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Answer the following questions:

A. What is a motif? Give an example.

A motif is a recurring literary theme, it assumes a central part of the literary

piece, namely it is a narrative element with symbolic meaning, repeating a thing
or idea throughout a text in a symbolic way,and it can come in form of
reoccurring imagery, language, structure, or contrasts.


Love is too
powerful to be so
easily understood.
Light and darkness
are recurring motifs
that underscore the
love of Romeo and
Juliet, as well as the
hate of their

Romeo and Juliet
does not make a The But, soft! what
light through yonder
specific moral
statement about the love of window breaks? It is
the east, and Juliet is
between love and Romeo the sun.
society, religion, and
family; rather, it and ( Romeo is
comparing Juliet to
shows the chaos and
passion of being in
Juliet the sun)


First Person

B. Do the Concept Builder 1-A

Read The Seafarer (author unknown) and respond to the following:
Predict howthis poem will end.
The Narrator speaks about sorrow and suffering, and then he has the
hope in reach the blessedness and happiness in aneternal life after
1 death.
Who is the narrator?
2 A lonely sailor that believes that the happiness is the award after sorrow
Does he work in a city?
3 No he doesnt, he is a sailor.
Is he a Christian believer?
Yes he is, he makes references to a Powerful God and his mercy. that
we might go there to the eternal blessedness that is a belonging life in the
4 love of the Lord, joy in the heavens.

Personification is A person or thing typifying a certain quality or

idea In what way is this line personification? The only sound was
the roaring sea?
The lions roar, not the sea, neither people.
Note one more example of personification from the poem.

Storms there beat the stony cliffs, where the tern spoke, icy-feathered;
6 always the eagle cried at it, dewy-feathered

The terns dont speak, the eagles dont cry, these are only human
How does the narrator handle bad things in his life?

He stay alone, sad and cold yearning the company of someone else:
7 in the paths of exile, bereft of friendly kinsmen

Also he had faith and believe in God, who will relieve his sorrow:
Great is the fear of the Lord, before which the world stands still; He
established the firm foundations, the corners of the world and the high
heavens. A fool is the one who does not fear his Lord
What is one theme in this poem
The theme of the loneliness in old age, having like unique company to
What do these lines mean?
Dead leaps at the fools who forget their God.
He who lives humbly has angels from Heaven
9 To carry him courage and strength and belief.

The fools loose the faith and the control in their life when disbelieve in
God, that reward with courage, strength and protection whom lives
humbly and aware of its existence.
C. What is an Epic Poem? Give an example
An epic poem is a long, serious, poetic narrative about a significant event that
retells the heroic journey of a single person, or group of persons. Before the
development of writing, epic poems were memorized and played an important
part in maintaining a record of the great deeds and history of a culture blending
of lyrical and dramatic traditions.



I have lived in important places,

When great events were decided,
who owned
That half a rood of rock, a no-man's
Surrounded by our pitchfork-armed
I heard the Duffys shouting "Damn
your soul"
And old McCabe stripped to the
waist, seen
Step the plot defying blue cast-steel

"Here is the march along these iron
That was the year of the Munich
Was more important? I inclined
To lose my faith in Ballyrush and
Til Homer's ghost came whispering to
my mind
He said: I made the Iliad from such
D. What is Beouwulf about?
Beowulf is an epic poem, the main character is a hero named Beowulf, who
travels great distances to prove his braveness at impossible odds against
supernatural monsters and beasts. Beowulf, is a hero of the Geats, comes to
the aid of Hrothgar, king of the Danes, whose great hall, Heorot, is invaded by
the monster Grendel, Beowulf kills Grendel and its mother with his own hands,
with a giant's sword.Later Beowulf becomes king of the Geats, and finds his
empire terrorized by a dragon, some of whose treasure had been stolen. He
attacks the dragon with the help of his servants, but they do not succeed.
Beowulf finally kills the dragon, but in the struggle he is mortally wounded. He is
cremated and a burial mound by the sea is built in his honor.


Stobaugh, J. (2012), British Literature, Cultural Influences of Early to

Contemporary Voices

Read the paper Female characters in The Canterbury tales by Geoffrey


A. Research about the biography of the author

Geoffrey Chaucer was born in London in1340/44, died 1400, he is remembered

as the author of The Canterbury Tales, which ranks as one of the greatest epic
works of world literature. He was the son of a prosperous wine merchant and
deputy to the king's butler, and his wife Agnes. Little is known of his early
education, but his works show that he could read French, Latin, and Italian
In 1359-1360 Chaucer went to France and returned to England after the treaty
of Bretigny in 1360. There is no certain information of his life from 1361 until
c.1366, when he perhaps married Philippa Roet, who died in 1387.

