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Uniclass L32232: P2
Aggregate Blocks CI/SfB Ff2
February 2007

technical manual
Customer Services:
aggregate blocks
T 08450 762100 F 01235 437391
E blocks@hanson.biz www.hanson.biz/uk
Hanson Building Products
aggregate blocks
Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ
technical manual
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Contents
Introduction 2-3

1. Product data

Product summaries 6-9

Facing blocks 10-15

Background blocks 16-29

2. Performance

Structural 32-39

Thermal insulation 40-47

Sound insulation 48-53

Fire resistance 54

Movement control 55-57

Moisture penetration 58-59

Durability 60

3. Sitework

Health and safety 63

CDM Regulations 63

Block laying 64-65

Mortar 66-67

Internal finishes 68-69

External finishes 70-71

4. Other information

Sales and technical advice 74-75

Quality 76

Customer product advice 77


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Thermalite aircrete blocks

Thermalite introduced the autoclaved


aerated concrete block over 50 years
ago, and now produces the best selling
range of building blocks in the United
Kingdom.?????

Introduction
Hanson is a market leader in the
manufacture and supply of aggregate
blocks, annually producing 7.5 million m2.
Using naturally occurring dense and
lightweight aggregates, Hansons
aggregate blocks are a robust product,
offering high compressive strength and
excellent sound insulation to help meet
the requirements of Building Regulations.
Hanson provides a unique wealth of knowledge, choice and resources, offering customers a wide range of
products for the Housing, Commercial and DIY sectors, all backed by the sales support and technical service
that is the strength of this division.

All products are manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3 and are available in a variety of
densities, strengths, sizes, configurations and finishes to suit most applications.

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Standards and regulations Hansons aggregate blocks are manufactured by the


The British/European Standards and Building most efficient methods available and where possible,
Regulations that apply to the manufacture and use of using specially selected recycled aggregates and
aggregate blocks are always subject to revision and secondary aggregate materials. A strict waste
improvement. Certain documents that are either in the minimisation scheme is also operated to ensure that
process of change, or whose publication is imminent, waste materials from the production process are either
cannot be fully accommodated at the time of reused or recycled.
publication, although, wherever possible, reference has Quality
been made in the text. Hansons aggregate blocks are manufactured to
the requirements of BS EN 771-3, ensuring
The Hanson website at www.hanson.biz/uk will be
compliance with all relevant standards and codes
updated as important changes occur, but if the
of practice.
reader has specific queries relating to the manufacture
0640
or application of the product please contact Product Services
Services on 08706 097091. Hanson continually researches the needs of customers
in order to develop the range of products available.
Sustainability and the environment
Additionally, a comprehensive range of literature is
Managing environmental issues is an integral part of
Hansons business strategy and the company is available with technical advice on all aspects of the
committed to minimising the impact of its operations on application and use of aggregate block products in
local communities and the natural environment. construction.

See Sales and Technical Advice, page 74-75.

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Product data
1 Product data
Product summaries 6-9

Facing blocks

Evalast Facing 10-11

Evalast Paint Grade 10-11

Evalite Facing 12-13

Evalite Paint Grade 12-13

Superlite Facing 14-15

Superlite Paint Grade 14-15

Background blocks

Evalast Background 16-17

Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 Background 18-21

Evalite Standard Background 22-23

Superlite Background 24-25

Ultralite Background 26-27

Party Wall 28-29

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Product data - product summaries

Facing and Paint Grade blocks


product summary
Hansons Facing and Paint Grade blocks have been designed specifically
for aesthetically important block work. These superior quality products are
manufactured with a consistent close face texture and are available in a
wide range of shapes and sizes to suit a variety of applications.
All products are produced to the requirements of BS EN 771-3.
Other strengths and sizes may be available on request.

Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade pages 10-11


Superior quality dense blocks, manufactured using a mix formulated to produce a consistent
close face texture. Evalast Facing is designed specifically for aesthetic applications and can be
left fair faced, allowing the natural colour of the aggregate to dominate*. Evalast Paint Grade has
a smooth, consistent texture,** ideal for receiving a painted finish.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 17.5 & 22.5 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 1.22 W/m.K
Dry density: 1900 kg/m3

Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade pages 12-13


Medium density products, intended for internal applications where weight is critical. Evalite
Facing is ideal for aesthetic applications and can be left fair faced*. Evalite Paint Grade has a
consistent and smooth texture** perfect for receiving a painted finish.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3 & 10.4 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.47 W/m.K
Dry density: 1450 kg/m3

Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint Grade pages 14-15


These lightweight, low-to-medium density products are designed specifically for internal
applications where low weight is critical, particularly in the larger sizes. Superlite Facing is
intended for aesthetic applications and can be left fair faced, allowing the natural colour of the
aggregate to dominate*. Superlite Paint Grade has a consistent and smooth texture** ideal for
receiving a painted finish.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 & 7.3 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.36 W/m.K
Dry density: 1000 kg/m3
*The colour of facing products can vary from works to works, so sample viewing is highly recommended. It is essential that agreement
between all parties is confirmed if the products are to be left untreated.
**Whilst Paint Grade products have a consistency of texture, colour consistency cannot be guaranteed.

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Product data - product summaries

Background blocks product summary


The products contained within the Background block range
are available in a wide range of shapes, sizes and strengths.
They are not intended to be left fair-faced, but used with a secondary
finish. All products are manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3.
Other strengths and sizes may be available on request.

Evalast Background pages 16-17


Dense concrete blocks that can be used in virtually any part of a project, above or below ground,
in normal conditions. Their performance makes them especially applicable to partition and
separating walls where good sound insulating qualities and high strengths are required. They can
also be used as infill blocks in beam and block flooring systems.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5 & 30 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 1.32 W/m.K
Dry density: 1990 kg/m3
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 Background pages 18-21
Medium density blocks suitable for use in the majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf
of cavity walls when used with secondary insulation, separating or partition walls, infill blocks in
beam and block flooring systems and externally where a finish is applied.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3, 10.4 & 15 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.45, 0.48 W/m.K
Dry density: 1350, 1500 kg/m3
Evalite Background pages 22-23
Medium density blocks suitable for use in the majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf
of cavity walls when used with secondary insulation, separating or partition walls, infill blocks in
beam and block flooring systems and externally where a finish is applied.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3 & 10.4 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.47 W/m.K
Dry density: 1450 kg/m3
Superlite Background pages 24-25
Low-to-medium density blocks with good insulating properties ideal for use in external and
internal block walls. The product can achieve high thermal values using limited amounts of
secondary insulation.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 & 7.3 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.40 W/m.K
Dry density: 1100 kg/m3
Ultralite Background pages 26-27
Low density blocks with good insulating properties ideal for use in external and internal block
walls. The product can achieve high thermal values using limited amounts of secondary insulation.
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 N/mm2
Thermal conductivity (): 0.295 W/m.K
Dry density: 850 kg/m3
Party wall pages 28-29
A high density 65mm high concrete block which, when laid on 190mm bed, achieves the
requirements for a solid sound separating wall as detailed in the Building Regulations.
Mean compressive strength: 24 N/mm2
Dry density: 2100 kg/m3

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Product data - facing blocks

Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade


Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 22.5N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.22W/m.K internal, 1.31W/m.K external
Dry density: 1900 kg/m3

Evalast Facing Applications


Evalast Facing blocks are produced from selected Evalast Facing and Paint Grade blocks can be used in
aggregates complying with BS EN 12620, and Portland all situations where durable, robust, natural coloured, or
cement. They are manufactured to BS EN 771-3 and in the case of Evalast Paint Grade, painted, blockwork is
are subject to rigorous quality control. These superior required. They are an economic solution for applications
quality dense blocks are produced with a mix design such as:
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a
factory units
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for
workshops
aesthetically important block work. Evalast Facing
sports centres
products can be left fair faced, allowing the natural
offices
colour of the aggregate to dominate.
The strength and type of aggregate used allows these
Evalast Paint Grade
blocks to be built in external or internal applications with
Evalast Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
sustained long term durability.
selected aggregates, complying with the same
standards as Evalast Facing, but with a consistent The close texture of the Evalast Facing and Paint Grade
smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a painted products, coupled with their high strengths, provides an
finish.** excellent base for a variety of standard fixing systems.
*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.
**The finish on Evalast Facing and Evalast Paint Grade products is guaranteed
on one header and one stretcher only.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 1.22
external 1.31
Dry density kg/m3 1900
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.50
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 100
Mean compressive strength solid 7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5
N/mm2 cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3, 10.4

Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5 < 375


Evalast Facing
Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15
Fire classification A1
Flatness mm < 0.5
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1
Group 2
Evalast Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2
agg agg agg agg
440 x 215 75* Solid 0.061 0.057 13.5 146 41 2 1 - -
90* Solid 0.074 0.069 16.2 175 43 2 11/2 1 1
100 Solid 0.082 0.076 18.0 195 43 2 2 2 2
140 Solid 0.115 0.107 25.2 273 45 4 3 3 2
150 Solid 0.123 0.115 27.0 291 46 6 4 6 2
190 Solid 0.156 0.145 34.2 370 47 6 4 6 2
100 Cellular 0.121 0.114 14.3 156 42 2 1/ 2 -
2
Solo
140 Cellular 0.186 0.179 18.4 204 43 3 3 2 -
140 Hollow 0.175 0.167 18.9 206 44 3 3 2 -
150 Hollow 0.186 0.178 18.0 196 43 4 4 2 -
190 Hollow 0.208 0.199 22.0 241 45 4 4 2 -
215 Hollow 0.220 0.210 23.4 257 45 6 6 2 -
290 x 215** 140* Solid 0.115 0.107 16.6 272 45 4 3 3 2
Easilift
*Available from selected works only ** Evalast Easilift available in Paint Grade only
Specification and performance
Being manufactured from natural aggregates, Hansons Fire resistance will however, depend on the type of
aggregate blocks provide a high standard of sound aggregate used. It is therefore important that the class
insulation. They also provide the highest possible levels is specified in order to obtain the correct block for the
of fire resistance and are often used where fire required application.
resistance is an important characteristic of the structure.

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Product data - facing blocks

Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade


Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3, 10.4N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.47W/m.K internal
Dry density: 1450kg/m3

Evalite Facing Applications


Evalite Facing blocks are a medium density product, Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade blocks are ideal
intended for internal applications where weight is for use where appearance and weight are of prime
critical. Manufactured to the requirements of consideration. They are intended for internal applications
BS EN 771-3, from selected aggregates and Portland where a lightweight, economic, natural coloured or
cement, Evalite products are subject to rigorous quality paintable block is required for aesthetically important
control. The blocks are manufactured with a mix design projects such as:
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a
shopping precincts
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for
offices
aesthetically important block work. Evalite Facing
sports centres
products can be left fair faced, making a feature of the
factory units
natural colour of the aggregate.
workshops
Evalite Paint Grade
The close texture of Evalite Facing and Paint Grade
Evalite Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
products, coupled with high strengths, provides an
selected aggregates, complying with the same
excellent base for a variety of standard fixing systems.
standards as Evalite Facing, but with a consistent
smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a
painted finish.**
*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.
**The finish on Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade products is guaranteed
on one header and one stretcher only.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal only 0.47
Dry density kg/m3 1450
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.80
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 50
Mean compressive strength solid 7.3, 10.4
N/mm2 cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3,

Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5 < 350


Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15 Evalite Facing
Fire classification A1
Flatness mm < 0.5
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1
Group 2

Evalite Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 agg Class 1 agg
440 x 215 75* Solid 0.160 10.3 114 40 2 -
90* Solid 0.191 12.3 136 41 2 1
100 Solid 0.213 13.7 151 42 2 2
140 Solid 0.298 19.2 212 44 4 3
150* Solid 0.319 20.6 226 44 6 6
190 Solid 0.404 26.1 288 46 6 6
200* Solid 0.426 27.4 302 46 6 6
215 Solid 0.457 29.5 326 46 6 6
100 Cellular 0.247 11.8 132 41 2 2
solo
140 Hollow 0.344 13.9 155 42 3 2
140* Cellular 0.329 15.0 169 42 3 2
190 Hollow 0.381 16.2 182 43 4 2
215 Hollow 0.395 18.2 204 44 6 2
*Available from selected works only. Other sizes may be available on request, please contact our sales office for details.

Specification and performance


Evalite Facing and Evalite Paint Grade blocks are
manufactured using Class 1 aggregates and often used
where the highest possible levels of fire resistance are
required together with good sound insulation properties.

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Product data - facing blocks

Superlite Facing and


Superlite Paint Grade
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.36W/m.K internal
Dry density: 1000kg/m3

Superlite Facing Superlite Paint Grade


Superlite Facing blocks are a lightweight product, Superlite Paint Grade blocks are also produced from
manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3, selected aggregates, complying with the same
from pyro-processed lightweight aggregates, complying standards as Superlite Facing, but with a consistent
with BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement. Superlite smooth texture, which is ideal for receiving a painted
Facing blocks are manufactured with a mix design finish**.
formulated to produce a close face texture, with a Applications
consistent shade of colour*, which is ideal for The light weight of Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint
aesthetically important block work. Superlite Facing Grade, makes them ideal for internal applications where
products can be left fair faced, making a feature of the low weight is critical, particularly in the larger block
natural colour of the aggregate. sizes. Typical applications include:
With a dry material density of approximately offices
1000kg/m3, block weights of 20kg or less can be warehouses
achieved for solid blocks, up to and including sports centres
200mm width. factory units
*The colour may vary from works to works so sample viewing is highly
**The finish on Superlite Facing and Superlite Paint Grade products is
recommended. It is also important to order sufficient quantities for the whole
guaranteed on one header and one stretcher only.
project to limit any colour variation between production runs.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal only 0.36
Dry density kg/m3 1000
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.70
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 40
Mean compressive strength N/mm2 solid only 3.6, 7.3
Water absorption by capillary g/m2.s0.5 < 1050

Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15


Fire classification A1 Superlite Facing

Flatness mm < 0.5


Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1
N.B. Block weights not greater than 20kg can be achieved for solid
blocks up to and including 200mm thickness.

Superlite Paint Grade

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 agg Class 1 agg
440 x 215 75* Solid 0.208 7.1 81 38 2 -
90* Solid 0.250 8.5 98 39 2 1
100 Solid 0.278 9.5 108 39 2 2
140 Solid 0.389 13.2 151 42 4 3
150* Solid 0.417 14.2 161 42 6 6
190 Solid 0.528 18.0 205 44 6 6
200* Solid 0.556 18.9 215 44 6 6
215 Solid 0.597 20.3 232 44 6 6
*Available from selected works only. Other sizes may be available on request, please contact our sales office for details.

