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CNC MILLING

CHAPTER 1

ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION (GT&TC)

Its precision that makes the world go round

A premier tool room and training center established in 1972 at Bangalore,


Karnataka india with assistance of the government of Denmark, has extensive
facilities in tool making and training. GT&TC is a modern tool room and training
center with state of art CAD/CAM equipment, machinery and inspection facilities to
meet the complex needs of discerning customer.

GT&TC is committed to achieve customer satisfaction in quality and delivery


of tool engineering education, services and precision manufacturing.

GT&TC has acquired mastery in tool engineering and vast experience in


conducting well structured, practical oriented training programs leading to post
graduation, diploma and certificates.

Realizing the need to update and upgrade the skills of existing technical
personal in industry, GT&TC conducts a number of short term programs in tool
design, advanced manufacturing techniques, design analysis and CNC programming
for manufacture and other aspect of manufacturing.

The state of art sophisticated manufacturing facility consists of 3 to 5 axis high


speed CNC machining centre, CNC jig griding, CNC spark erosion, CNC wire
EDM, CNC co-ordinate measuring machine and other supporting machineries and
facilities. The computer integrated manufacturing facility in DNC network and
supported by high end softwares such as I-DEAS, for design and manufacture,
Uni-Graphics, Pro-E , Master-cam, Mechanical Desktop and Analysis package
like C-Mold, Mold Flow and Pro-cast.

MRP Module backs the computer-aided process planning system for close
monitoring of the schedule. With the backing of qualified and experienced designers
production and quality assurance engineers GT&TC can commit to delivery of
quality tools on schedule, which meet international standards.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

Vission:

To emerge as an international centre of excellence in research, Training and


applications on all aspects of tooling technology from concepts to end product.

Mission:

To continuously improve efficiency, innovative process and adopt


technologies so as to meet all stake holders needs and make them financially
self-sufficient.

Core Objectives:

To impart world class training in tool engineering and emerging technologies.


Services in dies, Moulds, Tools, Hi-tech components Laser and related areas.
Delivering the goods at right time, right place and at right price.
Responding quickly and effectively in all communication with customers.
GT&TC is committed to achieve customer satisfaction in quality and
engineering education, services and precision machining.
GT&TC has acquired mastery in engineering and vast experience in
conducting well structured, practical oriented training programmes leading to
post graduation, diplomas.

Quality policy:

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

We are committed to customer satisfaction in terms of quality, cost, delivery


schedule and services through technological excellence.
We will strive for excellence through continuous improvement of technology,
process and competence of our employees.

Manufacturing Facilities in GTTC


GT&TCs excellence in execution of the time bound projects involving
precision machining of components for aero space, Aeronautical and precision
engineering industry, has brought laurels.

GT&TC has built up expertise in the latest concept of rapid prototyping in


plastics and metals & we can also undertake projects in rapid tooling.

Our commitment to development has enabled us to be associated with leading


research and development organization, space research organization and Hi-tech
engineering organization.

In recognition of our efforts in technology development, GT&TC is


recognized as a research and development organization by the department of science
& technology.

Brief introduction about tool and how the tool is manufactured known as tool
planning. The assembly JIG consists of structure and locators depending upon which
the tool are manufactured or prepared.

The locators further consists of contour plates and tooling hole locators which
are used to locate the hole or reverting across the main assembly plate. Depending
upon the flight direction the dimension like X-length, Y-width, and Z-height are
calculated and riveted or joined by considering fuselage reference line.

Also visited tool room and glanced different machining of tool on milling,
drilling, turning etc machines.

1.1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING OBJECTIVES

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

Industrial training refers to work experience that is relevant to professional


development prior to graduation. Industrial training is an essential component in the
development of the practical and professional skills required of an engineer and an aid
to prospective employment.
To know about the production process in an industry.
To know the maintenance activities carried out on machineries in industry.
To expose students to engineering experience and knowledge.
To share the experience gained from the Industrial Training in discussions
held in the lecture rooms.
To get a feel of a work environment.
To gain experience in writing reports in engineering works and projects.
To expose students to the engineers responsibilities and ethics.
To expose the students to future employers.
To obtain working experience in the industry.
Finally, wish all the experience and knowledge acquired, it is hoped that
students will be able to choose appropriate work upon graduation. To experience and
understand real life situation in industrial organizations and their related environments
and accelerating the learning process of how students knowledge could be used in a
realistic way. In addition to that, industrial training also makes one understand the
formal and informal relationships in an industrial organization so as to promote
favourable human relations and team work. Besides, it provides exposure to practice
and apply the acquired knowledge hands-on in the working environment. Industrial
training also provides a systematic introduction to the way of industry and developing
talent and attitudes, so that one can understand how human resource development
works.
Moreover, students can gain hands-on experience that is related to the students
majoring so that the student can relate to and widen the skills that been learnt while
being in university. Industrial training also exposes the students to the real career
world and accustoms to an organizational structure, business operation and
administrative functions.
Furthermore, students implement what they have learned and learn more
throughout this training. Besides, students can also gain experience to select the
optimal solution in handling a situation. During industrial training students can learn
the accepted safety practices in the industry students can also develop a sense of
responsibility towards society.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