Between 1367 and 1378 Chaucer made several journeys abroad on diplomatic
and commercial missions. In 1385 he lost his employment and rent-free home,
and moved to Kent where he was appointed as justice of the peace. He was
also elected to Parliament. This was a period of great creativity for Chaucer,
during which he produced most of his best poetry, among others Troilus and
Cressida (c. 1385), based on a love story by Boccaccio.

His first narrative poem, The Book of the Duchess, was probably written shortly
after the death of Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster, in September 1369. His next
important work, The House of Fame, was written between 1374 and 1385. Soon
afterward Chaucer translated The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius, and
wrote the poem The Parliament of Birds.
Chaucer did not begin working on The Canterbury Tales until he was in his early
40s. The book, which was left unfinished when the author died, depicts a
pilgrimage by some 30 people, who are going on a spring day in April to the
shrine of the martyr, St. Thomas Becket. On the way they amuse themselves by
telling stories. Among the band of pilgrims are a knight, a monk, a prioress, a
plowman, a miller, a merchant, a clerk, and an oft-widowed wife from Bath. The
stories are interlinked with interludes in which the characters talk with each
other, revealing much about them.

Chaucer died in London on October 25, 1400. He was buried in Westminster

Abbey, in the part of the church, which afterwards came to be called Poet's
corner. A monument was erected to him in 1555.

B. Explain the social context in which this book was written

The Canterbury Tales was written during fourteenth-century,he was the first to
use English as a respectable, literary language, because in that time all
literature considered to be quality was written in French or Latin, also in this
tales Chaucer created for first time female charactersthat was outspoken,
intelligent and humorous, the tales were written when the Catholic Church was
the only Christian authority in Europe, the lives of people,the art and literature
were ruled and sponsored by the church.

The Canterbury Tales was one of the first English literary works to mention
paper, this new invention allowed distribution of the written word in England.
Political clashes, such as the 1381 Peasants' Revolt and clashes ending in the
deposing of King Richard II, further reveal the complex commotion surrounding
Chaucer in the time of the Tales' writing. Many of his close friends were
executed and he moved to Kent to get away from events in London.

Chaucer's work appears to develop a critique of society during his lifetime, but
through clever language, the statements are ultimately critical of medieval
church, priests, monks and pilgrim's actions. Chaucer creates fictional
characters to be general representations of people in such fields of work. In this
time women were believed to be all good and pure like Virgin Mary or
completely evil and leading men to sin.

The Tales constantly reflect the conflict between classes. For instance,the
characters are all divided into three distinct classes, the classes being "those
who pray" (the clergy), "those who fight" (the nobility), and "those who work"
(the commoners and peasantry). The upper class or nobility, were expected to
be powerful warriors who could be cruel on the battlefield yet mannerly in the
King's Court and Christian in their actions.

C. Write a comment in which you will compare the women situation at that
time with what happens to them today

In the fourteenth century women were considered inferiority to men in some

aspects, such as the right to inheritance, comparing with the actual situation of
women, I think that nowadays women are more independent, and have the right
of having possessions, heritage, and it is common see powerful women in
public charges, other important changes are their independence of the men
governance, women now are free of taking their own decisions, being liberated
and being the owner of their life. However still there are cultures, places and
situations where the women still are treated as objects, being bound to act in
obey and submission, sometimes due to the religion that put like only culprit to
women for men sin.Comparing the situation of the women in fourteenth century
with the actual time, there are big changes, andwomens rights are claimed, but
still there are groups of people for whom women arent considered at the same
level than men, being visible the lack of evolution in their stagnant minds since
fourteenth century.


Chaucers female characters in the Canterbury Tales.

A. Do the concept builder 5-A

Match the poetic device with the following poetic lines

A Alliteration is a repetition of consonants sounds, usually at the
beginning of words.
B Assonance is a repetition of vowel sounds within words.
C Consonance is a repetition of consonant sounds within and at the
end of words.
D Personification is a comparison of an inanimate object with
human characteristics.
E Simile is a comparison of dissimilar objects with like or as

E__1 My care is like my shadow in the sun,

Follows me flying, flies when I pursue it,
C__2 Stands and lies by me, doth what I have done.
His too familiar care doth make me rue it
D__3 The shepherd swains shall dance and sing
For thy delight each May-morning:
If these delights thy mind may move,
Then live with me and be my Love
B__4 And if they cannot always weep,
They wet their cheeks by art
A__5 Care Charmer Sleep, son of the sable Night,
Brother to Death, in silent darkness born,
Relieve my languish, and restore the light;

B. Make a graphic organizer of the Elizabethan Age which has to include

the following authors:
- Edmund Spenser
- Isabella Whitney
- Shepherd Poetry
- Sir. Philip Sidney
- William Shakespeare
-Advances inscience, art,
-Transition from Middle Ages to

-Colonised the New World,

London was the NY city fo the
I (1533-1603)
16th century.