Specification and performance


Being manufactured from Class 1 aggregates, Superlite
Facing and Superlite Paint Grade blocks provide the
highest possible levels of fire resistance together with
good sound insulation properties.

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Product data - background blocks

Evalast Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 30.0N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.32W/m.K internal, 1.42W/m.K external
Dry density: 1990 kg/m3

Strength
Having high density, with associated strengths, Evalast
Background blocks easily achieve the durability
requirements for use above and below ground. They can
be used in normal and sulphate soil conditions
equivalent to classification DS-3.
Thermal
Evalast Background blocks, in conjunction with suitable
thicknesses of insulation, are able to provide high levels
of thermal insulation. Sample constructions achieving
U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are shown on
on pages 42-47.
Fire
Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.
Evalast Background products are manufactured from
either Class 1 (limestone) or Class 2 (gravel and
crushed stone) aggregates. Where fire resistance is
important it is essential that the class of aggregate is
specified. Full details are given in the tables opposite.
Coursing blocks
Evalast Background To complement the range, 22.5N/mm2 coursing
Manufactured to BS EN 771-3 from crushed rock or units (brick size) are available for use in conjunction
gravel aggregates to BS EN 12620 and Portland with 7.3N/mm2 100mm Evalast Background blocks,
cement. and 10.4N/mm2 units are available for 140mm
thick products.
Evalast Background blocks are dense aggregate blocks
which can be used in virtually any part of a project Finishes
above or below ground, in normal conditions. The nature of Evalast Background blocks classes them,
Their performance makes them especially applicable to for the purpose of rendering and plastering, as a
partition and separating walls where good sound relatively low suction background. They can be either
insulating qualities and high strengths are required. smooth or rough in texture, depending upon
They can also be used as infill blocks in beam and block manufacturing location. As such, the correct
flooring systems. specification for the applied finishes should be provided.
In the case of dense sand cement plasters applied to
Applications smooth blocks, it is recommended that, in addition to
Acoustics
raking out of the joints, an adhesive slurry, spatterdash
The high density of Evalast Background blocks gives
or stipple coat is applied to the block surface prior to
them excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to
the application of the first undercoat. The high strengths
form a sound separating wall, they achieve the required
and close internal texture of Evalast Background blocks
mass as given in the Building Regulations and Robust
mean that excellent fixing can be achieved using a
Details.
variety of patent fixings.
Typical examples of how Evalast Background blocks
Specification and performance
may be used to form sound separating walls, are given
Being manufactured from Class 1 and Class 2
on pages 50-53.
aggregates, the blocks provide the highest possible
Flooring levels of fire resistance together with good sound
Evalast Background blocks are suitable as infill blocks insulation properties.
for beam and block flooring systems. They should be
Note: Evalast blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or painted and should
specified as for flooring, in order that the correct have a finish (plaster, render plasterboard, cladding, etc.) applied where the wall
manufacturing base is sourced. is to have visual importance.

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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 1.32
external 1.42
Dry density kg/m3 1990
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.55
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 100

Mean compressive solid 7.3, 10.4, 17.5, 22.5, 30


strength N/mm2 cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3, 10.4
103mm coursing unit 22.5
140mm coursing unit 10.4 Evalast Background
Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15
Fire classification A1
Flatness mm < 1.0
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1 Group 2

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal Resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 2 Class 1 Class 2
agg agg agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.057 0.053 14.1 153 42 2 1 - -
90 Solid 0.068 0.063 16.9 183 43 2 11/2 1 1
100 Solid 0.076 0.070 18.8 203 43 2 2 2 2
140 Solid 0.106 0.099 26.4 285 46 4 3 3 2
150 Solid 0.114 0.106 28.2 304 46 6 4 6 2
190 Solid 0.144 0.134 35.8 386 48 6 4 6 2
140 Hollow 0.166 0.157 19.8 215 44 3 3 2 -
140 Cellular Solo 0.159 0.151 19.2 212 44 3 3 2 -
150 Hollow 0.177 0.169 18.8 205 44 4 4 2 -
190 Hollow 0.198 0.188 23.0 251 45 4 4 2 -
215 Hollow 0.209 0.200 24.5 268 45 6 6 2 -
100 Cellular Solo 0.113 0.107 15.0 163 42 2 1/ 2 -
2

215 x 215 190 Easilift Solid 0.144 0.134 17.5 386 48 6 4 6 2


290 x 215 140 Easilift Solid 0.106 0.099 17.4 285 46 4 3 3 2
290 x 140 215 Easilift Solid 0.163 0.151 17.4 436 48 6 6 6 2
215 x 65 103 Coursing unit 0.078 0.073 2.9 207 43 2 2 2 2
440 x 65 140 Coursing unit 0.106 0099 8.0 283 46 4 3 3 2
440 x 100 215 100mm laid flat 0.163 0.151 18.8 435 48 6 6 6 2
440 x 140 215 140mm laid flat 0.163 0.151 26.4 436 48 6 6 6 2

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Product data - background blocks

Fenlite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 15.0N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.45 - 0.48W/m.K
Dry density: Fenlite - 1350, Fenlite 1500 - 1500kg/m3

Fenlite blocks
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are manufactured to
BS EN 771-3 from natural aggregates to BS EN
12620, pyro processed lightweight aggregates to
BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement.
These medium density blocks are suitable for use in the
majority of standard applications i.e. the inner leaf of
cavity walls when used with secondary insulation,
separating or partition walls, infill blocks in beam and
block flooring systems and externally where a finish is
applied.

Fenlite blocks can be used in all parts of the project


above and below ground (7.3N/mm2 strength if used on
the outer leaf below dpc and unprotected)*.
Their performance makes them eminently suitable for
general load bearing conditions, sound insulation,
internal partitions and where ease of handling and
weight are of importance.

Applications
Acoustic
The density of Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks gives
them excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to
form a cavity sound separating wall they will achieve the
required mass as given in the Building Regulations and
Robust Details. Typical examples of how Fenlite and
Fenlite 1500 blocks may be used to form sound
separating walls are shown on pages 50-53.

Flooring
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are suitable as in-fill
blocks for beam and block flooring systems.
They should be specified as for flooring, in order that
the correct manufacturing base is sourced.
Note: Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are not intended to be left fair or painted
and should have a finish (plaster, render plasterboard, cladding, etc.) applied
where the wall is to have visual importance.
* The use of 7.3N/mm2 Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks is possible in
aggressive soil conditions. Please consult Product Services for further details.

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Strength
The strength of all Fenlite blocks dictates their Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks offer a medium suction
application in exposed conditions. Block strengths of background which is ideal for the direct application of
7.3N/mm2 and greater should be specified if they are to sand cement renders and plasters, together with
be used on the outer leaf of a cavity wall below dpc proprietary lightweight plasters.
level and left unprotected. In all other normal situations
Material properties
3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable.
Material properties for Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 are
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks, in conjunction with shown overleaf (pages 20-21).
suitable thicknesses of insulation, are able to reach high
Dimensions, weights and properties
levels of thermal insulation. Sample constructions
Dimensions, weights and properties for Fenlite and
achieving U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are
Fenlite 1500 are shown overleaf (pages 20-21).
illustrated on pages 42-47.
Specification and performance
Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.
Being manufactured from Class 1 aggregates, all
Fenlite and Fenlite 1500 blocks are manufactured using
Fenlite Background blocks provide the highest possible
Class 1 aggregates which provides the highest level of
levels of fire resistance together with good sound
fire resistance for a given size.
insulation properties.
Having good strengths, excellent fixing can be achieved
using a variety of patent fixings.

To complement the range, 10.4N/mm2 coursing units


(brick size) are available for use in conjunction with
3.6N/mm2 100mm blocks and full length units are
available for 140mm width products.

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Product data - background blocks

Fenlite Background, continued

Fenlite material properties


Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 0.45
external 0.48
Dry density kg/m3 1350
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.95
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 50

Mean compressive solid 3.6, 7.3, 10.4


strength N/mm2 cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3
103mm coursing unit 10.4
140mm coursing unit 10.4 Fenlite Background

Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15


Fire classification A1
Flatness mm < 1.0
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1
Group 2

Fenlite dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 1
agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.167 0.156 9.6 106 39 2 -
90 Solid 0.200 0.188 11.5 128 41 2 1
100 Solid 0.222 0.208 12.8 142 41 2 2
140 Solid 0.311 0.292 17.9 199 43 4 3
150 Solid 0.333 0.313 19.2 212 44 6 6
190 Solid 0.422 0.396 24.3 269 45 6 6
200 Solid 0.444 0.417 25.5 282 46 6 6
215 Solid 0.478 0.448 27.5 305 46 6 6
140 Cellular 0.339 0.324 14.0 153 42 2 2
140 Hollow 0.354 0.338 13.4 150 42 3 2
150 Hollow 0.351 0.336 12.7 142 41 4 2
190 Hollow 0.392 0.376 15.6 176 43 4 2
215 Hollow 0.406 0.389 16.6 188 43 6 2
100 Cellular 0.255 0.243 11.0 122 40 2 2
Solo
215 x 65 103 Coursing 0.229 0.215 1.9 150 42 2 2
unit
440 x 65 140 Coursing 0.311 0.292 5.4 209 44 4 3
unit

20
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Fenlite 1500 material properties


Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 0.48
external 0.52
Dry density kg/m3 1500
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.95
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 50

Mean compressive solid 3.6, 7.3, 10.4, 15


strength N/mm2 cellular/hollow 3.6, 7.3
103mm coursing unit 10.4
140mm coursing unit 10.4 Fenlite 1500 Background

Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15


Fire classification A1
Flatness mm < 1.0
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1
Group 2

Fenlite 1500 dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 1
agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.156 0.144 10.6 117 40 2 -
90 Solid 0.188 0.173 12.8 141 41 2 1
100 Solid 0.208 0.192 14.2 156 42 2 2
140 Solid 0.292 0.269 19.9 219 44 4 3
150 Solid 0.313 0.288 21.3 233 44 6 6
190 Solid 0.396 0.365 27.0 297 46 6 6
200 Solid 0.417 0.385 28.4 311 46 6 6
215 Solid 0.448 0.413 30.5 336 47 6 6
140 Cellular 0.324 0.307 15.5 168 42 2 2
140 Hollow 0.338 0.320 14.9 165 42 3 2
150 Hollow 0.336 0.319 14.1 157 42 4 2
190 Hollow 0.376 0.357 17.3 193 43 4 2
215 Hollow 0.389 0.370 18.4 206 44 6 2
100 Cellular 0.243 0.230 12.2 134 41 2 2
Solo
215 x 65 103 Coursing 0.215 0.198 2.2 164 42 2 2
unit
440 x 65 140 Coursing 0.292 0.269 6.0 223 44 4 3
unit

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Product data - background blocks

Evalite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6 - 10.4N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.47 W/m.K internal, 0.505W/m.K external
Dry density: 1450kg/m3

Evalite Background Flooring


Evalite Background blocks are a medium density Evalite Background blocks are suitable as in-fill blocks
product offering good sound insulation, ideal for use in for beam and block flooring systems. They should be
all parts of the project, above and below ground. specified as for flooring in order that the correct
Produced to the requirements of BS EN 7713, their manufacturing base is sourced.
performance makes them eminently suitable for general Thermal
load bearing conditions and where ease of handling and Evalite Standard blocks in conjunction with suitable
weight are important. thicknesses of insulation are able to reach high levels
Applications of thermal insulation. Sample constructions achieving
Acoustic
U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are illustrated
Evalite Background blocks offer excellent sound on pages 42-47.
insulation properties. When laid to form a cavity sound Fire
separating wall, they will achieve the required mass as Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Evalite
given in the Building Regulations and Robust Details. Background blocks are manufactured using Class 1
aggregates which provide the highest level of fire
Typical examples of how Evalite Background blocks may
resistance for a given size.
be used to form sound separating walls are shown on
pages 50-53. Fixing
The high strength of Evalite Background products
Exposed conditions provides an excellent base for a variety of patent fixings.
Evalite Background blocks are a robust product which
Coursing blocks
can be used in exposed conditions*. 7.3N/mm2 products
To complement the range, 10.4N/mm2 coursing units
are also suitable for use in aggressive soil conditions.
(brick size) are available for use in conjunction with
Please contact our Product Services department for
3.6N/mm2 100mm Evalite Background blocks and full
further details.
length units are available for 140mm products.
*7.3N/mm2 strengths and above should be specified if blocks are to be used
unprotected on the outer leaf, below dpc. In all other normal situations, Note: Evalite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable. painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
applied where the wall is to have visual importance.

22
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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 0.47
external 0.505
Dry density kg/m3 1450
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.85
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 50

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2 solid 3.6, 7.3, 10.4
103mm coursing unit 10.4
140mm coursing unit 10.4 Evalite Background

Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15


Fire classification A1
Flatness mm <1.0
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 1
agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.160 0.149 10.3 114 40 2 -
90 Solid 0.191 0.178 12.3 136 41 2 1
100 Solid 0.213 0.198 13.7 151 42 2 2
140 Solid 0.298 0.277 19.2 212 44 4 3
150 Solid 0.319 0.297 20.6 226 44 6 6
190 Solid 0.404 0.376 26.1 288 46 6 6
200 Solid 0.426 0.396 27.4 302 46 6 6
215 Solid 0.457 0.426 29.5 326 46 6 6
215 x 65 103 Coursing 0.219 0.204 2.1 161 43 2 2
unit
440 x 65 140 Coursing 0.298 0.277 5.8 217 44 4 3
unit

23
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Product data - background blocks

Superlite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6, 7.3N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.40 W/m.K internal, 0.43W/m.K external
Dry density: 1100kg/m3

Superlite Background Strength


Superlite Background blocks are a lightweight product, The strength of Superlite blocks dictates their
manufactured to the requirements of BS EN 771-3, application in exposed conditions. Block strengths of
from pyro-processed lightweight aggregates, complying 7.3N/mm2 and greater should be specified if these
with BS EN 13055-1, and Portland cement. Superlite blocks are to be used on the outer leaf of a cavity wall
products offer good sound insulation and are ideal for below dpc level and left unprotected. In all other normal
use in most parts of the project, above and below situations 3.6N/mm2 blocks would be suitable.
ground. Their performance makes them suitable for Thermal
general load bearing conditions, particularly where ease Superlite blocks in conjunction with suitable thicknesses
of handling and weight are important. of insulation are able to reach high levels of thermal
Applications insulation. Sample constructions achieving U-Values of
Exposed conditions 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are shown on pages 42-47.
Superlite Background blocks are a robust product,
Fire
which can be used in exposed conditions. 7.3N/mm2
Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Superlite
products are also suitable for use in aggressive soil
blocks are manufactured using Class 1 aggregates
conditions. Please contact our Product Services
which provides the highest level of fire resistance for a
department for further details.
given size.
Note: Superlite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
Fixings and finishes
painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
applied where the wall is to have visual importance. Superlite Background blocks provide an excellent base
for a variety of patent fixings and offer a medium
suction background which is ideal for the direct
application of sand cement renders and plasters,
together with proprietary lightweight plasters.

