You are on page 1of 67

E1-E2

Civil Technical

Structural Design of Different Building


Components

For internal circulation of BSNL only


WELCOME

This is a presentation for the E1-E2 Civil Technical


Module for the Topic: Structural Design of Different
Building Components.
Eligibility: Those officers of civil wing who have got the
Upgradation from E1 to E2.
This presentation is last updated on 21-3-2011.
You can also visit the Digital library of BSNL to see this
topic.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


AGENDA
Basic Codes for Design.
General Design Consideration of IS: 456-2000.
Steps for design of a multi-storied building.
Calculation of horizontal loads on buildings.
Vertical load analysis.
Horizontal load analysis.
Column Design
Design of Various Structural Component
Development Length

For internal circulation of BSNL only


INTRODUCTION
Analysis & design of building depends on type of building, its
complexity, number of stories etc.
Structural system is finalized after thorough Study of
architectural drawings.
Choice of an appropriate structural system is important for its
economy and safety. There are two type of building
systems:-
(a) Load Bearing Masonry Buildings.
(b) RCC Framed Buildings.
Structural frame is finalized & sizes of structural members
are conveyed to the concerned architect.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


INTRODUCTION
Load Bearing Masonry Buildings
Low rise buildings with small spans generally constructed as
load bearing brick walls with RCC slab & beams.
Suitable for building up to four or less stories.
Adequate for vertical loads & also serves to resists
horizontal loads like wind & earthquake by box action.
Provisions of IS: 4326 e.g. providing horizontal RCC Bands
& vertical reinforcement in brick wall etc. need to be followed
to ensure safety against earthquake
Design to be done as per BIS code IS:1905

For internal circulation of BSNL only


INTRODUCTION
RCC Framed Structures
RCC frames are provided in both principal directions
and
Loads are transmitted to ground through vertical framing
system i.e Beams, Columns and Foundations.
Effective in resisting both vertical & horizontal loads.
Brick walls are non load bearing filler walls only.
Suitable for multi-storied building as it is very effective
in resisting horizontal loads due to earthquake / wind.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


INTRODUCTION
RCC Framed Structures
Before starting structural design of a RCC building, the
following information/ data are required:
(i) Set of architectural drawings;
(ii) Soil Investigation report
(iii) Location of the place or city in order to decide on
wind and seismic loadings
(iv) Data for lifts, water tank capacities on top, special
roof features or loadings, etc.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BASIC CODES OF DESIGN
Useful Codes/Hand Books For Structural Design of RCC
Structures
(i) IS 456 : 2000 Plain and reinforced concrete code of practice
(ii) Loading Standards:
IS 875 (Part 1-5) Code of practice for design loads (other than
earthquake) for buildings and structures
Part 1 : Dead loads
Part 2 : Imposed (live) loads
Part 3 : Wind loads
Part 4 : Snow loads
Part 5 : Special loads and load combinations

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BASIC CODES OF DESIGN
Earthquake Resistant Design
IS 1893 : 2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of
structure.
IS 13920: 1993 Ductile detailing of reinforced concrete
structure subject to seismic forces Provisions of IS 13920-
1993 shall be adopted in all reinforced concrete structures
located in seismic zone III, IV or V
Design Handbooks (Bureau of Indian standards) -
SP 16 : 1980 Design Aids to IS 456 : 1978 (Based on
previous version of code but still useful)
SP 34 : 1987 Handbooks on Reinforced Concrete Detailing

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BASIS OF DESIGN
Aim Of Design
To design structures with appropriate degree of safety to
Perform satisfactorily during its intended life.
Sustain all loads/ deformations of normal construction & use
Have adequate durability & resistance to fire.

Method of Design
Structure and structural elements to be normally designed by
Limit State Method.
Working Stress Method may be used where Limit State
Method can not be conveniently adopted

For internal circulation of BSNL only


LOADS
DESIGN LOAD
Design load to be taken in appropriate method of design is
Characteristic load with appropriate partial safety factors for
limit state design
Characteristic load in case of working stress method

For internal circulation of BSNL only


LOAD COMBINATIONS
BASIC LOAD CASES USED FOR ANALYSIS
No. Load case Directions
1 DL Downwards
2 IL(Imposed/Live load) Downwards
3 EXTP (+Torsion) +X; Clockwise torsion due to EQ
4 EXTN (-Torsion) +X; Anti-Clockwise torsion due to EQ
5 EZTP (+Torsion) +Z; Clockwise torsion due to EQ
6 EZTN (-Torsion) +Z; Anti-Clockwise torsion due to EQ

