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The Norton Anthology
o f E nglish Literature


V O L U M E 1

Carol T. Christ

Alfred David

Barbara K. Lewalski

Lawrence Lipking

George M. Logan

Deidre Shauna Lynch

Katharine Eisaman Maus

James Noggle

Jahan Ramazani

Catherine Robson

James Simpson

Jon Stallworthy

Jack Stillinger

Editors Emeriti

E. Talbot Donaldson, L A T E O F I N D I A N A U N I V E R S I T Y • Hallett Smith, L A T E O F T H E
H U N T I N G T O N L I B R A R Y • Robert M. Adams, L A T E O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R -
N I A , L O S A N G E L E S • Samuel Holt Monk, L A T E O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N N E S O T A
• George H. Ford, L A T E O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F R O C H E S T E R • David Daiches, L A T E

CORNELL UNIVERSITY W • W • NORTON & COMPANY • New York • London . HARVARD UNIVERSITY M. H.The Norton Anthology of English Literature EIGHTH EDITION VOLUME 1 Stephen Greenblatt. Founding Editor Emeritus CLASS OF 1916 PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH EMERITUS. General Editor COGAN UNIVERSITY P R O F E S S O R OF THE HUMANITIES. Abrams.

1993. Norton & Company Ltd.—8th ed. W. By mid-century. 1 9 4 3 . W. W. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923. 2. 2) — I S B N 0 .com W.3 9 3 .X (v. 1962 by W. founding editor emeritus. the two major pillars of Norton's publishing program— trade books and college texts—were firmly established.8—dc22 2005052313 W.9 2 5 3 2 .) I S B N 0 . college. Ann Tappert Permissions Managers: Nancy Rodwan and Katrina Washington Text Design: Antonina Krass Art Research: Neil Ryder Hoos Composition by Binghamton Valley Composition Manufacturing by RR Donnelley Copyright © 2006.Y. cm. 10110 www. N. 1990. the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees. p.W. Abrams.3 9 3 . Castle House. 500 Fifth Avenue. Inc. W. In the 1950s. 75/76 Wells Street. 1974. 1968.9 2 7 1 5 .. 1986. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Norton anthology of English literature / Stephen Greenblatt. New York.5 (v. the adult education division of New York City's Cooper Union. Editor: Julia Reidhead Managing Editor.. Great Britain—Literary collections. I. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People's Institute. Candace Levy. Abrams. M. H.3 (v.wwnorton.3 9 3 . 1: pbk. when William Warder Norton and Mary D. London WIT 3 Q T 6 7 8 9 0 . Norton & Company. 1979. general editor . 2000. Katharine Ings. Permissions Acknowledgments constitutes an extension of the copyright page. College: Marian Johnson Developmental Editor: Kurt Wildermuth Electronic Media Editor: Eileen Connell Production Manager: Diane O'Connor Associate Editor: Erin Granville Copy Editors: Alice Falk. I S B N 0 .9 2 5 3 1 . Greenblatt. Alan Shaw.II. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all the copyright notices. 1) — I S B N 0 . Norton & Company. 1 9 1 2 - PR1109. publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad.9 2 7 1 3 . Inc.N6 2005 820. and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade.3 9 3 . English literature. W. and professional titles published each year— W.H. M. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. (Meyer Howard).6 (v. Stephen. 2: pbk.) 1. The Nortons soon expanded their program beyond the Institute.

THE MIDDLE AGES David / Simpson T H E SIXTEENTH CENTURY Logan / Greenblatt T H E EARLY S E V E N T E E N T H C E N T U R Y Lewalski / Maus T H E RESTORATION AND THE E I G H T E E N T H C E N T U R Y Lipking / Noggle T H E ROMANTIC P E R I O D Stillinger / Lynch T H E VICTORIAN A G E Christ / Robson T H E T W E N T I E T H C E N T U R Y AND A F T E R Stallworthy / Ramazani .

Contents PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH EDITION xxxiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xliii The Middle Ages (to ca. 6 7 3 .7 3 5 ) and C ^ E D M O N ' S H Y M N 24 An Ecclesiastical History of the English People 25 [The Story of Caedmon] 25 T H E DREAM OF T H E ROOD 27 BEOWULF translated by Seamus Heaney 29 JUDITH 100 KING ALFRED (849-899) 108 Preface to the Pastoral Care 109 THE WANDERER 111 THE WIFE'S LAMENT 113 ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE 115 THE ANGLO-SAXON C H R O N I C L E 115 [Obituary for William the C o n q u e r o r j 115 vii . 1485) 1 Introduction 1 Anglo-Saxon Literature 3 Anglo-Norman Literature 7 Middle English Literature in the Fourteenth a n d Fifteenth Centuries 10 Medieval English 15 Old and Middle English Prosody 19 Timeline 22 ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE 24 B E D E (ca.

1 4 0 0 ) 160 G E O F F R E Y C H A U C E R (ca.viii / CONTENTS L E G E N D A R Y H I S T O R I E S OF BRITAIN 1 17 G E O F F R E Y O F M O N M O U T H : T h e History o f the Kings o f Britain 118 [The Story of B r u t u s and Diana's Prophecy] 119 W A C E : Le R o m a n de Brut 120 [The R o m a n Challenge] 121 L A Y A M O N : Brut 124 [Arthur's D r e a m ] 125 T H E MYTH OF ARTHUR'S R E T U R N 127 Geoffrey of M o n m o u t h : From T h e History of the Kings of Britain 127 W a c e : From Le R o m a n de Brut 127 Layamon: From Brut 127 CELTIC CONTEXTS 128 EXILE OF T H E S O N S OF UISLIU 129 T H O M A S O F E N G L A N D : L e R o m a n d e Tristran 136 [The D e a t h s of Tristran and Ysolt] 13 7 MARIE DE F R A N C E 141 Lanval 142 Chevrefoil 155 A N C R E N E R I W L E (Rule for Anchoresses) 157 [The Parable of the Christ-Knight] 158 MIDDLE ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE FOURTEENTH AND FIFTEENTH CENTURIES 160 S I R GAWAIN A N D T H E G R E E N K N I G H T (ca.1 4 0 0 ) 213 THE CANTERBURY TALES 2 16 T h e General Prologue 218 Summary: T h e Knight's T al e 238 The Miller's Prologue and T al e 239 T h e Prologue 239 The Tale 241 T h e M a n of Law's Epilogue 255 T h e Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale 256 The Prologue 257 The T al e 275 T h e Pardoner's Prologue and T al e 284 T h e Introduction 284 T h e Prologue 285 . 1 3 7 5 . 1 3 4 3 .

1 3 3 0 .1 4 0 8 ) 319 T h e Lover's C o n f e s s i o n 320 The T a l e of Philomena and T e r e u s 320 W I L L I A M L A N G L A N D (ca. this lordling. CONTENTS / ix T h e T al e 288 T h e Epilogue 297 T h e Nun's Priest's Tale 298 [Close of Canterbury Tales] 312 T h e Parson's T al e 313 T h e Introduction 313 C h a u c e r ' s Retraction 315 LYRICS AND OCCASIONAL V E R S E 316 Troilus's S o n g 316 Truth 317 T o His Scribe A d a m 318 Complaint to His Pu rse 318 J O H N G O W E R (ca. 1 3 3 0 . that cometh from the fight 368 Ye That P a s e n by the Weye 369 S u n s e t on Calvary 369 I sing of a M a i d e n 369 A d a m Lay B o u n d 370 T h e C o r p u s Christi Carol 370 J U L I A N OF N O R W I C H (1342-ca. 1416) 371 A Book of Showings to the Anchoress J u l i an of Norwich 372 Chapter 3 [Julian's Bodily Sickness and the W o u n d s of Christ] 372 Chapter 4 [Christ's Passion and Incarnation] 373 .1 3 8 7 ) 331 T h e Vision of Piers Plowman 333 T h e Prologue 333 [The Field of Folk] 333 Passus 1 336 [The T r e a s u r e of Truth] 336 Passu s 5 340 [Piers Plowman S h o w s the Way to Saint Truth] 340 Passus 6 343 [The Plowing of Piers's Half-Acre] 343 Passus 7 350 [Piers T e a r s Truth's Pardon] 350 The C-Text 352 [The Dreamer M e e t s C o n s c i e n c e and Reason] 352 C H R I S T ' S HUMANITY 355 WILLIAM LANGLAND 356 T h e Vision of Piers Plowman 357 P a s s u s 18 357 [The Crucifixion and Harrowing of Hell] 357 M I D D L E E N G L I S H INCARNATION AND CRUCIFIXION LYRICS 367 What is he.