1.2 SCOPE

To know the maintenance work and technique used in industry, i.e. preventive
maintenance and breakdown maintenance carried out on machineries.
To minimize the breakdown and make available machinery for production.
Introduction to the organization or company.
Exposure to work environment briefing on manufacturing or production
process flow ( subject to nature of business activities involved ).
Students are required to fill up the daily activities section in their training log
book. Therefore, students should be given task relevant aspects.
Example of tasks or assignments to be given to the student includes:
Daily task or assignments.
Short term project which may include data collection, lab analysis,
trouble shooting, equipments, performance evaluation, data analysis,
r&d and other activities deemed relevant by the supervisor in charge.
Students should be allowed for a site visit.
Presentation by the student for the project or task completed during or at the
end of the training period is highly encouraged.
Discipline is very important and full attendance is compulsory. Supervisor
should inform FKK industrial training co-ordinator should student fail to
show up at training site without notice or proper documents.

1.3 METHODS OF CARRYING OUT TRAINING


There are many methods to collect required information during in-plant training like:

Observation of the entire process..


Discussion about the observed process with the staff involved.
Interview with the experienced employees involved.
Referring relevant documents related to the process.

HUMAN RESOURCES
The total approved sanctioned strength of the department as on 1.3.2014 is
17625 out of which 12155 are in scientific and technical categories and 5470 are in
administrative categories. Welfare measures like housing, medical, canteen, schooling

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

for children, are extended to the existing personnel under different approved schemes.
Life insurance coverage from accidents in the work place namely VISWAS and a
special scheme for assistance to families in exigency, namely, SAFE are also
extended to employees at a relatively low premium through an internal trust.
The scheme of industrial training program for newly recruited
scientists/engineers which was introduced in 2002, has been continued during the
year. The scheme is useful for youngsters to understand various systems in the Indian
space program. Similar industrial training program have been continued for newly
recruited administrative staff wherein, they are introduced to various rules, regulation,
systems and processes that are in vogue in the organization.

Activities in GT&TC

Design & Manufacture Of

Plastic and die-cast components

Jigs and fixtures

Press tools

Plastic moulds

Die casting dies

Research & Development

Laser technology centre

Heart valve cage

Patient lift

Tri-cycle for disabled

1.4 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE

General manager controls the management for GT&TC. The simple system
which GT&TC fallows is as shown in the chart.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

GENERAL MANAGER

DEPUTY GENERAL
MANAGER

DEPUTY MANAGER

ASSISTANT MANAGER

OPERATOR PROGRAMMER TECHNICIAN

1.5 PLANT LAYOUT

LAYOUT OF GOVERNMENT TOOL ROOM AND TRAINING CENTER,


MYSURU

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

E- ENTRANCE

S- SECURITY ROOM

1. HSM M/C

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

2. MAINTENANCE

3. ASSEMBLY

4. BENCH WORKS

5. DNC

6. QUALITY ANALYSIS

7. CMM

8. CNC MILLING

9. CNC MILLING

10. MARKETING DEPARTMENT

11. PLANNING DEPARTMENT

12. SURFACE GRINDING

13. CNC TURNING

14. JIG GRINDING

15. WIRE EDM

16. EDM

17. TRAINING AND ACCOUNTS SECTION

18. CANTEEN

19. CAD CCENTRE

20. LASER M/C

1.6 MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing reaches right customers and explain him about special machines
and quality of work carrying out in the industry through advertisement and by other

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU


CNC MILLING

means. Thus it brings work orders for company and takes care for dispatching the
same in scheduled time. It consists of marketing departments HOD and marketing
officials work under him.

Responsibilities and authorities

Receiving the customer and soliciting their enquires.


Interacting with customers and pre-set the introduction broachers, hear doubts
and machines test etc., whenever required, arranging the shop visit if
necessary.
Preparation of estimation/worksheets, consulting tool planning and tool
production for schedule and cost details if required.
Responsible for preparation of quotation and sending same to the customer.
Coordinating with administration department for advertisement.
Responsible for releasing work order instructions to planning and follow-up
for the status of order.
In the event of any delay in meeting the delivery schedule the informing
customer accordingly.
To dispatch the completed work order to customer with proper documents.
Authorizing to sign delivery note.

Records to be maintained: Head of marketing department is responsible for


maintaining below records
List of customers.
Enquiry register or communication registers.
Quotation file.
Contract review documents.

TABLE 1.1: WORK ORDER INSTRUCTION


Unit code:

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CNC MILLING

Date:
MYSORE
WORK ORDER

INSTRUCTION

From: Marketing To: planning

Order confirmation no **************

Customer

Description

Scope of work

Quality

Drawing and specification

Raw material/specification

Date of delivery

Priority

Penalty clause if any

Acceptance criteria

Special instructions if any

Any other information

WORK PROCESS UNDER MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


Planning NIE, MYSURU Page

High tech
Design Sub contract
Quality
Marketing
assurance Design/programming
Quality
production
Marketing
assurance
components
CNC MILLING

Products

Bill of materials

Production

Quality assurance

1.7 PLANNING DEPARTMENT

Before starting the actual production process planning is done. It gives the
idea of operation, selection of machine, cost and time required, at the same tine
process will be performed with high percentage of material utilization. Planning is a

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CNC MILLING

primary function of human and material resources in an enterprise to realize


maximum profits.