For internal circulation of BSNL only


LOAD COMBINATIONS
LOAD COMBINATIONS
1.5 (DL + IL)
1.2 (DL + IL EL)
1.5 (DL EL)
0.9 DL 1.5 EL
EQ load must be considered for +X, -X, +Z and Z directions.
Moreover, accidental eccentricity can be such that it causes
clockwise or anticlockwise moments.
Thus, EL above implies 8 cases, and in all, 25 cases must be
considered. It is possible to reduce the load combinations to
13 instead of 25 by not using negative torsion considering
symmetry of the building.
For internal circulation of BSNL only
Grade of Concrete
Minimum Grade of Concrete

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Steps of Design
Steps for Design of Multi-Storeyed
RCC Framed Buildings
Step1: Study of architectural Drawings
Step2: Finalization of Structural Configuration.
Step3: Preliminary Sizes of Structural members.
Step4: Load Calculation and
Step5: Analysis for various load combinations.
Step6: Design of various structural components for
most critical load combination.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Preliminary Sizes
Finalising Preliminary Sizes
Slab: Slab thickness is decided based on span/depth ratio.
Beam: Width of beam to be at least equal to width of wall
(230 or 300 mm). Larger beam width is helpful in placement
of reinforcement in one layer & for resisting shear & torsion.
- Depth of beam generally taken as 1/12th (for Heavy Loads)
to 1/15th (for Lighter Loads) of span.
Column: Size of column depends upon axial load &
moments from both directions and is finalized after
approximate calculations.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Loads
Types of Loads
Vertical Loads
Dead Load (Self Weight) Dl As per IS-875(part-1)
Imposed Load (Live Load) LL Or IL As per IS-875 (Part-2)
Snow Load
Horizontal Loads
Earthquake Load (Seismic) EQX & EQZ (As per IS-1893)
Wind Load WL As Per IS-875 (Part-3)
Special Loads & Load Combinations

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Dead Loads Unit Wt of Bldg Materials (IS 875 Pt-1)

UNIT WEIGHT

MATERIAL kN/m3 kN/m2


PLAIN CONCRETE 24
REINFORCED CONCRETE 25
BRICK MASONRY 19-20
STONE MASONRY 21-27
TIMBER 6-10
CEMENT-PLASTER 21
LIME -PLASTER 18
STEEL 78.5
AC SHEET -ROOFING 0.16
GI SHEET -ROOFING 0.15
MANGLORE TILES 0.65
STEEL WORK -ROOFING 0.16-0.23
For internal circulation of BSNL only
Live Loads on Floors of T.E. Bldgs

LIVE LOAD
TYPE OF FLOOR USAGE (kN/m2)
SWITCH ROOM(NEW TECHNOLOGY) 6.0
OMC ROOM,DDF ROOM,POWER PLANT, 6.0
BATTERY ROOM
MDF ROOM 10.0
WEATHER MAKER 12.0

LIVE LOADS ON ROOFS

ROOF WITH ACCESS 1.5


ROOF WITHOUT ACCESS 0.75

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Loads
Procedure for Vertical load calculation on Columns
Step(i): Transfer slab floor load (both LL & DL) to beams
using formulae for equivalent UDL as :-

Equivalent UDL on short span beam = w B/4


Equivalent UDL on long span beam = w B/4 x [2-(B/L)]

where w is the total load on slab panel in KN/Sqm &


L & B respectively are long span & short spans of slab
panel.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Loads
Procedure for Vertical load calculation on Columns

Step(ii): Add weight of wall (if any), self weight of beam etc.
to obtain load on beam (in running meter). Calculate
similarly for each beam
Step(iii): Transfer loads from beams to columns.
Step(iv):Repeat Step (i) to Step (iii) for each floor.
Step(v): Add for each column for all floors to get total load on
each column at footing level for entire building.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Loads
Procedure for Horizontal (Seismic) Load Calculation
Load Calculations for Seismic Load case is carried out as
per IS:1893-2002 clause 7.5.3.
The Seismic Shear at various floor levels is calculated for
the whole Building using the values from IS 1893-2002.
Design Seismic base shear is
Vb = Ah W
Where W= Seismic weight as per clause 7.4.2 (Full dead load
+ appropriate percentage of imposed load of building as
given in Table 8)

