity in the interference pattern in
youngs double slit experiment. State conditions for obtaining sustained interference
of light?
Ans Conditions for sustained interference of light
(1) Two sources must be coherent sources of light.
(2)Two sources should exist light waves continuously. Intensity monochromatic
light from a single source is the requirement.
Q.6
Derive expression for the fringe width in youngs double slit
experiment?
Ans

24


for x, d<<< D , S1P+S2P =2D
with negligible error included , path difference would be

And corresponding phase difference between wave is

i) Condition of bright fringes (constructive interference)


25

If the path difference (S2P-S1P) is even multiple of /2,the point P is bright

Equation (21) gives the condition for bright fringes or constructive interference

ii) Condition for dark fringes (destructive interference)

If the path difference is an odd multiple of /2,the Point P is dark. So,

Equation (22) gives the condition for dark fringes or destructive interference

From equations (21) and (22) ,we can get position of alternate bright and dark
fringes respectively

Distance between two consecutive bright fringes is given by

Thus the distance between two successive dark and bright fringes is same. This
distance
is
known
as
fringe
width
and
is
denoted
by
.
Thus

Q.7 Distinguish between interference and diffraction.


Ans.
Interference and diffraction are different in the following manners
(i ) All bright fringes are of same intensities in an interference pattern while the
intensity of bright fringes gradually decrease in diffraction pattern

26

(ii ) All bright fringes are of equal width in interference pattern but in diffraction
pattern the the width o f the central bright fringe is twice the width any secondary
maximum.
(iii) Regions of dark fringes are perfectly dark so there is a good contrast between
bright and dark fringes while regions of dark fringes are not perfectly dark in
diffraction so there is poor contrast between dark and bright fringes.

Q.8 Distinguish between unpolarised and plane polarised light. How are these
represented?
Ans. Unpolarised light: Alight which has vibrations in all directions in a plane
perpendicular to the direction of propagation is said to be unpolarised light. e. g . The
light from the Sun and Sodium lamp and incandescent bulb or a candle is unpolarised
light.
Plane polarised light: If the electric field vector of a light wave vibrates just in one
direction perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation then it is said to be plane
polarised

Value base Questions ( 4 Marks )


Q.1 Sita was watching her favourite programme KBC on TV. Suddenly the picture
started shacking on the TV screen. She asked her elder brother to check the dish
antenna. Her brother found nothing wrong with the dish. A little later Sita again
noticed the same problem on the TV screen at the same time she heard a sound of
the low flying an aircraft passing over their house, she asked her brother again. He
then explained her cause of shacking picture on TV screen when aircraft passes over
head.
(i) What are the values shown by Sitas brother?
(ii) Why do we observe shaking of the picture when a low lying aircraft passes
overhead?
27

Ans
(a) Critical thinking and problem solving.
(b) The low lying aircraft reflects the TV signals. Due to interference between direct
signals received by antenna and the weak reflected signal, slight shaking of the
picture is seen on the screen.
Q.2 Nitin observed that when a sheet of transparent plastic is placed between two
crossed polarisers no light is transmitted. When the sheet is stretched in one
direction, some light passes through by the crossed polariser. He was surprised to see
that out of shear enthusiasm he went to his physics teacher for knowing the reason
behind it. The teacher explained him that the stretched plastics sheet turns into a
Polaroid and allows a fraction of light pass through it.
(a) What are the values being displayed by Nitin here?
(b) When the plastic sheet is stretched in one direction, some light
Passes through the crossed polarizer. What is happening?
Ans.
(a)
Power of observation and curiosity.
(b)
When the sheet is stretched the polymer molecules in it make it
Polaroid having its axis between the axes of the two outer Polaroid. That
is why some light is transmitted in this case.

FIVE MARK QUESTIONS


1

An
s

(a) What is interference of light?


(b)In Youngs double slit experiment,derive the condition for (i)
constrictive and destructive
interference at appoint on the screen
(c)a beam of light consisting of two wave lengths,800nm and 600nm is
used to obtain the interference fringes in a Youngs double slit experiment
on a screen placed 1.4 m away. If the two slit are separated by 0.28 mm,
calculate the least distance from the central bright maximum where the
bright fringrs of the two wavelength coincide.
(a) Interference Of Light: - The phenomenon of non-uniform
redistribution of energy in a medium & formation of bright & dark band
due to superposition of two light waves from coherent sources is called
interference of light.