Process planning represents the link between engineering design and shop
floor manufacturing since process planning determines how a part will be
manufactured , it is the major determinant of manufacturing costs and profitability.

PLANNING CONSISTS OF FOLLOWING WORKS

Tool and high tech components: it involves job planning with effective
utilization of machines available and using right tool for right operation.
Preparing process sheet: process sheet in forms the operations and machining
conditions such as diameter of components, feed, speed, material setting etc.
Job follows up: to follow up the progress of the job in shop floor.
Pre tooling: pre machining of the job in conventional machines to save the
time of high tech machines.
Route card: route card is prepared to mention in sequence.

TABLE 1.2: JOB CARD TEMPLATE

JOB CARD TEMPLATE Unit code:

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CNC MILLING

Description Department:

MYSORE
O.C. NO: Drawing/part No: Quantity:

Planned date of loading: Completion date:

Recommended Estimated time Actual time

Machine Section:

Operation:

Special instruction:

Foreman/shift in charge remark:

Date: Signature:

Job card prepared by Section:

Name: Date: Sign:

Production
planning

TABLE 1.3: PROCESS SHEET TEMPLATE

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CNC MILLING

Sheet no:

PROCESS SHEET TEMPLATE

MYSORE

Customer: Date:

Part drawing no: Material specification:

Part description code: Raw material size:

Quantity: O.C NO: Drawing SN/NO:

Operation No Process details/Drawing Machine: Tool and Gauges:

****************** ********************* ************* **************

Process prepared By: Process Co-Ordinate Process sheet prepared By:


approved by
by

TABLE 1.4: OPERATION DRAWING SHEET

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CNC MILLING

OPERATION DRAWING SHEET


MYSORE

O.C No: Part No: Reference drawing No:

Machine: Section: Date: Quantity:

Drawing

Drawing no: Checked by:

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CNC MILLING

TABLE 1.5: PURCHASE REQUISITION TEMPLATE

Unit code:

PURCHASE REQUISITION
MYSORE
TEMPLATE
Department:

Date : P.R. No

SL No: Description of items with full Quantity Delivery Remarks:


specification, branded names, required: expected:
equivalents and alternatives
acceptable

Class of goods: capital/semi-capital/raw material/consumable/stationary/others

Indenter HOD Unit head Date

Received by:

1.8 DESIGN & PROGRAMMING DEPARTMENT

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CNC MILLING

It is the organ of the industry. Quality of work, hence the name and fame of
the company depends on this section. Its function can be enlisted as below.

Collection of required technical data, study of component drawing etc.


Design calculations are done and suitable assumptions are made.
Design layout considering cost effectiveness, machine available. It also
includes comparing new design with similar.
Design review, design verification and changes if any will be implemented.
Assessment of material selection.
Preparation of drawing and bill of materials.
Generation of CNC part programs considering optimum cutting tools and
parameter.

GT&TC Design is well equipped with computers. The designers were engaged in
designing the ISRO projects.

The design department is well equipped with software like.

AUTOCAD
IDEAS
MASTERCAM
SOLIDWORKS

During my training they used MASTER CAM and SOLID WORKS to do


the designs of BEML projects. To manufacture the components, MASTER CAM is
used generate tool paths.

CHAPTER 2
ABOUT THE DEPARTMENTS
2.1 CNC MILLING
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CNC MILLING

The term CNC is a generic term which can be used to describe many types
of device, this would include plotters, vinyl cutters, 3D printers, milling
machines and others. CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled and
basically means that the physical movements of the machine are controlled by
instructions, such as co-ordinate positions that are generated using a computer.
A machine tool that uses programs to automatically execute a series
of machining operations. CNC machines offer increased productivity and flexibility.
All CNC machine types share this commonality: They all have two or
more programmable directions of motion called axes. An axis of motion can be linear
(along a straight line) or rotary (along a circular path). One of the first specifications
that implies a CNC machine's complexity is how many axes it has. Generally
speaking, the more axes, the more complex the machine.
The axis of any CNC machine are required for the purpose of causing
the motions needed for the manufacturing process. In the drilling example, these
(3) axis would position the tool over the hole to be machined (in two axes) and
machine the hole (with the third axis). Axes are named with letters. Common linear
axis names are X, Y, and Z. Common rotary axis names are A, B, and C.
GTTC Mysore is well equipped with the CNC milling machines. Most of the
machines are HIDENHAIN and FANUC control. For jobs the job setting as
well as programming is done by the operator itself. For every job, designer
of design department does the modelling and generates the tool paths.