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Load Calculation
Procedure for Horizontal (Seismic) Load Calculation :
Design Imposed Load for eq. Force Calculation
Table 8 (IS 1893)
Percentage of Imposed Load to be Considered
in Seismic Weight Calculation (Clause 7.3.1 )
Imposed Uniformity Percentage of
Distributed Floor Load Imposed Loads
( kN/ m2 )
(1) (2)
Upto and including 3.0 25
Above 3.0 50

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Loads
Procedure for Horizontal (Seismic) Load Calculation
Ah = Design Horizontal acceleration spectrum value (cl. 6.4.2)
= (Z/2) (I/R) (Sa/g)
Where Z = Zone factor as per table 2 of IS 1893
I= Importance factor as per table 6 of IS-1893
= 1.5 (If the bldg. is T.E. Bldg.)
R = Response reduction factor as per table 7 of IS 1893
= 3.0 for OMRF or 5.0 for SMRF
(Sa/g) = Average response acceleration coefficient based on
soil type & natural periods and damping of structure. (Refer
Fig. 2 page 16 of IS 1893)

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Load Calculation
Procedure for Horizontal (Seismic) Load Calculation :
For calculating (Sa/g) value as above we have to calculate
T i.e. Fundamental Natural Time Period (in Seconds)
(Clause 7.6 of IS Code)
T = 0.075 h0.75 (For RC Frame building)
where h = Height of building in Meter
In case of RCC building with brick in fills walls.
T = 0.09 h / d where h = height of building in meter
& d = Base dimension of the building at plinth level in
meter along the considered direction of lateral force.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Load Calculation
Procedure for Horizontal (Seismic) Load Calculation :
Distribution of base shear (Clause 7.7 of IS 1893)
Distribution of total design base shear to different floor
levels along height of building is done using formula
Fi = w i h i 2 / (i=1 to n) w i h i 2 x Vb
Where Fi = Design lateral force at floor i
Wi = Seismic weight of floor i
hi = height of floor in m from base.
n = number of storyes in the building is equal to
number of levels at which masses are located.
Vb = Total Design base shear

For internal circulation of BSNL only


ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
VERTICAL LOAD ANALYSIS
a) GENERAL:

It is presumed that all joints of the frame are monolithic.


To simplify analysis, three dimensional multistoried R.C.C.
framed structure is considered as combination of planer
frames in two directions.
It is assumed that each of these planer frames act
independently of other frames.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
Vertical Load Analysis
Procedure for Frame analysis for calculation of moments
in Columns & beams:
Step(i): First, the load from slab is transferred to adjoining
beams using formula given below:-
For computation of Bending Moments in beams, equivalent
uniformly distributed load of beam is taken as
Equivalent UDL on short beam of slab panel = w B/3.0
Equivalent UDL on long beam of slab panel = w B/6 x [ 3-(B/L)2 ]
where w is the total load on the slab panel in KN/Sqm &
L & B are long span & short spans of slab respectively.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
Vertical Load Analysis
Procedure for Frame analysis for calculation of
moments in Columns & beams:
Step(ii): Over this load, weight of wall, self weight of beam
etc. are added to get load on beam (in running metre).
Step(iii): The load (in running Metre) on each beam is
calculated as in Step (i) & Step (ii).
Step(iv): Step (i) to Step (iii) is repeated for each floor
Step(v): Then these loads are used as u.d.l on a particular
frame for analysis by moment distribution method.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
METHOD OF ANALYSIS:
Analysis of large framed structures is too Cumbersome
with classical methods of structure analysis such as
Clapeyrons theorem of three moments,
Castingilianos therefore of least work,
Poisons method of virtual work etc.
Therefore, simpler methods are mostly followed in 2-D
manual analysis of structures. These are
Hardy cross method of moment distribution.
Kanis method of iteration.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
Horizontal Load Analysis
Frame analysis for horizontal loads calculated in step 4
may be carried out by using Approximate Methods:-
(i) Cantilever method.
(ii) Portal method.
Approximate methods are used for preliminary designs
only.
For final design exact methods are used which are
(i) Slope deflection or matrix methods
(ii) Factor method.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