24
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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 0.40
external 0.43
Dry density kg/m3 1100
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.95
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 40

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2 solid 3.6, 7.3
Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15
Superlite Background
Configuration Group 1
Fire classification A1
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Flatness mm < 1.0
Dimension tolerance classification D1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 1
agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.188 0.174 7.8 88 38 2 -
90 Solid 0.225 0.209 9.4 106 39 2 1
100 Solid 0.250 0.233 10.4 118 40 2 2
140 Solid 0.350 0.326 14.6 165 42 4 3
150 Solid 0.375 0.349 15.6 175 43 6 6
190 Solid 0.475 0.442 19.8 224 44 6 6
200 Solid 0.500 0.465 20.8 234 44 6 6
215 Solid 0.538 0.500 22.4 253 45 6 6

25
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Product data - background blocks

Ultralite Background
Mean compressive strength: 3.6N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 0.295W/m.K internal, 0.32 W/m.K external
Dry density: 850kg/m3

Ultralite Background Fixings and finishes


Ultralite Background blocks are a lightweight product, Having good strengths, excellent fixing can be achieved
manufactured to BS EN 771-3, from pyro-processed using a variety of patent fixings.
lightweight aggregates, complying with BS EN
Ultralite blocks offer a medium suction background
13055-1, and Portland cement. These blocks can be
which is ideal for the direct application of sand cement
used in most parts of the project above ground and on
renders and plasters, together with proprietary
the inner leaf below ground. Their performance makes
lightweight plasters.
them suitable for general load bearing conditions,
particularly where low weight for handling is important. Note: Ultralite Background blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or
painted, and should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.)
Applications applied where the wall is to have visual importance.
Thermal
Ultralite Background blocks have an excellent thermal
performance and are therefore able to achieve the high
levels of thermal insulation required with the addition of
minimal secondary insulation. Sample constructions
achieving U-Values of 0.27, 0.30 and 0.35W/m2.K are
illustrated on pages 42-47.
Fire
Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material. Ultralite
Background blocks are manufactured using Class 1
aggregates which provide the highest level of fire
resistance for a given size.

26
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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 0.295
external 0.32
Dry density kg/m3 850
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.85
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 30

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2 solid 3.6
cellular 3.6
Ultralite Background
Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15
Fire classification A1
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Flatness mm < 1.5
Dimension tolerance classification D1
Configuration Group 1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configuration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 1 Class 1
agg agg
440 x 215 75 Solid 0.254 0.234 6.0 70 37 2 -
90* Solid 0.305 0.281 7.2 85 38 2 1
100 Solid 0.339 0.313 8.0 94 39 2 2
140 Solid 0.475 0.438 11.3 131 41 4 3
150* Solid 0.508 0.469 12.1 139 41 6 6
190 Solid 0.644 0.594 15.3 178 43 6 6
200* Solid 0.678 0.625 16.1 186 43 6 6
215 Solid 0.729 0.672 17.3 201 43 6 6
100* Cellular 0.345 0.325 6.4 77 37 2 2
Solo
*Available from selected works only. Other sizes available on request. Please contact our sales office.

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Product data - background blocks

Party Wall
Mean compressive strength: 24N/mm2
Thermal conductivity: 1.46W/m.K internal, 1.56 W/m.K external
Dry density: 2100kg/m3

Party Wall blocks Fire


Produced to BS EN 771-3, using natural aggregate and Concrete is an excellent fire resistant material.
Portland cement, for fast and economical construction Party Wall blocks are manufactured using a Class 2
of strong and sturdy party walls. The blocks are laid on aggregate. Where fire resistance is important it is
190mm bed and due to their high density eliminate the essential that the fire resistance associated with class
need for thicker blocks or cavity construction - one of aggregate is checked.
block replacing two cavity wall blocks - thus saving time Finishes
and costs. The nature of Party Wall blocks classes them, for the
Applications purposes of plastering, as a relatively smooth, low
Acoustic suction background. As such, the correct specification
The high density of Party Wall blocks gives them for applied finishes should be provided. For dense sand
excellent sound insulation properties. When laid to form cement plasters it will be sufficient to rake the joints in
a solid sound separating wall, which is subsequently order to provide adequate keying.
plastered on both room faces, they achieve a mass in Fixings
excess of 415kg/m2, thereby complying with the The high strength of Party Wall blocks means that fixing
requirements of Approved Document E of the Building can be achieved using a variety of patent fixings.
Regulations. In addition, it is also necessary to consider Note: Party Wall blocks are not intended to be left fair faced or painted, and
the flanking wall construction. should have a finish (plaster, render, plasterboard, cladding etc.) applied where
the wall is to have visual importance.
Having high density, with associated strengths, the
durability requirements for use above and below
ground are easily achieved. Party Wall blocks can be
used in normal and sulphate soil conditions equivalent
to soil classification DS-3.

28
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Material properties
Thermal conductivity W/m.K internal 1.46
external 1.56
Dry density kg/m3 2100
Total moisture movement mm m-1 < 0.55
Vapour resistivity MN.s/g.m 100

Mean compressive
strength N/mm2 solid 24
Shear bond strength N/mm2 0.15
Party Wall
Configuration Group 1
Fire classification A1
Water vapour permeability 5/15
Dimension tolerance classification D1

Dimensions, weights and properties


Work Width Configration Thermal resistance Dry Weight Sound Fire resistance (hours)
size mm mm m2 K/W block laid reduction Single leaf - no applied finish
internal external weight kg kg/m2 dB non loadbearing loadbearing
Class 2 agg Class 2 agg
440 x 65 190 Solid 0.130 0.122 11.4 400 48 4 2

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Product data

30
464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b 8/3/07 10:19 Page 31

2 Performance

Performance
Structural 32-39

Thermal insulation 40-47

Sound insulation 48-53

Fire resistance 54

Movement control 55-57

Moisture penetration 58-59

Durability 60

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Performance

Structural

General Table 1: Partial safety factors for material strength

It is the purpose of design to ensure that the building Category of Category of


masonry units construction control
be constructed so that the combined dead, imposed Special Normal
and wind loads are sustained and transmitted by it to Compression, ()m Category I 2.5 3.1
the ground: Category 2 2.8 3.5
Flexure, ()m Category I and 2 2.5 3.0
a) Safely
b) Without causing such deflection or deformation of All aggregate concrete masonry units produced by
any part of the building, or such movement of the Hanson are manufactured to Category 2 manufacturing
ground, as will impair the stability of any part of controls. Fig. 1 gives guidance on the compressive
another building. strength of brick and block units for walls of one, two
In order to achieve the above requirements, the and three storey buildings in England and Wales, where
recommendations for the structural design of masonry the roof construction is of timber. Other factors, e.g.
are given in BS 5628: Parts 1 and 2. Additional durability, may dictate the need for greater unit strength
guidance is given in BS 5628: Part 3 for walls subject or thickness depending on location. If the building is
to imposed lateral load only and internal walls or greater than the sizing or loading limits given in the
partitions not designed for imposed loading. approved document, the design should be based on
BS 5628: Parts 1 or 2 to ensure an adequate margin of
Where the building type is limited to: safety against the ultimate limit state being reached.
a) Residential buildings of not more than three When carrying out the design for vertical loads, it is
storeys. necessary to consider the characteristics and partial
b) Small single storey non-residential buildings. safety factors for loading, together with the
c) Small buildings forming annexes to residential characteristic strength of the masonry and partial safety
buildings (including garages and out buildings). factors for the material strength Table 1. Information on
the characteristic compressive strength of masonry is
Guidance is given in Approved Document A of the given in Table 2 (page 34) for the common sizes of
Building Regulations 2000 (2004 edition) (England and concrete bricks and blocks laid in designation (iii)
Wales) or Technical Standard C of the Building mortar, (M4).
Standards (Scotland) Regulations.

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Compressive strength of masonry units Notes


Figure 1
Aggregate concrete masonry unit strength to 1 If Hs is not greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks
BS EN 771-3 should be used in walls as indicated by the key.
Blocks Bricks 2 If Hs is greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks used
Condition A 2.90N/mm2 6.00N/mm2 in the wall should be at least Condition B, or as indicated by the key, whichever
is the greater.
Condition B 7.30N/mm2 9.00N/mm2
3 If the external wall is solid construction, the masonry units should have a
Condition C 7.30N/mm2 18.00N/mm2
compressive strength of at least that shown for the internal leaf of a cavity wall,
Where in the same position.
Hf Less than or equal to 1m, Condition A
4 The guidance given in the diagram, for walls of two and three storey
Where
Hf Greater than 1m, Condition B buildings, should only be used to determine the compressive strength of the
f
masonry units where the roof construction is of timber.

Hs Underside of
Cavity wall Internal wall
structural roof

Topside of
structural floor

One storey

Hs Underside of
Cavity wall Internal wall
structural roof

Hs Underside of
Cavity wall Internal wall Hs Underside of
structural roof
structural roof

This wall to be at
Underside of least 140mm
Hs Underside of thick blockwork
structural roof Hs
structural roof or 215mm thick
brickwork

This wall to be at
least 140mm thick
Hf Topside of
Topside of in blockwork or
structural floor 215mm thick in structural floor
brickwork below ground
floor level if height
Hf exceeds 1m.
Two storey Three storey

Fig. 1 Compressive strengths of masonry units

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Performance

Structural

Characteristic compressive strength of masonry, fk


For normally bonded masonry, defined in terms of the shape and compressive strength of the masonry units and the
classification of the mortar, the values given in Table 2 may be taken to be the characteristic compressive strength,
fk, of walls constructed under laboratory conditions, tested at an age of 28 days.

Table 2: Characteristic compressive strength of masonry, fk, in N/mm2

Block Aspect Unit strength N/mm2


size ratio
3.60 7.30 10.40 15.00 17.50 22.50 24.00 30.00
Group 1 Units (void content < 25%) in designation (iii) Mortar (M4)
440 x 215 x 75 2.87 3.50 6.40 8.20 9.43 10.10 12.00 - 14.50
440 x 215 x 90 2.39 3.50 6.40 8.20 9.43 10.10 12.00 - 14.50
440 x 215 x 100 2.15 3.50 6.40 8.20 9.43 10.10 12.00 - 14.50
440 x 215 x 140 1.54 2.91 5.35 6.85 7.89 8.46 10.03 - 12.10
440 x 215 x 150 1.43 2.77 5.10 6.53 7.52 8.06 9.56 - 11.53
440 x 215 x 190 1.13 2.38 4.41 5.65 6.52 6.99 8.27 - 9.96
440 x 215 x 200 1.08 2.32 4.30 5.51 6.35 6.81 8.06 - 9.70
440 x 215 x 215 1.00 2.21 4.11 5.27 6.09 6.53 7.71 - 9.29
215 x 215 x190 1.13 - 4.41 5.65 6.52 6.99 8.27 - 9.96
290 x 215 x 140 1.54 - 5.35 6.85 7.89 8.46 10.03 - 12.10
290 x 140 x 215 0.65 - 3.31 4.25 4.92 5.28 6.21 - 7.46
440 x 65 x 190 0.34 - - - - - - 5.08 -
215 x 65 x 103 0.63 - - 4.19 - - 6.13 - -
440 x 65 x 140 0.46 - - 3.69 - - - - -

Group 2 units (void content > 25% but < 60%) in designation (iii) mortar (M4)
440 x 215 x 140 1.54 2.91 5.15 6.11 - - - - -
440 x 215 x 150 1.43 2.77 4.92 5.88 - - - - -
440 x 215 x 190 1.13 2.38 4.30 5.24 - - - - -
440 x 215 x 215 1.00 2.21 4.03 4.96 - - - - -

Group 1 units laid flat in designation (iii) mortar (M4), strength tested upright
440 x 215 x 100 0.47 2.50 4.10 5.20 6.37 7.00 8.10 - 9.60

Units (void content <25%) laid to form a collar jointed wall in designation (iii) mortar (M4)

Wall Aspect Unit strength N/mm2


width ratio
3.60 7.30 10.40 15.00 17.50 22.50 30.00
190mm (2 x 90) 1.13 2.40 4.00 5.10 6.30 7.00 8.30 10.30
215mm (2 x 100) 1.00 2.40 4.00 5.10 6.30 7.00 8.30 10.30

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Reinforced masonry
When considering reinforced masonry design, guidance Bond beams can also be used:
is given in BS 5628: Part 2. A particular application of a) As horizontal beams to distribute loads to columns
this form of construction is the formation of lintels over b) As heads of walls to distribute vertical loads
openings, where the block pattern is to be maintained. c) Below large panel openings to assist with movement
In order to achieve this, trough lintel or bond team units control.
(half length trough lintels used where a fair faced soffit The reinforcement quantities in the table are
is required) are laid on temporary formwork with an for guidance only, exact detail and specification
extra unit at each end to form the bearing. The void should be approved by a structural engineer.
achieved is then filled with the necessary reinforcement
Table 3: Maximum spans for single layer reinforced masonry
and infill concrete to withstand the applied load.
above openings
The whole assembly is allowed to cure before the
Trough lintel (face size)
formwork is struck.
Full length Half length Width Maximum Reinforcement
mm span (m) (high yield)
A typical example is shown in Fig. 2.
440 x 215 215 x 215 100 2.4 1 x 12mm
Table 3 gives guidance on the maximum spans for 440 x 215 215 x 215 140 2.2 1 x 12mm
single layer reinforced masonry trough lintels used in 440 x 215 215 x 215 190 2.2 1 x 12mm
internal applications. Where it is necessary to have 440 x 215 215 x 215 215 2.1 1 x 12mm
greater spans, the use of double layer reinforced The maximum spans indicated above have been based on:
sections should be considered (as illustrated). 1. Loads assessed in accordance with BS 5977: Part 1
(no additional loads or openings in load triangle or interaction
zone other than masonry above).
2. Mortar designation (ii) (M6)
3. Block strength 7.3N/mm2
4. Concrete infill
Local bed-joint reinforcement (a) 1:0-1/4:3:2 cement:lime:sand:10mm max. size aggregate.
(b) Concrete grade C30 215mm
5. Minimum bearings 215mm
Bond beam units with
webs knocked out

Top reinforcement with


links if required
Trough
lintel
Formwork units

Fig. 2 Reinforced masonry above openings - typical example

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Performance

Structural

Internal walls or partitions not designated for Table 5: Internal and external dimensions of moulded blocks
imposed loading (all dimensions nominal)
b
a b
When an internal wall or partition is not intended to
c
carry an imposed load, it should be laterally restrained
a
by horizontal or vertical, continuous or intermittent
supports. The length or height of the wall in relation to
its thickness should be within the limits given in
Figs. 3, 4 and 5, page 37.
t
Consideration should also be given to the following, Block dimensions: hollow/cellulars

which may affect stability: Work size Width


mm (t) 140c 140 150 190 215
a) Openings 440 x 215mm a 30 45 40 45 45
b) Accommodation of movement b 30 45 40 45 45
c) Chasing c 50 40 40 50 50
d) Exceptional lateral loading Voids vary in size depending on manufactured base. In cellular
e) Wind load blocks, the void does not pass through the whole unit, leaving on
average a 25mm bottom thickness.
Where walls are to be plastered and the plaster b
b
thickness is included in the wall thickness calculation,
the wall may require temporary bracing prior to
plastering.
The type of restraint employed should allow for the a
movement of the wall due to shrinkage or thermal t
changes, together with any deflection of the structure, Half length trough lintels (fair faced soffit)
without inducing unacceptably high stresses which may Work size Width
mm (t) 100 140 190 215
result in cracking and potential instability.
215 x 215mm a 45 45 45 45
b 30 45 45 45
Mortars Other sizes are available, cut from solid units.
The specification and choice of the mortar is a b
b
fundamental determinant of the structural and visual
properties of a blockwork wall.