28

(b)Consider tow light wave of same amplitude a, same frequency and


same velocity traveling with same velocity c in same direction with phase
difference .
The electric field vector of the waves can be represent as
y1 = a sin t
-- -- -- (1) & y2 = a sin (t ) -- -- -- -- (2)
According to principle of superposition of waves-When two wave
superimpose at a point then the resultant displacement ( y ) of the new
wave is equal to vector sum of the displacements of the individual waves .So
magnitude of the electric field of the resultant wave at any instant
y = y 1 + y2
from (1) and (2)
y = a sin t + a (sin t cos cos t sin)
y = a sin t (1 + cos ) a cos t sin
[sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB]
y = [a (1 + cos )] sin wt [a sin] cos wt
Let
a (1+ cos ) = A cos
-- -- -- (3)
& a Sin = A Sin
-- -- -- (4)
Then y = A cos sin t - A sin cos t
y = A [sin t cos cos t sin ]
Hence
A = a sin
(t ) -------- (5)
This eq. represents electric field vector of new at any instant, where A is
amplitude of the wave.
Squaring and adding eq. (3) and (4) a 2(1+ cos )2 + a2 sin2 = A2 cos2
+ A2 sin2
a2[(12 + 2 cos + cos2 ) + sin2 ] = A2 [cos2 + sin2 ]
a2[ 1 + 2 cos +1 ] = A2 [1 ]
Hence A2 = 2 a2[ 1 + cos ]
- (6)
Intensity of light I = k (amplitude) 2
where K is constant
2
I = 2 k a (1+ cos ) - -- -- - -- (7)
Consider tow light wave of same amplitude a, same frequency and same
velocity traveling with same velocity c in same direction with phase
difference .
The electric field vector of the waves can be represent as
y1 = a sin t
-- -- -- (1) & y2 = a sin (t ) -- -- -- -- (2)
According to principle of superposition of waves-When two wave
superimpose at a point then the resultant displacement ( y ) of the new
wave is equal to vector sum of the displacements of the individual waves .So
magnitude of the electric field of the resultant wave at any instant
29

y = y 1 + y2
from (1) and (2)
y = a sin t + a (sin t cos cos t sin)
y = a sin t (1 + cos ) a cos t sin
[sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB]
y = [a (1 + cos )] sin wt [a sin] cos wt
Let
a (1+ cos ) = A cos
-- -- -- (3)
& a Sin = A Sin
-- -- -- (4)
Then y = A cos sin t - A sin cos t
y = A [sin t cos cos t sin ]
Hence
A = a sin
(t ) -------- (5)
This eq. represents electric field vector of new at any instant, where A is
amplitude of the wave.
Squaring and adding eq. (3) and (4) a 2(1+ cos )2 + a2 sin2 = A2 cos2
+ A2 sin2
a2[(12 + 2 cos + cos2 ) + sin2 ] = A2 [cos2 + sin2 ]
a2[ 1 + 2 cos +1 ] = A2 [1 ]
Hence A2 = 2 a2[ 1 + cos ]
- (6)
Intensity of light I = k (amplitude) 2
where K is constant
2
I = 2 k a (1+ cos ) - -- -- - -- (7)
For constructive interference: - The resultant intensity is maximum i.e.
I = 2Ka2 (1+ cos ) = maximum
It the possible only when cos = maximum
i.e. cos
= +1
It the possible only when phase difference = 0, 2, 4, 6 - 2n
OR path difference x = 0, , 2, 3, - - - n.
Since path

x

2
difference
For constructive interference the phase difference between the waves should
be even integral multiple of
or path difference between the waves should be equal to integral multiple
of wavelength.
Imax = 2 k a2 ( 1+ 1)
Hence Imax = 4 k a2

I K a12 a 22 2 a1 a 2 cos
So
Imax = K (a1 + a2)2
For Destructive Interference: - Interference fringes are dark so intensity
I = 2 K a2 (1+ cos ) = minimum
It is possible only when cos = minimum = - 1
So Imin = 0.
It is possible only when = =, 3, 5 - (2n 1)
OR path difference x = /2, 3/2, 5/2, - - - (2n 1)/2
Here
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 - - -.
Hence interference will be destructive when the phase difference between the
waves should be equal odd integral multiple of or path difference
between them should be equal to odd integral multiple of half the
wavelength.
Imin = K (a1 a2)2
30

( c ) The two bright fringes will coincide at the least distance x from the
central maximum if
D
D
= ( n+1 )
X=n1 d
2 d
n1 ( n+1 ) 2
n x800 = (n+1) 600
4n=3n+3
n=3
D1
3 X 3.14 X 800 X 109
X=3 d
=
m
0.28 X 103
3
=12x 10 =12mm

2 State the principle which helps us to determine the shape of the wavefront
at a later time from its given shape at any time. Apply this principle to(i) show that spherical/ plane wave front continues to propagate forward as a
spherical / plane wavefront
(ii) Derive Snells law of refraction by drawing the refracted wavefront
corresponding to a plane wavefront incidence on the boundary separating a
rarer medium from denser medium.

