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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Diana Popova

Bourgas Free University, Bulgaria

Abstract: The paper examines some gender stereotypes in advertising which reflect the
traditional views of the two genders. Addressed are certain common gender stereotypes across
the world. The main thrust of the paper is the power of (gender) advertising.
Key words: gender, advertising, stereotypes, identities

Gender, sex, and sexuality

Before any discussion of gender in advertising, it is essential to outline briefly the
disparities between gender and sex, and sex and sexuality. Some languages (e.g. Bulgarian) do
not have separate words for gender and sex. Hence, the difficulty in delineating the subtle
differences that set them apart.
In simple words, the differences can be highlighted in the following way. Sex denotes
a persons biological sex, i.e. whether they are born male or female. Sexuality indicates a
persons sexual preference, i.e. whether they are hetero-, homo-, or bisexual. Gender connotes
the role or behaviors that a person has acquired in the process of their socialization in
accordance with their sex feminine or masculine. According to Alvesson and Billing (1997)
gender is the social and cultural meanings associated with maleness and femaleness imposed
and expected by society.
Of the three notions, the most static as a human characteristic is sex people are born
either male or female, with very few exceptions. Sexuality is less static than sex since peoples
sexuality sometimes changes within a lifetime. Gender is the least static of all three because it
is determined by society, and not only. Any changes in society can affect the common
understanding of gender and the attributes that are by and large associated with femininity and
masculinity. Gender roles and behaviors change over time, and are bound by religion,
ethnicity, social status, geographical region, etc. Contemporary views of appropriate
manifestations of masculinity and femininity are very different from what they used to be even
a couple of decades ago.
Being judgmental about gender specificities across cultures is, among other issues, a
stumbling block for cross-cultural understanding and dialogical communication. Similarly, the
commonly accepted gender roles, attitudes and behaviors in a single society can be a matter of
heated debates, conflicting views, and attempts at reforming peoples mentality.
Traditional views of the two genders
Despite the fluid nature of gender attributes, it can be claimed with some certainty that
society has a fairly stable general idea about what men and women should be like, what is most

appropriate for them to do, say, feel or like. Society tends to create and sustain frameworks
within which the majority of men and women fit regardless of their specific personal traits. Or
else, society creates and sustains certain gender stereotypes, which differ across cultures
considerably, but are more or less common for the majority of people in a particular part of the
world. Chandler (2008) claims that gender roles are socially constructed. Most of the behavior
associated with gender is learned rather than innate.
With a large degree of generalization, traditionally men can be said to be, or are
expected to be masculine, strong, aggressive, dominant, rational, and active. Women are
believed to be feminine, weak, submissive, emotional, and passive. Men are generally
associated with technology, drinking and promiscuity, while women are associated with
household chores and shopping, social drinking with friends, and stable sexual commitments.
We do not have to look far to realize that, maybe, we do not fit at all in the above
picture. If we just look at ourselves and our partners, we will see how exaggerated or utterly
false the stereotypical picture of males and females is. Within a single culture masculinity and
femininity may acquire different dimensions and manifestations depending on ethnicity, age,
social class and sexuality. This is why it is hard to say that there is a single masculinity or
femininity. There are rather multiple masculinities and femininities. Not all men possess
leadership qualities, a knack for technology, or aggressiveness. And not all women are gentle,
emotional, submissive, or loving. Such qualities can be found in most people in varying
degrees. Too much reliance on certain stereotypical masculine or feminine features can create
tension and result in disappointment and frustration.
Common gender stereotypes across the world
The fast rate of globalization and the flow of cultures, idols, role models, material and
spiritual influences have resulted in a considerable unification of gender stereotypes and
marginalisation of culture-specific gender characteristics. Social trends such as womens
emancipation, feminism, human rights movements, etc. have changed peoples mindset
throughout most of the world. Globalization of politics, economies, cultures, and the media has
led to the creation of similar gender stereotypes in most parts of the world.
In less personal terms, gender stereotypes provide some stability in the perception of
masculinity and femininity. Media advertising contributes to the awareness that there exist two
different prevailing gender types and that peoples relationships to them can be foreseen based
on predictable behaviors, likes, and dislikes.
Stereotypes exist to a large extent because they are easier to get to know than getting
to know every man and woman. They facilitate peoples choices of behavior when
communicating with males and females because there are sets of expected learnable behavioral
patterns that are normally acceptable to men and women.
The power of (gender) advertising
Advertising has the power to manipulate people and turn them into obsessed
consumers while they continue to believe that they can never be affected by the advertising
messages and can preserve their right to freedom of choice. Even the most unexciting
advertising idea can affect us by the hidden power of the image it promotes. We model
ourselves by certain archetypes and it is no exaggeration to say that we buy advertising rather
than products. It is not about experiencing the same positive effect suggested in the
advertisement but about associating ourselves with images of success and expensive life style,
and acquiring a new self-definition through that.