For all Hanson aggregate blocks used in normal


construction, a mortar designation (iii) (M4) as shown in a
Table 4 is suggested.
t
Table 4: Mix design (by volume) for mortar designation (iii) (M4) Full length trough lintels (not suitable for fair faced soffit)
Cement:lime:sand 1:1:5-6 Work size Width
Masonry cement:sand 1:4-5 mm (t) 100 140 190 215

Cement: sand with plastisizer 1:5-6 440 x 215mm a 45 45 45 45


b 30 40 40 45
Higher strength mortars may be necessary in certain
Other sizes are available, cut from solid units.
applications as a safeguard for durability or for design
considerations, but they may increase the risk of Void content (%)
cracking. Further information on recommended designs 440 x 215mm
of mortar for use in various locations and different 140mm Cellular 38%
conditions of exposure is given in BS 5628: Part 3. 140mm Hollow 26%
150mm Hollow 34%
190mm Hollow 36%
215mm Hollow 40%

36
464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b 8/3/07 10:19 Page 37

8.0
Not
recommended
7.0

215
6.0
200
190
5.0
Wall height m

150
4.0 140
125
3.0
100
2.0

1.0

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Wall length m
Figure 3: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls
restrained at the top only

8.0
Not
recommended
7.0

6.0
215
200
5.0
Wall height m

190

4.0
150
3.0 140

125
2.0
100
1.0

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

Wall length m
Figure 4: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls
restrained at the ends but free at the top

8.0

190
7.0

150
6.0
140

5.0
Wall height m

125

4.0 Recommended
block widths
100
3.0 Not recommended
215
200
2.0
190
150
1.0 140
125
100
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Wall length m
Figure 5: Recommended block width non-loadbearing unplastered walls
restrained at the ends and top

37
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Performance

Structural

Radius walls
Standard blocks can be laid in stretcher bond to form Fig. 6 and Table 6 give guidance on curved walls based
circular or curved walls. The length and thickness of the on the size of the unit with a nominal 10mm perpend
block will determine the width of the perpend on the joint on the internal face. To limit the size of the external
outer face and the overhang between successive perpend joint, the joint on the internal face can be
courses for a particular radius. reduced, or the block cut on the splay.

Figure 6: Typical radius wall

Length of block
External
perpend width Thicknes of block
(see table)

Overhang between
alternative courses
Width of internal
perpend 10mm

38
464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b:464.5 Aggregate manual 14 b 8/3/07 10:19 Page 39

Table 6: Overhang and perpend joint widths for radius walls

Wall Work size: 440 x 215mm Work size: 215 x 215mm


radius W = 100 L = 440 W = 140 L = 440 W = 100 L = 215 W = 140 L = 215

mm Overhang Perpend Overhang Perpend Overhang Perpend Overhang Perpend


joint joint joint
600 44 86 46 120 10 50 11 68
800 32 68 33 93 8 40 8 53
1000 25 56 26 76 6 34 6 44
1200 21 48 21 65 5 29 5 29
1400 18 43 18 57 4 27 4 34
1600 16 39 16 51 4 24 4 31
1800 14 36 14 46 3 23 3 28
2000 12 33 13 42 3 22 3 26
2500 10 28 10 36 2 19 2 23
3000 8 25 8 31 2 18 2 21
3500 7 23 7 28 2 17 2 19
4000 6 21 6 26 1 16 1 18
4500 5 20 5 24 1 15 1 17
5000 5 19 5 23 1 15 1 16
5500 4 18 4 22 1 14 1 16
6000 4 18 4 21 1 14 1 15
W= Width L= Length

39
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Performance

Thermal Insulation

Introduction
New measures to improve the energy efficiency of compliance can be assessed using a calculation
buildings have been introduced by the Government. procedure known as the Simplified Building Energy
Model (SBEM). Conservatories with a floor area greater
The intention is to meet the requirements of The
than 30m2 must comply with Approved Document L1.
Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)
which aims to further combat climate change and Part L1A requirements - dwellings
requires buildings to be both better insulated and to The 2006 amendments to Part L1 seek to achieve
make use of more efficient heating systems. about a 20% reduction in carbon emissions when
compared to dwellings built to the 2002 standards
The changes to Approved Documents (conservation of
of thermal insulation. Compliance can only be
fuel and power) of the Building Regulations for
demonstrated using a revised Standard Assessment
England and Wales came into force on 6th April
Procedure (SAP 2005) calculation method.
2006.
SAP 2005 & Emission rates
The revised Approved Document will also make air The use of SAP 2005 will result in the reporting of CO2
leakage pressure testing of buildings mandatory, emissions from:
thereby improving compliance with the regulations. 1. Space and water heating, (CH) and
The use of Robust Details for airtightness of dwellings 2. The use of internal fixed lighting (CL).
may provide an alternative to routine testing, although The Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER) will need to be
at present the required details have not yet been determined. This is calculated using approved software
developed. based on SAP 2005 and is, in turn, based upon a
Guidance is given below on compliance to satisfy the notional building which assumes a 20% improvement
requirements of Building Regulation L1 (England and on the 2002 regulation design values. The following
Wales) 2006, with respect to Hansons aggregate formula is used to determine the TER:
blocks. TER = (CH x fuel factor + CL) x (1 - improvement
Different requirements apply in Scotland. Please refer factor).
to technical standard J of the Building Standards The fuel factor is a tabulated value from Approved
(Scotland) Regulations. Document L1 and is dependent on the fuel type.
Approved Documents The Dwelling CO2 Emission Rate (DER) is calculated
The new Part L Approved Documents are in 4 sections based on the energy features of the proposed dwelling.
as follows: It needs to be carried out twice.

Part L1 Housing First based on the as designed construction for


1. Approved Document L1A New dwellings submission to Building Control.
2. Approved Document L1B Existing Dwellings Second On completion taking into account the actual
Part L2 Non Dwellings
construction and services, as well as the
3. Approved Document L2A New buildings other than actual air permeability found from site tests.
dwellings Neither should be worse than the TER for the
4. Approved Document L2B Existing buildings other dwelling to comply.
than dwellings Compliance criteria
A number of other publications are listed in the Once the TER has been calculated, compliance is met
Approved Documents and are relevant to assess by following five criteria.
compliance. Stage 1
Check (by calculation) that the predicted rate of carbon
Part L1A dioxide emissions from the dwelling (DER) is not
The guidance in Approved Document L1A is limited greater than the Target CO2 Emission Rate (TER).
to new dwellings with a total floor area not greater
than 450m2. For dwellings exceeding this size,

40
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Stage 2 Other steps could include an appropriate combination of


The dwelling fabric and the fixed services should have window size and orientation, solar protection through
performance values no worse than the specified shading, ventilation etc. Reference should be made to
design limits. CE 129 Reducing Overheating - A Designers Guide,
for more information.
Stage 3
The dwelling should include appropriate passive control Quality of construction
measures to limit the effect of solar gains on indoor It is important to note that insulation should be
temperatures. continuous over the whole dwelling envelope and that
the air permeability is within a reasonable limit.
Stage 4
To ensure that the performance of the dwelling as built
The performance of the dwelling, as built, is consistent
is consistent with the DER, a check is required to
with the DER. This requires a check to ensure that any
ensure that any changes in performance and
changes in performance and specification of materials
specification of materials between design and
between design and construction do not affect the TER.
construction do not affect the TER. A final calculation of
A final calculation of the DER is required to confirm
the DER is required to confirm compliance. If the
compliance.
dwelling does not comply, then appropriate remedies will
Stage 5 be required. A checklist is provided in Approved
Information concerning the energy efficient operation of Document L1A to aid identification of non-conformities.
the dwelling should be provided to the occupier. This will
For details of how to comply with the requirements of
include operating and maintenance instructions
Parts L1B, L2A and L2B, please consult the relevant
produced in such a way that householders can
Approved Documents. Details of the changes relating to
understand.
Part L were reproduced from the technical data sheets
This information is expected to be included as part of
compiled by the Concrete Block Association.
the Home Information Pack.
Aggregate block solutions
Limits on design flexibility
Although the performance values of the building
For design purposes, the limiting U-Values shown in
envelope will depend on factors such as air permeability
Table 7 should not be exceeded. In practice, the
values, fuel type and heating efficiency, it is likely that
envelope standards would need to be better than the
wall U-Values of 0.27- 0.35W/m2K will be required.
limiting values.
Examples of aggregate block solutions to meet this
Table 7: Design limit U-Values level of performance are detailed on pages 42-47.
Element (a) Area - weighted (b) Worst individual
dwelling average sub-element
The U-Values given in this brochure are correct at the
time of going to press and are based on manufacturers
Wall 0.35 0.70
details available at that time. Details of insulation
Floor 0.25 0.70
products featured in the construction solutions can be
Roof 0.25 0.35
obtained from the companies listed below:
Windows, roof 2.2 3.3
windows, roof lights Knauf Insulation Tel. 01744 766 666
& doors
www.knaufinsulation.co.uk
British Gypsum-Isover Tel. 0115 945 1143
Limiting the effects of solar gains in summer www.isowool.com
Designers need to check that the dwelling is not prone
Rockwool Ltd Tel. 01656 862 621
to summertime overheating. High mass structures www.rockwool.co.uk
perform well in this area by being able to store heat
Kingspan Insulation Group Tel. 0870 733 8333
during the daytime and releasing heat as the dwelling
www.insulation.kingspan.com
cools down overnight. Maximum advantage will result
Xtratherm UK Ltd Tel. 0871 222 1033 www.xtratherm.com
from the use of aggregate blocks in external and
internal walls as well as ground and intermediate beam Celotex Ltd Tel. 01473 822 093
www.celotex.co.uk
and block flooring. Lighter forms of construction do not
possess the potential for high thermal mass.

41
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Performance

Thermal insulation

Full fill construction


Table 8: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.27 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.27 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

0.032 n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) Dense plaster
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26)
Brick outer leaf
0.040 145 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.26)
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block 0.032 n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) Lightweight plaster
Internal finish 0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26)
0.040 125 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27)

0.032 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27)
0.036 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.25) 125 (0.25)
0.040 140 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27)

0.032 n/a 100 (0.27) n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) Dense plaster
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.27) 125 (0.27) 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26)
0.040 145 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 140 (0.27) 135 (0.27)
Evalast outer leaf
Render
0.032 n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) Lightweight plaster
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26)
Internal finish
0.040 140 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27)

0.032 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 100 (0.27)
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26)
0.040 140 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27)

0.032 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) Dense plaster
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 100 (0.27)
0.036 125 (0.27) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.25)
0.040 140 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 135 (0.27) 130 (0.27)
Render
0.032 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) Lightweight plaster
Fenlite outer leaf
0.034 n/a n/a n/a n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27)
Full fill insulation
0.036 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.26) 125 (0.25) 125 (0.25)
Inner leaf block
0.040 135 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27)
Internal finish
0.032 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.26) 100 (0.25) 100 (0.25) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 n/a 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.26)
0.036 125 (0.26) 125 (0.25) 125 (0.25) 125 (0.25) 125 (0.25) 100 (0.27)
0.040 135 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 130 (0.27) 125 (0.27)

42
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Full fill construction


Table 9: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.30 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.30 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

0.032 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) Dense plaster
0.034 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28)
0.036 125 (0.27) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29)
Brick outer leaf
0.040 125 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30)
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block 0.032 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) Lightweight plaster
Internal finish 0.034 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28)
0.036 125 (0.27) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29)
0.040 125 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30)

0.032 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.29) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30)
0.036 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 90 (0.30)
0.040 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 110 (0.30)

0.032 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) Dense plaster
0.034 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28)
0.036 125 (0.27) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29)
0.040 130 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 125 (0.30) 125 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30)
Evalast outer leaf
0.032 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) Lightweight plaster
Render
0.034 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28)
Full fill insulation
0.036 125 (0.27) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29)
Inner leaf block
0.040 125 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30)
Internal finish
0.032 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.29) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27)
0.036 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28)
0.040 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30)

0.032 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.29) Dense plaster
0.034 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27)
0.036 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28)
0.040 125 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30)
Render 0.032 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) Lightweight plaster
Fenlite outer leaf 0.034 100 (0.29) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30)
Full fill insulation
0.036 100 (0.30) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 100 (0.29) 90 (0.30)
Inner leaf block
0.040 120 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 115 (0.30) 110 (0.30)
Internal finish
0.032 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.29) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 100 (0.28) 85 (0.30) 100 (0.27) 100 (0.27) 85 (0.30) 85 (0.30)
0.036 100 (0.29) 90 (0.30) 100 (0.28) 100 (0.28) 90 (0.30) 90 (0.30)
0.040 115 (0.30) 110 (0.30) 110 (0.30) 110 (0.30) 110 (0.30) 110 (0.30)