TABLE 2.1: SPECIFICATION OF CNC MILLING MACHINE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, NIE, MYSURU Page


CNC MILLING

MAKE MIKRON BATLIBOI CHEVALIER MACPOWER


MODEL WF32C CHETAK 55 VMC 1418 V-645
MC
ORIGIN SWIZZ CANADA USA GERMANY
NO.OF 01 01 01 03
M/C
Control TNC425 FANUC OIMD Fanuc siemens
Table 600x1000 700*520 700*320 450*900
size(mm)
600 510 450 610
Traverse
(mm)-X

Traverse 600 510 350 450


(mm)-Y

450 510 380 500


Traverse
(mm)-Z

10-6300 60-6000 10000-12000 60-8000


Spindle
speed(RP
M)

Automatic 22 - 12 20
tool
changer

Max. Wt 400 400 150 400


of job kgs)

Tilting
200 - - -
table range
from m/c
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CNC MILLING

2.2 ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM):


INTRODUCTION ABOUT EDM PROCESS:
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a controlled metal-removal process
that is used to remove metal by means of electric spark erosion. In this process an
electric spark is used as the cutting tool to cut (erode) the work piece to produce
the finished part to the desired shape. The metal-removal process is performed by
applying a pulsating (ON/OFF) electrical charge of high-frequency current through
the electrode to the work piece. This removes (erodes) very tiny pieces of metal from
the work piece at a controlled rate.

h = height of crater, mm, D = diameter of crater

FIG 2.1: PRINCIPLE OF EDM

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CNC MILLING

TABLE 2.2: SPECIFICATIONS OF ELECTRO DISCHARGE MACHINES

MAKE ELECTRONICA MAKINO EDNC MAKINO EDNC

ORIGIN INDIA JAPAN JAPAN

CONTROL ------------------ CNC MGE 60 CNC MGE 20

TABLE SIZE(mm) 550350 550750 350550

TANK SIZE(mm) 4007001000 300430680


325490820

TRAVERSE(mm)- X
mm 600 300 300

TRAVERSE(mm)- Y
mm 200 400 250

TRAVERSE(mm)- Z
250 250 250
mm

MAX. JOB 300 1500 500


WEIGHT(kg)

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CNC MILLING

2.3 CNC Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM)

Principles of CNC WEDM Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a


controlled metal-removal process that is used to remove metal by means of electric
spark erosion.In this process an electric spark is used as the cutting tool to cut (erode)
the work piece to produce the finished part to the desired shape. The metal
removal process is performed by applying a pulsating (ON/OFF) electrical charge of
high-frequency current through the electrode to the work piece. This removes (erodes)
very tiny pieces of metal from the workpiece at a controlled rate.

Major Components

A Wire EDM system is comprised of four major components.


(1) Computerized Numerical Control (CNC)
Think of this as The Brains.

(2) Power Supply


Provides energy to the spark.
Think of this as The Muscle.

(3) Mechanical Section


Worktable, work stand, taper unit, and wire drive mechanism.
Think of this as The Body.

(4) Dielectric System


The water reservoir where filtration, condition of the water and temperature of
the water is provided and maintained.
Think of this as The Nourishment.

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CNC MILLING

TABLE 2.3: SPECIFICATIONS OF CNC WIRE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE


MACHINING (WEDM)

Make ELECTRONICA MAKINO

Origin INDIA JAPAN

Table size (mm) 150400500 770570210

Traverse-X (mm) 300 600

Traverse- Y (mm) 400 440

Traverse-Z (mm) 150 220

Traverse-UAxis (mm) 15 28

Traverse-VAxis (mm) 15 28

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CNC MILLING

2.4 GRINDING
INTRODUCTION ABOUT GRINDING PROCESS

Grinding is a metal cutting operation performed by means of abrasive


particles rigidly mounted on a rotating wheel. Each of the abrasive particles act as a
single point cutting tool and grinding wheel acts as a multipoint cutting tool. The
grinding operation is used to finish the work pieces with extremely high quality
of surface finish and accuracy of shape and dimension. Grinding is one of the
widely accepted finishing operations because it removes material in very small
size of chips 0.25 to 0.50 mm. It provides accuracy of the order of 0.000025 mm.
Grinding of very hard material is also possible.

FIG 2.2: CUTTING ACTION OF ABRASIVE GRAINS IN GRINDING MACHINE

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CNC MILLING

GRINDING WHEELS
Grinding wheel consists of hard abrasive grains called grits, which perform the
cutting or material removal. A grinding wheel commonly identified by the type
of the abrasive material used. The conventional wheels include aluminum oxide
and silicon carbide wheels while diamond and CBN (cubic boron nitride) wheels fall
in the category of super abrasive wheel.