1 4 3 8 ) 383 The Book of Margery Kempe 384 Book 1.x / CONTENTS Chapter 5 [All Creation as a Hazelnut] 374 Chapter 7 [Christ as Homely and Courteous] 375 Chapter 27 [Sin Is Fitting] 376 Chapters 58. 1 3 7 3 .1 6 0 3 ) 485 Introduction 485 Timeline 512 J O H N S K E L T O N (ca.c a .28 [Pilgrimage to Jerusalem] 388 Book 1.1 4 7 1 ) 438 Morte Darthur 439 [The Conspiracy against Lancelot and Guinevere] 439 [War Breaks Out between Arthur and Lancelot] 444 [The Death of Arthur] 448 [The Deaths of Lancelot and Guinevere] 453 R O B E R T H E N R Y S O N (ca. 61 [Jesus as Mother] 377 Chapter 86 [Christ's Meaning] 382 M A R G E R Y K E M P E (ca. 60.76 [Margery Nurses Her Husband in His Old Age] 394 Book 1.20 [Margery Sees the Host Flutter at Mass] 387 Book 1. 1500) 456 The C o c k and the Fox 457 EVERYMAN (after 1485) 463 The Sixteenth Century ( 1 4 8 5 .1 [The Birth of Her First Child and Her First Vision] 384 Book 1.11 [Margery and Her Husband Reach a Settlement] 385 Book 1.35—36 [Margery's Marriage to and Intimacy with Christ] 389 Book 1. like a child 515 .1 5 2 9 ) 514 Mannerly Margery Milk and Ale 515 With lullay. 1425) 398 MYSTERY PLAYS 406 The Wakefield Second Shepherds' Play 407 M I D D L E E N G L I S H LYRI CS 435 The Cuckoo Song 436 Alison 436 My Lief Is Faren in Londe 437 Western Wind 437 I Am of Ireland 437 S I R T H O M A S MALORY (ca. lullay. 1 4 0 5 .79 [Margery's Vision of the Passion Sequence] 395 T H E Y O R K PLAY O F T H E C R U C I F I X I O N (ca. 1 4 2 5 .60 [Margery's Reaction to a Pieta] 392 Book 1. 59. 1 4 6 0 .

Rima 140 594 W h o s o list to hunt 595 Petrarch. Rima 3 1 0 608 Love. awake! 600 Forget not yet 601 Blame not my lute 602 Stand whoso list 603 W h o list his wealth and e a s e retain 603 Mine own J o h n Poins 604 HENRY HOWARD. the things for to attain 614 T h e Fourth Book of Virgil 614 [Dido in Love] 614 FAITH I N C O N F L I C T THE ENGLISH BIBLE 1 Corinthians 13 619 From Tyndale's Translation 619 From T h e Geneva Bible 619 . Love 596 I find no p e a c e 596 Petrarch. T h e T u n n i n g of Elinour R u m m i n g 516 Secundus Passus 516 SIR T H O M A S M O R E (1478-1535) Utopia 521 T h e History of King Richard III 590 [A King's Mistress] 590 S I R T H O M A S WYATT T H E E L D E R ( 1 5 0 3 . that quick could never rest 612 0 happy d a m e s . in p e a c e with foul desire 610 So cruel prison how could betide 610 Wyatt resteth here.1 5 4 2 ) The long love that in my thought doth harbor 594 Petrarch. Rima 190 595 Farewell. that doth reign and live within my thought 608 Alas! so all things now do hold their p e a c e 609 Petrarch. that may e m b r a c e 613 Martial. Rima 164 609 Th'Assyrians' king. Rima 189 597 Divers doth u s e 598 What vaileth truth? 598 M a d a m . EARL OF SURREY (1517-1547) T h e soote s e a s o n 608 Petrarch. Rima 134 596 My galley 597 Petrarch. withouten many words 599 They flee from me 599 The Lover Showeth How He Is Forsaken of S u c h as He S o m e t i m e Enjoyed 600 My lute.

and on the Natural Law] 638 R O B E R T S O U T H W E L L : T h e Burning B a b e 640 ROGER ASCHAM (1515-1568) 641 The Schoolmaster 642 T h e First Book for the Youth 642 [Teaching Latin] 642 [The Italianate Englishman] 643 SIR T H OMAS HOBY (1530-1566) 645 Castiglione's The Courtier 646 Book 1 646 [Grace] 646 Book 4 647 [The Ladder of Love] 647 WOMEN I N POWER 662 MARY I (MARY T U D O R ) 663 Letter to Henry VIII 664 From An Ambassadorial Dispatch to the Holy R o m a n Emperor.xii / CONTENTS From T h e Douay-Rheims Version 620 From T h e Authorized (King J a m e s ) Version 620 W I L L I A M T Y N D A L E : T h e O b e d i e n c e of a Christian M a n 621 [The Forgiveness of Sins] 621 [Scriptural Interpretation] 622 T H O M A S M O R E : A Dialogue C o n c e r n i n g Heresies 623 From C h a p t e r 28 623 J O H N C A L V I N : T h e Institution o f Christian Religion 625 From B o o k 3. C h a r l e s V: T h e Coronation of Mary I 665 The Oration of Q u e e n Mary in the Guildhall. 1554 666 . C h a p t e r 3 638 [On the Several Kinds of Law. C h a p t e r 21 625 A N N E A S K E W : From T h e First Examination of Anne Askew 628 J O H N F O X E : Acts and M o n u m e n t s 631 [The Death of Anne Askew] 631 B O O K O F C O M M O N PRAYER: From T h e Form o f Solemnization of Matrimony 632 B O O K OF H O M I L I E S : From An Homily Against D i s o b e d i e n c e and Willful Rebellion 635 R I C H A R D H O O K E R : Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity 637 Book 1. on the First of February.

Q U E E N O F S C O T S 675 From C a s k e t Letter N u m b e r 2 677 A Letter to Elizabeth I. February 14. November 5. Q u e e n of Scots. 670 A Letter of the Lady J a n e . 1 5 8 6 696 A Letter to Sir Amyas Paulet. 1 5 6 6 692 From A Letter to Mary. 1563 690 From A S p e e c h to a Joint Delegation of Lords and C o m m o n s . J a n u a r y 2 8 . February 24. 1 587 697 Verse E x c h a n g e between Elizabeth and Sir Walter Ralegh 698 S p e e c h to the T roop s at Tilbury 699 T h e "Golden S p e e c h " 700 ARTHUR GOLDING (1536-1605) 703 Ovid's Metamorphoses 704 [The Four Ages] 704 ED MUN D SPENSER (1552-1599) 708 The Shepheardes Calender 708 To His Booke 708 October 709 T h e Faerie O u e e n e 714 A Letter of the Authors 716 Book 1 719 Book 2 857 Summary 857 C a n t o 12 857 [The Bower of Bliss] 857 Book 3 867 Summary 867 . Sent unto her Father 672 A Prayer of the Lady J a n e 673 A S e c o n d Letter to Her Father 674 Foxe's Acts and Monuments 674 T h e Words and Behavior of the Lady J a n e upon the S c a f f o l d 674 MARY. August 1 586 697 A Letter to King J a m e s VI of Scotland. February 10. 1 567 694 T h e doubt of f u t u r e foes 695 O n Monsieur's Departure 695 A Letter to Robert Dudley. May 17. 1568 679 From Narrative of the Execution of the Q u e e n of S c o t s 681 ELIZABETH I 687 Verses Written with a D i a m o n d 688 From T h e P a s s a g e of O u r M o s t Dread Sovereign Lady Q u e e n Elizabeth through the City of L o n d o n to Westminster on the Day before Her Coronation 688 S p e e c h to the H o u s e of C o m m o n s . CONTENTS / xiii LADY J A N E G R E Y 668 Roger A s c h a m ' s Schoolmaster 669 A Talk with Lady J a n e 669 From A Letter of the Lady J a n e to M . H . Earl of Leicester.