43
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Performance

Thermal insulation

Full fill construction


Table 10: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.35 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.35 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

0.032 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) Dense plaster


0.034 85 (0.34) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35)
0.036 90 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.34) 80 (0.35)
Brick outer leaf 0.040 100 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.35)
Full fill insulation
Inner leaf block
0.032 85 (0.33) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33) Lightweight plaster
0.034 85 (0.34) 85 (0.32) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.32) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35)
Internal finish
0.036 90 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.34)
0.040 95 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.34)

0.032 75 (0.35) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.32) Plasterboard on dabs


0.034 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33)
0.036 85 (0.34) 80 (0.34) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.34) 75 (0.35)
0.040 95 (0.34) 90 (0.34) 90 (0.34) 90 (0.34) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.34)

0.032 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.34) Dense plaster


0.034 85 (0.35) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35)
0.036 90 (0.35) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.35)
0.040 100 (0.35) 95 (0.35) 95 (0.35) 95 (0.35) 95 (0.34) 90 (0.35)
Evalast outer leaf
0.032 85 (0.32) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33) Lightweight plaster
Render
0.034 85 (0.34) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.33) 85 (0.32) 75 (0.35)
Full fill insulation
0.036 90 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 80 (0.35)
Inner leaf block
0.040 100 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 95 (0.34) 90 (0.35) 95 (0.34)
Internal finish
0.032 75 (0.35) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.32) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34)
0.036 85 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.34) 75 (0.35)
0.040 95 (0.35) 90 (0.34) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.34) 90 (0.34) 85 (0.35)

0.032 75 (0.35) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.32) Dense plaster


0.034 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34)
0.036 85 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.35) 80 (0.34)
0.040 95 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.35) 90 (0.34) 85 (0.35)
Render
0.032 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 65 (0.35) Lightweight plaster
Fenlite outer leaf
0.034 85 (0.33) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34) 75 (0.33)
Full fill insulation
0.036 85 (0.34) 80 (0.34) 80 (0.34) 80 (0.34) 80 (0.34) 75 (0.35)
Inner leaf block
0.040 95 (0.34) 85 (0.35) 90 (0.34) 90 (0.34) 85 (0.35) 85 (0.34)
Internal finish
0.032 75 (0.33) 65 (0.35) 75 (0.32) 75 (0.32) 65 (0.35) 65 (0.34) Plasterboard on dabs
0.034 75 (0.35) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.33) 75 (0.32)
0.036 95 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.35) 75 (0.34)
0.040 90 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 85 (0.34) 80 (0.35)

44
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Partial fill construction


Table 11: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.27 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.27 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity
Partial fill insulation
Foil faced 65 (0.27) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) Dense plaster
Inner leaf block
Cavity insulation
Internal finish (k=0.023W/m.K) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) Lightweight plaster
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.26) Plasterboard on dabs

Everlast outer leaf


Render Foil faced 65 (0.27) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) Dense plaster
50mm clear cavity Cavity insulation
Partial fill insulation (k=0.023W/m.K) 65 (0.27) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.26) 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) Lightweight plaster
Inner leaf block Cavity (low emissivity)
Internal finish = 0.644m2K/W 65 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.26) Plasterboard on dabs

Render
Fenlite outer leaf Foil faced 65 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) Dense plaster
50mm clear cavity Cavity insulation
Partial fill insulation (k=0.023W/m.K) 65 (0.26) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 60 (0.27) 65 (0.26) Lightweight plaster
Inner leaf block Cavity (low emissivity)
Internal finish = 0.644m2K/W 60 (0.27) 60 (0.26) 60 (0.26) 60 (0.26) 60 (0.26) 55 (0.26) Plasterboard on dabs

45
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Performance

Thermal insulation

Partial fill construction


Table 12: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.30 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.30 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity Foil faced 60 (0.29) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.29) Dense plaster
Partial fill insulation Cavity insulation
Inner leaf block (k=0.023W/m.K) 55 (0.30) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 45 (0.30) Lightweight plaster
Internal finish Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W 50 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) Plasterboard on dabs

Everlast outer leaf Foil faced 60 (0.29) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.29) Dense plaster
Render Cavity insulation
50mm clear cavity (k=0.023W/m.K) 55 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.30) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) Lightweight plaster
Partial fill insulation Cavity (low emissivity)
Inner leaf block = 0.644m2K/W 50 (0.30) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) Plasterboard on dabs
Internal finish

Render Foil faced 50 (0.30) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 50 (0.29) 45 (0.30) Dense plaster
Fenlite outer leaf Cavity insulation
50mm clear cavity (k=0.023W/m.K) 50 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.29) Lightweight plaster
Partial fill insulation Cavity (low emissivity)
Inner leaf block = 0.644m2K/W 50 (0.29) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.30) 45 (0.29) 45 (0.29) Plasterboard on dabs
Internal finish

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Partial fill construction


Table 13: minimum thickness of insulation to achieve a 0.35 W/m2.K U-Value (actual U-Value in brackets). 100mm inner leaf block width.
Insulation Evalast Fenlite Fenlite Evalite Superlite Ultralite Internal finish
0.35 conductivity W/m.K 1500 Standard

Brick outer leaf


50mm clear cavity
Foil faced 45 (0.33) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.33) Dense plaster
Partial fill insulation
Cavity insulation
Inner leaf block
(k=0.023W/m.K) 40 (0.35) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.33) 35 (0.35) Lightweight plaster
Internal finish
Cavity (low emissivity)
= 0.644m2K/W 40 (0.34) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.34) Plasterboard on dabs

Everlast outer leaf Foil faced 45 (0.33) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.35) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.33) Dense plaster
Render Cavity insulation
50mm clear cavity (k=0.023W/m.K) 45 (0.33) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 40 (0.34) 35 (0.35) Lightweight plaster
Partial fill insulation Cavity (low emissivity)
Inner leaf block = 0.644m2K/W 40 (0.34) 35 (0.35) 40 (0.33) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.34) Plasterboard on dabs
Internal finish

Render Foil faced 40 (0.35) 40 (0.33) 40 (0.33) 40 (0.33) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.34) Dense plaster
Fenlite outer leaf Cavity insulation
50mm clear cavity (k=0.023W/m.K) 40 (0.34) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.35) 35 (0.34) Lightweight plaster
Partial fill insulation Cavity (low emissivity)
Inner leaf block = 0.644m2K/W 35 (0.35) 35 (0.34) 35 (0.34) 35 (0.34) 35 (0.34) 30 (0.35) Plasterboard on dabs
Internal finish

47
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Performance

Sound insulation

Introduction Meeting the regulations


Approved Document E (ADE) of the Building Satisfying E1
Regulations came into force on 1st July 2003. It was One method of satisfying requirement E1 is to build
amended again in July 2004 to enable Robust Details separating walls, separating floors and stairs that have a
to be included as a valid method of meeting the separating function, together with the associated
requirements of the regulations. flanking construction, in such a way that they achieve
the sound insulation values for dwelling-houses and
The aims of the review were to broaden the scope of flats set out in Table 1a of ADE (reproduced as Table
Part E, to raise standards of sound insulation, and of 14 below), and the values for rooms for residential
particular importance, to improve compliance with the purposes set out in Table 1b, (reproduced as Table15,
performance standards in order to reduce the potential below) or by using Robust Details for new dwelling-
for complaints regarding noise from neighbours. houses or flats.
ADE Requirements Table 14: Dwelling-houses and flats performance standards
E1 Protection against sound from other parts of the for separating walls, separating floors and stairs that have a
building and adjoining buildings separating function.

(a) This requirement now includes rooms for residential Airborne sound Impact sound
insulation insulation
purposes as well as dwelling houses and flats. DnT,w + Ctr dB LnT,w dB
(Minimum values) (Maximum values)
Room for residential purposes means a room, or suite
Purpose built dwelling
of rooms, which is not a dwelling-house or flat and houses and flats
which is used by one or more persons to live and sleep Walls 45
Floors and stairs 45 62
in, including rooms in hotels, hostels, boarding houses,
Dwelling houses and flats formed
halls of residence and residential homes, but not by a material change of use
including rooms in hospitals, or other similar
establishments, used for patient accommodation. Walls 43
Floors and stairs 43 64
(b) Performance standards are given for walls, floors
and stairs having a separating function, in new buildings
and buildings formed by change of use. Table 15: Rooms for residential purposes - performance
standards for separating walls, separating floors and stairs
E2 Protection against sound within a dwelling-house etc that have a separating function.
(c) This is a new requirement that sets standards for the Airborne sound Impact sound
sound insulation of walls and floors in dwelling-houses, insulation insulation
DnT,w + Ctr dB LnT,w dB
flats and rooms for residential purposes. (Minimum values) (Maximum values)
E3 Reverberation in the common internal parts of buildings Purpose built rooms for residential purposes
containing flats or rooms for residential purposes
Walls 43
(d) This is a new requirement to control reverberation in Floors and stairs 45 62
the common parts of buildings containing flats or rooms Rooms for residential purposes formed
for residential purposes. by a material change of use

E4 Acoustic conditions in schools Walls 43


(e) All new school buildings are now controlled under Floors and stairs 43 64

the Building Regulations, and this requirement covers


the sound insulation, reverberation time and indoor
ambient noise levels. Guidance on meeting the
requirements are given in Building Bulletin 93,
published by DfES.

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Compliance Table 16: Laboratory values for new internal walls and floors
Compliance with Regulation E1 (party walls) can be within dwelling houses, flats and rooms for residential
purposes, whether purpose built or formed by material change
achieved by the following one of methods detailed of use.
below using aggregate concrete blocks- Airborne sound insulation
Rw dB
Build to the prescriptive methods detailed in the (minimum values)
Approved Document.
Walls 40
or alternatively Floors and stairs 40

Build to the designs detailed in the Robust Details


Manual. Internal walls (no testing required)
Compliance with regulation E2 (internal walls) can be
Pre-Completion Testing
achieved by following the method detailed below using
Sound insulation testing to demonstrate compliance
aggregate concrete blocks:
with requirement E1 should be carried out on site as
part of the construction process. In the Approved Build to the prescriptive method detailed in the
Document it is referred to as Pre-Completion testing. Approved Document.
Under Regulation 20A and Regulation 12A, the duty of
Examples of internal wall constructions that meet the
ensuring that appropriate sound insulation testing is
laboratory sound insulation values set out in Table 16,
carried out falls on the person carrying out the building
are detailed below:
work, who is also responsible for the cost of the testing.
Specification
Testing should be carried out for: Concrete block wall, plaster or plasterboard finish on
a) Purpose built dwelling-houses and flats; both sides

b) Dwelling-houses and flats formed by material change Minimum mass per unit area, excluding finish
of use; =120 kg/m2
All joints well sealed
c) Purpose built rooms for residential purposes; Plaster or plasterboard finish on both room sides
d) Rooms for residential purposes formed by material Compliant constructions
change of use. 75mm Evalast solid
90mm Evalast solid
The Pre-Completion Test regime and procedure are
100mm Evalast solid
detailed in Section 1 of the Approved Document.
100mm Evalast Solo
However, as an alternative to Pre-Completion Testing in 90mm Fenlite solid
new dwelling-houses and flats, separating wall and floor 100mm Fenlite solid
constructions known as Robust Details (RDs) may be 100mm Fenlite Solo
used, which eliminate the need for Pre-Completion
All with plasterboard or plaster finish both sides.
Testing.
Satisfying E3
Satisfying E2
To satisfy requirement E3 (reverberation) sound
To satisfy the requirement for E2, internal walls and
absorption techniques detailed in Section 7 of the
floors should be built in such a way that they achieve
Approved Document should be employed.
the sound insulation values for dwelling-houses, flats
and rooms for residential purposes set out in Table 16 Satisfying E4
opposite, or built to the minimum weight criteria as To satisfy requirement E4 (acoustics in schools),
detailed in Section 5 of the Approved Document. reference is made to Building Bulletin 93, this
document gives detailed information on performance
requirements and compliance routes.

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Performance

Sound insulation

Weighted sound reduction index single leaf Approved Document Method (Pre-Completion
masonry (Rw) Testing required)
It has become the norm for designers to specify noise The constructions detailed below, if built correctly,
control requirements in terms of the Weighted Sound should achieve the sound insulation values for dwelling
Reduction Index (Rw) which represents the airborne houses and flats set out in Table 14 and the values for
sound insulation performance of a building element. rooms for residential purposes set out in Table 15,
(page 48).
Tables 17 and 18 illustrate a selection of Rw values for
our Evalast and Evalite range of products which have Achieving the required performance level is dependent
been established through testing and evaluation. upon good workmanship in separating walls and floors
and also in the associated flanking construction.
Table 17: Evalast sound insulation Guidance is provided in the Approved Document on
Blockwork and type Estimate of weighted sound suitable designs at these critical junctions.
reduction index Rw (dB)
fair-faced dry lined plaster Wall Type 1.1 Solid wall
75mm solid 37 45 47
90mm solid 39 46 48
100mm solid 42 48 50
Plaster
125mm solid 46 50 52
140mm solid 51 52 54
150mm solid 52 52 54
190mm solid 53 53 55 Masonry
200mm solid 54 55 55
215mm solid 55 56 56
100mm cellular 37 45 47 Fig. 7
140mm hollow 43 49 51
150mm hollow 42 48 50
190mm hollow 46 50 52
215mm Evalast solid dense aggregate block (100mm
215mm hollow 47 51 52
laid flat), wet plaster on both room faces.

Minimum mass per unit area including plaster


415kg/m2
Table 18: Evalite sound insulation
13mm wet plaster on both room faces.
Blockwork and type Estimate of weighted sound
reduction index Rw (dB)
Use blocks that are laid flat to the full thickness of
fair-faced dry lined plaster
the wall.
75mm solid 39 44 43 Note: as an alternative in rooms for residential purposes for Wall
Type 1.1, the wet plaster may be replaced by plasterboard with a
90mm solid 41 46 44 minimum mass of 10kg/m2 on each room face.
100mm solid 43 48 46
125mm solid 45 51 49
140mm solid 48 54 52
150mm solid 49 54 52
190mm solid 52 55 53
200mm solid 52 55 53
215mm solid 53 55 54
100mm cellular 39 45 43
140mm hollow 43 48 46
190mm hollow 45 51 49
215mm hollow 46 53 51

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Wall Type 2.1 Cavity wall Robust Details


The HBF (House Builders Federation) have developed
and tested a portfolio of Robust Details (RD) that cover
generic masonry and floor constructions. The DCLG
Plaster
(formerly ODPM) and HBF agreed the testing regime
and minimum performance standards for RD separating
walls and floors. These minimum standards are far
Masonry
higher (5dB) than those in the Approved Document.