GRINDING WHEEL ABRASIVES:


An abrasive is a hard and tough substance. It has many sharp edges.
ABRASIVES OF FOLLOWING TYPES
1. Natural
Sandstone
Emery
Diamond
Garnet
2. Synthetic
Aluminium oxide
Silicon carbide
Cubic boron nitride
Boron carbide

2.4.1 JIG GRINDING


INTRODUCTION ABOUT JIG GRINDING PROCESS:

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CNC MILLING

A jig grinder is a machine tool used for grinding complex shapes and
holes where the highest degrees of accuracy and finish are required.
It may be used to grind items such as jigs, dies, and gauges. A jig
grinder typically uses a removable, air-driven spindle. This is used to rotate the
grinding wheels. The air spindles are interchangeable to achieve varying surface
speeds.
Grinding machines generally work on a similar principle to jig grinding. But
one of the limitations of the various grinding machines is their lack of
precision. Hence for precision grinding Jig grinding machines are used. Many
Jig machines are now computerized and operate with special software.

This often eliminates much of the geometric calculating once required of the
operator. Much of the labor has also been reduced by the automation of these
machines. The improvements made can result in much faster grinding,
operation by less-skilled workers, and a higher degree of accuracy.
JIG GRINDING MACHINE IN GTTC:

FIG 2.3: MOORE Jig grinding machine

Model CPS 450


ORIGIN USA
TABLE 2.4: MOORE JIG GRINDING MACHINE SPECIFICATION
MAXIMUM BED TRAVELS

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CNC MILLING

X axis 460 mm

Y axis 280 mm

U axis 1.5mm (depth of cut)

C axis rotary 360

Capacity of outside diameter 196 mm

SPINDLE RPM

Minimum 4000

Middle 60,000
Maximum 1, 20,000

Maximum weight of job 150 kg

Least count of machine 0.0001 mm

Accuracy of M/c 2-3 microns

2.5 LASER WELDING


Laser welding is a non-contact process that requires access to the weld
zone from one side of the parts being welded. The weld is formed as the intense

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CNC MILLING

laser light rapidly heats the material-typically calculated in milli-seconds. The


flexibility of the laser offers three types of welds; conduction mode,
conduction/penetration mode and penetration or keyhole mode.
One of the largest advantages that pulsed laser welding offers is the
minimal amount of heat that is added during processing. The repeated "pulsing"
of the beam allows for cooling between each "spot" weld, resulting in a very
small "heat affected zone". This makes laser welding ideal for thin sections or
products that require welding near electronics or glass-to-metal seals. Low heat
input, combined with an optical (not electrical) process, also means greater flexibility
in tooling design and materials.

FIG 2.4: LASER WELDING PROCRSS

Welding requires high energy density that can be achieved by working


at the focal point of the optical system. The absorption coefficient of the laser
beam by the material depends of material nature and Wavelength of the laser source.

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At sufficiently high specific powers, a key hole filled with metal vapour is
formed in the material. The wall of the keyhole consists of molten liquid metal. The
molten pool, which is created and maintained in this way, is moved between
the parts to be assembled and the metal resolidifies behind the laser beam.
This phenomenon, which occurs in the case of a continuous beam
(laser) is significantly different in the case of a pulsed beam (pulsed YAG laser).
Indeed, the bead is then created by a series of partially overlapping spots. The
welding process is then similar to that already described as a result of the
reached peak energy levels, the material is melted or, even, vaporized
instantaneously. This is followed condensation and immediate solidification.
2.5.1 PREPARATIONS OF JOINTS
The preparation of joints is very important having many implications
regarding the design of the weld.
The work pieces are correctly positioned together.
The work pieces are not beveled.

2.5.2 MAIN MATERIALS WORKED WITH LASER YAG


MACHINE
Ferrous metals
Non-Ferrous Metals
Plastics
Ceramics
Leather

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FIG 2.5: ND YAG CONTINUES WAVE LASER:

TABLE 2.5: SPECIFICATION OF ND YAG CONTINUES WAVE LASER

Capacity 400W CW-Nd

Size 500300

Precision 0.02mm on 50mm

Operation Cutting and welding

Control software FLOCON

Assisting gas O2,N2,A2

Machinability CUTTING: Steel up to 2mm, Stainless


steel up to 1 mm, suitable for thin foil
cutting
WELDING: Stainless steel and Steel
upto1mm

2.6 QUALITY CONTROL

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2.6.1 INSPECTION
Inspection is the most common method of attaining standardization, uniformity
and quality of workmanship. It is the cost art of controlling the product
quality after comparison with the established standards and specifications. It is the
function of quality control. If the said item does not fall within the zone of
acceptability it will be rejected and corrective measure will be applied to see
that the items in future conform to specified standards. Inspection is an
indispensable tool of modern manufacturing process. It helps to control quality,
reduces manufacturing costs, eliminate scrap losses and assignable causes of
defective work

2.6.2 PURPOSE OF INSPECTION


By thorough inspection, we can detect faults at every manufacturing process
and rectify them.

It helps in building up the reputation of a firm or concern.

It improves the quality of the product.

It reduces cost spent on scrap pieces and further process can be stopped
if
mistake is going on.
2.6.3 TYPES OF INSPECTION
FLOOR INSPECTION:
It suggests the checking of materials in process at the machine or in
the production time by patrolling inspectors. These inspectors move from
machine to machine and from one to the other work centres. Inspectors have to be
highly skilled. This method of inspection minimize the material handling, does
not disrupt the line layout of machinery and quickly locate the defect and readily
offers field and correction.

