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for a living planet

IDENTIFICATION OF BIODIVERSITY HOT SPOTS


IN MUSAKHEL DISTRICT BALOCHISTAN
MOHAMMAD YAHYA MUSAKHEL

March – August 2005

All photographs taken during the survey. Photo credits: M. Yahya Musa Khel, Waheed Razaq and Muzaffar
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CONTENTS
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………II
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………..II
List of Appendix………………………………………………………………………….II
Project Introduction……………………………………………………………….…….1
Project Summary……………………………………………………………………… ..1
Project Objectives………………………………………………………………………..2
Methodology used ……………………………………………………………………….2
Result and their significance ……………………………………………………………3
Anthropogenic Aspect.........................................................................................................3
Socio economic scenario………………………………………………………………… 4
General description of project areas …………………………………………………….5
Ecological Aspect ………………………………………………………………………..9
General description of vegetation ……………………………………………………….9
Habitat types………………………………………………………………………………9
Vegetation study ……………………………………………………………………… 11
Miscellaneous uses of plants in Musakhel ………………………………………….…13
Medicinal plants …………………………………………………………………….….14
Forest types in Musakhel area………………………………………………………….17
Fauna Survey …………………………………………………………………………..18
Geography……………………………………………………………………………….19
Zoogeography …………………………………………………………………………...19
Mammals ………………………………………………………………………………..19
Aves ……………………………………………………………………………………...20
Reptiles ………………………………………………………………………………….20
Butterflies ……………………………………………………………………………….20
Equipments used in the survey………………………………………………………..21
Summary of Results……………………………………………………………………22
Conclusion and recommendation……………………………………………………..23
Out put: Reports, media, articles, slides, photographs etc…………………………..24
Equipment status report……………………………………………………………….25
Observers………………………………………………………………………………. 25
Acknowledgment ……………………………………………………………………….26
References ………………………. ……………………………………………………..27
Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………..28
Photographs……………………………………………………………………………..40
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LIST OF MAPS, GRAPHS & TABLES

S. # TOPIC PAGE
MAPS iii
01 MAP OF BALOCHISTAN iv
02 MAP OF MUSAKHEL DISTRICT v
03 VEGETATION TYPE vi
04 PRECIPITATION vii
GRAPHS
1 RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SPECIES 12
2 SPECIES AREA CURVE 13
3 USE OF PLANTS FOR VARIOUS AILMEMENT 14
TABLES
1 PHYTO-SOCIOLOGICAL DATA OF MUSAKHEL 12
2 CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS ON THE BASIS 14
OF MORPHOLOGY
3 MAIN FOREST TYPES IN MUSAKHEL 17
4 WILDLIFE DIVERSITY IN MUSAKHEL 18
5 Summary of results 22

LIST OF APPENDIX

S. # TOPIC PAGE
Annex 1a Socio-economic Questionnaire 28
Annex 1b Socio-ecological Questionnaire 31
Annex 2 Climate and physiography of surveyed areas 33
Annex 3 Present Livestock Population of surveyed Villages 33
Annex 4a Checklist of Plants identified during the survey 34
Annex 4b Plants Under identification 36
Annex 5 List of wild/medicinal plants of Musakhel 36
Annex 6 List of Birds 37
Annex 7a. Sulaman Markhors observed during the Survey 38
Annex 7b. Urials observed during the Survey 38
Annex 8 List of Mammal species. 39
Annex 9 Fuel wood consumption in Musakhel 39
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Study
Area

MAP OF DISTRICT MUSAKHEL


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VEGETATION TYPE
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Precipitation
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Project Introduction
The Project identification of Biodiversity hotspots in Musakhel district was designed to
assess the status of biodivestiy under the following objectives:

™ Identify threats to Biodiversity


™ Identify solution to minimize the impacts.
™ Strengthening the local CBO’s in intend to work in conservation areas.
™ Prepare documentation of resources database.
™ Prepare guideline for communities to improve the Socio-economic condition.

Summary of the Project

Musakhel is one of the most diverse districts in the province and aesthetically and
ecologically provides unique habitat. It is a home of hundreds of species of plants and
animals, many of which are found nowhere else in the whole province. The climate is
arid and subtropical, and mostly receives monsoon shower during summer (detail
climatic features are presented in the Annex 2). The natural vegetation of the area
consists of sub-tropical thorn forest. Survey for the identification of Biodiversity
Hotspots of Musakhel District was carried out during the year 2005. The area has many
species and habitats of global biodiversity significance.

For the identification and assessment of biodiversity situation in Musakhel district study
was carried out based on review of secondary data and data collection in the physical
environmental features (topography, soil, geology, climate and water), biological
characteristics (ecology, flora and fauna), socio-economic conditions, and their analysis.
The study was conducted in seven main areas in the District, which were thoroughly
surveyed. Field data have been collected in accordance with biodiversity survey
methodology developed. In seven areas of District approximately 1,600 Km area was
surveyed. According to the survey of targeted areas, of the nearly 111 plant species
recorded in Musakhel area, 102 species were identified and 9 species are under
identification (details are presented in Annex 4a & 4b) Pinus wallichiana is listed as an
endangered species. There are estimated 50 medicinal plants that could play an important
role in the villages. Fourteen mammal species, 32 birds’ species, 7 reptile species, 4
amphibian species and 6 butterflies species were recorded during the survey (details are
presented in Annex 6a & 6b). Among others, Sulaiman Markhore and urial (Ovis vignei)
have special importance. Sulaiman Markhore is the national animal, endangered and
listed in the schedule-1 of CITES. Both these species are listed in the 3rd Schedule of
Balochistan Forest and Wildlife Act 1974. Presently very few information about the
status and distribution of these species are available. Even in these targeted areas,
population status of these species was not available before WWF – Pakistan’s survey

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2005. Even this needs to be repeated regularly to know the trend in population dynamics.
Wildlife is treated as a free commodity in the target area. Local Malaks and notables
hunted the Markhore and urial in particular. During the survey, the trophies of Markhore
and Urial were also found in houses and graveyards, which indicates the large scale
occurrence and distribution of these animals. Vitality, dynamic and biodiversity of entire
ecosystem of the area was being damaged through grazing, cutting and removal of
vegetation for fuel wood, capturing of lambs of Urial and Markhore for selling as pets
and illegal hunting for trophies and game.
The root cause of this devastation was poverty, poorly developed agro-pastoral practices
and lack of awareness regarding natural resources. The combination of these factors had
taken the natural resources to the verge of impoverishment and destruction. An estimated
25000-30000 numbers of livestock heads graze in this targeted area (details are presented
in Annex 3). Nomads also graze their animals in these target areas and they put extra
pressure on the ecosystem. Traditional grazing system (Pargore) exists in the target areas.
Rangelands are still freely grazed. The survey of the area revealed the potential for
biodiversity conservation because the areas are important refuge of Sulaiman Markhore
and Urial.

Methodology used
Participatory data collection techniques were used to collect and analyze the socio-
ecological data of the area. A detailed questionnaire was also designed to collect the
required information to ensure the quantitative as well as qualitative aspects of the
gathered information. Participatory learning and action/ participatory rural appraisal
(PRA/ PLA) techniques were used with the custodian communities while transect walks
were conducted to know the population status of the available flora and fauna of the area.
For floral survey, line intercept method, for ungulates fix point method and for aves stand
watch and nest survey techniques were used. However, it was felt that a comprehensive
detailed socioeconomic survey is required to explore the exact potential of the target area.
Two day training was provided to the data collection team in order to acquaint them
regarding the device questionnaire and different data collection techniques.

Result & their Significance:

District Musakhel is rich in floral and faunal diversity. However unsustainable utilization
of these natural resources resulted in their extreme decline. The excessive use of these
natural resources by the community has caused deforestation, habitat destruction,
overgrazing, illegal hunting and depletion of population of wild species and cutting of
vegetation. Some species are endangered and others have been reduced to small and
scattered populations. Remote areas of Northern Balochistan are mostly owned by the
local communities. These remote areas are still important refuge for a number of wild
animal species. Shinghar, Surghar and Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen) areas in District
Musakhel, Balochistan contain reasonable number of Slaiman Markhore, Urial and
Chinkara. These are the potential sites for long-term conservation of species of special
concern. While Dames Safa (Kingri) and Gokarh and perennial streams of Rodh and
Toysar are the wetlands having reasonable number of wild ducks and several kinds of

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birds. It is the route of migratory birds e.g. cranes, eagles, houbara bustard and quills.
Besides, it is an important area due to several prominent features regarding social,
ecological, economic and aesthetic points of view.

ANTHROPOGENIC ASPECT:

Rationale:

It is a fact that no conservation initiatives can be successful in the long run without the
involvement of local communities. Community participation in development and
conservation initiatives is relatively a new approach in our country. The classical
approach to manage the natural resources is emphasized on the legislation and its
implementation through watch and ward. On one hand, this approach has successfully
addressed the conservation issues of certain areas but has a negative impact on the local
community for ignoring their traditional rights, food security and livelihood which
ultimately results in increase in pouching, encroachments and conflicts with managers.

WWF- Pakistan strongly believes on the involvement of local communities and also
focuses on social dimensions of any conservation initiatives by recognizing their rights of
ownership and tenure. It also emphasizes that the relationship between the local
communities and their area is valuable and fragile as ecosystem. Pursuing its stated goals,
the survey team has given equal consideration to social aspect during the survey of the
target area. Objectives of data collection were to:
• Identify tribal, social and economic nomenclature of the communities.
• Know about the livelihood patterns, conflicts and possible solutions
• Address the relationship between the human activities and the ecology.

