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Asia-Pacific Regional Programme for Economic Statistics Screening Tool

Summary of Results ASEAN

One of the first activities in the Implementation Plan of the Regional Programme for
Improvement of Economic Statistics in Asia and the Pacific (RPES) 1 was to conduct a
capacity screening of national economic statistics systems with the objective of providing
a baseline for the implementation of the Core Set of Economic Statistics. 2

The Steering Group for the Regional Programme developed a questionnaire for ESCAP
member countries, which was administered to 10 ASEAN member countries in March
2013 and responses were received in May 2013 except for Myanmar.

List of countries

Lowincome Lowermiddleincome Uppermiddleincome Highincome


Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia BruneiDarussalam
Myanmar Lao Thailand Singapore
Philippines
VietNam

Details of these income-groupings are based on World Bank classification using 2011
GNI per capita.

The capacity screening questionnaire has five sections: technical cooperation,


institutional setting, IT and human resources, (statistical) infrastructure, and the Core Set
of economic statistics.

Section 1: Technical Cooperation

Table1A:RPESTechnicalCooperation Yes No Blank


Currently involved in international technical cooperation projects and
1.1 9 0 1
programmes aimed at building capacity for economic statistics.
Interested in participating in Regional Programme on Economic Statistics
1.2 (RPES) as a provider of technical assistance to other national statistical 7 2 1
systems.
Interested in participating in Regional Programme on Economic Statistics
1.3 (RPES) as a recipient of technical assistance from other national statistical 8 1 1
systems and international agencies.

1
E/ESCAP/CST(2)/5. Proposed regional programme for the improvement of economic statistics in Asia
and the Pacific. Available at http://www.unescap.org/official-documents/committee-on-statistics/session/2
2
E/ESCAP/CST(2)/4. Proposed core set of economic statistics for Asia and the Pacific. Available at
http://www.unescap.org/official-documents/committee-on-statistics/session/2

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Section 2: Institutional Setting

The first of the five components of Section 2, statistical legislation, is summarized in


Table 2.

Table2:StatisticalLegislation Yes No Blank


Existence of a Statistical law indicating distribution of responsibilities for
2.1.1 9 0 1
producing official statistics. (If no law, skip to 2.2)

Law/regulation to protect confidentiality of respondent's information and


2.1.2 9 0 1
ensure that data are used for statistical purposes only.

Law/regulation requires transparent statistical system, meaning that terms,


2.1.3 7 2 1
conditions and methodologies of official statistical producers are made public.

There are current/ongoing plans to modify legislation that governs the


2.1.4 6 3 1
statistical system.

Statistical law protects the independence of official statistics from political


2.1.5 7 2 1
influence.

Sub-section 2.2, strategic planning, begins with a question about the status of statistical
strategic planning.

Table3:Status No.ofcountries Country Remarks


Being implemented 7
Being designed 0
Planned 1 Brunei Darussalam
Not planned 1 Singapore NSDS is not critical
None response 1 Myanmar

Table4:StrategicPlanning Yes No Blank


2.2.2 National strategic plan/NSDS available on public website. 7 1 2
2.2.3 Statistical strategic plan or NSDS covers/includes:
2.2.3.1 Issues relating to co-ordination across the NSS 8 0 2
2.2.3.2 Government support (and the need for improved advocacy) 7 1 2
2.2.3.3 Adequacy of existing statistical legislation 7 1 2
Detailed action plan (including specific activities, responsibilities,
2.2.3.4 8 0 2
timelines) and cost and funding sources for proposed activities

2.2.3.5 Monitoring and review process 8 0 2

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In sub-section 2.3, four countries reported a centralized statistical system, 2 reported a
semi-centralised system while the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand reported a
decentralized statistical system.

Figure 1: Level of Centralization


Centralized Semi-centralized Decentralized

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Num ber of Countries

Responses to the follow-up questions in 2.3 are given in Table 4. Brunei Darussalam and
Singapore were the only countries to reply No to question 2.3.2 in Table 5.

Table5:NationalStatisticalCoordination Yes No Blank


The distribution of responsibility among agencies for producing the Core
2.3.2 7 2 1
Set of economic statistics is clearly specified

Plans are currently being implemented or are under development to


2.3.3 9 0 1
improve coordination of production of economic statistics

The remainder of Section 2 was a series of yes/no questions regarding dissemination and
advocacy, displayed in Table 6. Brunei Darussalam replied No to all questions in this
table. Lao PDR was the other country that replied No to question 2.5.3.