The testing regime requires that these enhanced


standards be achieved for each RD based on at least
Fig. 8
thirty tests, with not more than eight of the tests on
the same site, and involving more than one builder
(to ensure that a range of workmanship and supervision
Cavity is covered). The performance standards are in terms of
Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate the mean of the thirty tests.
blocks with 50mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both Robust Details method (no Pre-Completion
room faces. Testing required for dwelling-houses and flats)
Achieving the required performance level is dependent
Minimum mass per unit area including plaster upon good workmanship in separating walls and floors
415kg/m2. and also in the associated flanking construction,
Minimum cavity width of 50mm required in party wall. guidance is provided in the Robust Details Manual on
13mm wet plaster on both room faces. suitable designs at these critical junctions, it is a
requirement that these recommendations and
procedures are adhered to as deviation will result in an
Wall Type 2.2 Cavity wall invalid construction.

The following details (pages 51-53) show RD


constructions using aggregate blocks.
Plaster
E-WM-1

Plaster 13mm
(minimum) Cavity wall,
Masonry block density
(1850-2300kg/m3)

Fig. 9

Cavity

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite


Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with a Fig. 10 75mm
75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both room faces. 275mm
(minimum)
Minimum mass per unit area including plaster
Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate
300kg/m2.
blocks with 75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
room faces.
13mm wet plaster on both room faces.
The external wall (flanking wall) should be
constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
13mm wet plaster (minimum 10kg/m2) on both
room faces. 51
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Performance

Sound insulation

E-WM-2 E-WM-3
12.5mm gypsum based board
nominal 8kg/m2 mounted
Plaster 13mm on dabs
(minimum) Cavity wall,
Cavity wall,
block density block density
(1350-1600kg/m3) (1850-2300kg/m3)

Internal render,
scratch finish nominal
Fig. 11 Fig. 12 8mm (6mm minimum)
75mm
275mm 275mm
(minimum) (minimum)

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite Two leaves of 100mm Evalast solid dense aggregate
Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with blocks with 75mm minimum cavity, gypsum-based board
75mm minimum cavity, wet plaster on both room faces. (minimum 8kg/m2) on 8mm sand:cement render with
scratch finish on both room faces.
The external wall (flanking wall) should be
constructed of two leaves of masonry. The external wall (flanking wall) should be
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall. constructed of two leaves of masonry.
13mm wet plaster (minimum 10kg/m2) on both Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
room faces. Gypsum-based board nominal 8kg/m2 on 8mm
sand: cement render with scratch finish on both
room faces.

52
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E-WM-4 E-WM-8
12.5mm gypsum-based board Wall finish gypsum-based
nominal 8kg/m2 mounted board nominal 9.8kg/m2
on dabs mounted on dabs

Block density
1350-1600kg/m3
Cavity wall,
block density Wall ties Insulation
(1350-1600kg/m3) retaining wall ties to ADE
(tie type A)
Insulation 35mm Isowool
Hi-therm RD35 foil faced
mineral wool acoustic batt

Cavity width 75mm


minimum (leaf to leaf)

Internal render, External flanking wall


scratch finish nominal Masonry both leaves with
Fig. 13 8mm (6mm minimum) Fig. 14 50mm minimum cavity

275mm
(minimum)

Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite Two leaves of 100mm Fenlite, Fenlite 1500 or Evalite
Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with Standard solid medium dense aggregate blocks with
75mm minimum cavity, drylining board (minimum 75mm minimum cavity incorporating 35mm Isowool,
8kg/m2) on 8mm sand:cement render with scratch Hi-therm RD35 foil faced mineral wool acoustic batt,
finish on both room faces. gypsum board (minimum 9.8kg/m2) on both room faces.

The external wall (flanking wall) should be The external wall (flanking wall) should be
constructed of two leaves of masonry. constructed of two leaves of masonry.
Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall. Minimum cavity width of 75mm required in party wall.
Gypsum-based board nominal 8kg/m2 on 8mm Gypsum-based board nominal 9.8kg/m2
sand:cement render with scratch finish on both mounted on dabs.
room faces.

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Performance

Fire resistance

Introduction
Fire resistance of masonry walls relates to fitness for The fire resistance quoted on the individual product data
use and is a property of the complete element of a sheets are based on:
structure. The period of fire resistance of a masonry wall
i Loadbearing or non-loadbearing
is taken to be the time (from 30 minutes to 6 hours)
ii No finish
from the start of the test to failure of stability and
iii Made with Class 1 or Class 2 aggregate
integrity.
iv Single leaf
All Hansons aggregate blocks have an A1 fire
For alternative forms of construction, please contact
classification rating and have been tested to relevant
Hansons Product Services department.
British and European Standards.
In walls designed to resist fire, any movement control
Notional periods of fire resistance for masonry walls to
joints necessary should be filled with a non-combustible
comply with Approved Document B (AD) are given in
material capable of accepting the anticipated movement
Table 14 of BS 5628: Part 3.
and sealed with an appropriate material to give the
Criteria for fire resistance same fire resistance as the blockwork.
This table takes cognisance of the relevant factors
affecting the use of masonry units for fire resistance
purposes. These are as follows:

a The form of the units involved i.e. whether solid or


otherwise.
b The thickness of the units involved.
c The aggregates used in the manufacture of the units,
i.e Class 1 or Class 2 aggregates.
Class 1 aggregates comprise limestone, pumice,
sintered pulverised fuel ash, furnace bottom ash,
foamed or expanded slag and various other types of
aggregate.
Class 2 aggregates, comprise all gravels and crushed
natural stone, excluding limestone.
In general tems, all lightweight blocks are made from
Class 1 aggregates.
The Evalast range of products may be produced from
Class 1 or Class 2 aggregates depending on raw
materials available in the manufacturing locality. It is
advisable to check with Hansons Product
Services department.
d The function of the wall, i.e. whether loadbearing or
otherwise.
e The construction of the wall, i.e. whether single leaf or
cavity construction.
f Wall finish, i.e. whether plastered or otherwise and the
type of plaster involved.

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Movement control

Positioning of movement joints Changes of height, thickness and profile


Movement joints are used to eliminate or control Movement joints should be provided where changes of
cracking within the fabric. The joints are located in height, thickness and profile (either on plan or section)
strategic positions and allow slight, predetermined occur in the wall since these junctions are particularly
movement without subsequent cracking to the masonry. vulnerable to cracking (Figs. 15, 16 and 17).
Spacing, design and location of movement joints
depends principally on the dimensions and shape of
the wall in question, detailing techniques and the
complexity of the structure. The joints should be located
at junctions which may be vulnerable to cracking.
The position of movement joints will be strongly
influenced by structural and architectural considerations
but the following may prove useful as an indication of
where control joints may be necessary.
Fig. 15: Movement joints adjacent to openings
Straight walls
Cracking is most likely to occur in long, straight walls.
Blockwork walls of excessive length should be divided
into a series of rectangular panels with movement joints
between each panel. The effects of end restraint need
to be assessed when deciding on the panel length.
This can add either 25% or 50% to the actual length, if
one or two ends are fully restrained. It is upon this total
length that the empirical rules are then applied. In the
case of lightweight aggregate blocks, the maximum
length between movement joints is 6m and 9m for
dense aggregate blocks. The length of each panel
should not normally be in excess of twice the height of
the panel and areas of blockwork above and below
openings should be treated as individual panels.
Fig. 16: Movement joint at change of height
The following gives general guidance for methods of
controlling movement in blockwork panels.

Table 19: Controlling movement in straight walls


Length to Spacing of control joint Spacing of bed
height ratio of joint
panel (L:H) reinforcement
Lightweight Dense
aggregate aggregate
reinforcement blocks
blocks Fig. 17: Movement joint at change in wall
thickness (plan view)
More than
2:1 4.5 to 6m 6 to 9m -
2.5:1 4.5 to 6m 6 to 9m 600/675mm
3:1 4.5 to 6m 6 to 9m 400/450mm
4:1 4.5 to 6m 6 to 9m 200/225mm

Notes:
1 For general design purposes only.
2 Consult Hansons Product Services department, or a qualified structural
engineer regarding specific applications where greater spacing of control joints
is envisaged.

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Performance

Movement control

Movement control joints Types of movement joints


Control joints will be required at the junctions of
intersecting walls and junctions with columns, and also Continuous vertical joints
where walls are penetrated by major service pipes and Various forms of movement joints are possible. Normally,
ducts, or where large chases are incorporated to these should be 10mm wide as for normal perpends, at
accommodate services (Figs. 18, 19 and 20). not greater than 6.0m centres for lightweight aggregate
blocks and 9.0m centres for dense aggregate blocks.
The simplest version is to construct a continuous
vertical joint as work proceeds by placing suitable
compressible boards (e.g. bitumen impregnated
fireboard) between the joints. Joints can be filled with a
compatible mastic for external applications and plastic
or metal cover strips are available to conceal internal
joints (Figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24).
Bed joint reinforcement
Internal and external finishes should not be taken
across the movement joint unless suitable provisions are
made. Bed-joint reinforcement (parallel wire type) can
Fig. 18: Movement joints at wall junctions
(plan view)
be used to increase joint spacing and help resist high
stresses around openings. In general, bed joint
reinforcement should be located in all concrete masonry
panels where openings occur and where the distance
between movement joints has been extended.
The reinforcement should be placed in two courses
above and below the opening, if possible, and
extended at least 600mm beyond the opening limits.
The reinforcement must be curtailed or made
Fig. 19: Movement joints at junctions to columns
discontinuous at movement joints (Fig. 25).
(plan view)
Flat bar joints
Where increased stability of panels on either side of a
movement joint is important, non-corroding flat bars,
debonded at one end, can be placed across the joint in
alternate courses. The bars should be located at least
25mm from the face of the wall. Similar ties can be
used at the intersection of two block walls where
Fig. 20: Movement joint at large chases or recesses separation is required. The vertical spacing of the ties
(plan view)
would depend on the load bearing requirements of the
wall. As a minimum, Hanson recommends ties at
450mm vertical centres.

In cavity walls, wall ties should be placed across the


cavity, within 225mm either side of the movement joint,
in every course.

56
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Fig. 21: Movement joint at steel column (plan view) Fig. 22: Movement joints at steel column (plan view)

Flexible strip
with sealant

Fig. 23: Movement joint in block cavity walls (plan view)

Fig. 24: Movement joint

600mm 600mm

Bed joint reinforcement

Fig. 25: Re-inforcement of blockwork panels

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Performance

Moisture penetration

Introduction Use of hollow blocks


The type and method of wall construction will influence Where hollow blocks are used in external walls, the use
its ability to resist wind-driven rain. of shell bedding may reduce rain penetration to the
For both single-leaf and cavity walls, total resistance to inner surface and so give some of the advantages of
rain penetration can only be achieved by cladding. cavity wall construction. In unfilled cavity walls, a 50mm
Whilst rendering can substantially enhance the rain air space is considered satisfactory in most situations to
resistance of the wall, it is essential to select the right prevent water passing from the outer leaf to the inner
type of mix, thickness and number of coats. leaf. Partial filling of cavity walls does not affect the
resistance to wind-driven rain of the wall, providing the
The use of masonry paint systems and other proprietary width of the remaining air space is not less than 50mm.
external finishes may increase the resistance to rain
When fully filling the cavity with insulation, the
penetration, but may also reduce the rate of evaporation
manufacturers of the insulant should be consulted to
of any water from the wall.
obtain the limiting exposure condition for the
particular insulation type. The risk of rain penetration
Joint protection
will be reduced by using a cavity, clear or filled, wider
It is essential to fill all the joints to minimise the risk of
than 50mm.
rain penetration. Tooled mortar joints are more resistant
to rain penetration than joints which have not been
tooled. Recessed joints increase the risk of water
penetration.

Rain resistance
The rain resistance of rendered and un-rendered single
leaf concrete masonry walls is dependent on the
thickness as shown in Table 20.

Table 20: Assessment of resistance to rain penetration of single leaf walls with or without rendering

Exposure Rendered Rendered Unrendered Unrendered


category dense concrete lightweight dense lightweight
blocks concrete blocks concrete blocks concrete blocks

Very severe Not recommended. Cladding should be used.


Severe 250mm 215mm not recommended - cladding
Moderate 215mm 190mm 440mm 440mm
Sheltered 90mm 90mm 328mm 328mm
Notes: this table is intended to give guidance on the selection of forms of construction from the point of resistance to rain penetration only but other factors such as
durability, thermal and structural stability should be considered.

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Lerwick

Figure 26 Exposure to wind-driven rain

Dornoch

Inverness

Exposure zones Approx wind-driven rain*


Aberdeen (litres/m2 per spell)

1 Sheltered less than 33

2 Moderate 33 to less than 56.5


Dundee
Perth
3 Severe 56.5 to less than 100
Stirling
4 Very severe 100 or more
Dunbar
Glasgow Edinburgh This map is an extract from Thermal Insulation:
avoiding risks and is reproduced with kind
Ayr permission of the BRE.