fayre love. 1577-80 932 From T h e f a m o u s voyage of Sir Francis Drake into the S o u t h Sea 932 A M A D A S A N D B A R L O W E ' S V O Y A G E T O V I R G I N I A .xiv / CONTENTS Canto 6 868 [The G a r d e n of Adonis] 868 C a n t o s 7—10 S u m m a r y 880 Canto 11 880 C a n t o 12 892 Amoretti a n d Epithalamion 902 AMORETTL 903 Sonnet 1 ( " H appy ye leaves when as those lilly hands") 903 Sonnet 34 ("Lyke as a ship that through the O c e a n wyde") 903 Sonnet 37 ("What guyle is this. and beautiful Empire of Guiana 923 T h e History of the World 926 [Conclusion: O n Death] 926 THE WIDER WORLD 927 FROBISHER'S VOYAGES TO T H E ARCTIC. M a d e by Himself] 923 From T h e discovery of the large. 1585 938 From A brief and true report of the new-found land of Virginia 939 . false love 921 M e t h o u g h t I saw the grave where L a u r a lay 921 Nature. that on this day") 905 S o n n e t 74 ( " M o s t happy letters fram'd by skilfull trade") 906 S o n n e t 75 ( " O n e day I wrote her n a m e upon the strand") 906 S o n n e t 79 ( " M e n call you fayre. rich. and you doe credit it") 907 Epithalamion 907 SIR WALTER RALEGH (1552-1618) 917 T h e Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd 917 What is our life? 918 [Sir Walter Ralegh to H i s S o n ] 918 T h e Lie 919 Farewell. is vaine") 905 S o n n e t 67 ("Lyke as a h u n t s m a n after weary c h a c e " ) 905 S o n n e t 68 ( " M o s t glorious Lord of lyfe. that w a s h e d her hands in milk 922 [The Author's Epitaph. 1576-78 928 From A true discourse of the late voyages of discovery 928 DRAKE'S CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF T H E G L O B E . 1584 935 From T h e first voyage m a d e to Virginia 935 HARIOT'S R E P O R T ON VIRGINIA. that those her golden tresses") 904 Sonnet 54 ("Of this worlds T h e a t r e in which we stay") 904 Sonnet 64 ( " C o m m i n g to kisse her lyps [such grace I fou nd] " ) 904 Sonnet 65 ("The doubt which ye m i s d e e m e .

my friend [right healthful caustics]. have I thus betrayed my liberty?") 983 "I on my horse. fie. my lance") 982 "Stella oft sees the very face of woe") 983 "What. Stella's eyes") 977 " Q u e e n Virtue's court. which dost those ruddy gems impart") 987 Fourth Song ("Only joy. CONTENTS 1 J O H N LYLY ( 1 5 5 4 . Philosophy. my friends. your lesson is") 985 "Oft with true sighs. thou climb'st the skies") 980 "I might [unhappy word]. nor with a dribbed shot") 976 "It is most true that eyes are formed to serve") 976 " S o m e lovers speak.1 6 0 6 ) 94 Euphues: T h e Anatomy of Wit 944 [Euphues Introduced] 944 SIR PHILIP SIDNEY (1554-1586) 94 The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia 948 Book 2. now here you are") 987 . and Love on me doth try") 983 "A strife is grown between Virtue and Love") 984 "In martial sports I had my cunning tried") 984 " B e c a u s e I breathe not love to everyone") 984 "Fie. O me. too high for my low style to show") 986 "Who will in fairest book of Nature know") 986 "Desire. my hand. let me write. though thou my old companion art") 986 "I never drank of Aganippe well") 987 "O kiss. Poetry] 955 [Three Kinds of Poets] 958 [Poetry. oft with uncalled tears") 985 "O joy. History] 959 [The Poetic Kinds] 963 [Answers to Charges against Poetry] 967 [Poetry in England] 968 [Conclusion] 973 Astrophil and Stella 975 "Loving in truth. which some call Stella's face") 977 "Reason. fly") 979 "Your words. that still") 978 "You that do search for every purling spring") 978 "In nature apt to like when I did see") 978 "With what sharp checks I in myself am shent") 979 "Fly. in dark abstracted guise") 980 "You that with allegory's curious frame") 980 "With how sad steps. and fain in verse my love to show") 975 "Not at first sight. Chapter 1 949 The D efense of Poesy 953 [The Lessons of Horsemanship] 954 [The Poet. O Moon. when they their muses entertain") 977 "When Nature made her chief work. and my breast doth swell") 982 " C o m e sleep! O sleep the certain knot of peace") 982 "Having this day my horse. in faith thou art well served. I have my death-wound. school of Patience. I might") 981 " C o m e . fly.'And to what e n d ? ' " ) 981 "My mouth doth water. blame") 979 " B e c a u s e I oft.

find the words. painted things") 1000 61 ( " S i n c e there's no help. for thou hast m a d e my brain") 990 Eleventh S o n g ('Who is it that this dark night") 990 106 ("O absent presence. C O U N T E S S O F P E M B R O K E (1562-1621) 993 Psalm 5 2 994 Psalm 139 995 SAMUEL DANIEL (1562-1619) 997 Delia 998 33 ("When m e n shall find thy flower. while now by Honor's cruel might") 989 94 ("Grief.xvi / CONTENTS 87 ("When I was forced from Stella ever dear") 989 89 ( " N o w that of a b s e n c e the most irksome night") 989 91 ("Stella. let us kiss and part") 1000 Ode. thy glory p a s s " ) 998 45 ("Care-charmer Sleep. Stella is not here") 991 108 ("When Sorrow [using mine own fire's might]") 992 FULKE GREVILLE. To the Virginian Voyage 1000 CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE (1564-1593) 1001 Hero and L e a n d e r 1004 T h e Passionate S h e p h e r d to His Love 1022 Doctor F a u s t u s 1022 T h e Tragical History of Doctor F a u s t u s 1023 The T w o Texts of Doctor Faustus 1056 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE (1564-1616) 1058 SONNETS 1060 1 ("From fairest creatures we desire increase") 1062 3 ( " L o o k in thy glass and tell the f a c e thou viewest") 1062 12 ("When I do count the clock that tells the time") 1062 15 ("When I consider every thing that grows") 1063 18 ("Shall I c o m p a r e thee to a summer's day?") 1063 19 ("Devouring Time. son of the sable Night") 998 46 ("Let others sing of knights and paladins") 998 M I C H A E L DRAYTON (1563-1631) 999 Idea 999 To the Reader of T h e s e S o n n e t s 999 6 ("How many paltry. blunt thou the lion's paws") 1063 20 ("A woman's face with Nature's own hand painted") 1064 23 ("As an unperfect actor on the stage") 1064 29 ("When. nor the gilded m o n u m e n t s " ) 1066 . in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes") 1065 30 ("When to the sessions of sweet silent thought") 1065 33 ("Full many a glorious morning have I seen") 1065 35 ( " N o more be grieved at that which thou hast done") 1066 55 ("Not marble. foolish. LORD BROOKE (1554-1628) 992 Caelica 993 100 ("In night when colors all to black are cast") 993 MARY ( S I D N E Y ) H E R B E R T . c o m e .

nor stone. who in thy power") 1073 127 ("In the old age black was not counted fair") 1073 128 ("How oft when thou. nor the prophetic soul") 1072 110 ("Alas. and sadly sitting by my love") 1234 . the center of my sinful earth") 1076 147 ("My love is as a fever. my m u s i c . CONTENTS / xvii 60 ("Like as the waves m a k e towards the pebbled shore") 1066 62 ("Sin of self-love p o s s e s s e t h all mine eye") 1067 65 ("Since brass. thou hast thy Will") 1075 138 ("When my love swears that she is m a d e of truth") 1075 144 ("Two loves I have of comfort and despair") 1075 146 ("Poor soul. nor earth.1 1225 THOMAS CAMPION (1567-1620) 1228 My sweetest Lesbia 1228 I care not for these ladies 1228 When to her lute C o r i n n a sings 1229 Now winter nights enlarge 1230 There is a garden in her f a c e 1230 Fain would I wed 1231 THOMAS NASHE (1567-1601) 1231 A Litany in T i m e of Plague 1232 RICHARD BARNFIELD (1574-1627) 1233 Cynthia 1234 Sonnet 9 ("Diana [on a time] walking the wood") 1234 Sonnet 11 ("Sighing. how I faint when I of you do write") 1068 85 ("My tongue-tied m u s e in m a n n e r s holds her still") 1069 87 ("Farewell: thou art too dear for my possessing") 1069 93 ( " So shall I live s u p p o s i n g thou art true") 1069 94 ("They that have power to hurt and will do none") 1070 97 ("How like a winter hath my a b s e n c e been") 1070 98 ("From you have I been absent in the spring") 1071 105 ("Let not my love be called idolatry") 1071 106 ("When in the chronicle of wasted time") 1071 107 ("Not mine own fears. 'tis true I have gone here and there") 1072 116 ("Let me not to the marriage of true minds") 1072 126 ("O thou. my lovely boy. nor boundless sea") 1067 71 ( " N o longer mourn for me when I am dead") 1067 73 ("That time of year thou mayst in me behold") 1068 74 ("But be contented. when that fell arrest") 1068 80 ("O. longing still") 1076 152 ("In loving thee thou know'st I am forsworn") 1076 Twelfth Night 1077 King Lear 1139 Excerpts from the T w o Texts of King Lear 1224 From T h e History of King Lear: S c e n e 8 1224 From T h e Tragedy of King Lear: 3. music play'st") 1073 129 ("Th' expense of spirit in a waste of s h a m e " ) 1074 130 ("My mistress' eyes are nothing like the su n" ) 1074 135 ("Whoever hath her wish.