Following methods were employed in conducting the anthropogenic survey:

a) Review of related literature

For this purpose, related materials were obtained from various institutions. Although, no
work has been done so for on any aspect of Musakhel, but District Profile and District
Gazetteer contain some data.

b) Development of Questionnaire

Encompassing the main objectives of the study in particular and overall survey in
general, questionnaire was designed to focus all the social aspects of the targeted areas
the questionnaire used for the survery is provided in Annexure. 1)

c) Meeting with Local CBO’s and NGO’s

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In order to further facilitate the survey, meetings with local CBO’s and NGOs like, Millat
Welfare Society, Zimri welfare Society and Al-Shahbaz Welfare Trust, Water
Environment and Sanitation Society were held.

d) Field Survey / Interviews

Questionnaire was circulated among the targeted population to obtain the information.
Group discussion / interviews were also held in the communities of the local villages.

Socio Economic Scenario


Social organization is based on kinship and lineage. A vast majority of the villages are
either inhabited by a single lineage but some have small members of different clans.
Kinship bound keeps the people together. The community organization in and around the
Musakhel area varies between highly stratified villages and small in-situ egalitarian,
nomadic groups. In winter season, majority of the residents of villages of Musakhel area
live in traditionally built houses, which are non-insulated and have an open hole in the
roof through which the smoke from the cooking fire escapes. This room is usually used as
kitchen, sitting room, dinning room and bedroom. While in summer they live in hutments
made of mud and chuff without adequate sanitation, while some live in huts (Madow).
Nomads use tents (Khaima) made of goat and sheep wool or simple cloth. We selected
seven villages for the survey. The villages have 180 to 300 households. The traditions of
whole area are same; their identity is symbolized in their language and code of honor;
otherwise they are heterogeneous collection of tribes of various origins. They are thought
by the virtue of honesty, loyalty, faith and hostility. Tribal system varies, in some areas it
is very strong while in other areas is normal, but Sardars and Malaks have strong role in
conflicts resolution and decision-making.
All the surveyed areas are socio- economically neglected by Government and non-
governmental organizations. No basic infrastructure and facility is available to the
inhabitants of the area. They are still deprived of drinking water and electricity. Non-
metaled road exists in a few villages but almost all villages are deprived to shingle road.
Literacy rate is close to nil.

Livestock rearing and agriculture are the major sources of income. Each household keeps
livestock. The average herd size is between 100- 150 heads per household. Agriculture is
mainly dependent on rain which is used to grow wheat and pulses.

Since the area is rich in forests, wildlife, wetlands, geological features, landscaping and
historical heritage the enormous eco-tourism potential exists in the area.

Ladies in the area are active and self-motivated but neglected force. This important
resource is going waste. They are mainly responsible for fetching water and collection of
fuel wood for domestic use. The primary economic activities are livestock rearing and
embroidery. There is no Female Doctor available in the whole district and in all surveyed
villages, no trained TBA was found.

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREAS

The term ‘Project Area’ has been used in this document to denote the area where the
survey has been planned and undertaken are; Shahsar (Torghar), Surghar, Safa, Zimri
Palaseen, Rodh and Chassan (Gokar) Sali. These areas are rich in biodiversity
composition.

i. Shahsar:

Shahsar (Torghar) area is located about 34 Km in the north of Musakhail city having
altitude of 5800 – 9,000 feet above sea level. The road is shingle totally and the area is
un- approachable through vehicle because the target area is 14 km away from the village
road connection with 293 households and a population of 2141. The area is thinly
populated with scattered settlements. The entire population consists of Pashtoon and the
major tribe is Mohammad zai. Tribal system has very strong hold in the area. The Malak
provide local leadership and responsible for conflict resolution and decision-making.
Malik Juma Khan is the Malak of the target area.

There is no school, electricity, health facilities and water supply but one small shop is in
the village. Mountains surround the area and two valleys are present in the center.
Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the warmer
areas in Punjab). National Park, wildlife sanctuary or game reserve and in the entire area
and no sensitive archeological sites exists. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient
quantity but surface water resources are scare. In the whole village only on small spring
is situated at a distance of 1.5 Km, which fulfill the requirements of human being and
livestock. The women of the area fetch water on their head for domestic use.

Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood; about 6500 Sheep, 5432
goats and 350 cows are raring in the area. The average herd size is 120 and above. It is
almost all hilly area and agricultural lands are very scare.

The area is well known for its thick forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of
Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and
Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and Chinkara and in birds
sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles are common.

Shahsar is an extremely remote village as there is no Telephone facility and no post


office; however, there are radio sets in each home.

ii. Surghar

Surghar area is located at about 20 Km in the northwest of Musakhail city having altitude
of 7000-9300 feet. The approach road is shingle and the area is approachable through
vehicle and the target area is 6-7 km away from the road. Surghar is the common
mountain of four villages namely, Merdadzai, Hasankhel, Inzai and Sadozai. About 70%

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of the whole area come in the territory of Merdadzai tribe. Malik Mohammad Noor is the
Malak of the tribe.

Merdadzai village is thinly populated with scattered settlements and mainly nomadic. The
total population of the area is 3,400, and predominantly Pashto speaking. One boys
primary school, building is available it is not functional. There is no electricity and health
facilities but water supply scheme exist which is not functional. Mountains surround the
area and two valleys are present in the center. Nomadic culture is common in the entire
community (in winter they move to the warmer areas in Punjab). Sub-surface water is
available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are rare. In the whole
village, pond culture is very common and use stagnant water to drink. A small dam is
located near Medadzai main village, which is, felled with silt.

Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood; around 90% income is
generated through these practices. Wheat, maize and barley are the major agronomic crop
grown in the area. Similarly, horticultural crops include pumpkin, tomato, fresh beans
and onions.

The area is well known for its thick forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of
Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and
Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and Chinkara Sessi
partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pigeon and falcons are common birds in the area..

iii. Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen)


Gharhi (Zimri Palaseen) valley is an isolated area located in the north eastern reaches of
Musakhel area at the distance of about 55 Km from Musakhail city having altitude of
9,000+ feet above the sea level. The road is shingle totally and the area is un-
approachable through vehicle because the target area is 10 km away from road, the
village has 250 households with a population of 1200 people. It is thinly populated with
scattered settlements. The entire population consists of Pashtoon and the major tribe is
Zimri. Tribal system has very strong hold in the area. The Sardar provide local leadership
and responsible for conflict resolution and decision-making. Sardar Ajab Khan is the
Sardar of the target area.

One boys and girls primary school exists in the area. There is no electricity and
communication. Health facility exist but not functional, and no water supply in the entire
area. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they move to the
warmer areas in Punjab). Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but
surface water resources are only few.

Agriculture and livestock are the main source of livelihood. The livestock population
consit of 5,000 sheep, 4,500 goats. The average herd size is 100 and above. It is almost
all hilly and agricultural lands are very small.

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The area is famous for its thick Pine forests and wildlife. The forests mainly consist of
Pinus gearadiana, Pinus wallichiana, Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana,
Ficus carrica, Fraxinus xanthoxyliedess and Pistacia khinjuk. It is the habitat of
Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and in bird’s sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, and vultures.
There is still reasonable no of Sulaiman Markhore but hunting is common practice of the
local inhabitants.

iv. Safa

Safa area is located about 85 Km in the South of Musakhail city having altitude of 5,000
feet above the sea level. The area is approachable from Musakhel, Kingri and Loralai.
The road is shingle. The area is inhabited by 300 household with average household size
of five. It is thickly populated with scattered settlements. The entire populations consist
of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Sadozai.

One boy’s primary School, but no girls’ school exists in the area. There is no electricity
and health facility but water is supplied from the dame. Nomadic culture is common in
the entire community. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface
water resources are scare. A small dam is located in the center of village that fulfill the
drinking requirements of the people of the area

It has a wetland and the area is well known for its thick forests and migratory birds. It is
the habitat of ducks, sessi partriges, Chajoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles. The
forest mainly consists of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Ficus johns and Pistacia
khinjuk

v. Rodh

Rodh area is located about 25 Km in the East of Musakhel city having altitude 3500 feet
above sea level. The area is located in Union Council Ghuryasa on Musakhel- Dera
Ghazi Khan road. The area is approachable through vehicle. The total population of the
area is 300; it is thinly populated with scattered settlements and rarely nomadic. . The
entire population consist of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Mali zai. One boy’s primary
school exists in the area. Electricity, health facilities and water supply scheme exist. The
village is located in a vally surrounded by mountain. Sub-surface and surface water
resources are in much quantity. In the whole village, channel irrigation is very common.

The area is well-known for habitat of wild ducks (Resident and migratory), thick forests,
wildlife. The forest mainly consist of Olea ferrugenia and Acacia modesta,. It is the
habitat of Black pattriges, sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles.

vi. Gokar (Chassan)

Gokar area is located about 13 Km in the North-west of Musakhel city having altitude of
6,000 feet above the sea level. The area is approachable from Musakhel and Zhob. The

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road is shingle totally. The area is inhabited by 200 households and the average
household size is 6. It is thickly populated with scattered settlements. The entire
population consists on Pashtoon and the major tribe is Sadozaii. The tribe is headed by
Malik Sher Mohammad One boy’s primary School, but no girl’s school exist in the area.
No electricity, health facilities but water supply scheme fulfill the requirements of the
people of the area. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community. Sub-surface
water is available in the sufficient quantity but surface water resources are little. A large
dam is located in the center of village.