Table6:DisseminationandAdvocacy Yes No Blank


2.4.1 Publication policies are in place and available to users and staff 9 0 1

2.4.2 Contact points for each subject/statistical domain are publicized 9 0 1

Catalogues of publications, documents, and other services, including information


2.4.3 8 1 1
on any charges, are publically available

Information on how to receive assistance understanding/interpreting data from


2.4.4 8 1 1
producing agencies are publicised for users

There are current/ongoing activities to improve awareness and use of economic


2.5.1 8 1 1
statistics from official sources within countries
There are current/ongoing activities in country to build analytical/research
2.5.2 capacities, develop data analysis methodologies, and increase utilization of 8 1 1
official data

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There is sufficient awareness, knowledge and appreciation among users/potential
2.5.3 7 2 1
users of the relevance of official statistics for economic policy

Seminars or other regular opportunities for communication with users are


2.5.4 8 1 1
organized by producers of economic statistics

Section 3: IT and Human Resources

The first question of Section 3 asked whether each countrys IT systems were adequate
for producing the Core Set. Eight countries replied Yes and only Lao PDR replied
No.

Table7:Numberofstaffthatworkoneconomicstatistics
BruneiDarussalam Cambodia Indonesia LaoPDR Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand VietNam
80 95 700 16 1500 103 400 35 4966

Table8:HumanResources Yes No Blank


Human resources are adequate for producing and disseminating the Core
3.2.2 4 5 1
Set of Economic Statistics

3.2.3 Skills need / assessment recently conducted within your agency 8 1 1

3.2.4 Staff manuals/guidelines available on statistical processes for internal use 7 2 1

Internal processes (e.g. data editing, metadata documentation, etc.) are


3.2.5 6 3 1
documented for internal use and reference by new staff

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Section 4: Infrastructure

The fourth section is made up of 12 sub-sections.

In sub-section 4.1 countries were asked if they use a quality assessment framework
(QAF). Six countries responded Yes to question 4.1.1. Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia
and Viet Nam responded that a QAF is not available and used in their respective
countries. Of these three countries, Malaysia and Viet Nam are the countries which have
currently planned to the QAF implementation.

Sub-section 4.2, Metadata Repository, only Thailand replied No to all questions in this
sub-section. Results are summarized in Table 9.

Table9:MetadataRepository Yes No Blank


Statistical releases accompanied with comprehensive metadata (source information,
4.2.1 7 2 1
relevant accompanying notes and disclaimers for users, etc.)

4.2.2 Centralized national metadata repository available 5 4 1

4.2.3 Metadata format standard implemented 6 3 1

4.2.4 Metadata quality standard implemented 7 2 1

Figure 2 displays the responses to the first part of sub-section 4.3, six countries have
centralised business registers. The other three countries with no business register system
in place, Indonesia and Lao PDR expressed that it is already being planned or designed
while Cambodia responded No.

Figure 2: Business Registers


In Use Planned Not Planned

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Num ber of Countries

Of the nine countries that responded to sub-section 4.3.4, it is only Cambodia that uses
ISIC Rev. 3.1 to classify the items in the business register, the rest of the countries use
ISIC Rev. 4.

In sub-section 4.3.3, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and the Philippines the use business
register is not shared in the national statistical systems. Only Cambodia omitted questions
4.3.5 and 4.3.6.

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Table10:BusinessRegisters,BirthsandDeaths Yes No Blank
Use of business register shared by a number of agencies in the national
4.3.3 5 3 2
statistical system
4.3.5 Established method for identifying 'births' (new businesses) 7 1 2

Established method for identifying 'deaths' (disbanded businesses or


4.3.6 7 1 2
mergers)

Sub-section 4.4 responses are summarized in Table 11. It is only Malaysia answered that
Yes to question 4.4.2.

Table11:OtherStatisticalInfrastructure Yes No Blank


4.4.1 Documented general guidelines available for survey sampling design 9 0 1

Design of key data collections include method to estimate the non-observed


4.4.2 1 8 1
economy, including informal economy and informal employment

4.4.3 Participant in ICP Programme (for calculating PPPs) 9 0 1

Sub-sections 4.5 through 4.12 are a series of key collections in which respondents were
first asked to indicate if they report the specified collection, then a series of follow-up
questions were administered in each sub-section regarding standards followed, frequency
of collections, and timeliness of reporting. Figure 3 gives the number of countries in the
sub-region that collect each key collection. Singapore replied No to both the economic
census and agricultural census while Brunei Darussalam has replied No to the latter
only.