Londonderry
Newcastle
Carlisle

Alston
Enniskillen Belfast Workington
Darlington
Dungannon Middlesbrough
Whitby

Ripon

York

Hebden Bridge
Hull
Skelmersdale
Doncaster
Colwyn Bay Grimsby
Manchester
Sheffield

Bangor Chester Macclesfield Lincoln


Nottingham Skegness
Bala
Stafford
Shrewsbury
Leicester Peterborough
Llanidloes
Birmingham Norwich
Llandrindod Wells
Northampton Cambridge
Hay-on-Wye
Brecon
Gloucester Luton Colchester

Swansea Welwyn Garden City


Swindon
LONDON
Newbury
Cardiff Bristol
Weston-super-Mare Staines

Watchet Aldershot Gatwick


Barnstaple Dover
Taunton
Southampton Brighton
Exeter Sidmouth Poole
Eastbourne

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Performance

Durability

Introduction Sulphate resistance


Hansons aggregate blocks are inherently durable and Where the masonry remains wet and sulphates are
if used in accordance with the appropriate present, the selection of the unit needs further
British/European Standards, will last the lifetime of the consideration. However, aggregate blocks have been
construction into which they have been built. used successfully below ground level for many years,
They possess good frost resistance and in general, with a proportion used on sites where sulphates are
provided they are selected following the present and yet no failures have been reported.
recommendations of BS 5628: Part 3, clause 5.6 and Whilst blocks meeting the general requirements for
Table 12, problems should not occur. use below d.p.c. have been accepted as suitable for
use in sulphate soil classification DS-1, work by the
Strength and durability
Concrete Block Association, has shown that the
Durability is governed by the characteristics of the units.
7.3N/mm2 aggregate blocks tested were able to
The strength of concrete bricks would determine the
withstand conditions equivalent to sulphate soil
suitability of the units (16.5 or 22.5 N/mm2, depending
classification DS-3.
on the application and exposure condition). In the case
of aggregate blocks to be used near or below ground Carbonation is a major factor in achieving the necessary
level, the unit should meet one of the following criteria. durability and results from the open texture and
permeability of the aggregate block by allowing the
a) Block density of at least 1500kg/m3, or
surface to dry between the manufacturing and
b) Made with dense aggregate to BS EN 12620, or
backfilling operations.
c) Having a compressive strength of at least 7.3N/mm3
7.3N/mm2 Evalast blocks manufactured using OPC,
All dense blocks, together with 7.3N/mm2 lightweight
OPC-PFA, or SRPC binder would be suitable for up to
blocks, would be suitable for the above condition. In the
and including sulphate soil classification DS-3 as
case of contact with foul drainage, Engineering Quality
determined by the method given in BRE Special
Concrete Bricks (EQCB) of 48N/mm2 should be used.
Digest 1. Where OPC is the sole binder, backfilling
should not take place for 28 days. (Please consult
Hansons Product Services department for further
information).
Note: The use of 7.3N/mm2 Fenlite blocks is possible in aggressive soil
conditions.. Please consult Hansons Product Services department for further
details.

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3 Sitework
Health and Safety 63

CDM Regulations 63

Block laying 64-65

Mortar 66-67

Internal finishes 68-69

External finishes 70-71

Sitework
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Health and safety

Health and safety

Introduction
Hansons aggregate blocks are composed of Ensuring that normal protective equipment
cementitious materials and aggregates and usually appropriate to construction sites is both provided
admixtures. The finished products as supplied are of an and used.
inert nature and inherently non-hazardous to health.
The manual handling of loads should not be attempted
The surface nature and weight of the products requires without a risk assessment as required by the Manual
the use of protective gloves and footwear to avoid Handling of Loads at Work Regulations, 1992. Practical
injuries. Where lifting points are provided they should all guidance in meeting the regulation is given in the
and always be used. Otherwise good slinging and lifting Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Construction Sheet
practices should be used. No. 37, Handling Building Blocks which advises that:

When cutting or surface treating products by hand or by There is a risk of injury in the repetitive manual
machine, dust and flying fragments may be created. handling of units heavier than 20kg by one person.
The dust created may be of respirable size and may
Units, greater than 20kg, should be handled
contain quartz. Extended periods of exposure to high
mechanically or by the use of a two person team
concentrations of such dust, particularly in enclosed
if repetitively handled.
spaces, can constitute a health hazard. In such
circumstances, respiratory protective equipment should Small numbers of units greater than 20kg i.e. quoins,
be worn. In addition, suitable eye protection should be reveals etc., would not fall into this category and would
worn to protect against dust and/or flying fragments. not be expected to be handled by a two person team.

The products may be delivered secured with steel or Units of greater than 20kg may be specified and used
plastic straps under tension, or shrink wrapped in to meet particular design requirements provided that
polythene. When these straps are cut or broken, risk appropriate handling methods are used.
may occur particularly to the eyes from the strap ends.
For users who, for design reasons would otherwise
Appropriate hand and eye protection should be worn
select units of greater than 20kg but would prefer not
when cutting or handling strapping. Care should be
to, a number of options exist. The appropriate choice
taken on the release of the strapping or the removal of
from the options available will depend on the unit or wall
the polythene wrap that items do not fall from the stack.
properties dictated by the application.
The product should be stacked within the limitations of
Choices include:
the ground conditions and the security of the products
Using smaller units having similar properties e.g.
as bonded to a pallet or itself.
Evalast Easilift, Party Wall.
The product and associated strapping and wrapping
Using lighter solid units having sufficiently similar
material should be disposed of in accordance with local
properties
authority requirements for non-hazardous materials.
Using cellular/hollow units instead of solid units
CDM Regulations - Safe Handling and Use of
(having almost identical properties to solid units)
Concrete Blocks
Handling of heavy concrete blocks can give rise to a Using alternative construction techniques such as:
wide range of injuries. To reduce the risk of injury, the i) Laying units flat to form a 190 or 215mm width wall
blockwork design, site conditions and the way the work (suitable for finishes such as plastering or drylining)
is organised should be planned. Points to be taken into ii) Collar jointing* units to form a 190 or 215mm wall
considerations include: (particularly suited to facing applications)

Minimising manual handling by delivering units as Whenever making the choice of units, it is essential to
close to the place of use as safety considerations ensure that the desired performance characteristics of
permit. the finished wall are not compromised.

Moving units in packs and by mechanical means *Collar jointing is laying units back to back in normal aspect with a 10-15mm
mortar joint between the adjoining faces of the units. The two leaves may be
when ever possible. tied together. If tied, either normal ties or bed joint reinforcement may be used.
Collar jointed walls are not suitable for sound separating walls in dwellings.
Loading units out to above knee height.

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Sitework

Block laying

Sample panels
In order to establish the general standard of blockwork,
mortar, jointing and workmanship, it is strongly
recommended that sample panels of Paint Grade and
Facing blocks should be erected prior to commencing
with the building works. Regardless of which finish is
selected, such panels are much more effective than
written words or photographs in defining and specifying
the quality of work required.

Storage on site
The blocks should be carefully unloaded and stacked on
their bedding faces on a strong level surface near to the
position where they are to be used. They should be
protected against rain and in a manner which allows air
to circulate between the blocks. Particular attention
should be taken to ensure protection of the block
arrises.

Block laying
It is recommended that block layers should use blocks this should be carried out using a power driven masonry
from alternative cubes whilst proceeding with saw. When wet cutting is used for facing blocks, excess
construction. This will maintain the natural appearance fines from the cutting process should be removed from
of the finished wall. the finished face, using the minimal amount of water
possible and allowed to dry. It should be noted that a
Block laying should be discontinued during heavy rain
cut face may have a different appearance to a
unless the work is protected. When work stops for more
moulded face and whenever possible, any cut face
than an hour or two, especially overnight, the top of the
should be built into the walls. For non-facing blocks, the
work should be protected against rain, snow and frost.
use of a hydraulic block splitter or traditional bolster
The face of the work should also be protected against
may be employed.
splashes from the ground, from scaffolding and from
other construction activities. Chasing
Where the use of hollow blocks is not possible and
No block laying should be carried out when the
chasing is necessary, a rotary chasing machine or
temperature is at or below 3C, see note, page 67.
mechanical disc cutter is recommended. Vertical chases
Bond should not exceed one third of the wall/leaf thickness
Blocks should be laid to achieve a good bond not less and horizontal chases should not exceed one sixth of
than one quarter the length of the block. The precise the wall/leaf thickness. In loadbearing walls, the effect
bond of the wall is largely at the discretion of the of a reduced cross sectional area caused by chasing
designer provided it satisfies the recommendations of should be checked. In no event should chases impair
BS 5628: Part 3. Other patterns are of course possible the strength or stability of the wall.
but may require the use of bed joint reinforcement.

Cutting
Whenever possible, the use of standard half-length or
purpose made blocks is recommended. Hanson also
offers a cutting service enabling the majority of specials
to be cut at the works. When site cutting is unavoidable,

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Fixings Jointing and pointing


Hansons range of aggregate blocks provides a good Tooled joints highlight the clean arrises of the block and
background for all but the most demanding of fixings. accuracy of the coursing. They enhance the scale and
Joinery fittings and external claddings may appearance of the walls. A light bucket handle tooling is
be securely fixed to the blocks. Special fixings will be recommended for both internal and external work.
required for heavy loads and manufacturers of Raked joints should be used with caution and limited to
proprietary fixings should be consulted. Door and the highest quality of blocks and workmanship.
window frames may be fixed directly to lightweight
Flush joints are not recommended either for facing or
blocks. Otherwise, the frame should be fixed by having
work to be decorated.
metal straps screwed to the frame and bedded in the
mortar joints. Hollow blocks abutting door frames should For general background work, joints should not be left
be filled with mortar or concrete, and if the doors are proud but struck off as work proceeds.
heavy, the infilling concrete should be reinforced with
vertical steel bars.

Cleaning
Ideally, the best method of achieving satisfactory
finished work, free from unsightly staining, mortar
accretions and smearing, is prevention and good
workmanship. On facing work it is also advisable to
keep finished areas of walling covered as the Weathered Raked
contract proceeds, to avoid splashing and staining
from other work.

When using proprietary cleaners, especially on facing


units, ensure that these are applied sparingly and
immediately washed off with clean water, otherwise acid
attack on the block surface can occur. Pressure
washing of masonry is not recommended.

Ideally, a higher standard of workmanship is required


Vee Concave
when laying the facing masonry range, to ensure a first
class job.

If covering throughout the contract has been adequate,


lime blooming is unlikely to be a major problem and any
small deposits of free lime will weather off naturally.
If the units have become thoroughly wet, then lime
blooming is likely, but fortunately will tend to occur
rapidly and should be accounted for in the general
cleaning down.

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Sitework

Mortar

Introduction
The composition of mortar is very often given These mortar specifications are suitable for use with all
insufficient consideration and in many instances it is products in the aggregate block range and may also be
left to site operatives to decide on the specification. used with other types of masonry. They may be used
Mortar forms an integral part of the wall, comprising throughout the United Kingdom for the construction of
between 6 and 18% of the total wall volume when internal and external loadbearing and non-loadbearing
general purpose mortar is being used. It is important, walls.
therefore, that the appropriate specification is
The use of mortar mixes other than those listed above
determined at the design stage.
may cause difficulties during construction and may lead
General purpose mortar to defects after completion.
The nominal thickness of general purpose mortar, in
Application notes for general purpose mortar
both horizontal and vertical joints, is normally taken to
Cement-rich mortar specifications are non-resilient and
be 10mm, exclusive of any key in the jointing surface of
subject to high shrinkage. They are, therefore, less able
the masonry units.
to accommodate movement and may cause cracking in
Specification of general purpose mortar completed walls.
When specifying general purpose mortar, the following
It is important that the sand should be well graded and
details of the project should be taken into account:
comply with BS EN 13139, and that the water should
the type of masonry unit to be used come from a clean supply.

the structural requirements The addition of either lime or an air-entraining


plasticiser to a lean mortar mix will improve frost
the degree of exposure of the site
resistance and greatly improve workability, thereby
the level of workability required increasing productivity. Care should be taken, however,
to avoid misuse of liquid plasticisers, as it is possible to
the location of the masonry, i.e. above or below
produce a workable mix with an unacceptably high
ground level
sand : cement ratio. Masonry cements are less prone to
When selecting a suitable mortar specification, it is misuse than liquid plasticisers.
important to ensure that the composition is compatible
Cement : lime : sand mortars have better wet adhesion
in strength with the blocks selected for the project.
and early strength with both bricks and blocks than
Mortars are defined by designations (i) to (iv) in mixes incorporating plasticisers or masonry cements,
accordance with Table 13 of BS 5628: Part 3. Based and may have superior bond characteristics. They also
on this table the following general use mortars are allow small amounts of movement without cracking.
recommended for use with Hansons aggregate blocks: Additionally, lime tends eventually to seal hairline cracks.

Tests carried out on behalf of the Mortar Producers


Table 21: Mortar designation (iii) for internal and Association have indicated that walls built with cement :
external walls above d.p.c. (all proportions by volume) lime : sand mortars have better resistance to driving rain
1:1:6 cement : lime : sand than those built without lime.
1:6 cement : sand with a plasticiser Reduced adhesion between the masonry units and the
1:5 masonry cement : sand mortar may be caused by inadequate cement content,
excessive air content or the use of unspecified
Table 22: Mortar designation (ii) for use below d.p.c. admixtures. Satisfactory adhesion can only be achieved
(all proportions by volume)
by correct mix design and careful raw material selection.
1:4 cement : sand
1 : 1/2 : 4 cement : lime : sand

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Pre-mixed and ready-to-use general purpose Cold weather working


mortars BS 5628: Part 3 states that masonry should not be built
The use of these mortars can be a means of ensuring when air temperature is at or below 3C and falling, or
consistent quality. Also, where large volumes of mortar unless it is at least 1C and rising. Conditions should be
are required, the storage of large quantities of raw regularly monitored and account should be taken of the
materials and their potential deterioration can be wind chill factor. The use of covers will protect materials
eliminated. when not for immediate use. Frozen materials must not
be used. It is essential to protect newly laid masonry
from incidental conditions and should be insulated
from frost.

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Sitework

Internal finishes

Plastering
The selection and application of plasters should be in Cement, or cement and lime based plasters are normally
accordance with BS 5492: Code of practice internal limited to the undercoat for general two coat plaster
plastering and BS 8000: Part 10: Code of practice for work as it is often difficult to obtain a very smooth finish
plastering and rendering. with mixes containing sand. This being the case, the
final coat is normally a gypsum or lightweight plaster
In general there are five different groups of
mix compatible with a cement based undercoat.
plastering mixes:
For general purpose work, the mix for the undercoat is
a) Mixes based on cement, or cement and lime.
the same as that given for designation (iii) in table 13
b) Lightweight cement plasters.
of BS 5628: Part 3 (reproduced as Table 25, overleaf)
c) Premixed gypsum plasters.
for rendering mixes. The overall thickness of two-coats
d) Premixed lightweight gypsum plasters.
in cement-based or gypsum plaster on masonry should
e) Mixes based on gypsum plasters gauged with lime.
be nominally 13mm.
The mixes and application of lightweight and gypsum
Table 23 below, gives guidance on the compatibility
based plasters should be in accordance with the
of background, undercoat and finish for general
manufacturers instructions.
purpose work.

Table 23: Plaster mixes for different backgrounds


Before the plaster is applied, the walls should be reasonably dry and free from dirt, dust, grease or any other
contaminates which could affect the bond between the blockwork and plaster. The presence of a limited amount of
efflorescence will not affect the bond characteristics of the wall. However, excessive efflorescence should be
removed and the causes of its appearance eliminated to prevent re-occurrence. Dry lining systems should be fixed
using the manufacturers instructions.