An
s

-(a) Huygens Principle -Huygens gave a hypothesis for geometrical


construction of a wave front at any instant. This principle tells us how to
predict a new wave front if position of an earlier wave front is known, and the
way in which the wave front is propagated further in medium. It is based on
following assumption.
(1) Each point on a wave front acts as a new source of disturbance called
secondary source. The disturbance from the points is called secondary
wavelets, which travel in all direction with velocity of light in that medium.
(2) The new wave front at any later time is obtained by taking forward
envelop of the secondary wavelets at that time
(i) Consider a primary wave front AB at any instant. Then according to
Huygens principle each point on the wave front AB is center of a new
disturbance called secondary wavelets. To find the position of secondary wave
front after time t consider points 1,2,3, on AB. Distance traveled by the
light = c t. Take each point as a center draw spheres of radius (ct). These
spheres represent secondary wavelets at timet. If we draw a tangential
surface A1B1 touching tangentially all the wavelets in forward direction then is
called secondary wave front.

31

The surface A2 B2 touching tangentially all the secondary wavelets in


backward flow direction called backward secondary wave front. Huygens
assumed that Voigt and Kirchoff explained no backward wave front as such
ex\is\t .The absence of balanced secondary wave front by mathematical
treatment.
By superposition of wave the amplitude of the particles in a back wave front
is zero and there is no backward flow of energy. The effective part of
secondary wavelet is the portion, which lies on the forward secondary wave
front.If radius of spherical wave front is large then it appears as a plane wave
front
(ii) Consider a denser medium (refractive index ) be separated by a rarer
medium by a plane XY. Let c1 & c2 be the velocities of light in the rarer and
the denser medium, respectively. Then = c1 / c2
.....(i)
Let PQ, a plane wave front be incident on the interface XY at QPP/ = i.
Also 1, 2 & 3 are corresponding incident rays normal to wave front PQ.
From Huygens principle, every point on the wavefront PQ acts as a source of
secondary wavelets.
Let secondary wavelets from point Q strike interface XY at P/ in t seconds. So,
QP/ = c1 t ....(ii)
Secondary wavelets originating from P propagate in the denser medium with
the velocity c2 covering a distance c2 t , in t seconds. Thus, with P as centre
and (c2 t) as radius, an arc at Q/ is drawn, so that P/Q/ = c2 t
A tangent plane touching the spherical arc tangentially at Q/ is drawn from
point P/. So P/Q/ represents the secondary wavefront after t seconds. This
advances towards the corresponding refracted rays 1/, 2/ and 3/, are the
corresponding refracted rays, perpendicular to P/Q/.
It can be shown that the secondary wavelets originating from any point D on
PQ, after refraction at P, must reach D/ on
P/Q/ in same time in which secondary
wavelets from Q reach P/.
&
.
In

...(iii) &

In

...(iv)
32

Dividing equation (iii) by (iv)


or
...(v)
Equation (v) is the Snells law of refraction.
From the figure, it is evident that the incident ray, the normal and the
refracted ray lie in the same plane. This proves the second law of refraction.
Thus, the laws of refraction have been proved on the basis of wave theory.
---------D---------

An
s

a) State the essential condition for the diffraction of light to take place.
Explain the formation of secondary maximum and minimum on
diffraction at a single slit. .
(b) Diffraction defines the limit of ray optics. Give brief explanation of
the statement.
(a) The essential condition for the diffraction of light to take place is that size
of the aperture or the
obstacle must be comparable to the wave length of light used.
Diffraction at a single slit:-. Source S of monochromatic light is placed at
a distance equal to focal length of convex lens L so that a parallel beam of
light is obtained. The plane wave fronts are allowed to fall on a very narrow
slit AB = d such that d . Diffraction pattern are obtained on the screen by
focusing with the help of lens L .The diffraction pattern on the screen consists
of a central bright band with alternate dark and weak light (nearly dark)
bands of decreasing intensity on both sides called secondary maxima and
secondary minima.
A
d
B
Plane wave front
Slit