thy s p o u s e so bright a n d clear") 1298 19 ("Oh. be not proud. 1613. On His Mistress 1281 Elegy 19. in My S i c k n e s s 1301 A Hymn to G o d the Father 1302 . to vex me. three-personed G o d . though s o m e have called thee") 1296 11 ("Spit in my f a c e . and if that tree") 1296 10 ("Death. dear Christ. To His Mistress G o i n g to Bed 1283 Satire 3 1284 S a p p h o to Philaenis 1287 From An Anatomy of the World: T h e First Anniversary 1289 Holy S o n n e t s 1295 1 ("Thou hast m a d e me. B e i n g the Shortest Day 1272 T h e Bait 1274 T h e Apparition 1274 A Valediction: Forbidding M o u r n i n g 1275 T h e Ecstasy 1276 T h e Funeral 1278 The Blossom 1279 T h e Relic 1280 A Lecture upon the S h a d o w 1281 Elegy 16. I do not go") 1269 Air and Angels 1270 Break of Day 1270 A Valediction: Of W e e p i n g 1271 Love's Alchemy 1272 A Nocturnal upon Saint Lucy's Day. Riding Westward 1299 A Hymn to Christ. and shall thy work decay?") 1295 5 ("I am a little world m a d e cunningly") 1295 7 ("At the round earth's imagined corners. you J e w s " ) 1297 13 ("What if this present were the world's last night?") 1297 14 ("Batter my heart. contraries meet in one") 1299 G o o d Friday.xviii / CONTENTS The Early Seventeenth Century ( 1603-1660 ) 1235 Introduction 1235 Timeline 1258 JOHN DONNE (1572-1631) 1260 SON GS AND S O N N E T S 1263 T h e Flea 1263 The Good-Morrow 1263 S o n g ( " G o a n d catch a falling star") 1264 T h e Undertaking 1265 T h e S u n Rising 1266 T h e Indifferent 1267 T h e Canonization 1267 S o n g ("Sweetest love. blow") 1295 9 ("If poisonous minerals. for you") 1297 17 ( " S i n c e she w h o m I loved hath paid her last debt") 1298 18 ( " S h o w me. at the Author's L a s t G o i n g into G e r m a n y 1300 Hymn to G o d My G o d .

C o u n t e s s of Bedford 1430 To Lucy. or T h e Fox 1334 EPIGRAMS 1427 To My Book 1427 O n Something.1 6 4 5 ) 1313 Salve D e u s Rex J u d a e o r u m 1314 To the D ou btful Reader 1314 To the Q u e e n ' s M o s t Excellent Majesty 1314 To the Virtuous Reader 1315 Eve's Apology in D e f e n s e of W o m e n 1317 T h e Description of C o o k h a m 1319 BEN JONSON (1572-1637) 1324 T h e M a s q u e o f Blackness 1326 Volpone.. CONTENTS / xix From Biathanatos 1303 Devotions u p o n E m e r g e n t O c c a s i o n s 1303 Meditation 4 1303 Meditation 17 1305 From Expostulation 19 [The L a n g u a g e of G o d ] 1306 From Death's D u e l 1307 IZAAK W A L T O N ( 1 5 9 3 . a Child of Q u e e n Elizabeth's C h a p e l 1433 THE FOREST 1434 T o Penshurst 1434 Song: T o Celia 1436 T o Heaven 1436 UNDERWOOD 1437 From A Celebration of Charis in T e n Lyric Pieces: 4. C o u n t e s s of Bedford. Morison 1439 Slow. with Mr. Slow. Sir L u c i u s C a r y a n d Sir H. Her Triumph 1437 A S o n n e t to the Noble Lady. Donne's Satires 1431 To Sir T h o m a s R o e 1431 Inviting a Friend to S u p p e r 1432 O n Gut 1433 Epitaph on S. the Lady Mary Wroth 1438 My Picture L e f t in Scotland 1438 To the Immortal M e m o r y and Friendship of T h a t Noble Pair.1 6 8 3 ) 1309 T h e Life of Dr. J o h n D o n n e 1309 [Donne on His Deathbed] 1309 AEMILIA LANYER ( 1 5 6 9 . Fresh Fount 1443 Q u e e n and Huntress 1443 . T h a t Walks S o m e w h e r e 1428 T o William C a m d e n 1428 On My First D a u g h t e r 1428 To John Donne 1429 O n Giles a n d J o a n 1429 O n M y First S o n 1430 On Lucy. P.

9. Generation. Of Other Laws of N a t u r e 1601 Part 2. Of Man 1596 C h a p t e r 1. or Urn-Burial 1590 From C h a p t e r 5 1590 THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679) 1594 Leviathan 1596 The Introduction 1596 [The Artificial M a n ] 1596 P a r t i . Of the C a u s e s . 15. 59 1582 Part 2. Section 1 1589 Hydriotaphia. and Definition of a Commonwealth 1602 G E O R G E HERBERT (1593-1633) 1605 THE TEMPLE 1607 T h e Altar 1607 Redemption 160 7 Easter 1608 Easter Wings 1609 Affliction (1) 1609 Prayer (1) 1611 Jordan (1) 1611 Church M o n u m e n t s 1612 The Windows 1612 Denial 1613 Virtue 1614 Man 1614 J o r d a n (2) 1615 Time 1616 The B u n c h of Grapes 1617 T h e Pilgrimage 1618 . CONTENTS / xxi T h e Advancement of Learning 1563 [The A b u s e s of L a n g u a g e ] 1563 From N o v u m O r g a n u m 1565 The New Atlantis 1569 [Solomon's H o u s e ] 1569 ROBERT BURTON (1577-1640) 1573 T h e Anatomy of Melancholy 1574 From D emocri t u s J u n i o r to the Reader 1574 From Love Melancholy 1578 SIR THOMAS BROWNE (1605-1682) 1581 Religio Medici 1582 Part 1. 3 4 . Sections 1 . Of S e n s e 1596 C h a p t e r 13. Of the Natural Condition of Mankind as Concerni ng Their Felicity and Misery 1598 From C h a p t e r 14. 16. Of the First and S e c o n d Natural Laws 1600 From C h a p t e r 15.6 . Of C o m m o n w e a l t h 1602 Chapter 17.

and Stealth of Days! 1630 Corruption 1631 Unprofitableness 1632 The World 1632 They Are All Gone into the World of Light! 1634 Cock-Crowing 1635 The Night 1636 The Waterfall 1638 R I C H A R D C R A S H A W (ca. the Countess of Denbigh 1648 The Flaming Heart 1650 ROBERT HERRICK (1591-1674) 1653 HESPERIDES 1654 The Argument of His Book 1654 Upon the Loss of His Mistresses 1655 The Vine 1655 Dreams 1656 Delight in Disorder 1656 His Farewell to Sack 1656 Corinna's Going A-Maying 1658 To the Virgins.1 6 4 9 ) 1639 THE DELIGHTS OF THE MUSES 1640 Music's Duel 1640 STEPS TO THE TEMPLE 1644 To the Infant Martyrs 1644 I Am the Door 1644 On the Wounds of Our Crucified Lord 1644 Luke 11.xxii / CONTENTS The Holdfast 1619 The Collar 1619 The Pulley 1620 The Flower 1621 The Forerunners 1622 Discipline 1623 Death 1624 Love(3) 1624 HENRY VAUGHAN (1621-1695) 1625 POEMS 1626 A Song to Amoret 1626 SILEX SCINTILLANS 1627 Regeneration 1627 The Retreat 1629 Silence. 1 6 1 3 .[27] 1645 CARMEN DEO NOSTRO 1645 In the Holy Nativity of Our Lord God: A Hymn S u n g as by the Shepherds 1645 To the Noblest & Best of Ladies. or Harvest Home 1660 How Roses C a m e Red 1661 . to Make Mu ch of Time 1659 The Hock-Cart.

