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1.

True or false: Air-filled emulsions have been used to produce a prototype food with three phases: air in oil in water
(A/O/W).

2. True or false: The class of fungal proteins known as hydrophobins function to create a film that surrounds fat cells in a
tri-phasic emulsion system.

3. The statement A hydrophobin-containing tri-phasic emulsion allows for more than 50% reduction in lipid content
when compared to a rheologically similar oil water emulsion is basically saying that
(a) there is significant fat reduction when the triple emulsion is compared to a standard emulsion, of significantly different
thickness (viscosity)
(b) there is significant fat reduction when the triple emulsion is compared to a standard emulsion, with both emulsions
roughly equivalent in thickness (viscosity)
(c) hydrophobin emulsion technology may help create low-fat, low-calorie foods/beverages
(d) both (a) and (c)
(e) both (b) and (c)

4. Which is FALSE concerning food systems?


(a) A food system is a dispersion containing two phases: a continuous phase and a dispersed phase.
(b) In a typical food system, solids, liquids, and gases are dispersed within other solids, liquids, and gases.
(c) A suspension is a simple, non-complex food system.
(d) In a colloidal system, small food particles called colloids disperse throughout the food without dissolving.
(e) An emulsion is a colloidal dispersion food system of two liquids, usually oil and water, that are immiscible (not
mixable).

5. The following statement: a measure of the availability of water molecules to enter into microbial, enzymatic, or
chemical reactions, all of which can impact the shelf life of a food BEST defines which one?
(a) hydration effect
(b) water activity
(c) MRI
(d) Latent heating
(e) Hydration

6. Sugars easily form ___________ bonds and are ___________ in water.


(a) hydrogen; soluble or disperse
(b) ester; insoluble
(d) intermolecular; insoluble
(c) hydrogen; insoluble
(e) intramolecular; soluble
7. True or False: As the percentage of FREE water in a food increases, the water activity (aw) increases, and there is
greater potential for food spoilage.
(a) True (b) False

8. Critical thinking: Which would most accurately describe a junction zone in a starch gel?
(a) areas having high amylose:water associations
(b) areas of low viscosity
(c) areas having high amylose:amylose associations
(d) amorphous liquid areas
(e) none of these

9. True or False: Ingredient molecules can become immobilized within frozen and dehydrated foods.
(a) True (b) False

10. True or False: Dynamic phase shifts from glassy to rubbery may be preventable when foods are formulated keeping
the glass transition temperature in mind.
(a) True (b) False

11. True or False: The amorphous rubbery state, as compared to the amorphous glassy state, exhibits lower stability.
(a) True (b) False

12. True or False: Sorption isotherms are representations of the relationship between moisture and water activity.
(a) True (b) False

13. Anna knows from her notes that the term __________ can be used to describe a food systems flow behavior.
(a) viscosity (b) hysteresis (c) desorption (d) adsorption (e) syneresis

14. Which statement regarding emulsifiers is FALSE?


(a) act to increase surface tension
(b) are amphiphilic molecules
(c) act to decrease interfacial tension
(d) act to achieve phase stabilization
(e) are classified by HLB number

15. Fill in the blank: The Octet Rule requires that each element have how many VALENCE (outer shell) electrons?
_______________________

16. In a _______ emulsion, water is the predominant or ________ phase (the solvent), while oil is the __________ phase
(the solute). In a(n) _______ emulsion, the situation is opposite. _______ is the solvent, while _________ is the solute.
(a) W/O, continuous, dispersed; O/W, oil, water
(b) O/W, dispersed, continuous; W/O, oil, water
(c) O/W, continuous, dispersed; W/O, water, oil
(d) stable, continuous, dispersed; unstable, oil, water
(e) O/W, continuous, dispersed; W/O, oil, water

17. True or False: Pulp in Orange Juice would be considered a dissolved solid?
(a) True (b) False

18. Functional properties


(a) do refer to the physical and chemical properties of food molecules that affect their behavior
(b) do not include sensory and mechanical properties of foods
(c) are determined by the functional groups of food molecules
(d) both (a) and (c)
(e) choices (a), (b), and (c)
19. ________________ is the process by which water molecules surround and interact with solutes by acting as a solvent
(a synonym for hydration is solvation).
(a) hydrogenation
(b) oxidation
(c) hydrophilic
(d) hydration
(e) hallucination

20. A _____________ is a stability map of different states and phases of a food as a function of its solids content and
temperature.
(a) COOL
(b) phase chart
(c) latent and sensible heating/cooling plot
(d) state diagram
(e) diorama
Using the picture on the right label the proper term for each bond. There are TWO
possible answers for each. KNOW BOTH!

21. Bond A:

22. Bond B:

Use the picture below

23. What type of biomolecule is the above structure?

24. Label the proper for each boxed group. Which of those group(s) can vary?

Emulsions

The above pictures represent two types of emulsions that involves water and oil. Identify the dispersed phase and
continuous phase. Label each type using the ________ in __________ terminology.
Label each component, hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail, and the interface.

From the picture on the right you should be able to answer any
question asking you to identify:
Zones that represent latent heating OR sensible heating Temp
(oC) STEAM
The temperature and/or the PHASE of H2O when the x-axis is at a Heating
LIQ direction
specific number. Be aware that the x-axis is not drawn to scale. H2O V-->
100
C <--
The state of matter at a specific temperature and/or zone. M-->
0
ICE F <--
PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT IS BEING MEASURE ON Cooling Heat Energy
EACH AXIS. direction 63 397 816 3076 (joules)
Zone I Zone II Zone III Zone IV Zone V

M=melting; F=freezing; V=vaporization; C=


condensation

From the picture on the right you should be able to answer any
question pertaining to each point on the graph including:

Know which point represents the transition point, the rubbery state,
glassy state.

What is constant between points A, B or C? Know which state you


are in for each point.

What is increasing (or decreasing) between points A, B, or C?

You should know which points can change states due to changing
the temperature

PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT IS BEING MEASURE ON EACH


AXIS.