It has a wetland and the area is well known for local and migratory birds. It is the habitat
of ducks, cranes, sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges and wild pegion. The forest mainly
consists of Olea ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Ficus johns and Pistacia khinjuk.

vii Sali:

Sali is a medium-sized village in Toysar Union council, consisting of 190 households


with the population of 1200 people, with scattered settlements. It is located at a distance
of about 16 Km in the north of Musakhel city having altitude of 7400 feet above the sea
level. The area is approachable from Musakhel and Zhob. It is connected with a shingle.
The entire population consist of Pashtoon and the major tribe is Hamzazi.. One boy’s
primary School exist in the area. There is no electricity and health facility but one small
shop in the village. Nomadic culture is common in the entire community (in winter they
move to the warmer areas in Punjab). Major and sensitive archeological sites exist in the
area. Sub-surface water is available in the sufficient quantity but there is no perrinial
streem in the area.

The area is well known for its thick Acacia forests. The forest mainly consists of Olea
ferrugenia, Acacia modesta, Prunus eburana, Ficus carrica, Ficus johns and Pistacia
khinjuk. It is the habitat of sessi partriges, Chakoor partriges, wild pegion and eagles.

ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Flora of Musakhel

General Description of vegetation

Musakhel area is coered with subtropical broad leave evergreen forest type. There are
atro culled scrubs forests. The trees and woody shrubs are sparsely scattered mainly
confined to ravines and edges of ephemeral streambeds. Although the vegetation show
sign of preserved area and some species have exhibited remarkable capacity of
regeneration especially, Acacia modesta, Pistacia khinjuk, olea ferrugiana and Ziziphus
nummerulia. An exploratory survey of the flora and vegetation of Musakhel District was
carried out between March & September 2005. the principle objectives was to elevate the
status of core habitat sites in order to provide an over view of the vegetation and prepare

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a comprehensive floral checklist of Musakhel ecosystem. Of the nearly 111 plant species
recorded in Musakhel area, 102 species were identified and 9 species are under
identification (detail is in the Annex 1).The population of Pinus wallichiana is decreasing
due to over cutting. There are about 50 medicinal plants that could play an important role
in the villager’s economy.

Habitat Type
Habitat types can be distinguished on the basis of area’s landform. The area consists of
low flat plains, across which there are several streams (some dry) originating from low
hills. Topography, availability of moisture, soil structure, exposure to the sun and strong
winds are dominant factors that generate the variety of habitats in the area. The dominant
vegetation consist mainly dwarf scrub type which covers large area, from the low laying
plains to high elevation at the tops of the divides and ridges. The scrub vegetation
occupying different habitats varies considerably in density and species composition. The
following physiognomic habitat types were observed in the area;

A. Flat plains
B. Foot hills
C. Stream beds
D. Hills

A. Flat plains:

The survey area includes extensive flat alluvial covered by relatively similar vegetation,
mostly small trees and dwarf shrubs. The trees and shrubs are generally thorny with small
leaves, there is little ground vegetation most of the year but during the monsoon season a
cover of herbs may develop.

In this area, dry season is long; rain fall takes place mostly in monsoon months of July to
September. Slght rainfall takes place in winter season. The wind generally blows from
northwest direction for nearly seven months ranging from October to April while its is
form southwest in monsoon months of July and August.

Due to heavy grazing, lopping, poor agricultural practices and urbanization, the original
vegetation is almost destroyed. As a result of vegetation cover removel, the area is
suffering from soil erosion. Some of the common tree species are Acaia modesta, Olea
ferrugiana and Ziziphus nummerulia. Common Shrub species are Caragina ambigua,
Nannorhops ritchieana, Periploca aphylla, Calotrophis procera, Diphine mucronata, ,
Hertia intermedia , Nerium oleander, Sophora mollis, Withania coagulans

While in herbs Malva neglecta, Plantago oveta, , Carelluma edulis, Chenopodium album,
Cocculus pendulus, Convolvulus arvensis, ,Cymbopogan jawarancusa,

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Heteropogon.contortus, Iris soongarica, Hordium murinum , Peganum harmala, Poa


bulbosa, Saccharum griffithii, are found every where.

B. Foothills:

The foothills with gentle slopes, have extensive cover of mixed dwarf scrubs
communities with different species of shrubs dominating at different sites. The vegetation
cover varies with aspect and soil conditions. Shady aspect have more dense cover, and
grasses like Lepidium draba, Poa bulbosa, Stipa himalaica, Avena sativa and,
Cymbopogan jawarancusa are common. Common species of shrubs found in the scrub
vegetation are Periploca aphylla, Pterophyrum olivieri, Astragulus stocksii, Cotoneaster
afghanica and Daphni mucronata.

C. Streambeds:

Dry streambeds and stream banks in the area provide some unique habitat. Several
streams drain the area . Most of these streams remain dry for the greater part of the year.
Some of these streams are fed from the underground spring water.

The vegetation is widely scattered shrubs, which are mostly non-palatable to ungulates.
However, some palatable herbs and grasses are also present, usually in the depressions
and in some parts of the stream beds. In spring season after winter rains some annuals
emerge from dormant soil seed bank. These are grazed by huge herds of sheep and the
soil is compareted by their hooves. The compacted soil does not favor growth of
vegetation. In the whole area Pargore (Rakh) system exist, and this system does not
allow grazing whole of year and the communities close the area to grazing before
monsoon, and thus the general condition of habitatis protected from degradation.

The vegetation cover is quite high and species composition very different. Common
species found are; , Acaaia Modesta, Ficus carica , Olea ferrugina,,Pistacia khinjuk,
Ziziphus Oxiphylla, Ziziphus nummularia, Prunus eburnean, Punica granatum,,
Reptonia buxifolia,, are common through out the area. In shrubs Caragina ambigua,
Nannorhops ritchieana, Periploca aphylla, , Calotrophis procera, Diphine mucronata, ,
Nerium oleander, Sophora mollis, While in herbs Lepidium draba, Malva neglecta,
Plantago oveta, Amaranthus spinosus,, Carelluma edulis, Artemisia meritima, Buddleja
crispa, Canabis sativa, Chenopodium album, Cocculus pendulus, Convolvulus arvensis,
Buddlega crispa ,Cymbopogan jawarancusa, Peganum harmala, Poa bulbosa,
Saccharum griffithii, are found every where. In spite of that the scattered bushes provide
cover to small sized birds and their leaves are eaten by several species of birds, mammals
and reptiles, particularly by those which were observed in the habitat (enlisted in the
text).

D. Hills

The area is characterized by tuff hills, mostly rocky in nature. There are two big
mountain ranges, namely Surghar and Torghar, branches of Sulaiman range. The

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mountains range run from north to south. The larger area of Musakhel is mountainous
and all are different in their height. The elevation of hills of Musakhel area ranges from
5,421F to 9,327 F with moderate to steep slope.

The hills offer a greater variety of habitat types relative to the plains, but also they are
complex as the mountain found in the north Pakistan. The vegetation of Torghar (Nashter
ghar) varies from all hill vegetation of Musakhel. In Torghar, Pinus gerardina and P.
wallichiana are found which are not found in all parts of the district. On the top of the all
hills, Olea ferrugina, Pistacia khinjuk, Fraxinus xanthozyloides, and prunus eburana
were observed commonly and small annual grasses produces much biomass. Non-
palatable species and grasses that have coarse leaves or other thorny plant parts are
dominant in the area.

VEGETATION STUDY

Vegetation was sampled by “Line Intercept Method” (Canfied 1941) randomly. In each
site three transects of 30 meter was laid at random. The distance between plants, basal
area, and height of plants are recorded on a chart with data locality and slope. The scale
used in a woodland is mostly 1 : 100, while in grassland is 1 : 10 and in herbaceous
vegetation 1: 5.

Nomenclature of plants followed is that of Stewart (1972) and up-to date flora of
Pakistan. The phyto-sociological data have been summarized in the Table 1. Relative
abundance of each species shown in the Graph 1 and species area curve for minimum
sampling is shown in the Graph 2.

Table 1. Summary of relative Phyto-sociological data of Musakhel.

S.# Pant Name F1 C3 D3 F3 Y3


1 Peganum harmala 40 6.17 16.83 13.79 12.26
2 Withania coagulans 50 9.09 10.89 17.24 12.40
3 Calotropis procera 40 14.60 5.94 13.82 11.45
4 Sophora mollis 30 6.42 9.90 10.34 8.88
5 Saccharum griffithii 20 3.72 13.86 6.89 8.18
6 Acacia modesta 30 22.82 8.91 10.34 14.02
7 Olea ferrugiana 20 15.44 9.54 6.89 9.42
8 Proviskia abrotanoides 10 2.62 4.95 3.44 3.68
9 Nepta glamerolosa 10 2.04 0.99 3.44 2.15
10 Caragna ambigua 10 7.46 10.89 3.44 7.26
11 Daphne mucronata 10 6.93 4.95 3.44 5.11
12 Hordium murinum 20 2.62 5.94 6.89 5.15

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Keys: F1; Frequency, C3; Relative Cover, D3; Relative Density, F3; Relative Frequency and
Y3 ; impotence value.