CENTRALIZED INSPECTION:

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CNC MILLING

Materials in process may be inspected and checked at centralized


inspection centre which are located at one or more places in the manufacturing
industry.

COMBINED INSPECTION:
Combination of two methods whatever may be the method of inspection,
whether floor or central. The main objective is to locate and prevent defect which
may not repeat itself in subsequent operation to see whether any corrective measure
is required and finally to maintained quality economically.

2.6.4 INSTRUMENTS AT INSPECTION DEPARTMENT


Profile projector

Tool makers microscope

Height master

Co-ordinate measuring machine

PROFILE PROJECTOR
The main principle of operation is a specimen is placed on the glass
stage. The stage is then illuminated from below and the resulting image is
picked up by the microscope objectives and projected to a large built-in
projection screen. Since the specimen has under lighting, the fine microscopic
details are eliminated and only the details of contour and profile are seen. A
drawing can be affixed to the profile projectors large viewing screen and the contour
can be easily traced or compared to other profiles and contours on the other drawings.

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FIG 2.6: PROFILE PROJECTOR

TABLE 2.6: SPECIFICATIONS OF PROFILE PROJECTOR

PROFILE PROJECTOR INSTRUMENT


ORIGIN JAPAN

Effective diameter, mm 250

Angular resolution, range, degree 1.360

Cross travel range, mm 50*50

Work stage dimension, mm 152152

Micrometer head, mm 0.00125

Max. work piece height, mm 75

Special accessories 20X,50X,10X

Accuracy 0.001

TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE

A tool maker microscope is a type of a multi functional device that is


primarily used for measuring tools and apparatus. These microscopes are widely
used and commonly seen inside machine and tools manufacturing industries and

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factories. These microscopes are also inside electronics production houses and in
aeronautic parts factories. A tool maker microscope is an indispensable
tool in the different measurement tasks performed throughout the engineering
industry.
The main use of a tool maker microscope is to measure the shape, size,
angle, and the position of the small components that falls under the microscopes
measuring range.
A tool maker microscope is primarily used for measuring the shape of
different components like the template, formed cutter, milling cutter, punching die,
and cam. The pitch, external, and internal diameters are specifically measured as well.
The thread gauge, guide worm, and guide screw are conveniently
handled as well. As far angles are concerned, the thread and pitch angle are of chief
concern.

FIG 2.7: TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE

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TABLE 2.7: SPECIFICATION OF TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE

INSTRUMENT TOOL MAKERS MICROSCOPE

ORIGIN JAPAN

Magnification 10X,15X,20X

Stage size 152152


Travelling distance, mm 5050

Max.work piece height, mm 115

0.005
Accuracy

HEIGHT MASTER

It is a high precision instrument to measure and transfer of height on the job.


It can be used as a master for calibration in Standards Room and in Tool Room

FIG 2.8: HEIGHT MASTER

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TABLE 2.8: SPECIFICATION OF HEIGHT MASTER

INSTRUMENT HEIGHT MASTER

ORIGIN JAPAN

Max.height,mm 300

Accuracy, mm 0.001

Read out DIGITAL

Stroke,mm 20

CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE


A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is a device for measuring the
physical geometrical characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually
controlled by an operator or it may be computer controlled. Measurements are
defined by a probe Attached to the third moving axis of this machine. Probes may
be mechanical, optical, laser, or white light, amongst others.
The typical "bridge" CMM is composed of three axes, an X, Y and Z. These
axes are orthogonal to each other in a typical three dimensional coordinate
system. Each axis has a scale system that indicates the location of that axis. The
machine will read the input from the touch probe, as directed by the operator
or programmer. The machine then uses the X,Y,Z coordinates of each of these points
to determine size and position with micrometre precision typically.
A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is also a device used in
manufacturing and assembly processes to test a part or assembly against the
design intent. By precisely recording the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the target, points
are generated which can then be analyzed via regression algorithms for the
construction of features. These points are collected by using a probe that is
positioned manually by an operator or automatically via Direct Computer
Control (DCC). DCC CMMs can be programmed to repeatedly measure identical
parts, thus a CMM is a specialized form of industrial robot.

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FIG 2.9: SHOWS CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE

TABLE 2.9: SPECIFICATION OF CO-ORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE

MAKE CARL ZIESS

ORIGIN GERMANY

Measuring range-X, mm 550

Measuring range-Y, mm 500

Measuring range-Z, mm 450

Overall CMM size 126013402660

Max.wt of work piece 600

Applications Co-ordinate measuring, surface


scanning, Digitizing curve and
contour measurement

Note: Machine Hour Rate of co-ordinate measuring machine (CMM) -


Rs1000/hr

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CHAPTER 3

TASK PERFORMED

During internship program we got an opportunity to observe the production


work going on and we involved in
Design and Manufacturing of
BRACKET FIN
PRESSURE SWITCH ADAPTER