E p i g r a m 1662 T o Marigolds 1662 His Prayer to B e n J o n s o n 1662 T h e B a d S e a s o n M a k e s the Poet S a d 1663 T h e Night-Piece. lovely rose!") 1687 ABRAHAM COWLEY (1618-1667) 1687 Ode: O f Wit 1688 KATHERINE PHILIPS (1632-1664) 1690 A Married State 1691 U p o n the D o u b l e M u r d e r of King C h a r l e s 1691 Friendship's Mystery. Dr. to J u l i a 1663 Upon His Verses 1664 His Return to L o n d o n 1664 U p o n Julia's C l o t h e s 1664 U p o n Prue. fond lover?") 1676 FRAGMENTA AUREA 1677 Loving a n d Beloved 1677 A Ballad upon a W e d d i n g 1677 T H E LAST REMAINS O F SIR J O H N S U C K L I N G 1681 Out u p o n It! 1681 RICHARD LOVELACE (1618-1657) 1681 LUCASTA 1682 To L u c a s t a . To Chloris 1684 E D M U N D WALLER (1606-1687) 1686 T h e Story of P h o e b u s and D a p h n e Applied 1686 S o n g ("Go. from Prison 1683 Love M a d e in the First Age. To My Dearest Lucasia 1692 . CONTENTS / xxiii U p o n the Nipples of Julia's Breast 1661 U p o n J a c k a n d Jill. His M a i d 1665 T o His Book's E n d 1665 NOBLE NUMBERS 1665 T o His C o n s c i e n c e 1665 Another G r a c e for a Child 1665 THOMAS CAREW (1595-1640) 1666 An Elegy u p o n the D e a t h of the D e a n of Paul's. J o h n Donne 1666 T o Ben J o n s o n 1669 A S o n g ("Ask me no more where J o v e bestows") 1670 To Saxham 1671 A Rapture 1672 SIR J O H N S U C K L I N G (1609-1642) 1676 S o n g ("Why so pale and wan. G o i n g to the Wars 1682 The Grasshopper 1682 To Althea.

2 8 . 2 8 8 1741 [The Execution of Charles I] 1741 Political Writing 1744 R O B E R T F I L M E R : From Patriarcha 1746 J O H N M I L T O N : From T h e T e n u r e of Kings and Magistrates 1748 G E R R A R D W I N S T A N L E Y : From A New Year's Gift Sent to the Parliament and Army 1751 Writing the Self 1757 L U C Y H U T C H I N S O N : From Memoirs of the Life of Colonel J o h n H u t chi nson 1758 [Charles I and Henrietta Maria] 1759 E D W A R D H Y D E .xxiv / CONTENTS To Mrs. M. Hector Philips 1695 ANDREW MARVELL (1621-1678) 1695 POEMS 1697 The Coronet 1697 Bermudas 1698 A Dialogue Between the Soul and Body 1699 T h e Nymph C o m p l a i n i n g for the Death of Her Fawn 1700 To His Coy Mistress 1703 The Definition of Love 1704 The Picture of Little T. in a Prospect of Flowers 1705 The Mower Against G a r d e n s 1706 D a m o n the Mower 1707 T h e Mower to the Glowworms 1709 T h e Mower's S o n g 1710 T h e Garden 1710 An Horatian O d e 1712 Upon Appleton H o u s e 1716 C R I S I S O F AUTHORITY 1737 Reporting the News 1737 From T h e Moderate. No.2 3 J a n u a r y 1 6 4 9 1739 [The Trial of King Charles I. 1 6 . C. A. No. at Parting 1693 On the Death of My First and Dearest Child. E A R L OF C L A R E N D O N : From T h e History of the Rebellion 1760 [The C h a r a c t e r of Oliver Cromwell] 1761 LADY A N N E H A L K E T T : From T h e Memoirs 1764 [Springing the Duke] 1764 D O R O T H Y W A U G H : From A Relation Concerni ng Dorothy Waugh's Cruel U s a g e by the Mayor of Carlisle 1767 THOMAS TRAHERNE (1637-1674) 1769 Centuries of Meditation 1770 From T h e Third Century 1770 . the first day] 1739 From A Perfect Diurnal of S o m e P a s s a g e s in Parliament.

CONTENTS / xxv Wonder 1770 On Leaping over the Moon 1772 MARGARET CAVENDISH (1623-1673) 1773 POEMS AND FANCIES 1774 T h e Poetess's Hasty Resolution 1774 T h e H u n t i n g of the H a r e 1775 From A T r u e Relation of My Birth. Cal l ed T h e Blazing World 1780 JOHN MILTON (1608-1674) 1785 POEMS 1789 On the Morning of Christ's Nativity 1789 On Shakespeare 1797 L'Allegro 1797 II Penseroso 1801 Lycidas 1805 T h e R e a s o n of C h u r c h Government Urged Against Prelaty 1811 [Plans and Projects] 1811 From Areopagitica 1816 SONNETS 1825 How S o o n Hath T i m e 1826 On the New Forcers of C o n s c i e n c e Under the L o n g Parliament 1826 To the Lord General Cromwell. Breeding. O l d h a m 2117 A S o n g for St. May 1652 1827 When I Consi der How My Light Is Spent 1828 On the L a t e M a s s a c r e in Piedmont 1828 Methought I S a w My L a t e E s p o u s e d Saint 1829 ' Paradise Lost 1830 The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century ( 1660-1785) 2057 Introduction 2057 Timeline 2081 JOHN DRYDEN (1631-1700) 2083 Annus Mirabilis 2085 [London Reborn] 2085 S o n g from Marriage a la Mode 2087 Absalom and Achitophel: A P o e m 2087 M a c Flecknoe 2111 To the Memory of Mr. and Life 1777 From T h e Description of a N e w World. Cecilia's Day 2118 Epigram on Milton 2120 Alexander's Feast 2120 .

or T h e Royal Slave 2183 WILLIAM C O N G R E V E (1670-1729) 2226 T h e Way of the World 2228 MARY A S T E L L ( 1 6 6 6 .1 7 3 1 ) 2284 From S o m e Reflections upon Marriage 2285 . Isaac Newton 2156 SAMUEL BUTLER (1612-1680) Hudibras 2161 From Part 1.1 7 2 7 ) 2155 From A Letter of Mr.xxvi / CONTENTS CRITICISM 2125 An E s s a y of D r a m a t i c Poesy 2125 [Two Sorts of B a d Poetry] 2125 [The Wit of the Ancients: T h e Universal] 2126 [Shakespeare a n d B e n J o n s o n C o m p a r e d ] 2128 T h e Author's Apology for Heroic Poetry and Heroic L i c e n s e 2129 ["Boldness" of Figures a n d T r o p e s D e f e n d e d : T h e Appeal to "Nature"] 2129 [Wit as "Propriety"] 2131 A D i scou rse C o n c e r n i n g the Original a n d Progress of Satire 2131 [The Art of Satire] 2131 T h e P r e f a c e to Fables Ancient and Modem 2132 [In Praise of C h a u c e r ] 2132 S A M U E L PEPYS (1633-1703) 2133 T h e Diary 2134 [The Great Fire] 2134 [The D e b Willet Affair] 2138 J O H N BUNYAN (1628-1688) 2142 T h e Pilgrim's Progress 2143 [Christian S e t s out for the Celestial City] [The Sl ou g h of D e s p o n d ] 2145 2143 [Vanity Fair] 2146 [The River of D e a t h a n d the Celestial City] 2148 JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) 2151 An E s s a y C o n c e r n i n g H u m a n Understanding 2152 From T h e Epistle to the Reader 2152 SIR ISAAC N E W T O N ( 1 6 4 2 . S E C O N D EARL OF ROCHESTER (1647-1680) T h e Disabled D e b a u c h e e 2168 T h e Imperfect Enjoyment 2169 2167 U p o n Nothing 2171 A Satire against R e a s o n a n d Mankind 2172 APHRA B E H N (1640?-1689) 2178 T h e Di sappointment 2180 Oroonoko. C a n t o 1 2161 2161 JOHN WILMOT.

C O U N T E S S OF WINCHILSEA (1661-1720) 2294 T h e Introduction 2295 A Nocturnal Reverie 2297 MATTHEW PRIOR (1664-1721) 2298 A n Epitaph 2299 A Better Answer 2300 JONATHAN SWIFT (1667-1745) 2301 A Description of a City Shower 2303 Verses on the D e a t h of Dr. with Respect to the Universe 2541 . SOCIETY. Swift 2304 From A T a l e of a T u b 2315 Gulliver's Travels 2323 A Letter from Captain Gulliver to His C o u s i n Sy mpson 2324 T h e Publisher to the Reader 2327 Part 1. Balnibarbi. False. Of the N a t u r e a n d State of M a n . A Voyage to B robdi ng nag 2365 Part 3. and Japan 2405 C h a p t e r 2 [The Flying Island of L a p u t a ] 2405 C h a p t e r 5 [The A c a d e m y of L a g a d o ] 2410 C h a p t e r 10 [The Struldbruggs] 2413 Part 4. Mixed] (Spectator 6 2 ) 2481 Addison: [Paradise Lost: General Critical Remarks] (Spectator 2 6 7 ) 2485 Addison: [The Pleasures of the Imagination] (Spectator 4 1 1 ) 2488 Addison: [On the S c a l e of Being] (Spectator 5 1 9 ) 2490 ALEXANDER POPE (1688-1744) 2493 An Essay on Criticism 2496 T h e R a p e of the L o c k 2513 Eloisa to Abelard 2532 An Essay on Man 2540 Epistle 1. G E N D E R 2470 Steele: [The Spectator's C l u b ] (Spectator 2) 2470 Addison: [The Aims of the Spectator] (Spectator 10) 2473 Steele: [Inkle and Yarico] (Spectator 11) 2476 Addison: [The Royal Exchange] (Spectator 6 9 ) 2478 T H E P E R I O D I C A L ESSAY: I D E A S 2481 Addison: [Wit: T r u e . A Voyage to the Country of the H o u y h n h n m s 2418 A M o d e s t Proposal 2462 J O S E P H A D D I S O N and S I R R I C H A R D S T E E L E (1672-1719) (1672-1729) 2468 T H E P E R I O D I C A L ESSAY: M A N N E R S . CONTENTS / xxvii D A N I E L D E F O E (ca. A Voyage to Lilliput 2328 Part 2.1 7 3 1 ) 2288 Roxana 2289 [The C o n s of Marriage] 2289 ANNE FINCH. Glubbdubdrib. Luggnagg. 1 6 6 0 . A Voyage to L a p u t a .