NA = National Accounts
BOP = Balance of Payments
LFS = Labour Force Survey
HIES = Household Income and Expenditure Survey
EES = Enterprise/Establishment Survey
PC = Population Census
EC = Economic Census
AC = Agricultural Census

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Figure 3: Key Collections

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Numberofcountries

NA BOP LFS HIES EES PC EC AG

Figures 4A and 4B summarize the frequencies of collection for each item from Figure 3.

Figure 4A: Collection Frequencies 4.5 - 4.7, 4.9

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Number of Countries

0
National Accounts Balance of Payments Labour Force Survey Enterprise/Establishment
Survey

Monthly Quarterly Annually Ad-Hoc Other

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Figure 4B: Collection Frequencies 4.8, 4.10 - 4.12
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Number of Countries

0
Household Income and Population Census Economic Census Agricultural Census
Expenditure Survey

Annually Every 5 yrs Every 10 yrs Other

Figures 5A and 5B summarize the timeliness of reporting (in months) for each key
collection.

Figure 5A: Timeliness of Reporting 4.5 - 4.8


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Number of Countries

0
National Accounts Balance of Payments Labour Force Survey Household Income and
Expenditure Survey

3 months or less 4-6 months 7-12 months > 1 year

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Figure 5B: Timeliness of Reporting 4.9 - 4.12
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Number of Countries

0
Enterprise/Establishment Population Census Economic Census Agricultural Census
Survey

3 months or less 4-6 months 7-12 months > 1 year

Sub-section 4.5 elaborates on national accounts inquiries. Figure 6 summarizes the sub-
regions latest implemented standards for systems of national accounts.

Thailand has reported that the 2008 SNA had been implemented. Except for Cambodia,
the rest of the countries that are still implementing the 1968 or 1993 SNA, have plans to
update to 2008 SNA.

Figure 6: Latest SNA Standard Implemented


1968 1993 2008 Other

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Num ber of countries

Next, countries were asked to specify which industrial classifications they use. Most
countries are using ISIC Rev. 4 except for Cambodia and Philippines that used ISIC Rev.
3.1. Cambodia responded Yes to the question if they have plans to update while
Philippines omitted that same question.

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Figure 7: Industrial Classification Used
ISIC Rev. 3 ISIC Rev. 3.1 ISIC Rev. 4 Other

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of Countries

For product classification of national accounts, Cambodia and Lao use CPC v1.1, Brunei,
Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand uses CPC v2. Indonesia, Singapore and Viet Nam
responded with Others and specified a national classification modified from ISIC.
Cambodia has plans to update to CPC v2.

Remaining classifications in sub-section 4.5 are summarized in Table 12.

Table12:OtherStatisticalInfrastructure Yes No Blank


4.5.9 Classification of individual consumption by purpose (COICOP)? 9 0 1

4.5.10 Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG)? 5 4 1

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Section 5: Core Set

In the Core Set, a set of thirty-one indicators are listed and each country was asked to
specify the frequency of collection for each item.

Tables 11 through 14 summarize which countries meet the minimum standards that the
Regional Programme specifies, which do not meet the minimum, and which indicated ad-
hoc collection or do not have the indicators available (N/A). The codes for each column
are as follows: M = number of countries meeting or exceeding the minimum frequency; B
= number of countries regularly collecting the indicator but at a rate below the minimum
frequency; A = number of countries reporting ad-hoc collection; O = number of countries
reporting other rates of collection; U = number of countries reporting that the item is
unavailable; X = number of countries leaving responses blank.