3.1FLOW CHART OF MANUFACTURING BRACKET

DESIGN OF CAD
MODEL

CNC MILLING

STAGE INSPECTION

WIRE EDM

BENCH WORK FOR


FITTING

FINAL INSPECTION

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3.2 PROCEDURE

Design of cad model

FIG 3.1: CAD MODEL OF BRACKET FIN

FIG 3.2: CAD MODEL OF PRESSURE SWITCH ADAPTER

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3.3 CNC Milling:


Most CNC milling machines are computer controlled vertical mills with
the ability to move the spindle vertically along the Z-axis. This extra degree of
freedom permits their use in die sinking, engraving applications etc. CNC machines
can exist in virtually any of the forms of manual machinery, like horizontal
mills. The most advanced CNC milling-machines, the multi axis machine, add
two more axes in addition to the three normal axes (XYZ).
These machines have developed from the basic NC (NUMERIC
CONTROL) machines. A computerized form of NC machines is known as CNC
machines. A set of instructions (called program) is used to guide the machine for
desired operations.

SETTING UP A CNC MACHINE:

Clean all surfaces, for example table, vise jaws and part very good with a
lint free cloth.

FIG 3.3: SETTING A CNC MACHINE

Load tools needed.

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FIG 3.4: TOOL BOX

Load the job into the vice

FIG 3.5: VICE

Set work fixture offsets. Make sure the machine is using the WFO that the
program will be using.

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FIG 3.6: Set work fixture offsets

Adjust coolant lines so coolant can properly cool tools and wash chips
away.

FIG 3.7: ADJUST COOLANT LINES

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FIG 3.8: CYCLE START.

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FIG 3.9: Milling Operation

In cnc milling after generating the cad model of the design we must generate
the program by taking absolute and incremental dimensioning into consideration.
Next is to select the necessary tool for manufacturing. Now we should clamp the
work piece and adjust coolant into position. then we should insert card containing
program. Before loading the program first and foremost we must take the machine
offset so that dimension can be taken from the origin. Next is cycle start of the
machine.

During manufacturing of bracket fin following operation will be carried out

1st setting : Facing of square block

2st setting: Slotting of square block.

3nd setting :Wire cutting of block into single component by wire EDM machine

4rd setting :champer operation.

5th setting: inside slot operation.

6th setting: countersink hole operation.

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3.4 STAGE INSPECTION:

All parts are inspected in their respective stages while processing. This is
known as stage inspection. It helps in rectifying the mistake occurred during each
operation.
Suppliers shall establish and maintain documented procedures for
inspections and tests of the equipment during manufacturing and assembly. The
procedures shall provide for the verification by inspections or tests, at
appropriate points in the manufacturing, that the characteristics of the item conform
to the requirement specified for that stage of the process. In general the
verification should be made as close as possible to the point of realisation of the
characteristic.
The in-process verification may include:
Set-up and first piece inspection.
Inspection or test by machine operator.
Automatic inspection or test.
Fixed inspection stations.
Equipment shall be held until the required inspection and test has been
completed. Equipment shall not be released for further use until it has been verified
and the results of the verification are satisfactory.
3.5 WIRE EDM:
Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM), also known as wire-cut
EDM and wire cutting, a thin single-strand metal wire, usually brass, is fed through
the work piece, submerged in a tank of dielectric fluid, typically deionized
water. Wire-cut EDM is typically used to cut plates and to make punches, tools, and
dies from hard metals that are difficult to machine with other methods.

FIG 3.10: WIRE EDM

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Wire EDM uses electro-thermal mechanisms to cut electrically


conductive materials. The material is removed by a series of discrete discharges
between the wire electrode and the work piece in the presence of dielectric fluid,
which creates a path for each discharge as the fluid becomes ionized in the gap.
The area where discharge takes place is heated to extremely high temperature, so
that the surface is melted and removed. The removed particles are flushed away by
the flowing dielectric fluids. The wire EDM process can cut intricate
components for the electric and aerospace industries.
Bench Work
The bench work and fitting plays an important role in every engineering
workshop to complete and finish the job to the desired accuracy. The work carried
out by hand at the bench is called bench work. Whereas fitting is the assembling of
parts together by fitting, chipping, sawing, fore capping, tapping etc. necessary
after the machine
operation.
Final Inspection
Final inspection is one in which the product manufactured is inspected
completely after completion. The contractor shall carry out all final inspection and
testing in accordance with the quality plan and/or documented procedures to
complete the evidence of the conformance of the finished equipment to the
specified requirements. The quality plan and/or documented procedures for all final
inspection and testing shall require that all specified inspections and tests,
including those specified on receipt of equipment or in - process, have been carried
out and that the results meet specified requirements.
Inspections and tests procedures shall define:
The location where the inspection or test is to be performed (supplier
premises)
The parameters to be measured.
The characteristics or functions that have to be verified.
The acceptance criteria, including any applicable standards or codes.
The requirements for special tools, fixtures, gauges, test set-ups and measuring
equipment.