Graph 1: Relative Abundance of Species

16
14.02
14 12.26 12.4
11.45
12
8.88 9.42
10
8.18
7.26
8
6 5.11 5.15
3.68
4
2.15
2
0
Sa ra

O
Pe

W um

So pis

Ac aru

Pr

D na

H
le
al

ep

ar

ap

or
i th

ov
cc
ga

ph

ac m

a
ot

ag

di
ta

hn
an

is
ia
n

ro

um
ki

e
ia

a
Name of Species

Graph 2: Species Area Curve

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35
No. of P lant S pecies 30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
No. of Stands

Miscellaneous uses of Plants in Musakhel

The area has great potential for its natural resources. Ethnobotanical information revealed
that there are 111 wild uncultivated species. Among them nine species are under
identification and 102 (Trees, 23, Shrubs; 27 and herbs were 52) species were identified.
Poaceae was dominating family in the area, followed by Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae,
Rhamnaceae and Astraceae, Olea ferrugina and Acacia modesta are dominant trees.
Information regarding plants use gathered from more then 50 persons of different fields
including women. Classification of informative people made, was educated, uneducated,
age limits etc. it was observed that older person have deeper knowledge as compare to
young ones. Women of the area have much knowledge about plants use. 50 plant species
are available having medicinal value. Some plants are used in area for multi purposes
and some have only single use, while some plants are used as mixture with other plants.
Many of them are used by local people for the treatment of various ailments, fodder
species, and for timber purposes in the area. The local uses of plants were enquired from
the local peoples.

During the study it is also noticed that most of the species are facing great threats
and being rapidly depleted due to the severe drought, overgrazing, deforestation and
collection of medicinal plants. Need urgent rehabilitation by imposing ban on their
destruction.
Flora of Musakhel area was compiled on the basis of plant collection. The list of
plant species has been arranged family wise and alphabetically.

Medicinal Plants

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Musakhel district is one of the backward area due to lack of basic needs and facilities.
Traditionally, plants are used by local inhabitants for cure of various diseases.
Disappearing of folk uses knowledge transferring from old ones to youngsters, trade of
medicinal plant and up-rooting on large scale are the main reasons that the people are
now turned to Allopathic medicines. The common diseases in the area, are malaria fever,
Tuberculosis, gastro-intestinal problems and infections of the urinary tract. This survey
lists about 50 species are used as medicinal purposes in the area (Annex 5). This
probably represents only half of species used for medicine in Musakhel The number of
plants use for various ailments given in the Graph 3 and Morphological classification of
drug yielding plants is given in Table 2.

Graph.3

No. OF PLANTS SPECIES USED FOR DIFFERENT


AILMENTS IN MUSAKHEL

Aches, 4 Power, 5
Respiratory diseases, 3
Urinary tract infection, 3 Wounds, sores and
cuts, 4
Fever, 6
Gynecological , 2

Eye diseases, 2
Digestive system, 4 Infectious diseases, 2

Body heat, 7

Scorpion bite, 1 Circulatory system, 3


Skin care, 4

Table2 : Classification of medicinal plants of Musakhel on the basis of morphology.

S.# Obtaining Source Source/ Plants


1. Root and other Allium ascalpnicum,Sopora molis
underground parts
2. Barks Acaia nilotica,
3. Leaves Olea ferrugina,Mentha logifolia
4. Flowers Achalia santolina,
5. Fruits Ficus carica,
6. Seeds Peganum harmala,
7. Entire Plant Mentha longifolia, Ephedra Spp.
8. Gum-Resins Pistacia khinjuk, Acacia modesta
9. Mixture of plants Ephedra, Wathiana Spp, Artimesia maritima

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FODDER SPECIES:
In total 70species were found to be used as fodder in Musakhel by the maximum
contribution of grasses belonging to the family Poaceae. However, Zea mays (Makai),
Avena sativa (Jandar), Brassica compestris (Sarsoon) and Penisetum americanum (Bajra)
are also used in their respective season.

PLANTS USED FOR BUILDING:

The use of plants as a source of timber is only recent. Non-Musakhel timber poachers
who are also co-operating with locals are increasingly introducing handsaws, which are
required for splitting logs to timber. The most valuable timber specie is Pinus exelsa
(Nashtar), P. geradina (Chilghoza),and Olea ferrugina (Zaitoon). Timber is mainly used
in the construction of roofs for modern houses.

FENCING

Fencing is done around animal enclosures, homestead and to protect cropland. Three
types of fences are common in Musakhel: poles, dead branches and a living fence. The
traditional way of fencing is by fixing up branches of thorny acacias and Ziziphus species
in to the ground surface; other species used for dead fences include Periploca aphylla
suaed friticosa. Fencing with poles involves creating a continuous wall of 3-4 m height in
holes or in a trench dug round the area to be fencing. Fencing poles are almost of
Acacias, Ziziphus and pinus species.

FOOD PLANTS:

A). Edible Inner Bark


Some plants, particularly Nannorrohps ritchiana, “pshee” are chewed for their sweet
taste, their water contents, as an exercise for the jaws and to pass time. The bark is
removed and the inner light-colored thin layer is chewed.

B). Infusions

The stem and root bark of a number of species is used to prepare a green tea- like
infusion. Sugar and sometimes milk may be added. The plants used for the purpose are
Nepeta and leaves of Olea ferrugina. In the majority of cases, these infusions serve the
dual purposes of a drink and medicine, which may either be curative or preventive. Most
of them are nice smelling.

C). Gums and Resins for Chewing

In this category are species that exude substances, which are chewed. Many are almost
tasteless but are chewed just to exercise the mouth and to pass time. Resins are mainly

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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obtained from periploca aphylla, Pistacia khinjuk and gums from Acacia spp. can be
made into chewing gum.

D). Edible Fruits

Although consumed as snacks, fruits constitute a major part of the food ingested by
children and women looking after cattle as well as morons in the wilderness. The five
most preferred fruits are: Pastacia khinjuk (Shanae), Ziziphus jujuba (Ber), Olea
ferrugina (Shnani), Ziziphus oxyphyla (Gargool) and Morus alba (toth)

E). Edible Galls

The galls of Acacia modesta (Kand-I-bambri), are formed at the base of a pair of spines.
The galls are fleshy, hollow, up to 4 cm in diameter, dark green to reddish purple when
fresh, turning dark grey to black and usually inhibited by black or brown ants as they dry.
The fresh soft galls are edible. Very young galls are green to dark green, bitter and filled
with fluid. As they mature they turn to reddish purple and hollow but harden with age,
becoming fibrous.

F). Edible Roots and Tubers

A number of species especially Allium ascalonicum, Boucerosia edulis and several


genera in Asclepiadaceae have edible tubers. A slight sweet taste and a juicy consistency
characterize all. As a result they are also preferred for their water. The plains of grassland
are the home to the majority of these edible tubers, many of which are noticed, only in
rainy season when they sprout new shoots from their underground tubers.

PLANTS USED AS FIREWOOD

A great number of species are used as firewood. Mostly they preferred Pinus and Acacia
species as fuel wood because the wood burns brightly, thus providing lighting for the
usually dark village houses. It imparts a characteristic good scent to the house, unlike
other fire wood species; Acacia burns with little smoke. The average consumption of fuel
wood in the area is about 260 mond per year. Details are given in the Annex 9.

WOOD PRODUCTS

A variety of personal and household items are carved from various plant species. Arrow
shafts are made from plants with straight, narrow and durable stems. The most commonly
used are Olea ferrugina (Showan), Ziziphus jujuba (Ber) and Acacia nilotica (Kiker).
Trees with soft and thinner stems are used for knife and sword handles, sword sheaths
and quivers for arrows. On the other hand, clubs tools for branding animals, and sticks for
walking, are made from tough wood. Wood of Olea and Dalbergia is used for clubs. The
tough, narrow, straight stems of some species such as Populas alba are used for sticks.

TOOTH-BRUSHES (Miswak)

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Chewing the tips of twigs of certain species is used as toothbrushes. The most important
species is Acacia modesta. Toothbrushes from tree, known locally as miswak, that has a
medicinal value as well.

FOREST TYPES IN MUSAKHEL

Forestland accounts for about one-sixth of Musakhel area. There is a great diversity of
forest types across different altitudes and microclimates, each having specific uses. The
main types of forest of Musakhel are illustrated in Table 1. Forests tend to lie above and
below agricultural land and provide a variety of products and services, including grasses,
fodder, timber, fuel wood, medicinal herbs, fruits and other services. One of the most
lucrative is pine products (Fruit, resin and timber), although many herbs are also
collected and marketed to local wholesalers (Yahya 2003).

Most accessible, fertile forestland has been converted into agricultural land. Generally,
only inaccessible and unproductive land remains under forests.

Table3: Main forest types in Musakhel District.