Works of this time

- On Monsieur's Departure
- The Doubt of Future Foes
- Elizabeth I's speech to the Troops at

-Shepheardes Calendar (1579)
EDMUND SPENSER -The Faerie Queene: Story of a Knight,
(1552) Epic poem which glorifies England and
its language.

- First English woman to publish a

collection of original poetriy.
- Wasn't a noblewoman, but was of the
middle class.
(1540 - 1580) Works

ELIZABET -"The Author ... Maketh Her Will and

Testament" despicts daily life in urban
16th century England. Daring gesture
HAN and courage in presenting the
viewpoint of Elizabethan women.


(Shepherds herding
livestock around open - The Passionate Shepherd to his Love
areas of land according -The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd
to seasons, water and

English poet, courtier, scholar, and

soldier, who is remembered as one of
the most prominent figures of the
SIR. PHILIP Elizabethan age.
(30 November 1554 Works:
17 October 1586) -To sleep by, Astrophel and Stella, The
Defence of Poesy (also known as The
Defence of Poetry or An Apology for
- The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia.

- Tragedies: Antony and Cleopatra,

Coriolanus, Hamlet, Julius Caesar, King
Lear, Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and
WILLIAM Juliet, Timon of Athens, Titus
England's natioinal Comedy: Love's Labours Lost, The
poet Merchant of Venice, A Midsummer
Night's Dream, The Tempest , Troilus
and Cressida, Twelfth Night, Two
Gentlemen of Verona, Winter's Tale

Stobaugh, J. (2012), British Literature, Cultural Influences of Early to

Contemporary Voices

A. Research about William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was born on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon.

Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language
and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national
poet and nicknamed the Bard of Avon. He wrote about 38 plays, 154 sonnets,
two long narrative poems.

Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18. She was eight years
older than him. They had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and
Judith. After his marriage information about his life became very rare. Between
1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and
part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later
known as the King's Men.

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His
early plays were mainly comedies and histories and these works remain
regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres. He then wrote
mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and
Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his
last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated
with other playwrights.
Around 1613, at the age of 49, he retired to Stratford, where he died three years
later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive. He died on 23 April
1616, at the age of 52.


Comedy History Tragedy Poetry

All's Well That Ends Well Henry IV, part 1 Antony and The Sonnets
As You Like It Henry IV, part 2 Cleopatra A Lover's Complaint
The Comedy of Errors Henry V Coriolanus The Rape of Lucrece
Cymbeline Henry VI, part 1 Hamlet Venus and Adonis
Love's Labours Lost Henry VI, part 2 Julius Caesar Funeral Elegy by W.S.
Measure for Measure Henry VI, part 3 King Lear
The Merry Wives of Windsor Henry VIII Macbeth
King John Othello
The Merchant of Venice Richard II Romeo and Juliet
A Midsummer Night's Dream Richard III Timon of Athens
Titus Andronicus
Much Ado About Nothing
Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Taming of the Shrew
The Tempest
Troilus and Cressida
Twelfth Night
Two Gentlemen of Verona
Winter's Tale

B. Write some ideas about the social context in which the work was

Macbeth was written in 1606 in Scotland, it was intended for King James I, this
work was inspired on the Real Macbeth, King of Scotland from 1040 to 1057 in
the eleventh century, this work contains the names of real people, although it
isnt based on a true story, so when Shakespeare wrote Macbeth King James
symbolized the union of the Scottish and English crowns, a union to which
Shakespeare refers in the play. It was well known that the new king was
fascinated by witchcraft; Shakespeare might have been trying to win his
approval by introducing the figures of the witches into the play.

In this tragedy, Macbeth is a brave Scottish general who receives a prophecy

from three witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed
with ambitious thoughts and animated by his wife, Macbeth murders King
Duncan and seizes the throne for himself. He begins his reign racked with guilt
and fear and soon becomes a tyrannical ruler, as he is forced to commit more
and more murders to protect himself.

Other important issue is that the King in that time was interested in the
Christianism, which played a huge role in 17th century, the religion had a big
influence in political terms. Literature was a form of learning and entertaining
people, with the figures of Macbeth, Banquo and the witches, Shakespeare
faces the good vs. evil.

Medieval Scotland maintained a belief in witches, including their ability to make

prophecies and to affect the outcome of certain events, so witchcraft was
regarded as an evil practice, involving some kind of relationship with the devil,
and was therefore considered a threat to social stability, so Scottish authorities
often took extreme measures against witchcraft, when someone was
proclaimed like witch, sheshould be burned to death.