DESIGN OF RCC STRUCTURE
Design of Various Structural Components
After load calculation & analysis for vertical & horizontal
loads, design & of various structural components e.g.
Columns,
Foundations,
Beams,
Slabs & staircase etc
are carried out as per various clauses of IS codes with
help from charts & tables given in BIS handbooks.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT

26.4 Nominal Cover to Reinforcement


Nominal cover is the design depth of concrete cover to
all steel reinforcements, including links.
It shall be not less than the diameter of the bar.
Minimum values for nominal cover of normal weight
aggregate concrete which should be provided to all
reinforcement, including links depending on the condition
of exposure shall be as given in Table 16 of IS 456.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
26.4 Nominal Cover to Reinforcement (Table 16 )
Exposure Nominal Concrete Cover
in mm not Less Than
Mild 20
Moderate 30
Severe 45
Very Severe 50
Extreme 75
For longitudinal reinforcing bar in column nominal cover shall
in any case not be less than 40 mm, or less than bar dia.
For footings minimum cover shall be 50 mm.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Design of Columns
Design of Columns
After obtaining (i) Vertical load, (ii) Moments due to
horizontal loads on either axis & (iii) Moments due to
vertical loads on either axis, acting on each column, at all
floor levels of the building,
Columns are designed by charts of SP-16(Design Aids).
Design of each column is carried out from the top of
foundation to the roof, varying the amount of steel
reinforcement for suitable groups for ease in design.
Slenderness effects in each storey are also considered
for each column group.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Design of Columns
Column
A compression member, the effective length > three times
the least lateral dimension.
Short and Slender Compression Members
When both slenderness ratios lex/D and ley/b are <12
Column is a short column
If more than 12, then it is long or slender column.
Effective height of column:-
For effective column height refer table 28 (Annexure E)
of IS:456-2000.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Design of Columns
Design Of Columns Important Considerations
(ii) Unsupported Length
In beam-slab construction, it is the clear distance between the floor &
under side of shallower beam framing into columns in each direction at
next higher floor level.
(iii) Slenderness limits for columns
The unsupported length between end restraints shall not exceed 60
times the least lateral dimension of a column.
(iv) Minimum Eccentricity All columns shall be designed for
emin l/500+ D/30 20 mm
Where l= Unsupported length of column in mm. D= Lateral dimension
of column in the direction under consideration in mm.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Design of Columns

Design Of Columns Design Approach


The design of column is complex as it is subjected to axial
loads & moments which may very independently.
Column design requires
Determination of the cross sectional dimension.
The area of longitudinal steel & its distribution.
Transverse steel.
The maximum axial load & moments acting along the length
of column are considered for design of the column section.
The transverse reinforcement is provided to impart effective
lateral support against buckling to every longitudinal bar.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Design of Columns

Design Of Columns Reinforcement Provisions as per


IS:456-
A. Longitudinal reinforcement
Area of longitudinal reinforcement shall be not less than
0.8% nor more than 6% of cross sectional area of the
column.
However maximum area of steel should not exceed 4% to
avoid practical difficulties in placing & compacting concrete.
In pedestals, in which the longitudinal reinf. is not taken into
account in strength calculations, nominal reinforcement
should be not be less than 0.15% of cross sectional area.
Minimum dia of longitudinal bar should be 12 mm
For internal circulation of BSNL only
Design of Columns
Design Of Columns Reinforcement Provisions as per
IS:456
A. Longitudinal reinforcement
Spacing between bars < 300mm along periphery of column
The minimum number of bars shall be four in rectangular
columns & six in circular columns.
B. Transverse reinforcement (STIRRUPS)
Diameter of lateral ties should not be less than 1/4th of dia of the
largest longitudinal bar & in no case should be less than 6 mm.
Spacing of lateral ties should not > least of the following:-
Least lateral dimension of the column.
16 times the smallest diameter of longitudinal bars to be tied.
300 mm.
For internal circulation of BSNL only
SLAB DESIGN

TYPES OF SLABS

Based on Ratio of long span to short span


One way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) > 2
Two way slab Long span (ly)/Short span (lx ) < 2

Based on Edge Conditions


Simply supported
Restrained Edge Conditions of supporting edge
Cantilever

For internal circulation of BSNL only


SLAB DESIGN

The design of floor slab is carried out as per


Clause 24.4 &
Clause 37.1.2 & Annexure D of IS:456-2000 .
The Bending moment coefficients are taken from
Table- 26 or
Table 27 of BIS code
depending on support conditions
Bending moment is calculated & reinforcement
steel is obtained from charts given in SP-16.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
Clause 22.2 Effective Span