1 7 6 2 ) 2584 The Lover: A Ballad 2585 Epistle from M r s .1 7 3 2 ) 2611 The Beggar's O p e r a 2613 WILLIAM HOGARTH (1697-1764) 2656 Marriage A-la-Mode 2658 SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-1784) 2664 The Vanity of H u m a n Wishes 2666 On the Death of Dr. Love in a M a z e 2566 LADY MARY W O R T L E Y M O N T A G U ( 1 6 8 9 .xxviii / CONTENTS From Epistle 2. Pope 2604 MARY L E A P O R 2607 An Essay on Woman 2608 An Epistle to a Lady 2610 J O H N GAY ( 1 6 8 5 . Arbuthnot 2548 T h e Dunciad: B o o k the Fourth 2559 [The E d u c a t o r ] 2561 [The Carnation and the Butterfly] 2562 [The T r i u m p h of D u l ness] 2563 ELIZA HAYWOOD ( 1 6 9 3 ? . Robert Levet 2674 Rambler No. To a Lady 2597 A N N E I N G R A M .1 7 5 6 ) 2565 Fantomina. Prince of Abyssinia 2680 Rambler No. Swift to Write a P o e m Called the Lady's Dressing R o o m 2593 A L E X A N D E R P O P E : Impromptu t o Lady Winchelsea 2595 A N N E F I N C H . 4 [On Fiction] 2743 Rambler No. Of the N a t u r e and State of M a n with Respect to Himself. V I S C O U N T E S S I R W I N : A n Epistle t o Mr. as an Individual 2547 Epistle to Dr. or. 31 [On Idleness] 2678 T h e History of Rasselas. Yonge to Her H u s b a n d 2587 D E B A T I N G W O M E N : A R G U M E N T S IN V E R S E 2589 J O N A T H A N S W I F T : T h e Lady's Dressing R o o m 2590 LADY MARY W O R T L E Y M O N T A G U : T h e R e a s o n s T h a t Induced Dr. C O U N T E S S O F W I N C H I L S E A : T h e Answer (To Pope's Impromptu) 2596 A L E X A N D E R P O P E : Epistle 2. 5 [On Spring] 2675 Idler No. 60 [Biography] 2746 A Dictionary of the English L a n g u a g e 2749 From Preface 2750 [ S o m e Definitions: A Small Anthology] 2753 .

J o h n s o n M e e t s His King] 2793 [Fear of Death] 2797 [Ossian.D. T h e T h r e e Dramatic Unities] 2759 [Twelfth Night] 2764 [King Lear] 2764 LI VES OF T H E P O E T S2766 Cowley 2766 [Metaphysical Wit] 2766 Milton 2768 ["Lycidas"] 2768 [Paradise Lost] 2769 Pope 2774 [Pope's Intellectual Character. Sundry Opinions. Of the E n d s of Political Society and Government 2831 MARY A S T E L L : A Preface. Barlow's Proposal] 2812 ["Down with her. in Answer to S o m e Objections to Reflections upon Marriage 2833 . Burney!"] 2815 [A Young and Agreeable Infidel] 2816 [Encountering the King] 2819 [A Mastectomy] 2822 LIBERTY 2828 JOHN LOCKE 2829 Two Treatises of Government 2830 Chapter IV. 2781 [Plan of the Life] 2781 [Johnson's Early Years. LL. " Cl ear Your M i n d of Cant"] 2805 [Johnson Prepares for Death] 2806 [Johnson F a c e s Death] 2807 FRANCES BURNEY (1752-1840) 2810 T h e J o u r n a l and Letters 2811 [First J o u r n a l Entry] 2811 [Mr. Marriage and London] 2782 [The Letter to Chesterfield] 2787 [A M e m o r a b l e Year: Boswell M e e t s J o h n s o n ] 2790 [Goldsmith. General Nature] 2756 [Shakespeare's Faults. " Bet Flint. "Talking for Victory"] 2797 [Dinner with Wilkes] 2800 [Dread of Solitude] 2804 [' A Bottom of G o o d S e n s e . P o p e and Dryden C o m p a r e d ] 2774 JAMES BOSWELL (1740-1795) 2778 Boswell on the G r a n d T o u r 2779 [Boswell Interviews Voltaire] 2779 The Life of Samuel Johnson. Of Slavery 2830 Chapter IX. CONTENTS / xxix The Preface to Shakespeare 2755 [Shakespeare's Excellence.

1 7 7 4 ) 2877 T h e Deserted Village 2877 GEORGE CRABBE (1754-1832) 2886 The Village 2887 From B o o k 1 2887 WILLIAM C O W P E R (1731-1800) 2890 The Task 2891 Book 1 2891 [A L a n d s c a p e Described. 1 7 3 0 . Rural S o u n d s ] 2891 [Crazy Kate] 2892 Book 3 2893 [The Stricken Deer] 2893 .xxx / CONTENTS ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER. or G u s t a v u s V a s s a . Britannia 2840 DAVID H U M E : Of the Liberty of the Press 2841 E D M U N D B U R K E : S p e e c h on the Conciliation with the American Col oni es 2845 S A M U E L J O H N S O N : [A Brief to Free a Slave] 2849 O L A U D A H E O U I A N O : T h e Interesting Narrative of the Life of O l a u d a h Equiano.1 7 7 1 ) 2862 O d e on a Distant Prospect of Eton College 2863 O d e on the Death of a Favorite C a t 2865 Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard 2867 WILLIAM C O L L I N S (1721-1759) 2870 O d e on the Poetical C h a r a c t e r 2870 O d e to Evening 2873 CHRISTOPHER SMART (1722-1771) 2874 J u b i l a t e Agno 2875 [My C a t Jeoffry] 2875 O L I V E R G O L D S M I T H (ca. Section 1 2838 Part 1. Written by Himself 2850 [The Middle Passage] 2851 [A F r e e M a n ] 2855 JAMES T H OMSON (1700-1748) 2860 The Seasons 2860 Autumn 2860 [Evening a n d Night] 2860 T H O M A S GRAY ( 1 7 1 6 . the African. Section 2 2839 J A M E S T H O M S O N : Ode: Rule. THIRD EARL OF SHAFTESBURY 2837 Sensus Communis: An E s s a y on the F r e e d o m of Wit and H u m o r 2838 Part 1.