Climate zone/ Main Forest Uses


altitudes Types Main Species
Lower Lower mid-slope Pinus wellichiana, Pinus • Construction timber
Temperate coniferous forests gerardiana • Resins
2400m – 3109m • Fruit
Upper slope mixed Pistacia khinjak, Olea • Construction timber
hardwood ferrugenia,Prunus eberuna, • Fuel wood
Forest Pistacia cubulica • Fodder
• Leaves as Medicine
Sub- Tropical • Gum
1700 – 2400m
Lower mid-slope Pistacia khinjuk, Acacia • Fuel wood
mixed hardwood modesta, Pistacia mutica, • Agricultural tools
forest • Fruit
• Fencing
<1000m Dry valleys/ Ziziphus nummerulia. Z. • Timber
deciduous hill forest oxiphylla, Cotoneaster Sp. • Fuel wood
• Fencing
• Fruit

9.2.2 FAUNA SURVEY

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Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan with diverse species and habitats;
most of the Biodiversity of the area has not been evaluated comprehensively. The
province is rich in Biodiversity and is positioned in the transitional zone between two of
the world’s major Zoogeographical regions, the Palaearctic and the Oriental. A few
species form the Ethiopian region are also represented. Mammals of Balochistan are
adapted to arid, mountainous, deserts and harsh climatic conditions and there is a great
variety of species including ungulates, rodents and carnivores.
Wildlife in Pakistan has been severely affected due to increased habitat
disturbance and over-exploitation caused by increse in human population and
industrialization. As a result less number of animals will be supported than could be
expected an intact habitat of the same size. As a rule all the animal populations have
their own critical minimum numbers beyond which the given species is unable to survive
naturally. In Pakistan, a number of wildlife species have become extinct and many more
will have the same fate, due to exploitation of natural resources without proper planning.
Urial (Ovis vignei) and Sulaman Markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) are considerd
endangered species in Pakistan.
District Musakhel is situated in the north east of Balochistan. The locality is well
known in Zhob division for the presence of Sulaman Markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni)
and Urial (Ovis vignei) in this unique mountain range. Most of the mountain ranges like
Toarghar and Surghar had a good population of Urial and Sulaman Markhor as well as
many mammals and birds Due to lack of awareness and knowledge about proper
utilization of wildlife resulted the over exploitation of game animals which are becoming
scare in most of the areas of Balochistan and the country. If conservation measures are
adopted, Musakhel will be a fine model for wildlife conservationists in the country

TABLE 4: Wildlife Diversity in Musakhel


V. Common
No. of species No. of species No. of species in
Type Species in
in Pakistan in Balochistan Musakheli
Balochistan

Amphibians 20 8 0 3

Reptiles 159 94 7 7
Mammals 182 71 2 14
Birds 666 356 0 32

Geography:

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Musakhel District is situated in the north east corner of Balochistan. It lies 30o 17 to 31o
18 north latitude, and from 69 28 to 70 15 in the east longitudes. The total area of the
district is 5,727 square kilometers. The district is a part of Zhob division. Elevation above
sea level ranges from 3000 to 11300 ft.
Zoogeography:
Musakhel district area comes under the Oriental Region (Oriental Bird Club). The area
can also be classified as a part of Balochistan Xeric Woodlands. Major fauna of the area
is Saleman Markhor, Urial, Cape Hare, Indian Crested Porcupine, Red Fox (Vulpes
vulpes), Asiatic Jackal (Canis aureus) and Indian Wolf (Canis lupus pallipes). Major
birds species are Chakor Partridge and Sissi Partridge.

MAMMALS:
Ungulates:

Three areas of Musakhel District have the population Suliman Markhor (Capra falconery
jerdoni) and Urial (Ovis vigneii) both the species were common in many areas of
Balochistan but at present they restricted to few places. Fix point methodology was used
for ungulates survey. The survey was conducted on foot and on vehicle depending on the
terrain and suitability. The survey team sighted 35 Sulaiman Markhors and 39 Urials
directly. Indirect signs like foot prints and droppings were found in large number.
Though, it was not good season for ungulates survey, because their population was
scattered due to nomadic population was present with their livestock on top of the
surveyed hills. It may be triple this figure if survey carried n proper season. Before this
survey, the presence of ungulates in area was controversial (detailed list is given in the
Annex 7a & 7b)

Small Mammals:

Cape hare was found very common in the entire area during survey. A total of 47 cape
hare were found during the survey.
Carnivores:

For the determination of population status of carnivores, nights walks were arranged. In
the plains the survey team used vehicle and search lights. After seeing the eyes of
carnivores in high powerful lights, noted the eye colors and consulted the literatures. In
foothills, used search light in same way. Four Indian gray wolf, 2 red fox, 3 Asiatic
jackals and one Indian Crested Parcopine were sighted. While indirect observations were
made on the droppings, foot prints of several carnivore species such as stripped hyena,
Jungle cat, afghan hedgehog, Caracal and Indian gray wolf. List of species given in the
Annex 8. Skin of Panther in five houses was seen, using for prayers were observed. It
also noticed that, the species existed in the area five years earlair . Now it became very
rare.

AVES:

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Migratory birds:

Musakhel district is one of the favorite route of migratory birds. There are two season of
migration; August to October, these birds (Cranes, Houbara bustard, Eagle, Ducks and
Quills) come from colder areas stay here for some time and move towards warmer areas
of Punjab and Sindh Provinces. While, from February to April they back to colder areas
passing this rout. 20 flocks of Cranes were observed. Each flock consists over more then
70 birds. A pair of houbara bustard sighted directly while, indirect observations like foot
prints and feathered were observed. Detail given in the Annex 6.

Resident birds:
Direct sight techniques like ground nests searching and stand watch techniques were used
for this survey. Several species of birds observed in the area. Chakoor and Seesee
partridges were found very common throughout the area. The birds were mostly observed
near water points and wetlands. Few species of waterfowl and black red start, while
wagtail, cinerous vulture were observed, (Annex 6 ) Hindereds of flocks of Chakoor and
seesee partridges were observed in the area.

Survey techniques were discussed with following field biologists;


o Dr. C. M. Shafeeq, Zoological Survey Department, Islamabad.
o Professor Dr. Mohammad Maroof, Science college Quetta.
o Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, Lecturer Zoology, Govt. College Quetta.
o Mr. Meherban Ali Barahvi, Wildlife conservation Officer, Zoological Survey
Department, Karachi.
o Mr. Abdul Jabbar, Park Manger Hingol National Park, Uthal.
o Mr. Tahir Rasheed, National Project Manager, SUSG-C Asia.

Reptiles:

The survey team observed lizards in six different locations. At one location
freshly hunted Afghan Tortoise shell was observed. Many snake species are reported
from the area. In the present survey three snake species and two sheded skin of a snake
were observed. Clif rcer (Coluber rhodoracus) and Agama (Agama spp.) are available in
every where.

Butterflies:

Different Butterflies species were observed at different altitudes. Mostly near


water points. Commonly seen butterflies were Blue Pensy, and White Edged Brown.

EQUIPMENTS USED IN THE SURVEY

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™ A pair of binoculars, 8 x 40 and 7 x 50 magnification.


™ Zoom telescope 15 x to 45x magnification
™ Altimeter
™ 4 x 4 vehicle
™ Still camera with telephoto lens
™ Hand came movie camera with digital camera
™ Compass
™ Data regarding sheets
™ Note book
™ An identification guide to flora of Pakistan
™ An identification guide to birds of Pakistan
™ An identification guide to mammals of Pakistan
™ An identification guide to Butter flies of Pakistan

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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1. Summary of Results:
Table 5. Summary of Results
S# Type Activity Status Strength Threat Opportunity Remarks
1 Ungulates Determine the 74 animals sighted Each of the area is the Pouching, Vast area, These areas seemed good
population status of in the area (35 property of one clan illegal hunting excellent habitats habitat of Sulaiman
ungulates Mrkhore and 39 and vegetation, Markhore and Urial. The
Urial) Less human people of the area were
population willing to conserve these
important species if
organized and motivated
accordingly.
2 Birds Determine the 20 flocks of crane, Crane stay in the district Trapping, Vast area, Dams, The people of the area are
(Migratory) population status of a pair of Houbara at four spots, in two Hunting Wetlands and not involved in the bird
Crane, Eagle, migratory birds bustared and two spots locally bane on perennial trapping, However the
Houbara bustard species of eagle trapping and hunting by streams people from NWFP and
were sighted community, while all Punjab are the main threat
the local people for migratory birds.
unhappy with trapping
and hunting of cranes
but eagle species are
caught by people for
sake of money
3 Birds (Resident) Determine the 32 Bird species The area is vast, thick Trapping and Thick vegetation The people of area hunt
population status of were sighted forest, no specific water Hunting cover, Wild fruit birds for food and selling
resident birds points, water available trees in excess for money.
in each stream.
4 Flora Vegetation cover, 111 plants species Area falls in moon soon Cutting, Over Re introduction Grafting of wild olive trees,
medicinal plants, floral were observed 23 zone and have positive grazing, up- of local introduction of improved
checklist tree, 27 shrubs and impact on vegetation , rooting of conservation varieties of plants.
52 herbs species. local rotational grazing medicinal system Pargore ,
system can save the plants. Marketing of
vegetation. medicinal plants,
wild fruit, Plants
parts.