S. Support condition Effective span


No.
1 Simply supported not built integrally Lesser of (i) clear
with its supports span + effective
depth of slab, &
(ii) centre to
centre of
supports
2 Continuous when the width of the Do
support is < 1/12th of clear span

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
S. Support condition Effective span
No.
3 Continuous when the width of
the support is > lesser of 1/12th
of clear span or 600 mm
(i) for end span with one end (i) Clear span between the
fixed and the other end supports
continuous or for intermediate (ii) Lesser of (a) clear span +
spans, half the effective depth of slab,
(ii) for end span with one end and (b) clear span + half the
free and the other end width of the discontinuous
continuous, support
(iii) spans with roller or rocker (iii) The distance between
bearings. centers of bearings
For internal circulation of BSNL only
BIS 456 EXTRACT
S. Support condition Effective span
No.
4 Cantilever slab at the end of Length up to the centre
a continuous slab of support
5 Cantilever span Length up to the face of
the support + half the
effective depth
6 Frames Centre to centre
distance

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
EFFECTIVE DEPTH Clause 23.0
Effective depth of beam or slab =
distance between centroid
of area of tension reinf.
& maximum comp. fiber,
Excluding thickness of finishing material not placed
monolithically with member and the thickness of any
concrete provided to allow for wear.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
Clause 23.2 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
The deflection shall generally be limited to following:
Final deflection < span/250
(Due to all loads & measured from as-cast level of
supports of floors, roofs and all other horizontal
members.)
Final deflection < span/350 or 20mm whichever
is less
(Including effects of temperature, creep & shrinkage
occurring after erection of partitions & application of
finishes.).
For internal circulation of BSNL only
BIS 456 EXTRACT
Clause 23.2 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
For beams, vertical deflection limits may
generally be assumed to be satisfied provided
that span/depth ratio are not greater than the
value obtained as below
(a) Basic values of span/effective depth ratios for
spans up to 10m:
Cantilever 7
Simply supported 20
Continuous 26
For internal circulation of BSNL only
BIS 456 EXTRACT
Clause 23.2 CONTROL OF DEFLECTION
For spans >10m, values in (a) may be multiplied by
10/span in meters,
Modification Factors are applied
Based on area & type of steel for tension
reinforcement (As per Fig. 4 of IS456)
Based on area of compression reinforcement (As per
Fig. 5 of IS456)
For flanged beams (As per Fig. 6 of IS456)

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT
Clause 24.1 SLABS Control of Deflection
The provisions of 23.2 for beams apply to slabs also.
For slabs spanning in two directions shorter of the two
spans to be used for span/effective depth ratios.
For two-way slabs of shorter spans (3.5 m) with mild
steel reinf., span/depth ratios given below may
generally be assumed to satisfy vertical deflection limits
for loading class up to 3 kN/m2.
Simply supported slabs 35
Continuous slabs 40
For HYSD bars grade Fe 415 & Fe500, values given
above to be multiplied by 0.8.
For internal circulation of BSNL only
BIS 456 EXTRACT

26.5.2 Requirement of Reinforcement SLABS


26.5.2.1 Minimum reinforcement
Mild steel reinf. in either direction in slabs 0.15 %
of total cross sectional area.
For high strength deformed bars 0.12 percent of
total (Fe415/Fe500 bars) cross sectional area.
26.5.2.2 Maximum diameter
The dia of reinforcing bars < 1/8th of total thickness
of slab

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT

Requirement of Reinforcement SLABS


26.3.3 Maximum distance between bars
The horizontal distance between parallel main
reinforcement bars 3d or 300 mm
The horizontal distance between parallel
reinforcement bars provided against shrinkage
and temperature 5d or 300 mm whichever is
smaller.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


SLAB DESIGN

Steps for Design of Slabs


Step 1: Selection of preliminary depth of slab
Step 2: Calculate design loads, bending moments
Step 3: Determination/checking of the effective and
total depths of slabs
Step 4: Determination of areas of steel
Step 5: Selection of diameter & spacing of
reinforcing bars

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BIS 456 EXTRACT

Torsion reinforcement is provided at any corner


where the slab is simply supported on both edges
meeting at that corner.
It consist of top and bottom reinforcement, each with
layers of bars placed parallel to sides of slab &
extending from edges a minimum distance of one-
fifth of the shorter span.
Area of reinf. in each of these four layers is three-
quarters of the area required for maximum mid-span
moment in slab