What advertising exploits best is femininity and masculinity, i.e. the most obvious
manifestations of gender. Being one of the most popular demographic segmentation variables,
gender is widely exploited in advertising. It is convenient to use as a segmentation strategy
because gender segments meet several criteria for successful implementation. They are:
Easy to identify;
Large and profitable. (Darley and Smith, 1995)
On the one hand, advertising plays a significant role in the development and
perpetuation of gender-role stereotypes. On the other, it is a reflection of the realities at a
particular point in time. Based on an analysis of advertisements by Goffman (1976), Jones
(1991) highlights some instances of subtle stereotyping such as:
Family - mothers depicted as the home-makers, closer to the children and
especially relating to their daughters, while fathers are depicted breadwinners and physically
distant from their families.
Functional ranking men are primarily depicted in executive roles with
higher social status.
Relative size men are usually depicted as taller, larger, and stronger.
The feminine touch and the masculine stamina women are depicted as
caressing things, touching the surface of objects with their fingers, and appreciating the feeling
of gentleness. Conversely, men are depicted as enjoying tough sports and activities, and
engaging in dangerous experiences.
Ritualization of subordination excessive portrayal of women lying on
floors and beds, or depicted as objects of mens make-believe attacks.
The question that remains to be answered is: What is the impact of such advertising
stereotypes on the effect of the success of advertising campaigns employing them? It can be
claimed with some certainty that in the 21st century peoples tastes and mindset have changed
considerably, if not radically. It is not surprising that a large portion of the research examining
gender issues in advertising focuses on the portrayal of women rather than men. The reason is
that traditionally women have been depicted as passive, gentle, easy to manipulate, often
unintelligent, and as having only a few major concerns in their lives their looks, the
cleanliness of their homes, and the well-being of their children and husbands. Contemporary
women have become more sensitive to the unequal, subordinate and unfavorable representation
they receive in advertising. And while they have not abandoned their traditional roles, they
have also successfully been performing new ones. For the majority of them emancipation is no
longer an issue. Depicting men as constructive, powerful, dominant, and resourceful should be
counterbalanced with an equal depiction of women since both genders are equally involved in
almost all social roles. The biologically determined role for women to be mothers adds an extra
burden on them and they manage to cope with many more responsibilities than most men.
Gender is not easy to employ effectively when advertisers want to communicate on a
par with male and female audiences. The shifting gender roles create difficulties for
advertisers who need to reexamine constantly not only the societal parameters of gender but
also the individuals understanding of what it implies to be male or female in the contemporary
world. The problem is aggravated by the fact that gender identity can vary within sex and
culture, and across time and space. Advertising gender stereotypes has been a much researched
and discussed area since the 1970s when womens roles and positions in society started
changing significantly with the burgeoning number of women getting college degrees and
employment. It is also linked to the changed familial roles and the legal and public pressures as