CONTENTS / xxxi Book 4 2893 [The Winter Evening: A Brown Study] 2893 T h e Cast away 2895 POPULAR BALLADS 2898 Lord Randall 2899 Bonnv Barbara Allan 2899 T h e Wife of Usher's Well 2900 The Three Ravens 2902 Sir Patrick S p e n s 2902 The Bonny Earl of Murray 2904 P O E M S IN P R O C E S S A1 J o h n Milton A3 Lvcidas A3 Alexander Pope A5 T h e Rape of the L o c k A5 An Essay on M a n A6 Samuel Johnson A7 T h e Vanity of H u m a n Wishes A8 T h o m a s Gray A9 Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard A9 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHIES A13 Suggested General Readings A13 T h e Middle Ages A16 The Sixteenth Century A22 T h e Early Seventeenth Century A3 5 T h e Restoration and the Eighteenth Century A46 APPENDIXES Literary Terminology A56 Geographic N o m e n c l a t u r e A78 British Money A80 T h e British Baronage A85 The Royal Lines of England and Great Britain A87 Religions in Eng l and A90 Illustration: T h e Universe According to Ptolemy A94 Illustration: A L o n d o n Playhouse of Shakespeare's T i m e A95 Permissions Acknowledgments A97 Index A99 .

and a great deal more. prophecies. the m e a n i n g of the term has shifted from the whole body of writing produced in a particular language to a subset of that writing consisting of works that claim special attention b e c a u s e of their u n u s u a l formal beauty or expressive power. arousing enduring admiration. T h e a b u n d a n c e is all the greater if one takes. but also of sudden change a n d startling innovation. including the capacious boundaries of The Norton Anthology of English Literature. but. Scotland. Preface to the Eighth Edition T h e outpouring of English literature overflows all boundaries. erotic fantasies. on prag- matic grounds. and prose fiction. Certain literary works. continuity." Following the lead of most college courses. established texts are jostled both by new arrivals a n d by previously neglected claimants. prayers. we have separated off. several entire novels. have achieved sufficient promi nence to serve as widespread models for other writers and thus to constitute something approximating a canon. like the language in which they are written. but. a n d d e n s e internal echoes. and Ireland. these categories are themselves products of ongoing historical transformations. so too there have never been firmly settled guidelines for canonizing particular texts. letters in verse and prose. a broad understanding of the term literature. English literature from American literature. In the course of several centuries. ecstatic visions. love songs and satires. We have included epic poems and short lyrics. sermons. English literature as a field arouses not a sense of order but what Yeats calls "the emotion of multitude. with its history not only of gradual development. in keeping xxxiii . and we have included many texts that call into question any conception of literature as only a limited set of particular kinds of writing. a n d the boundaries between the literary and whatever is thought to be "nonliterary" are constantly challenged and redrawn. where the majority of texts brought together in this collection originated. and private meditations meant to be p e r u s e d in silence. plays. short stories. critical essays. But these pages m a n a g e to contain many of the most remarkable works written in English during centuries of restless creative effort. one c a n find more than enough distinguished and exciting works to fill the pages of this anthology many times over. polemical tracts. Even within the geographical confines of England. Any individual text's claim to attention is subject to constant debate and revision. tragedies and comedies written for p e r f o r m a n c e on the commercial stage. as the editors of these volumes do. T h e heart of this collection consists of poems. popular ballads. Wales. But just as in English-speaking countries there have never been a c a d e m i e s empowered to regulate the u s e of language. S u c h works generally form the core of courses that are designed to introduce stu- dents to English literature. One of the joys of literature in English is its spectacular abundance.

trans- lated the New T e s t a m e n t from Greek and thereby changed the course of the English language. an ambitious enterprise that would draw u p o n the energy a n d ideas of new editors brought in to work with the seasoned team. we have. It is fitting that among the first works here is Beowulf. What matters is that the language in which H e a n e y writes is English. wrote in eloquent English a celebrated novella whose vision of E u r o p e a n empire was trenchantly challenged at the century's end by the Nigerian-born writer in English. and suggestions for improving the editorial matter. a n d this fact links him powerfully with the authors a s s e m b l e d in these volumes. profited from a remarkable flow of voluntary corrections and suggestions proposed by teachers. and early in the twentieth century J o s e p h Conrad. who view the anthology with a loyal but critical eye. as well as students. born in Ukraine of Polish parents. particularly for the modern period. a linguistic community that stubbornly r e f u s e s to fit comfortably within any firm geo- graphical or ethnic or national boundaries. new editors joined forces with the existing editors in a spirit of close collaboration. to South America.xxxiv / P R E F A C E TO THE EIGHTH EDITION with the multinational. Abrams. S e a m u s Heaney. and hugely expansive character of the language." as if the British Empire were the most salient fact about the language he speaks a n d writes in or the culture by which he was shaped. we have incorporated. and humor. C h i n u a Achebe. a powerful epic written in the G e r m a n i c language known as Old English about a singularly restless Scandinavian hero. It would be still more misleading to call him a "British poet. multicultural. it would have to undergo a process of periodic revision and reselection. Across the whole chronological breadth of the volumes. Beowulf's remark- able translator in The Norton Anthology of English Literature. where B e h n herself may have witnessed some of the tragic events she describes. in the sixteenth century William Tyndale. as in past years. proposals for deletions and additions. is one of the great contemporary masters of English literature he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1 9 9 5 — b u t it would be potentially misleading to call him an "English poet" for he was born in Northern Ireland and is not in fact English. In doing so. in exile in the L o w C o u n t r i e s and inspired by G e r m a n religious reformers. the distinguished literary critic who first conceived The Norton Anthology of English Literature. a sub- stantial n u m b e r of texts by authors from other countries. brought together the original team of editors. with characteristic insight. if the anthology were to be s u c c e s s f u l . H. where its hero is born. The Eighth Edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature represents the most thoroughgoing instance in its long publishing history of this gener- ational renewal. H e n c e from the start he foresaw that. He under- stood too that new scholarly discoveries and the shifting interests of readers constantly alter the l a n d s c a p e of literary history. in the seventeenth century Aphra Behn deeply touched her readers with a story that moves from Africa. This border-crossing is not a p h e n o m e n o n of modernity only. to glance at other authors and writings in the anthology. So too. oversaw seven editions and graciously offered counsel on this eighth edition. Moreover. and. This principle was the watch- word of M. T h e revitalized t e a m has considered afresh each of the selections and rethought all the other myriad aspects of the anthology. diplomacy. we have again solicited and received detailed information on the works actually assigned. from over . Abrams wisely understood that the dense continuities that underlie literary perfor- m a n c e are perpetually challenged and revitalized by innovation. A vital literary culture is always on the move.

Eliza Haywood's Fantomina. The active participation of an engaged and dedicated community of readers has been crucial as the editors of the Norton Anthology grapple with the task of retaining (and indeed strengthening) the selection of more traditional texts even while adding many texts that reflect the transformation a n d expansion of the field of English studies. Vir- ginia Woolf (born in London). but we were immeasurably assisted by our ongoing collaboration with teachers a n d students. Margaret Cavendish. T h e great challenge (and therefore the interest) of the task is linked to the space con- straints that even these hefty volumes m u s t observe. alongside s u c h writers as N a d i n e G o r d i m e r (born in the Transvaal. T h e virtually limitless resources of the anthology's W e b site make at least s o m e of the difficult choi ce s less vexing. Anna Letitia Barbauld. With e a c h edition. India). Perhaps the most emblematic of these longer texts are the two great epics Beowulf and Paradise Lost. Charlotte Smith. including Sir T h o m a s More's Utopia. Naipaul (born in Trinidad). Ontario). Letitia Elizabeth L a n d o n . Writers like William Butler Yeats (born in Dublin). We have in this edition continued to expand the selection of writing by w o m e n in all of the historical periods. to claim a place in that tradition. Elizabeth Cary. V. Eliza Haywood's Fantomina. Lady Mary Wroth. T h e First Edition of the Norton Anthol- ogy included 6 w o m e n writers. many of the newer selections reflect the fact that the national conception of literary history. Derek Walcott (born on Saint Lucia in the West Indies). J a n e . and many others—now appear in the company of their male contemporaries. S o u t h Africa). it is a global phenomenon. P R E F A C E TO THE EIGHTH EDITION / xxxv two hundred reviewers from around the world. has begun to give way to something else. and are here anthologized. almost all of them teachers who use the book in a course. has ceased to be principally about the identity of a single nation. Wales) are now being taught. against considerable odds. S. English literature. and Dylan T h o m a s (born in Swansea. the Eighth Edition has added many others. The Norton Anthology of English Literature has offered a broadened canon without sacrificing major writers and a selection of com- plete longer texts in which readers c a n immerse themselves. T h e sustained work of scholars in recent years has recovered dozens of significant authors who had been marginalized or neglected by a male-dominated literary tradition and has deepened our understanding of those women writers who had managed. Hyde. Samuel J o h n s o n ' s Rasselas (restored to its entirety). but the editorial team kept clearly in view the central i mportance in the classroom of the printed pages. and S a l m a n Rushdie (born in Bom- bay. To the extensive list of s u c h complete works. Jekyll and Mr. T hou g h this latest edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature has retained the works that have traditionally been identified and taught as the principal glories of English literature. Alice M u n r o (born in Wingham. H u g h M a c D i a r m i d (born in Dumfriesshire. Scotland). the conception by which English Literature meant the literature of England or at most of Great Britain. T h e final decisions on what to include were m a d e by the editors. like so many other collective enterprises in our century. Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. and Brian Friel's Translations. this Eighth Edition includes 67. There are in addition four complete long prose works by w o m e n — A p h r a Behn's Oroonoko. T o m Stoppard's Arcadia. Mary Leapor. Poets and dramatists whose names were scarcely mentioned even in the specialized literary histories of earlier generations—Aemilia Lanyer. of whom 16 are newly added and 15 are reselected or expanded.