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BEAM DESIGN
26.5.1.1 Tension reinforcement
a) Minimum reinforcement -
As = 0.85
bd fy
where
AS =minimum area of tension reinforcement
b =breadth of beam or the breadth of the web
d =effective depth of T-beam
fy =characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2 &
b) Maximum reinforcement - The maximum area of
tension reinforcement not to exceed 0.04 bD.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BEAM DESIGN
Compression reinforcement
The maximum area of compression reinforcement
not to exceed 0.04 bD
Side face reinforcement
Where depth of web in a beam >750 mm, side face
reinf is to be provided along the two faces. The total
area of such reinf. should not < 0.1 percent of web area
and shall be
distributed equally on two faces at a spacing not >
300 mm or web thickness whichever is less.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


BEAM DESIGN
Minimum shear reinforcement (Clause 26.5.1.6)
Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall
be provided such that:
Asv = 0.4
bsv 0.87fy
Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement (Clause 26.5.1.5)
The maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured
along axis of member shall be < 0.75 d for vertical
stirrups and d for inclined stirrups at 45 degrees.
In no case shall the spacing to be >300 mm.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
Foundations transfer loads from the building or individual
columns to earth. Foundations must be designed to
prevent
Structural Failure
Shear failure of soil
Excessive settlement &
To minimize differential settlement
Depth of footing is determined from the consideration of
(a) Bending Moment
(b) One way shear
(c)Two way shear
For internal circulation of BSNL only
FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
To determine area required for proper transfer of total
load on the soil, the total load (the combination of dead,
live and any other load without multiplying it with any load
factor) need to be considered.
Total Load including Self Weight of footing
Plan Area of footing = -----------------------------------------------
Allowable bearing capacity of soil
Thickness of the edge of footing
The thickness at the edge shall not be less than 15 cm for
footing on soils.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
Bending Moment (Reference Clauses- 34.2.3.1 & 34.2.3.2)
The critical section for bending Moment is considered
at the face of column, Pedestal or wall.

Shear (Reference Clause 33.2.4.1)


The critical section for one way shear is at the vertical
section located at a distance equal to the effective
depth (d) from the face of the column, pedestal or wall
of the footing in case of footings on soils.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
For one way action
For one way shear action, the nominal shear stress is
calculated as follows:-
Vu
v = -------
b.d
Where
v = Shear stress, Vu = Factored vertical shear force
b = Breadth of critical section, d = Effective depth
v < c ( c = Design Shear Strength of concrete based on % of
longitudinal tensile reinforcement refer Table 61 of SP-16)

For internal circulation of BSNL only


FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
For Two Way Action (Punching shear )
Critical section for punching shear is at d/2 from the face of
column or pedastal
For two way shear action, the nominal shear stress is calculated
in accordance with clause 31.6.2 of the code as follows:-
Vu
v = ----------
b0.d
Where b0 = Periphery of the critical section

For internal circulation of BSNL only


FOUNDATION DESIGN
Design of Foundations Important Considerations
Development Length (Reference Clause 34.2.4.3)
The critical section for checking the development length in a
footing shall be assumed at the same planes as those
described for bending moment in clause 34.2.3 of code and
also at all other vertical planes where abrupt changes of
section occur.
Reinforcement
Minimum % of steel in footing slab should be 0.12% &
Maximum spacing should not be more than 3 times
effective depth or 300mm which ever is less.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


DETAILING
Reinforcing steel of same type and grade shall be
used as main reinforcement in a structural member.
Simultaneous use of two different types or grades of
steel for main and secondary reinforcement is
permissible.
The calculated tension or compression in any bar at
any section shall be developed on each side of the
section by an appropriate development length or end
anchorage or by a combination thereof.

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Development Length
Development Length of Bars
Ld = st /4bd,
= nominal diameter of bar, bd = design bond stress
st = stress in bar at the section considered at design load
Design bond stress in limit state method for plain bars in
tension is given in clause 26.2.1.1
For deformed bars conforming to IS 1786 these values
are to be increased by 60 %.
For bars in compression, the values of bond stress for
bars in tension is to be increased by 25 percent

For internal circulation of BSNL only


Development Length

For internal circulation of BSNL only


For internal circulation of BSNL only