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2. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


God Almighty has blessed this district with two virgin resources. One is the
enormous hidden wealth of natural resources and other is unutilized human resource.
Both human and natural resources need harnessing. Priorities are to be prefixed. The
study demonstrated that Sulaiman Markhore, Urial and chinkara were very common in
different parts of the district a decade ago. These ungulates have completely vanished
from Hazargat, Ziri, Sali, Safar and Zimri area. However, still the population of Sulaiman
Markhore and Urial exists in Surghar, Torghar and Shahsar which needs to be monitored.
35 Suleiman Markhore and 39 urials were observed Deatails are given in the Annex 7a
and 7b. While dropping and foot prints were observed in different places. One species of
small mammal, four species of carnivores were observed during the survey. As far as the
birds are concerned, most of them were summer visitors in the area. A total of 32 species
of birds were sighted during the survey. Details are in the Appendix 6. On a visit to Safa
dam during the survey 22 waterfowls were observed. Due to large number of hunters in
the dam waterfowls were unable to stay in the dam. Mostly hunting was conducted by the
villagers of the nearby village. During a two days survey in the dam three hunters were
seen hunting waterfowls in the early morning and in the evening. 130 cranes were
trapped by trappers this year and more then 500 cranes trapped each year in their
respective season. The status of Houbara Bustard is critical in the area, because during
the survey we were observed only one pair of Houbara Bustard, only at one occasion foot
prints of 9 birds were observed. Once they were common in Toysar plains. These new
sighting will add to the checklist of Mammals and birds of Musakhel because before, this
survey the status was controversial. Floral survey of Musakhel demonstrated that 111
plants species were observed during the survey details are given in the Appendix 4a.
Before this survey, 54 plants species were reported from Musakhel area, these new 57
species will added to the checklist of flora of Musakhel district. The latest checklist will
be 111. Habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, deforestation, overgrazing and over
hunting are five causal factors that account for most extinction of biodiversity. Mazri is
cutting by people in large scale and each year more then 100 trucks transported to Punjab
province. Sustainable use of this important plant is necessary. Major ecological issues
are:

o Deforestation
o Illegal Hunting of Wild Animals
o Grazing and Fodder Collection
o Soil Erosion
o Desertification
o Lack of Awareness
o Poisoning of Dead Animals
o Lack of Basic Secondary Data
o Lack of Proper Marketing of Forests Products

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Following are the recommendations;

o Awareness raising and Environmental Education Program should be started in the


area
o Create a sense of ownership among people regarding proper management of
natural resources
o Proper Marketing of Forests Products Wild fruits, Especially, Olive, Gargool,
Hailani, Ber, Pistacio and Chalghoza,.
o Implementation of Forests and Wildlife Laws to control uprooting and cutting of
plants and hunting and trapping of animals and birds.
o Creating a sense of ownership among people and the Local communities should
be involved and encouraged in the conservation and protection of the target areas.
Tribal elders, religious leaders and other notables of the areas should be contacted
and organized to formulate an “Area protection committee” with a full mandate of
protection and conservation of natural resources.
o Comprehensive ecological studies of the area should be conducted especially in
Shinghar area to study in detail the flora and fauna of the area in general and the
exact population status of Sulaman Markhor and Urial in particular
o Introduction of Trophy Hunting
o There is a great potential for Eco-tourism. Training on eco tourism (Tour guide,
Photography, etc.) should be provided.
o Ladies in the district are active/ dynamic but are neglected force. This important
resource should not go waste. They tend livestock, work on land and when free
from household chores, engage themselves in needlework. The last mentioned
activity is their area of specialization. Social organizations and NGOs can provide
credit and channel their product in the market. Handmade products have huge
market in foreign countries. The important element should be involvement of
local population, particularly women, to give them sense of ownership and
participation. This will bring confidence and bring imperceptible social change
without compromising basic values
o Resources are available but are going waste and the poverty level remain
unchanged; new approaches and income generation activities should be identified
and implemented to gain trust and minimize the poverty of the area.

3. Out put: Reports, media, articles, slides, photographs etc;

• Vegetation Survey report


• Wildlife survey report
• Socio-economic profile of the area
• Article in the Daily Jang Quetta
• Photographs
• Video
• Trained and skilled locals of targeted area.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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4. Equipment status report:

• Binocular
• Camera
• Altimeter
• Compass

Observers:

¾ Mohammad Yahya Musakhel, Project Manger, Identification of Biodiversity


hotspots in Musakhel District.
¾ Mr. Abdul Waheed Razaq , Conservation Officer, TCS, Quetta.
¾ Mr. Jamal Abdul Nasir, Lecturer Zoology, Government College, Quetta.
¾ Mr. Alam Khan, Executive District Officer, Community Development
Officer, Musakhel.
¾ Mr. Muzaffar Khan, surveyer, Musakhel.
¾ Mr. Abdul latif , Community Development Officer, WESS, Musakhel.
¾ Khanzada Malik Kaleem Ullah, President, MWS Musakhel.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Acknowledgments

The present document is the result of work I carried out with funding by the Scientific
Committee of World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) Pakistan. The work was
undertaken between March and August 2005, largely at WWF- Pak Quetta Office,
which acted as host institution for the period of study and provided facilities as well as
administrative, technical and scientific support to me throughout the study. Thanks to
the entire department for their attention and kindness. The assistance of Mr. Fahad
Ehsan Dar and Mr. Abdul Waheed is especially acknowledged: my thanks and
gratitude to both. I am also thankful to Mr. Muzaffar Khan, who spare time and give
me full support during study. I am highly thankful to Proff. Dr. Rasool Bukhsh
Tareen, (Head Botany Department University of Balochistan, Quetta) Mr. Jamal
Abdul Nasir, (Lecturer Zoology, Government College, Quetta), Mr. Tahir Rasheed,
(Provincial Project Manager SUSG- SA), Mr. Abdul Jabber (PM Hingol National Park
Uthal) and Dr. Bashir Husain,(Team leader PAMP Hingol) for their support. My
special thanks to Mr. Noor Mohammad, Mr. Sardar khan of WWF- Pakistan Quetta
Offic for their support and help in office.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Refrences
Ali, S and S.Dolton, 1985: A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian Subcontinent.

Ali, S. and S. Dillon 1995 : A Pictorial Guide to The Birds of the Indian Subcontinent.

Faiz, T. M. et al 1997: District Profile of Musakhel District, Printed at Quetta Printing Press,
Quetta.

Bateman, I. 1991a. Recent developments in the evaluation of non-timber forest products: The
extended CBA method. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 85(2) (April): 90-102.

Berkes, F. and Folke, C. 1992. A systems perspective on the interrelations between natura,
human-made and cultural capital. Ecological Economics 5: 1-8.

Brown, K. 1994. Approaches to valuing plant medicines: The economics of culture or the culture
of economics? Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 734-750.

Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE). 1993. Mexico
forestry and conservation sector review: Sub-study of economic valuation of forests. Report to the
World Bank: Country Department II (LA2). Norwich: CSERGE.

Chomitz, K.M. and Kumari, K. 1996. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: A critical review
emphasizing hydrological functions (draft, mimeo.).

GOB and IUCN 2000: Balochistan Conservation Strategy, 2000

Khan, M. S and S. M. Irshad, 2005; A revised working list of the flowering plants of Balochistan,
Published at Hyderabad, Pakistan.

Khan, M. S. 1998: Drug plants of Balochistan, Published at Latif Abad


No. 7, Haidar Abad, Pakistan

Qureshi J.I and Akram S.M. 1993: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of Balochistan
Qurishi, J.I and Sufi, M. A, 1992-93: Taxonomic Studies on the Snakes of Balochistan.

Roberts, T.J 1997: the Mammals of Pakistan, Printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi.

Roberts, T.J, 1991: The Birds of Pakistan Vol I, ii, Printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi

Roberts, T. J. 1995: Wild Flowers of Pakistan, printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi.

Robert T.J. 1995: The Birds of Pakistan, Vol: 2, printed at Oxford University Press, Karachi.

Yahya, A. M. 2003: An Ethno Botanical Study of Musakhel Area, M. Sc. Thesis, University of
Balochistan, Quetta

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Appendix
Annex 1a. Socio-economic and Socio-ecological Questionare

Date
Union Village
Council

Number of Compounds

Number of Families
Estimated Population Tribes 1_______ 2_____ 3________

Pattern of Settlement

Leadership of the Village

Social Traditions
Historical Background
Language
1 RHC
Infrastructure 2 BHU
Health 3 Civil Dispensary
4 Veterinary Hospital
1 Primary School (Distance)
Education 2 Middle School
3 High School
4 College
5 Mosque/ Madrasa School
6 How Many are able to write their names
1. Well
Drinking Water Source 2. Hand pump
3. Pond
4. Spring
5. Water Supply scheme
6. Any other
Problems
Solutions
Social Tradition Norms
Sanitation Facilities

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Other Facilities 1.Electricity


2. Telephone (Distance)
3. Post office
4. Others
Problems
Social Tradition
Source of Irrigation 1. Rain 2. Well
3. Tube well 4. Spring
5. Kareze 6. Stream
7. Others

Livestock population
Cattle Camels Sheep Goats Horses
Donkey Poultry Other

Livestock management 1. Preference (Quality / Quantity)


2. Average herd size
3. No. of herds
4. New Livestock improvement technique
5. Traditional LS imp technique
6. Feeding (grazing / stall feeding)

Range resource 1. Total range area


2. Type
3. Range condition
4. Grazing practice
5. Location / distance
6. Availability of fodder
7. Any fodder shortage
8. Causes of fodder shortage
9. Any local rules for grazing
10. Any traditional range protection
/ improvement approach

Nomads 1. Are nomads use your area


2. For how much period
3. No. of their LS
4. Do you get incentives
5. In what form (cash / kind)
6. Impact of such use
Medicinal plants

Types

Quantity harvested
Use
1. Local use 2 Sold

Are you know any plant collector/ 1.


seller of the area if any their name? 2.
3.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Wildlife
Present in your area Heard Sighted
A. Mammals
B. Birds
C. Reptiles
D. others

Hunting / poaching Self □ Heard □ Seen □

Are people hunt Themselves □ To facilitate others □

Why people do hunt Fun □ Fur □ Meat □

Money □ Other □

Do you know any hunter of the area 1.


if any their name? 2.
3.
4.