Background Undercoat Finish coat


Type Suction Key or bond Lightweight Cement based
(see Table 25)
Facing blocks Low Poor - can be improved by raking - (iii) Gypsum
Paint Grade blocks of joints bonding treatment Bonding (iii) Lightweight
Evalast Background recommended with cement
Party wall blocks based plasters
Fenlite Background Medium Generally good, an assessment should - (iii) Gypsum
Evalite background be made prior to plaster application, Browning (iii) Lightweight
Superlite Background with particularly smooth blocks a
Ultralite Background bonding treatment may be necessary

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Sitework

External finishes

Rendering
Render can be applied to any type of aggregate block A render normally comprises of at least two layers,
walling in order to provide a specific appearance, namely, an undercoat and a final coat. Metal lathing,
enhance weather protection in exposed situations, and sometimes used in severe exposure conditions or on
increase the performance of a wall with respect to weak backgrounds, should have two undercoats.
sound transmission. Where improved resistance to rain penetration is
Choice of mix desired, two undercoats should be used. Normally
The choice of render mix will depend on the appearance undercoats are between 8-12mm thick with the final
desired, exposure conditions, nature of the background coat approximately 6mm thick. Overall, the rendering
and the functional requirements. Experience has shown thickness should not be less than 20mm for three coats
that a porous render not stronger than that required for work and 16mm for two coat work.
adequate durability and with an open or rough textured Suction
finish is likely to give the best results in the majority of The suction and key of the background are important
circumstances. Problems can occur with mixes that are factors in determining the mixes to be used. Standard
too strong. Successive render coats should be specified lightweight blocks i.e. Fenlite, Superlite, Ultralite and
as being no stronger than the previous coat or Evalite are medium suction and generally provide
background, and no thicker than the previous coat, adequate surface key to allow direct application of the
except in the case of a single coat (refer to specialist undercoat. An assessment should be made in case a
manufacturers for guidance and specifications). pre-treatment is necessary for unusually smooth blocks.
Movement joints Facing blocks and Evalast blocks have low suctions and
If a movement joint exists in the background material a relatively poor keying properties. It is therefore
coincident straight joint should be formed in the render. recommended that the joints are raked backed squarely
This may be formed with proprietary metal stop beads, 10mm to12mm deep and a spatterdash, stipple or
with the resulting gap sealed with a suitable joint adhesive slurry is then applied to the surface. In the
sealant. Where render is to be continuous across case of the adhesive slurry it is essential that the
dissimilar background material, any differential rendering undercoat is applied straightaway whilst the
movement at the junction should be accommodated by slurry is wet, otherwise it will form an effective
forming a straight joint in the render, which is debonding layer.
subsequently sealed, or placing metal lathing not less Tables 24 and 25 give general information on mixes
than 300mm wide, with an isolating membrane suitable for render and specification for various finishes,
across the junction and embedded in the undercoat of in moderate and sheltered exposure.
the render.
Further information on external rendering can be
Undercoat
obtained by reference to BS EN 13914: Code of
Prior to the application of the render, the background
Practice for External Rendering, together with BS 8000:
should be sound and assessed for its suitability to
Part 10 Workmanship on Building Sites, Code of
receive direct application of the undercoat.
Practice for Plastering and Rendering.

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Table 24: Recommended rendering specifications - moderate and sheltered exposure


Background Undercoat Final coat
Designation Thickness Finish Type Mix proportions by volume
(see table 25) (mm) or designation (see table 25)
All block types (iii) 8 to 12 Trowel applied woodfloat (iv)
scraped
patterned
tooled
For severe exposure and thrown finishes, please refer to BS EN 13914

Table 25: Mixes suitable for rendering


Mix designation Mix proportions by volume based on damp sand
Cement:lime:sand1 Cement:sand1 Masonry
(using plasticiser) Cement:sand1

(ii) 1:1/2:4 to 41/2 1:3 to 4 1:21/2 to 31/2


(iii) 1:1:5 to 6 1:5 to 6 1:4 to 5
(iv) 1:2:8 to 9 1:7 to 8 1:51/2 to 61/2
1With fine or poorly graded sands, the lower volume of sand should be used.
For other mixes, please refer to BS EN 13914.

Painting
Hansons Paint Grade blocks provide excellent base for deep penetration of the paint and good adhesion, but is
paint. Paints may be obtained which add variety of is slow and there may be a tendency for brush marks to
colour and texture to walls, as well as improving the show. Spray painting is quickest and is more economical
weathering of external walls. Proper application of paint in paint consumption. Paint for use on blockwork should
is important and attention should be given to the be vapour permeable and in all cases comply with the
manufacturers recommendations. Code of practice for manufacturers recommendations.
the painting of buildings is given in BS 6150, and
Wall tiling
BS 8000 Part 12: Code of Practice for Painting, but
For bonding tiles directly on to concrete blockwork, an
two important points are worth mentioning here:
appropriate adhesive should be used. If a cement/sand
1. Painting of blockwork surfaces should not commence levelling coat is used, the mix proportions should be 1:4.
until the walls are thoroughly dry and have been Before tiling is commenced, all blockwork walls should
cleaned to remove all dust, dirt and mortar dabs. Where be allowed to dry to a level recommended by the tiling
efflorescence occurs, it should be removed with a stiff manufacturer. Movement joints in the tiles should be
brush prior to application of the paint. provided to coincide with the control joints in the
2. Some paints are liable to be chemically attacked by blockwork and at any other locations recommended by
the alkali present in concrete products. In such cases, the tiling manufacturer. For more detailed information,
the blockwork should be first treated with primer which please consult BS 8000: Part 11, Code of Practice for
neutralises the alkali on the surface. Paints may be Wall and Floor Tiling.
applied by brush or spray. Application by brush ensures

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4 Other information
Sales and technical advice 74-75

Quality 76

Customer product advice 77

Other information

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Sub head
Other information

Sales and technical advice

Customer Services Packaging


Hanson has a reputation for providing first class Packs are banded with strong plastic tape, which
customer care and this is supported by the operation of provides protection for the blocks and stability to
a dedicated Customer Sales Centre. the packs.

As a result of continuous investment, we are able to Packs can be easily unloaded and moved using normal
ensure that a team of customer service staff are able to block grabs, thereby saving on pallet costs. Pallets can
offer a fast response time to enquiries. be supplied on request.

Wherever you are, the Hanson Customer Sales centre The blocks are clearly marked with the product
can be reached by simply dialling the numbers shown description, leading to improved security and
below. Your call will be answered by one of our management of materials.
specialist team members who are able to offer a range Site storage
of services: Hanson recommends that the blocks packs are stacked
Product information on firm, level ground.
Quotations
Orders
Distribution facilities
Stockist information
Deliveries
Orders for our products can be placed with leading
Builders Merchants throughout the United Kingdom for
delivery direct to site by our team of dedicated
professional drivers.

Please contact Customer Sales Centre on: Our website allows you to access information
on products, applications and performance quickly and
Tel: 08450 762100 easily. This includes the latest on Building Regulations and
relevant technical advice.
Fax: 01235 437391
email: blocks@hanson.biz www.hanson.biz/uk

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Product Services
Hansons Product Services department provides
technical advice and is staffed by a qualified team with
specialist knowledge of all products and their
application. The service provides help with the
interpretation of Building Regulations and methods of
compliance using specially developed software
programmes. These are updated when necessary, to
keep abreast of changes to British and European
Standards, Codes of Practice and Building Regulations.
Thermal calculations
As a result of the continual drive to conserve fuel and
power, Hanson offers cost-effective solutions to enable
compliance with the requirements.
Energy ratings
Specialist advice can be given on the Standard
Assessment Procedure (SAP) only when Hansons
products are used to comply with the Building
Regulations.
Sound insulation assessments
The provision of recommendations on sound insulation
for all buildings when Hansons blocks are used to
comply with the Building Regulations.
Accommodation of movement in masonry
Hanson offers a service to detail the type and location
of movement joints and/or bed joint reinforcement in
concrete block masonry walls to comply with the
Building Regulations.

Please contact Product Services on:

Tel: 08706 097091


Fax: 01773 514044

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Other information

Quality

UKAS accredited laboratory Other testing


Hanson has a UKAS accredited laboratory for testing Joint work has been conducted with such bodies as
masonry units to the applicable product standard. the BBA, BSI, BRE and individual universities.
These tests include compressive strength, transverse
Other non-accredited tests carried out at the laboratory
strength, moisture movement and dimensional accuracy.
include fixing/pull-out strengths, mortar/plaster bond
Hanson is also accredited for testing thermal strength, equilibrium moisture content, freeze/thaw
conductivity of masonry and insulation materials to resistance and water absorption.
BS EN 12664, BS EN 12667 and ISO 8302.
The laboratory continues to work closely with authorised
approving bodies when conducting field sound
transmission tests to BS EN ISO 140-4 and is UKAS
accredited for this test method including impact testing
of floors to BS EN 140-7.

0640

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Customer product advice

Continual refinement of Hansons range means that information in this brochure may
become outdated.

Please check with Hansons Customer Sales Centre on 08450 762100 for product availability.
All products are manufactured using the finest quality aggregates, however, we would draw your
attention to certain features that are intrinsic to all concrete products.

Colour:
As natural and pyro-processed materials are used, some colour and shade variations should be expected together
with the effects of weathering. The colours shown in this brochure are produced with the limitations of the
photography and the printing process and are intended as a guide only. It is therefore advisable that several sample
units are examined to verify actual colour and texture required.

Dimensions:
Product sizes shown are nominal.
Efflorescence:
Introduction
The term efflorescence is often used to describe white deposits or stains on building materials. It is a general term
covering a number of different deposits varying significantly in chemical composition and method of formation.

On concrete, efflorescence normally takes the form of either lime bloom, lime weeping or crystallisation of
soluble salts.
Lime bloom
Lime bloom, the most common phenomenon, tends to be spasmodic and unpredictable. It is formed when calcium
hydroxide (a product of the cement setting and hardening process) migrates through damp concrete to the surface
and there reacts with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere producing a surface deposit of calcium carbonate
crystals - the white patches on the blockwork surface.

It often occurs when the concrete masonry becomes wet and remains damp for several days, after which it is then
allowed to dry out. Excessive wetting of the masonry before, during or after construction, together with inadequate
protection and poor design detailing, are prime factors in increasing the risk of lime bloom appearing. Since lime
bloom normally occurs soon after manufacture or construction of the masonry, allowing the units to dry prior to
laying and protecting the finished masonry during and after construction will reduce the risk.

Lime bloom is a temporary effect and given time, usually disappears of its own accord (depending on the conditions
to which the masonry is subjected). If immediate removal is required, it is essential that the masonry is relatively dry,
at which point dry brushing can be attempted. If this proves unsuccessful, washing with diluted acid or an equivalent
proprietary acid based cleaner often gives the desired result.
Use of acids
Acids can be hazardous and appropriate safety precautions must be taken. Over-application of acids can alter the
texture and the concentration should be adjusted to suit the individual circumstance. Prior to application of the acid,
the surface should be dampened to kill the initial suction. After the application it is normal to give the masonry a last
wash with clean water. When carrying out this procedure always start with a trial on an inconspicuous area to
determine the acid concentration and number of applications required to give the desired effect.

Lime bloom (efflorescence) is purely superficial and does not affect the durability or strength of the blocks.

Weathering:
The effect of the elements will have a mellowing effect on most external products, the rates vary dependent upon
the degree of exposure.

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Other information

Other Hanson products

Chimneys, flues, ridge tiles and fittings


Hanson Red Bank produces one of the UKs most comprehensive range of chimney components including
fire-backs, clay and concrete flue liners as well as the largest range of chimney pots and terminals. In addition,
the Company produces a wide range of clay and concrete ridge tiles and fittings. These not only include standard
plain and capped angle ridges but a vast array of decorative ridge tiles and finials as well as the ability to offer a
bespoke service if required.

Thermalite aircrete blocks


Hanson is the UKs leading manufacturer of aircrete blocks under the Thermalite brand, producing over 1 million m3
each year. Thermalite aircrete blocks are number one in the market place and offer outstanding thermal insulation,
high compressive strength, and moisture resistance.

Packed products and landscaping


The Packed Products and Landscaping collection consists of decorative garden products, packed dry mix
concretes and mortars, bagged sands and gravels and block paving.

Bricks
An extensive range of facing bricks in over 300 different colours and textures. Within this diverse range
theres something to suit every building project, from the most innovative architectural concept, to an individual
self-build scheme.

Floors and Precast


With an extended product range, expanded manufacturing facilities and increased design capabilities, Hanson
provides comprehensive engineered solutions for pre-cast concrete flooring at every level in both domestic housing
and commercial premises.

Aggregates
Hanson Aggregates has more than 400 operations from Falmouth to the Shetlands. Core products include crushed
rock, construction sand and gravel, asphalt and Premix concrete and mortar. Special products include rail ballast,
agricultural and burnt lime, graded sands for play pits, golf bunkers and horticulture, industrial sands for glass
making, Redgras sports surfacing, armour stone, granite paving, natural stone from Bath and the Cotswolds and
recycled aggregates. Complemented by an existing ready-to-use wet product, Hanson dry silo mortar (DSM) offers
complete mortar solutions to meet individual customer requirements.

Modern Methods of Construction


With its market-leading position, Hanson has developed a range of prefabricated building products that enable
housebuilders and developers to gain all the advantages of quicker build times and quality of workmanship. By using
traditional building materials, the Hanson product range satisfies the requirements of end users who consistently
favour traditionally built homes.

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Hanson can now provide a single source solution


for many products across a wide variety of
building projects, all backed by the sales support
and technical service that is the strength of this
division.

For further information on any of the other


products within Hansons range

please contact:

Hanson Building Products


Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ

Tel: 08705 258258


Fax: 01234 762040

Email: info@hansonbp.com
Web: www.hanson.biz/uk

Disclaimer
All product and technical information contained in
this brochure is considered correct at the time of
publication.

This brochure is printed on paper containing 75%


recycled waste and 25% virgin fibres from a
sustainable timber source.

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Uniclass L32232: P2
Aggregate Blocks CI/SfB Ff2
February 2007

technical manual
Customer Services:
aggregate blocks
T 08450 762100 F 01235 437391
E blocks@hanson.biz www.hanson.biz/uk
Hanson Building Products
aggregate blocks
Head Office
Stewartby
Bedford
MK43 9LZ
technical manual