an outcome of feminist movements. Gender role stereotyping still exists but, as research
suggests (Allan and Coltrane, 1996; Bartsch, Burnett, Diller, and Rankin-Williams, 2000;
Furnham and Thomson, 1999) it is decreasing over time. Having said that, it cannot be denied
that gender continues to be an issue in advertising despite the sophisticated and informed
interpretations of the differences between men and women and the questionable importance of
these differences when marketing the majority of goods and services. There is also the risk of
perpetuating gender inequality if there is too much preoccupation with studies in gender role
The importance of gender for developing a companys marketing strategy is not
universally accepted. Some businesses understand that it is a key to marketing success. Others
rank it below other segmentation variables such as age, education, and income (Pinkerton,
1995; Rickard, 1995; Marketing, 1998). Despite the split opinions about the role of gender in
advertising, the efforts of advertisers to create new gender images, which relate to the everyday
experiences of contemporary women, are a fact. The change in female attitudes and
perceptions is reflected in the advertising strategies of many companies, traditionally
considered to manufacture goods and offer services mainly for male customers. Pinkerton
(1995) observes that IBM has started to advertise in womens magazines. A lot of high-tech
and car manufacturers have followed suit.
There are products and services which are generally believed to have a gender-neutral
appeal. Among them are most medicines, life insurance, holidays, etc. Some life insurance
companies used to have gender-specific approach to their consumers which turned out to be
rather ineffective (Burton, 1995). Women may have a positive attitude to good role-models in
advertisements but they are often irritated by women only tactics. (Pinkerton, 1995)
Flexibility of identities and the decline of tradition
Identity in post-modern society is seen as more fluid and transformable than ever
before. This is a consequence of the increasing number of various ways in which popular ideas
about the self in society have changed and are perpetuated by the media and high-tech, lowcost communications. Twenty or thirty years ago, researchers of popular media often came to
the conclusion that conventional culture was resistant to social change and tried to confine
people to traditional roles and categories. Today, the media should be given credit for being,
within limits, a force for change, betterment, and empowerment. The traditional view of
women as housewives, unqualified and low-paid workers has been replaced by the highpowered, determined and successful women icons. Meanwhile, man has ceased to be the
absolute epitome of toughness, willful self-reliance, and masculine stamina. Traditional gender
categories have not been entirely destroyed. However, the emergence of new ideas and images
has made possible the shifting of gender roles and the surfacing of diverse identities.
Advertising has little respect for tradition. It fosters the desire to create new modes of
life, new role models, and even new gender images. It generates favourable conditions for the
emergence of a greater variety of identities. In post-modern societies everyone wants to 'live
their own life', which is, 'an experimental life' (Beck, 2002: 26). Advertising contains myriad
suggestions of ways of living. The social world is no longer confident in its traditions and
inherited recipes for living and role stereotypes fail to function (ibid). This gives people the
freedom to model their own new patterns of being, enrich and modify their identities. The
impact of advertising on the construction of new identities is undeniable. Women in
advertisements have become increasingly assertive and successful, and triumphant in all roles
traditional and new. Men are said to be uneasy and confused about what their role is today.

Failure to generate a masculine image and effect is turned into a source of humour in
advertising. Since masculinity is a socially constructed performance and women these days
expect more of men than just the essentialist idea of a traditional real man as biology and
destiny, images of caring, gentle, generous and good-humoured men have inhabited a lot of
advertisements in recent years.
The media will continue to bombard people with exciting or insipid advertisements
featuring sophisticated or blatantly nave gender stereotypes. The quest for gender equity in
advertising, as anywhere else, requires a new awakening that incites critical thinking skills and
the ability to make personal choice in line with our self-esteem. Advertisers will continue to
make, what many would consider adverse, use of gender as a way of marketing goods and
services. The pursuit of gender equality is inseparable from the battle against consumerism
which can be won through, among other things, a dedication to creating authentic people,
relationships, and attitudes in advertising. This might seem to be an ambitions task but it is
achievable if only we focus on what and who we are rather than on what other people want us
to be.

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