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Interviewed person name

Surveyors name

Signature

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Annex 1b. Socio-ecological data collection questionare.

Date
District Tehsil

Union Village
Council
Dependence on natural resources

Type of wilderness area( in cres)


Forest □ Rangeland □ Other □

Status of wilderness area( in acres) State land □ Communal land □


Protected area □ Other □
Services with usage ( Subsistence = S; Commercial = C; Fun = F )
Timber □ Fuel wood □Fodder □
Wildlife □ Medicinal plants □Water □
Mineral □ Other □
Water
Ground water Present Historical
1. Avg depth
2. Quality
3. Increase / Decline rate
Stream flow Present Historical
1. Frequency
2. Quality
3. Intensity
4. Stream type
(seasonal / perennial)
Spring Present Historical
8. Number
9. Quality
10. Flow
11. Type
(seasonal / perennial)
Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition Norms

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Rains Present Historical


1. Intensity
2. Frequency
3. Distribution

Problems
Wind
Local nomenclature

Fuel wood 1. Quantity utilized


a. Winter
b. Summer
2. Purchased/acquired
a. From market
b. From range/forest area

Problems

Solutions

Social Tradition/ Norms

Surveyed person name

Surveyors name

Signature

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Annex. 2. Climate and physiography of comprehensive surveyed areas.

The climate of Musakhel is located, 1200-2400 m above the sea level, and is semi arid “moderate
summer and mild winter”. The summers hot with mean temperature (21˚-32˚ c). June is the hottest month.
Summer is longer to seven months (Apr-Oct). The winters cold with mean temperature (21˚-10˚ c).
However, the mercury may touch the freezing point during cold spell. (Fazal Kareem 1993)

To date no meteorological station has been established in Musakhel by the Pakistan Meteorological
Department. Barkhan is a neighbour district of Musakhel and has similar geographic characteristics,
therefore, data from Barkhan station have been given here just to have an idea of the situation. In 1993, the
total annual rainfall in Barkhan district was 512.5 mm, which increased to 601.6 mm in 1994 and again
decreased to 429.7 mm in 1995. It may be assumed that Musakhel does have approximately equivalent
rainfall levels
Average Climatic Data of Musa Khail

134.1 136.4
140

120 Temp Rainfall(mm)

100

80 69.6

60
38.8
37.135.3 33.2 34.2
34.4
40 27 30
22 25
17.919.2
16 17.4
20 9.8 8.8 7 9.2
0 0 0
0
Ja Fe M Ap M Ju Ju Au S e O No De
n b ar r ay n l g p ct v c
SOURCE: Pakistan Meteorological Department, Karachi (recorded in Barkhan 1995).

Annex. 3. Present Livestock Population of the surveyed Villages


Sl. Name of Total HHs with Cattle Sheep Goat Camel Donkey
Village/ HHs live
Cluster stock
1. Shahsar 293 293 350 6500 5432 27 210
2. Surghar 490 490 795 9540 4500 29 290
3. Gharhi (ZP) 250 250 60 3500 4700 45 39
4. Safa 300 300 250 6400 1800 98 34
5. Rodh 50 50 90 3200 2400 4 18
6. Gokar 200 200 310 2500 4300 1 120
7. Sali 190 190 240 4100 2500 48 64
Baseline Survey Total 1,773 1,773 2,095 35,740 25,632 252 775
(sample area)

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Annex 4a. Checklist of Plants identified during the survey

S# Scientific Name Local Name Family Locality


1 Achillea santolina Zawal Asteraceae Shinghar
2 Aspparagus gracilis Satawar Asparagaceae Safar, Surghar
3 Amaranthus spinosus Meliro Amaranthaceae V. Common
4 Allium ascalpnicum Khukhai Alliaceae V. Common
5 Artemisia meritima Terkha spera Atracerae V. Common
6 Ascalpnicum Buskai Cruciferae V. Common
7 Alhagi maurorum Zoz Fabaceae V. Common
8 Andropogan contrutus Barwaza Poaceae Surghar, Shahsar
9 A. schoenanathus Sargharai Poaceae V. Common
10 Avena sativa Wasta Poaceae Ziri, Safar, Chrkundi
11 Acacia nilotica Kikar Mimosaceae Kingri
12 Acacia modesta Palosa Mimosaceae V. Common
13 Astragulus stocksii Zaray Fabaceae V. Common
14 Berbaris Sp. Zarlog Berberidaceae Surghar, Safar, Zimri
15 Brassica compestris Sarawan Brasicaceae Surghar, Zimri
16 Buddleja crispa Sparai Buddlejaceae Safar
17 Carelluma edulis Pamangi Asclepiadaceae V. Common
18 Canabis sativa The bangi boti Cannabaceae Drug,
19 Centaurea cyanus Kurgh Astreceae Torghar, Safar
20 Caragina ambigua Makhi Papilionaceae V. Common
21 Carum bulbocastanum Zira Surghar, Torghar
22 Calatropis procera Spalmai Ascilopiadaceae V. Common
23 Cotoneaster afghanica Sharow Sara Rosaceae Safar, Zimri
24 Cotoneaster rechingeri Sharow Tora Rosaceae Safar, Surghar,
25 Chenopodium album Tor sag Chenopodiaceae V. Common
26 Cocculus pendulus Parwatee Menispermaceae V. Common
27 Convolvulus arvensis Bachakai Convolvulaceae Toysar, Rodh
28 Cymbopogan Sargarhai Gramineae Surghar, Salai
jawarancusa
29 Citrullus colocynthis Maraghoni Cucurbitaceae V. Common
30 Diphine mucronata Laghoni Thymelaeaceae V. Common
31 Dalbergia sissoo Tali Drug
32 Ephedra intermedia Parar oman Ephedraceae Surghar, Torghar, Zimri
33 E. procera Nari oman Ephedraceae Surghar, Hazar ghat
34 Eremurus aucherianus Shezai Liliaceae Surghar
35 Ficus carica Inzar Moraceae Sali, Surghar
36 F. johannis Inzar Moraceae Zimri
37 Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Shang Oleaceae Safar, Surghar, Zimri
38 Ferrula assa-foetida Hing Apiaceae Surghar, zimri
39 Grewia asiatica Pastawana Tiliaceae Safar, Zimri
40 Heliotropium Sp. Lashta Boaganaceae Safar
41 Hordium murinum Washa Gramineae V. Common
42 Heteropogon.contortus Barwaza Gramineae Torghar, surghar, Salai
43 Haloxilon griffithii Shori Chenopodiaceae V. Common
44 Hymemocrater Sursanda Lamiaceae Surghar
sessilifolius
45 Hertia intermedia Gangu Asteraceae Kot Khan Mohammad,

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Kingri
46 Iris soongarica Gharhwastai Iridaceae V. Common
47 Lactuca orientalis Sandraza Astraceae Safa, surghar
48 Lepidium draba Buskai Cruciferae Surghar, Shahsar
49 Mentha longifolia Shinshobai Lamiaceae V. Common
50 Malva neglecta Cherhya biscut Malvaceae V. Common
51 Malcolmia africana Khatool Brassicaceae Surghar, Shahsar, Olmai
52 Moas alba Toth Moraceae V. Common
53 Nannorhops ritchieana Mazarai Palmeae Rodh, Toysar, Salai
54 Nepeta glomerulosa Simsok Lamiaceae Shahsar, Safar
55 Nerium oleander Gandarai Apocynacnaceae V. Common
56 Olea ferrugina Zaitoon Oleaceae V. Common
57 Periploca aphylla Bararha Asclepiadaceae V. Common
58 Pterophyrum olivieri Gharwangi polygonaceae Ziri, Surghar, Shorlan
Dragai
59 Prunus eburnea Zarga Rosaceae Safar, Surghar, Shahsar
60 Prunus domesatica Aloocha Rosaceae V. Common
61 Punica granatum Nargoosa,Anar Punicaceae V. Common
62 Peucedanum Raghbel Aiaceae Surghar, Shahsar
beluchistanicum
63 Plantago ciliata Ispaghole Plantaginaceae V. Common
64 Peganum harmala Spanza Zygophylaceae V. Common
65 P. ovata Ispaghole Plantaginaceae V. Common
66 P. major Ispaghole Plantaginaceae V. Common
67 Poa bulbosa Washa Gramineae V. Common
68 Pinus gerardina Zanghozae Pinaceae Tap, Zimri
69 Pinus wallichiana Nashtar Pinaceae Tap, Zimri
70 Pistacia khinjak Sharawan Anacardiaceae V. Common
71 Pistacia cubolica Ozgai Anacardiaceae V. Common
72 Prunus domestica Alocha Rosaceae V. Common
73 Populus alba Spaidar Salicaceae Rodh, Sali
74 Phoenix dactylifera Khajora Palmeae Drug
75 Prosopis juliflora Maskat Mimosaceae Kingri, Kajori
76 Reptonia buxifolia Gargool Sapotaceae Hazargat, Barkohi,
Tangisar
77 Rhazya stricta Orlagama Apopynaceae Kingri, Kot Khan Mohd
78 Rosa lacerans Gul gulab Rosaceae Safar, Ziri ,Tap
79 Salix acmophylla Wala Salicaceae Rodh, Toysar
80 Stachys perriflora Sparai Libateae Safar, Zimri
81 Saccharum griffithii Sarghasi Poaceae V. Common
82 S. ciliare Sarghasi Poaceae V. Common
83 S. munja Mishkini Poaceae V. Common
84 Stipa himalaica Wasta Poaceae Surghar, Shahsar, Zimri
85 Sonchus asper Garwa Astraceae Salai
86 Salvadoraceae oleoides Palwan Salvadoraceae Sali, Behoo
87 Sophora mollis Ghuzara Papilionaceae V. Common
89 Sophora griffthii Ghozrera Papilionaceae Surghar
90 Tecomella undulata Rawodawan Bignoniaceae Kingri, Gokar, Toysar
91 Tamarix indica Ghaz Tamaricaceae Kot Khan Mohd, Sarwand
92 Typha angustifolia Lukha Typhaceae Toysar, Rodh,
93 Thymus linearis Tora mori Lamiaceae Shahsar, Surghar
94 Teucrium stocksianum Karpola Lamiaceae Zimri, Safar
95 Tribulus terrestris Skarwandai Zygophyllaceae V. Common

