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Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics (NOC16 - ME05)

Assignment - 4 : Solutions
Manjul Sharma & Aswathy Nair K.
(TAs for the course)
Department of Aerospace Engineering
IIT Madras
February 18, 2016

1) Air flows in a duct with a velocity of 215 m/s. The temperature of air measured at a point along the duct
is 30 and pressure is 5 bar. Determine the stagnation pressure and Mach number at that point.

Answer : (p) P0 = 6.48 bar; M = 0.62

Given : v = 215 m/s; T = 30 = 303 K; P = 5 bar = 5 105 Pa

To find : P0 , M

v2
T0 = T + = 325.99 K
2Cp


 1
P0 T0
=
P T
P0 = 6.48 bar

v
M = = 0.62
RT

2) The Mach number of an air stream at a pressure of 4.25 bar is 0.9. It is isentropically decelerated to Mach
number of 0.2. Find the rise in the static pressure required (P2 P1 ) and the area ratio (A2 /A1 ) required
to achieve them.
A2
Answer : (l) (P2 P1 ) = 2.7 bar; = 2.94
A1
Given : P1 = 0.9 bar; M1 = 0.9; M2 = 0.2

A2
To find : (P2 P1 ),
A1
P1
From Gas tables, corresponding to M1 = 0.9, = 0.591
P01
A1
= 1.009
A1

1
P2
Similarly, corresponding to M2 = 0.2, = 0.973
P02
A2
= 2.964
A2
Since the flow is isentropic, P01 = P02 ; A1 = A2

P1
= 0.591 P01 = 7.19 bar = P02
P01
P2
= 0.973 P2 = 6.99 bar
P02
(P2 P1 ) = 2.7 bar
Since, A1 = A2

A2 A2 A1
= = 2.94
A1 A2 A1

3) The air stream at the entry of a duct has a pressure of 1 bar, temperature 300 K and Mach number 1.3.
If the exit Mach number of the duct is 0.6, determine the temperature and velocity of air at the exit of the
duct. (Assume isentropic conditions).

Answer : (i) T2 = 374.70 K; v2 = 232.8 m/s

Given : P1 = 1 bar; T1 = 300 K; M1 = 1.3; M2 = 0.6


To find : T2 , v2

v1 2
T01 = T1 + = 401.35 K
2Cp
Since flow is isentropic, T01 = T02 = 401.35 K
Find T2 from,  
T02 1
= 1+ M2 2
T2 2
T2 = 374.70 K

v2
M2 =
RT2
p
v2 = M2 RT2 = 232.8 m/s

4) An aircraft is flying at an altitude of 12,000 m at a Mach number of 0.82. The cross-section of the inlet
diffuser before the compressor stage is 0.6 m2 . Determine the mass of air entering the compressor per second
and the stagnation pressure of air. Given that the density of air at 12,000 m is 0.311 kg/m3 and temperature
is 216.88 K.

Answer : (s) m
= 45.17 kg/s; P01 = 0.3 bar

Given : M1 = 0.82; A1 = 0.6 m2 ; 1 = 0.311 kg/m3 ; T1 = 216.88 K


To find : m,
P01

2
v1
M1 =
RT1
v1 = 242.06 m/s

m
= 1 A1 v1 = 45.16 kg/s


1
v1 2
P01

T01
 1 T1 + 2Cp
= =
P1 T1 T1

1
v1 2
T1 + 2Cp
P01 = (1 RT1 )
T1

P01 = 0.3 bar

5) The pressure, velocity and temperature of air at the entry of a nozzle are 2 bar, 145 m/s and 330 K.
The exit pressure is 1 bar. Determine the Mach number and the rate of mass flux at the entry if the flow is
isentropic.
m

Answer : (c) M1 = 0.4; = 306.2 kg/s
A
Given : P1 = 2 bar; v1 = 145 m/s; T1 = 330 K; P2 = 1.5 bar

m

To find : M1 ,
A

v1
M1 = = 0.4
RT1
m
P1
= v1 = 306.2 kg/s
A RT1

6) Air flowing through a subsonic diffuser with inlet area 1 m2 and area change of 0.75 m2 undergoes a change
in density from 1.225 kg/m3 to 1.54 kg/m3 . Determine the Mach number of the flow at the exit of the nozzle.

Answer : (u) M2 = 0.57

Given : A1 = 1 m2 ; dA = 0.75 m2 ; 1 = 1.225 kg/m3 ; 2 = 1.54 kg/m3


To find : M2

Since a subsonic diffuser is being considered,

A2 A1 = 0.75 A2 = 0.75 + A1 = 1.75 m2

M2 2
 
d dA
=
2 1 M2 2 A2

M2 = 0.57

3
7) A diffuser is to be designed in such a way that the exit Mach number is 0.45. The area at the exit is set as
2 m2 and the exit is open to the atmosphere with temperature of 300 K. If the designer was instructed that
the air flowing through the diffuser will have inlet conditions of 500 K and Mach number 0.75, determine
the area change to be incorporated to design the diffuser.

Answer : (f ) dA = 0.46 m2

Given : M2 = 0.45; A2 = 2 m2 ; T2 = 300 K; T1 = 500 K; M1 = 0.75


To find : dA

 
dv 1 dA
=
v2 1 M2 2 A2

v2 = a2 M2 = 156.23 m/s
v1 = a1 M1 = 336.16 m/s

 
v2 v1 1 dA
=
v2 1 M2 2 A2
dA = 0.46 m2

8) An aircraft is flying at an altitude of 11 km. The air is compressed reversibly in an inlet diffuser. The
temperature at the inlet of the diffuser is 216.65 K. If the Mach number and temperature at the exit of the
diffuser are 0.35 and 231 K, calculate the Mach number at the entry of the diffuser.

Answer : (z) M1 = 0.68

Given : T1 = 216.65 K; M2 = 0.35; T2 = 231 K


To find : M1

 
T02 1
=1+ M2 2
T2 2
T02 = 236.7 K = T01

 
T01 1
=1+ M1 2
T1 2
M1 = 0.68

9) Air flows through a converging nozzle, where stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature at the inlet
of the nozzle are 1 MPa and 333 K respectively. The pressure at the exit of the nozzle is 591 kPa. Assuming
the flow to be isentropic, compute the mass flow rate if the exit area is 0.001 m2 .

Answer : (w) m
= 2.2 kg/s

Given : P01 = 1 MPa; T01 = 333K; P2 = 591 kPa; A2 = 0.001 m2

To find : m

4
Since the flow is isentropic, T01 = T02 , P01 = P02
  1
T02 P02
=
T2 P2

T2 = 286.54 K

v2 2
Also, T02 = T2 +
2Cp
v2 = 305.59 m/s

P2
m
= 2 A2 v2 = A2 v2 = 2.2 kg/s
RT2

10) An aircraft is flying at an altitude of 12 km. An observer on the ground can hear the aircraft when the

angle of elevation of the aircraft is 25 (the angle that line of sight makes with horizontal). Determine the
ratio of stagnation pressure to static pressure at the nose of the aircraft. (Assume isentropic conditions).
P0
Answer : (r) = 13.86
P

Given : = 25
P0
To find :
P

1
M = = 2.366
sin 25o
  1   
 1
P0 T0 1 2
= = 1 + M
P T 2
P0
= 13.86
P