Table13:PricesandCosts Minimum M B A U X
Consumer price index (CPI) Quarterly 8 1 0 0 1
Producer price index (PPI) Quarterly 5 1 1 2 1
Commodity price index Monthly 5 1 0 3 1
External merchandise trade price indices Monthly 3 1 0 5 1
Wages / Earnings data Quarterly 4 4 1 0 1
Labour costs index / Wage index Quarterly 1 3 1 3 2

Table14:DemandandOutput Minimum M B A O U X
GDP (Production) Quarterly 7 2 0 0 0 1
GDP (Expenditure) Quarterly 7 2 0 0 0 1
External Trade Merchandise Monthly 7 1 0 0 1 1
External Trade Services Quarterly 5 1 0 0 2 2
Short-term Indicators Industry Output Quarterly 7 1 0 0 1 1
Short-term Indicators Services Output Quarterly 6 1 0 0 1 2
Short-term Indicators Consumer Demand Quarterly 6 1 0 0 1 2
Short-term Indicators Fixed Investment Quarterly 4 2 1 0 1 2
Short-term Indicators Inventories Quarterly 4 2 1 0 1 2
Economy structure statistics Every 5 years 1 6 1 0 1 1
Productivity Annually 5 0 0 0 3 2

Table15:IncomeandWealth Minimum M B A O U X
Integrated National Accounts Annually 6 0 1 0 1 2
Institutional Sector Accounts Annually 1 0 1 1 5 2
Balance of Payments (BOP) Quarterly 8 1 0 0 0 1
International Investment Position (IIP) Annually 6 0 0 0 3 1
External debt Quarterly 6 2 0 0 1 1
Income distribution Every 5 years 4 0 1 2 2 1

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Table16:Money,LabourandGovernment Minimum M B A U X
Assets/liabilities of depository corporations Monthly 5 0 0 2 3
Broad money and credit aggregates Monthly 5 0 0 2 3
Interest rate statistics Monthly 7 0 0 2 1
General government operations Quarterly 3 4 1 1 1
General government debt Quarterly 4 2 1 2 1
Labour supply and demand Annually 5 0 0 3 2
Hours worked Quarterly 4 1 0 2 3
Natural resources Annually 2 0 1 5 2

Annex 1: Country Profiles

Population* GDP/Capita** EconomicGrouping


Brunei Darussalam 406 $45,507 High-income
Cambodia 14,305 $1,968 Low-income
Indonesia 242,326 $3,885 Lower middle-income
Lao PDR 6,288 $2,313 Lower middle-income
Malaysia 28,859 $13,706 Upper middle-income
Myanmar 48,337 unavailable Low-income
Philippines 94,852 $3,560 Lower middle-income
Singapore 5,188 $52,070 High-income
Thailand 69,519 $7,673 Upper middle-income
Viet Nam 88,792 $2,845 Lower middle-income
*2012 measurement
**2005 USD (2011 measurement)

Source: UNESCAP Statistics Division. Note on Statistical Methods for the Statistical
Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2013.

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Annex 2: National agencies and sources for filling

Agenciesinvolvedineconomicstatistics SourceofInformation
Brunei Darussalam Department of Economic Planning and Titisutinah Hj
Development Mohd.Diah

Cambodia National Institute of Statistics (NIS), Mr Nor Vanndy (NSO)


Ministry of Planning
Line Ministries
Central Bank
Indonesia BPS Statistics Indonesia Sasmito Wibowo
Lao PDR Department of Economic Statistics 1) Mr Phousavanh
Bank of Lao Chanthasombath
Line Ministries (Finance, Industry and 2) Mr Thonekham
Commerce, Agriculture and Forestry, Inthalack
Energy and Mines, Public Works and
Transport, Tourism)

Malaysia Department of Statistics Malaysia Dr Mohd Uzir bin


Mahidin
Myanmar Non-responding
Philippines NSO, NSCB, Bangko Sentral (Central Ms Estela T. de
Bank) Guzman (NSO)
Mr Raymundo J.
Talento (NSCB)
Ms Rosabel B.
Guerrero (BSP)
Singapore Department of Statistics Neo Poh Cheem (NSO)
Accountant General Lim Pei Xuan (NSO)
Accounting and Corporate Regulatory
Authority
Building and Construction Authority
Economic Development Board
International Enterprise
Monetary Authority
Manpower Research and Statistical
Department
Tourism Board
Thailand National Statistical Office Ms Budsara Sangaroon
Bank of Thailand (NSO)
National Economic and Social Development
Board
Line Ministries (Finance, Commerce,
Industry, Agriculture and Cooperatives,
Labor)

Viet Nam General Statistics Office Ms Nguyen Thi Ngoc

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State Bank Van (GSO)
Ministries (Planning and Investment,
General Statistics Office, Finance, Customs,
Public Security (Immigration), Industry and
Trade, Transportation, Construction, Labor,
Education, Health)

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