C. Write a summary of the play

The play begins demonstrating the braveness of Macbeth, when we was

returning to his home he encounteredtree witchesthat made a prophesy:
Macbeth will be made thane of Cawdor and then King of Scotland, also that
Macbeths friend, Banquo, will beget a line of Scottish kings, although Banquo
will never be king himself. The witches disappeared into their cave, and
Macbeth and Banquo treat their prophecies doubtfully until some of King
Duncans men come to thank the two generals for their victories in battle and to
tell Macbeth that he has indeed been named thane of Cawdor.

Macbeth is intrigued by the possibility that the prophecy of the witches could
betrue, and he could be crowned king, but he didnt know what to expect. King
Duncan went to Macbeths castle. Macbeth told everything to Lady Macbeth, his
wife, telling her all about witches prophecies.
Lady Macbeth didnt suffer of her husbands uncertainty, so she wishes the
kingship for Macbeth and wants him to murder Duncan in order to obtain it, and
she persuades him to kill the king that night. He and Lady Macbeth plan to get
Duncans two chamberlains drunk so they will become unconscious; the next
morning they will blame the murder on the chamberlains, who will remember
nothing. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a
number of strange events such as a previous vision of a bloody dagger. When
Duncans death Macbeth easily assumed the kingship.

Fearful of the witches prophecy that Banquos heirs will seize the throne,
Macbeth hires a group of murderers to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. They
ambush Banquo, but they fail to kill Fleance, who escaped. Macbeth becomes
furious: as long as Fleance is alive, he fears that his power remains insecure. At
the feast that night, Banquos ghost visits Macbeth. When he sees the ghost,
Macbeth raves fearfully, startling his guests, who include most of the great
Scottish nobility. Lady Macbeth tries to neutralize the damage, but Macbeths
kingship incites increasing resistance from his nobles and subjects. Frightened,
Macbeth goes to visit the witches in their cavern. There, they show him a
sequence of images about people, ghosts and spirits who present him with
further prophecies: he must beware of Macduff, a Scottish nobleman who
opposed Macbeths accession to the throne; he is unable of being injured by
any man born of woman; and he will be safe until Birnam Wood comes to
Dunsinane Castle. Macbeth is relieved and feels secure, because he knows
that all men are born of women and that forests cannot move. When he learns
that Macduff has fled to England to join Malcolm, Macbeth orders that Macduffs
castle be seized and, most maliciously, that Lady Macduff and her children be

When news of his familys execution reaches Macduff in England, he wanted

revenge. Prince Malcolm, Duncans son, has succeeded in raising an army in
England, and Macduff joins him as he rides to Scotland to challenge Macbeths
forces. The invasion has the support of the Scottish nobles, who are horrified
and frightened by Macbeths tyrannical and murderous behavior. Lady Macbeth,
meanwhile, becomes overwhelmed with fits of sleepwalking in which she
bemoans what she believes to be bloodstains on her hands. Before Macbeths
opponents arrive, Macbeth receives news that she has killed herself.
Nevertheless, he awaits the English and fortifies Dunsinane, to which he seems
to have withdrawn in order to defend himself, certain that the witches
prophecies guarantee his invincibility. He is struck numb with fear; however,
when he learns that the English army is advancing on Dunsinane shielded with
boughs cut from Birnam Wood. Birnam Wood is indeed coming to Dunsinane,
fulfilling half of the witches prophecy.
In the battle, Macbeth hews violently, but the English forces gradually
overwhelm his army and castle. On the battlefield, Macbeth encounters the
revengeful Macduff, who declares that he was not of woman born but was
instead untimely ripped from his mothers womb. Though he realizes that he is
damned, Macbeth continues to fight until Macduff kills and beheads him,
exposing his head in a lance, then Malcolm, now the King of Scotland, is
crowned as the new king of Scotland, to the acclaim of all.

D. Write a comment about Ambition, Tyranny, Bravery

Ambition, Tyranny and bravery are implied themes in Macbeth work, we can
see the bravery of Macbeth who was an important soldier, then his ambition
drive him to commit awful crimes and murders, in complicity with his wife, they
wanted the power in the kingdom, this was the feeling that blind them,
converting them in criminals, but the blame in their hearts and minds didnt let
them live with peace, their tyrant behavior drive them crazy and sick, so their
dark conscience moved by this three feelings destroyed them.

E. Write a comment about this play and the moral lesson you have learned

Despite the advances in technology, science, and the general evolution in the
human behavior, still we can find people who moved by ambition and personal
interests, are capable of commit frightening and awful crimes, still in the actual
world the tyranny is reigning in some societies, this literary work had taught me
that there are other important things, not only the power, or material things, but
the peace in our conscience, and the satisfaction of getting our achievements
by ourselves with effort and honesty, without inducing damage in others,
because sooner or later the justice will shine.


Stobaugh, J. (2012), British Literature, Cultural Influences of Early to

Contemporary Voices

SCORE: 19/20