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TABLE 3.1: TIME TAKEN FOR MANUFACTURING OF SINGLE BRACKET FIN

OPERATION TIME IN MINUTES


CNC Milling 60

Stage Inspection 10

Wire EDM 60

Bench Work 15

Final Inspection 30

TOTAL Time Taken 175

Total order 200


Total production cost 80 lakhs
Cost of one single product 16000

FIG 3.11: BRACKET FIN FIG 3.12: PRESSURE SWITCH ADAPTER

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3.6 SHOP FLOOR DESIGN OF MILLING SECTION

Quality and
inspection
department

Glass enclosure

CNC
milling
CNC Machine 4
milling
Machine 7

CNC
milling
Machine 3

Cnc milling
Machine 6
CNC
milling
Machine 2

CNC
milling CNC
Machine 5 milling
Machine 1

Planning Marketing
department department Customer order

FIG 3.13: CURRENT MILLING SECTION

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3.7 SUGGESTION
We can change the milling section to u shaped line may reduce employ
movement and space requirements while enhancing communication, reducing the no
of workers, and facilitating inspection.
CNC milling
Machine 4

CNC
CNC milling
milling Machine 5
Machine 3

CNC
Cnc milling milling
Machine 2 WORKERS Machine 6

CNC
CNC
milling
milling
Machine 7
Machine 1

Quality and
Planning
department inspection
department

Marketing Dispatch to
customer
department

Customer
order FIG 3.14: OPTIMIZED MILLING SECTION

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CHAPTER 4
REFLECTION NOTES
The internship training is experienced the real life situations in industrial
organizations and their related maintenance environments and accelerating the
learning process of how knowledge could be used in a realistic way.
In addition to that, industrial training also makes one understand the formal
and informal relationships in an industrial organization so as to promote
favorable in.
The exposure to practice and apply the acquired knowledge in the
maintenance works industrial training also provides a systematic introduction
to the ways of industry and developing maintenance activities.
There is strong evidence that industrial training is highly beneficial to students
development, and it is highly valued.
The students are well equipped to manage the period of industrial training
successfully and undoubtedly gain useful experience of applying their
specialist and technical skills, as well as developing their personal and
communications skills.
This internship also helps students to prepare for the work environment and
also teach the ergonomics of organizations in the real world.
An internship is the great way to develop specific skills and knowledge as well
as make contacts to network, build confidence and enhance your resume. In this
chapter I will reflect on all the experience and influences that I had in this internship
program. because reflecting summarizing and analyzing the skills acquired and/or
work during this period is as important as the internship itself as it provides clear
picture of the things to be done for the way forward in our professional life.

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Internship is short-term work experiences that allowes us to observe and


participate in professional work environments and explore how our interests relate to
possible careers. They are important learning opportunities that can help us to make
informed decision about our career path
Internships is beneficial because they provide the opportunity to:
Get an inside view of an industry and organization/company.
Gain valuable skills and knowledge.
Make professional connections and enhance your network.
Get experience in field to allow us to make a career transition.
Increasingly, employers are looking for students who have gained experience
through internships. They provide us with a chance to improve our skill set and learn
from those with whom we are working with. The purpose of an internship is not to
make money it is to explore a career interest, develop skills, and gain experience. It is
up to us to make the most of the internship by learning as mush as we can, asking
questions and making contacts, the value of which far exceeds most internships
compensation. When considering an internship, our focus should be on the skills we
will learn and the experience we will have.

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4.1 LEARNING OUTCOME:


I learnt advanced solution for conceptual design, 3d modeling and
documentation.
I learnt to do product design ,drafting, documentation with powerful tools for
layout, drawing.
I learnt to use CNC simulation software which works same as live machine.
I learnt how to operate CNC machine.
I learnt how the process happens from customer order to delivery of the
product in the firm.
I came to know that the software also includes visual analysis and validation
which will give high quality performance insights for product decisions. Complete
part manufacturing solutions for tooling, machining, and quality inspection.
Working in the place other than home town with persons from different
cultures the internship was an opportunity to get immersed on a deeper level in
different culture. It was really experiencing to see how other people live. It also
helped to look at things from a different perspective. I did not experience difficulties
caused by different cultural backgrounds. An interesting and open attitude of the
people has helped. An internship was also a good way for me to see whether I could
work outside my home town. I hardly experienced problems in the organization and I
got really fast used to the different way of living. Also the work came easy to me and
I felt a full member of the project teams.
On the whole, this internship was a use full experience. I have gained new
knowledge, skills and met many new people. I achieved several of my learning goals,
however for some the condition did not permit. I got insight into professional practice.
I learned the different facets of working within an organization. I experienced that
financing as in many organizations, is an important factor for the progress of projects.
Related to my study I learned more about CNC milling and manufacturing process
carried out in an organization. There is still a lot to discover and to improve. The
internship was also good to find out what my strengths and weaknesses are. This
helped me to define what skills and knowledge I have to improve in the coming time.
After my master I think that I could start my working career. At last this internship has
given me new insights and motivation to pursue career.

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REFERENCES

Production technology by R K Jain, 17th ed, 2010 khanna publishers, new


delhi.
Http://www.automationmag.com/images/stories/lwtechfiles/91%20Electrical
%20Discharge.pdf
Http://www.ignou.ac.in/upload/Unit-2.pdf
Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jig_grinder

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