According to Huygens principle each point of the slit behaves as source of


secondary wavelets. The slit is imagined to consist of strips of equal width
parallel to the length of the slit. The total effect in particular direction is found
by adding the wavelets emitted in that particular direction by all the strips,
using the superposition principle.
Formation of central maxima: - when light is incident on slit then
according to Huygens Construction each point emits secondary wavelets in all
directions in same phase. Therefore distance traveled by all wavelets to reach
at a point O is same i.e. path difference between wavelets is zero. The
secondary wave-lets reinforce each other and give rise to central maxima at
O.
Formation of secondary minima: - Consider secondary wavelets are
33

diffracted by an angle and reach at point P. The wavelets start from


different part of the slit in same phase but they will not arrive at P in the
same phase because they have to cover unequal distances in reaching P.
Thus the intensity at point P will depend on the path difference BN.
In ANB sin n =BNd
For small angle sin n = n
Hence angular separation of of nth band from central band n = xnd
(1)
In ANB tan n =BNd
For small angle tan n = n
n = y n D
______________
(2)
Comparing eq1 & 2.
y n D = x n d
Hence distance of nth band from central band y n= yn =
______________

xnDd
Formation of secondary minima: - (a) First secondary minima If path
difference BN = then P will have minimum intensity and called first
secondary maxima. In this case the whole wavefront (slit) can be considered
to be divided into two equal strips AC and CB. If path difference between the
wavelets emitted from A and B is then the path difference between the
secondary wavelets from A and C or from C and B will be 2. Therefore path
difference between the wavelets emitted by the two strips is 2 .i.e phase
difference 2. Thus destructive interference takes place at point P because
crest from one strip reaches at P with a trough from the other, and first
minima is observed.
(b) Second secondary minima : If path difference BN = 2 then P will
have minimum intensity . The path difference between the extreme
wavelets from A & B is 2 so the slit may be divided into four equal
strips AC1, C1C, CC2 and C2B . The wavelets from the correspond points
in the two parts AC1 & C1C or CC2 and C2B etc. will have path
difference /2 i.e. phase difference T1 and cancel each other in effect
due to destructive interference. So the point have minimum intensity
called second secondary minima.
Similarly formation nth secondary minima. can be dividing slit into 2n
equal strips. From equation (1)
Angular separation of first secondary minima. 1= /d
Angular separation of second secondary minima. 2 = 2/d
For nth secondary minima, the Angular separation n = n/d ______________ (2)
n = 1,2,3------- x = , 2, 3 , 4-------Formation of secondary maxima: First secondary maxima: If path
difference BN = 3/2 then P will be bright . In this case the slit may be
divided into three equal strips path difference between the secondary
wavelets from corresponding points of strips AC1 and C1C2 will be /2
They will give rise to destructive interference. However the secondary
waves from the third part remain unused, since they are in same
phase So they reinforce each other and produce First secondary
34

maxima.
When a parallel beam of monochromatic light incident the grating
diffraction pattern of alternate bright and dark fringes of varying
intensities are obtain. With central maxima of max. intensity . If waves
are diffracted by n then path difference x = d sin n . For conservation
interference x = n Where n = 1,2,3-----------.
So n= d sin n -------- (1)
For Ist order maxima angle of diffraction 1 , = d sin1
1=
/d
For IInd order maxima angle of diffraction 1 , 2 = d sin2
2 =
2/d etc.
For nth order maxima from equation (1)
n =
n/d
If we use white light then due to different value of for different
colored light. The gravity will send different colours in different
direction and we obtain a coloured diffraction pattern.

Second secondary maxima: If path difference BN = 5/2 then P will be


bright . In this case the slit can be considered to be divided into five
equal strips path difference between two consecutive strip so the
first four strips cancel each other effect due to destructive interference.
The wavelets from the fifth part remain unused, since they are in
35

same phase So they reinforce each other and produce second


secondary maxima.
To explain nth maxima we can divide the slit into (2n + 1 ) equal parts
(strips). From equation (1)
Angular separation of first secondary maxima. /1= 3/2d
Angular separation of second secondary maxima. /2= 5/2d
For nth secondary maxima. the Angular separation /n= (2n+1)/2d
______________
(3)
n = 1,2,3,------, x = 3/2, 5/2, 7/2 , -------(b) When size of aperture d >> ,we can igore diffraction effects. Then the
light appears to travel in straight lines and ray optics becomes valid. Since for
the validity of ray optics d >> or d << or tends to Zero, it implies that
ray optics is a limiting case of wave optics.

36