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MATHEMATIC FORM 2

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Note: Square roots and cube roots and operations with them are often included in algebra books.

To find the square root of a number, you want to find some number that when multiplied by itself gives you the

original number. In other words, to find the square root of 25, you want to find the number that when multiplied by

itself gives you 25. The square root of 25, then, is 5. The symbol for the square root is

. Following is a partial list of

perfect (whole number) square roots.

Note: If no sign (or a positive sign) is placed in front of the square root, the positive answer is required. No sign

means that a positive is understood. Only if a negative sign is in front of the square root is the negative answer

required. This notation is used in many texts, as well as this book. Therefore,

To find the cube root of a number, you want to find some number that when multiplied by itself twice gives you the

original number. In other words, to find the cube root of 8, you want to find the number that when multiplied by itself

twice gives you 8. The cube root of 8, then, is 2 because 2 2 2 = 8. Notice that the symbol for cube root is the

radical sign with a small three (called the index) above and to the left,

. Other roots are similarly defined and

identified by the index given. (In square root, an index of 2 is understood and is usually not written.) Following is a

partial list of perfect (whole number) cube roots.

To find the square root of a number that is not a perfect square, it is necessary to find an approximate answer by

using the procedure given in Example .

Approximate

is between

and

and

Therefore,

Since 42 is almost halfway between 36 and 49,

is almost halfway between

approximately 6.5. To check, multiply the following:

6.5 6.5 = 42.25 or about 42.

Approximate

and

. So

is

Since

is slightly closer to

than it is to

Approximate

Since

is slightly closer to

than it is to

Square roots of nonperfect squares can be approximated, looked up in tables, or found by using a calculator. You

may want to keep these two in mind, because they are commonly used.

Sometimes you will have to simplify square roots, or write them in simplest form. In fractions,

. In square roots,

can be simplified to

can be simplified to

Method 1:

Factor the number under the

into two factors, one of which is the largest possible perfect square. (Perfect

squares are 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, and so on)

Method 2:

Completely factor the number under the

in pairs.

Simplify

Method 1.

into prime factors and then simplify by bringing out any factors that came

Method 2.

In Example , the largest perfect square is easy to see, and Method 1 probably is a faster method.

Simplify

Method 1.

Method 2.

In Example , it is not so obvious that the largest perfect square is 144, so method 2 is probably the faster method.

Simplify

Method 1.

Method 2.

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