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96 Triticum valgare Sundai Poaceae Surghar


97 Withania coagulans Khamazora Solanaceae V. Common
98 Ziziphora tenuior Mouri Lamiaceae Shahsar, Surghar
99 Ziziphus jujuba Ber Rhamnaceae V. Common
100 Ziziphus mauritiana Wara Ber Rhamnaceae Gokar, Nali Merdazai
101 Ziziphus Oxiphylla Hailanai Rhamnaceae V. Common
102 Ziziphus nummularia Karkan Rhamnaceae V. Common
Annex 4b. Plants Under identification

S. # Local Name Local Uses Occurance


1 Kharpatha Poisnous but use for snake bite Safar, Zimri palaseen
2 Sparai Zharha Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Safar, Zimri palaseen
3 Spari Tora Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Safar, Zimri palaseen
4 Salam Fodder for plants Gokar, Nali Merdazai
5 Spari Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Safar, Zimri palaseen
6 Hing Used as fuel wood, fruit for liestock cough Surghar

Annex 5 list of wild/medicinal plants of Musakhel

SCIENTIFIC NAME LOCAL NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME LOCAL NAME


Acacia modesta Palosa Mentha longifolia Shinshobai
Acacia nilotica Kikar Moras alba Tut
Achillea santolina Zawal Nepeta glomerulosa Simsok
Aspparagus gracilis Satawar Nerium oleander Gandarai
Amaranthus spinosus Meliro Nannorhops ritchieana Mazarai
Allium ascalpnicum Khukhai Olea ferruginia Showan , Zaiton
Artemisia meritima Terkha spera Peganum harmala Spanza
Buddleja crispa Sparai Pinus gerardiana Chalghoza
Carelluma edulis Pamangi Pinus wallichiana Nashtar
Calotrophis procera Spalmai Periploca aphylla Bararh

Caragina ambigua Makhi Pistacia khinjuk Shrawan


Canabis sativa The bangi boti Pistacia mutica Uzhgai
Chenopodium album Tor sag Plantago ovata Ispaghole
Cocculus pendulus Parwatee Prunus eburnea Zarga
Convolvulus arvensis Bachakai Prunus domesatica Aloocha
Cymbopogan Sargarhai Punica granatum Nargoosa,Anar
jawarancusa
Diphine mucronata Laghoni Reptonia buxifolia Gargool
Ephedra gerardiana Oman Saccharum griffithii Sarghasi
Ephedra intermedia Parar oman Sophora mollis Ghuzara
Ephedra procera Nari oman Tecomella undulata Rawodawan

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Ficus carica Inzar Thymus linearis Tora mori


Hertia intermedia Gangu Tamarix indica Ghaz
Hordium murinum Washa Teucrium stocksianum Karpola
Heteropogon.contortus Barwaza Withania coagulans Khamazora
Iris soongarica Gharhwastai Ziziphus oxyphyla Halanai
Lepidium draba Buskai Ziziphus nummularia Karkan
Malva neglecta Cherhya biscut Ziziphus jujuba Ber

Annex 6. List of Birds. (* Migratory species)


S. No. Common English Name Scientific Name
1 Chakor Partridge Alectoris chukar
2 Sissi Partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis
3 Eurasian collared Dove Strepopelia decarcto
4 West Pakistan Collard Scops Owl Otus bakkamoena deserticolor
5 Laughing Dove Streptopelia sengalensis
6 Black Drango Dicrurus macrocercus
7 Long tailed shrike Lanius schach
8 Common kestrel Falco tinnunculus
9 Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax
10 Variable wheatear Ownanthe picata
11 Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides
12 *Swallow Hirundo rustica
13 Persian Rufoustailed Finch-Lark Ammomanes phoenicurus zarudnyi
14 Crested Lark Galerida cristata
15 Common Raven Corvus corax
16 Long Billed pipit Anthus similis
17 White wagtail Motacilla alba
18 Pale martin Riparia diluta
19 Eurasian Griffon Gyps fulvus
20 *Demoiselle Crane Grus virgo
21 *Common Crane Grus grus
22 Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni
23 Common Teal Anas crecca
24 Black Partridge Francolinus francolinus
25 Gray Partridges Francolinus pondicerianus
26 Sandgrouses Pterosles spp.
27 Cinerous Vulture Aegypius monachus
28 Black Kite Milvus migrans migrans
29 Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus
30 Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
31 Hoopoe Lark Alaemon alaudipes
32 Hume’s Short-Toed Lark Calandrella acutirostris

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Annex7a. Sulaman Markhors observed during the Survey

S.# Female Young M -2 M. 3 Yer. M. 4 yrs. M. 5 Total No. in herd Location


years. yrs.
1 2 1 --- --- --- -- 3 Gok Ghurasa
(Shahsar)
2 3 1 --- -- --- -- 4 Ghargistan
(Shahsar)
3 7 2 -- -- -- -- 9 Landa Ghurasa
(Shahsar)
4 --- -- -- 2 3 4 9 Khiaza
(Surghar)
5 -- --- -- -- 1 --- 1 Sukai (Surghar)
6 2 1 1 -- -- -- 4 Kok lotha
(Torghar)
7 4 1 -- -- -- -- 5 Gharhi Tak
(Torghar)
TOTAL
18 6 1 2 4 4 35

Annex 7b . Urials observed during the Survey

S.# Female Young M -2 M. 3 Yer. M. 4 yrs. M. 5 Total No. in herd Location


years. yrs.
1 3 1 --- 1 --- -- 5 Gok Ghurasa
(Shahsar)
2 2 2 --- 2 1 -- 7 Shahsar
(Shinghar)_
3 -- -- 1 -- -- -- 1 Landa Ghurasa
(Shahsar)
4 4 3 -- -- 2 1 10 Khiaza (Surghar)
5 -- --- -- 1 1 --- 2 Sukai (Surghar)
6 3 3 -- -- -- -- 6 Kok lotha
(Torghar)
7 2 1 -- 3 -- 2 8 Gharhi Tak
(Torghar)
TOTAL
14 10 1 7 4 3 39

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Annex 8. List of Mammal species.

S. No. Common English Name Scientific Name


1 Suleaman markhor Capra falconeri jerdoni
2 Urial Ovis vignei
3 Cape Hare Lepus capensis
4 Indian Crested Porcupine Hystrix indica
5 Indian gray wolf Cane lupus pallipes
6 Striped Hyaena Hyaena hyaena
7 Chinkara Gazella gazelle bennetti
8 Red fox Vulpes vulpes
9 Asiatic Jackal Canis aureus
10 Leopard or Panther Panthera pardus
11 Black bear Selenarctos thibetanus
12 Jungle cat Felis chaus
13 Afghan Hedgehog Hemiechinus auritus
14 Caracal Felis caracal

Annex 9 Furl wood consumption (in Mond)

Name of Area Summer / HH No. Of HH Total Consumption


Winter / HH
Shahsar 102.5 180 293 82772.5
Surghar 71.66 165 510 120696.6
Zimri Palseen 130 360 250 122500
Safa 79.2 106.66 300 55758
Gokar 65 130 200 39000
Rodh 65 170 160 37600
Sali 72 115 190 35530
Total In Seven Villages 1903 4,93,857.1
Annual / Household Fuel wood consumption : 260 Mond
In 7 areas 1903 H/H consume about 4, 93857.1 Monds
Total 24464 Households in the district Annual consumption approximately: 63, 60,640 M

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Pistacia – a Source of Fruit in wilderness A source of Chewing gum

Allium asplinicum Cotonoster afghanica

Withenia coagulans

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Tamerix – in flowering condition Morus alba – source of food at wild

Sophora mollis

Trophies of Sulaiman Markhor Chakor partidiges – a common bird


`

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Chalghoza forest in Musakhel

A view of Chalghoza in Musakhel

A thick Acaia modesta forest in Nali merdad zai.

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005


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Folk mella

A view of Sali Acacia forest

Trophy of Markhore and Urial Carraluma edulus in flowering condition

Identification of Biodiversity Hotspots in Musakhel District Balochistan 2005