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. the period's pas- sionate celebration of liberty as the core British value. the publisher is making available the full list of Norton Critical Edi- t i ons—more than 180 titles. its extensive and profitable engagement in the slave trade. p a p e r b o u n d . Similarly. and.xxxvi / P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H E D I T I O N Austen's Love and Friendship. ripple out through English philosophy. cultures define themselves by the songs they sing and the stories they love to tell. the editors have included for e a c h of the periods several clusters that gather together short texts illuminating the cultural. and cultural complexity of these questions is evident in the array of texts brought together in the "Nation a n d L a n g u a g e " cluster. Scottish. to take a final example. to make them more lively and accessible. Charles Dick- ens's Hard Times. T h e Eighth Edition of The Norton Anthology of English Lit- erature features sixty pages of color plates (in seven new color inserts). from the Cari bbean to H o n g Kong. and more closely coordinated these clusters with three aims: to make them easier to teach in the s p a c e of a class meeting or two. as the conjoined texts demonstrate. J e a n Rhys. a new cluster for the Middle Ages. historical. The novel is. and literature." goes to the heart of a central a n d m o m e n t o u s contradiction: on the one hand. focuses on the fraught relationship between nation and language in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Building on an innovation introduced in the Seventh Edition. In c o n s e q u e n c e . the English language has displaced or commingled with indigenous languages in many parts of the world. a stumbling block for an anthology. a new cluster for the eighteenth century. At the s a m e time it is difficult to excerpt representative p a s s a g e s from narratives whose power often depends upon amplitude or upon the slow development of character or upon the onru shi ng urgency of the story. better to represent the achievements of nov- elists. Another new cluster. and Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own— along with new selections f r o m s u c h celebrated fiction writers as Maria Edge- worth. psychological. H e n c e . including the most frequently assigned novels: J a n e Austen's Pride and Prejudice. and Irish writers. "Liberty. intellectual. The political. streamlined. Through the vast extent of the former British Empire and. B u t the central importance of visual media in contemporary culture h a s heightened our awareness of the ways in which songs a n d stories have always been closely linked to the images that societies have fashioned. We s u p p l e m e n t the topical clusters for e a c h period by sev- eral more extensive topical selections of texts. on the other hand. imaginative writers from India to Africa. and literary concerns of the age." broaches one of the broadest and most explosive cultural and literary movements of the period. with illustrations. and to heighten their relevance to the surrounding works of liter- ature. The implications of this contradiction. more recently. "Christ's Humanity. or three-volume packag e. on the anthol- ogy Web site. T h e length of many great novels defies their incorporation in any volume that hopes to include a broad s p e c t r u m of literature. A free Norton Critical Edition may be packaged with Volume 1 or 2 clothbound. a movement that brought forth new kinds of readers and writers and a highly contested cultural politics of the visual. law. through American economi c and political power. and Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. and Doris Lessing. for example. In . as in the past. Katherine Mansfield. Therefore. Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre. have grappled with the kind of vexed questions about linguistic and national identity that have been confronted by generations of Welsh. Now. while their rich literary potential is fully apparent in Brian Friel's powerful play Translations. of course. In the Eighth Edition we have rethought.

the individual writers in each section. A tale from the Confessio Amantis of J o h n Gower. T h e selection of Anglo-Saxon texts has been newly au g ment ed with the alliterative p o e m Judith and with King Alfred's p r e f a c e to the Pastoral Care. T h e Anglo-Norman section—a key bridge between the Anglo-Saxon period and the time of C h a u c e r — i n c l u d e s two clus- ters of texts: "Legendary Histories of Britain" traces the origins of Arthurian r o m a n c e in the a c c o u n t s of Geoffrey of M o n m o u t h . and that shape and illuminate the culture of a particular literary period. In addition we provide modern prose translations of several of Petrarch's rime in order to show their close relationship with sonnets by Wyatt. and our captions draw attention to important details and cross-reference related texts in the anthology. and Middle English Literature of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Cent u - ries. and two sonnets by a poet introduced here for the first time. that relate specif- ically to individual works in the anthology. The Middle Ages. For the first time with this edition. P R E F A C E TO THE EIGHTH EDITION / xxxvii addition. edited by Alfred David and J a m e s S i m p s o n . We have added new selections from the remarkable Margery K e m p e and from Langland's Piers Plowman and an important new topical cluster. Period-by-Period Revisions T h e scope of the extensive revisions we have undertaken can be conveyed more fully by a list of s o m e of the principal texts and features that have been added to the Eighth Edition. a new author. the conclusion of T h o m a s of England's Le Roman de Tristan. Blake. and Layamon. a n d Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and King Lear. the anthology includes the whole of T h o m a s More's Utopia. newly added. T h e heart of the Anglo-Saxon section is the great epic Beowulf\ in an acclaimed translation. Richard Barnfield. specially c o m m i s s i o n e d for The Norton Anthology of English Literature. c o m p l e m e n t s the generous selections from C h a u c e r ' s Canterbury Tales. represented by the Old Irish "Exile of the S o n s of Uisliu". the visionary masterpiece that helped to shape the modern world. T h e period. which c o m e s from Irish. black-and-white engravings a n d illustrations by Hogarth. T h e selection of p o e m s offers new works by Wyatt. Sidney. The Sixteenth Century. "Celtic C o n t e x t s " explores the complex multilingual situation of the period. Anglo-Norman Litera- ture. We have tried to c h o o s e visually striking images that will interest students and provoke discussion. and Marie de France's magnificent Breton lay Lanval. and Dante Gabriel Rossetti provide compelling examples of the hybrid art of the "visual narrative. as well as her Chevrefoil. Edited by George L o g a n and S t e p h e n Greenblatt. a n d Breton sources and was written down in Old French. "Christ's Humanity. in a new verse translation by Alfred David. five additional sonnets by Shakespeare. is divided into three sections: Anglo-Saxon Literature. T h e cluster on the period's bitter religious contro- . one of the period's principal texts. Marlowe's Hero and Leander and Doctor Faustus." In selecting visual mat eri al —from the Sutton Hoo treasure of the seventh century to Anish Kapoor's i m m e n s e Marsyas in the twenty-first century—the editors sought to provide images that conjure up." Our rep- resentation of medieval d r a m a has been strengthened by the addition of the powerful York Play of the Crucifixion. and Ralegh. by S e a m u s Heaney. Wace. Welsh. five additional sonnets by Sidney. whether directly or indirectly. this period includes five other complete longer texts: B o o k 1 of Spenser's Faerie Queene.

Lady J a n e Grey. political writings by the conservative Filmer and the revolutionaries Milton and Winstanley. The Rape of the Lock. the editors. Mary Astell. Mary Robinson. In response to widespread d e m a n d a n d our own sense of its literary merit. Q u e e n of Scots. J o h n Webster's tragedy The Duchess ofMalfi. The Romantic Period. A new cluster. a n d Dorothy W a u g h ." a new thematic cluster on freedom and slavery. is J o h n Milton's Paradise Lost. and Mary Lea- por. Elizabeth's cousin and prisoner. Other complete longer texts in this section include Dryden's satires Ahsolom and Achitophel and MacFlecknoe. There are more poems by Anna Letitia Barbauld. David H u m e . presented in its entirety. Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard. and Hobbes." has been redesigned in order to better represent the Catholic as well as the Protestant position. her introduction to The Last Man . include the complete text of Samu el Johnson's philosoph- ical fable Rasselas. Third Earl of Shaftesbury. center on significantly increased atten- tion to w o m e n writers of both poetry and prose. "Faith in Conflict. J a c k Stillinger and Deidre S h a u n a Lynch. Pope's Essay on Criticism. We introduce as well Fantomina. Other complete longer works include J o h n Donne's soul-searching Satire 3. T h r e e newly conceived topical clusters will help teachers organize the rich profusion of seventeenth-century texts. S e c o n d Earl of Rochester. J o a n n a Baillie. The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century. a novella of sexual role- playing by an author new to the anthology. Aphra Behn's novel Oroonoko. Lawrence Lipking and J a m e s Noggle. Maria Edgeworth and J a n e Austen. Mary Shelley is represented by two works.xxxviii / P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H EDITION versies. Congreve's comedy The Way of the World. " W o m e n in Power. T h e topic as a whole provides insight into the strange position of f e m a l e rulers attempting to shape their public p e r f o r m a n c e s in a society that ordinarily allowed little scope for women's shap- ing power. Anthony Ashley Cooper. edited by Bar- bara Lewalski and Katharine E i s a m a n M a u s . " three major works by B e n J o n s o n (The Masque of Blackness. T h e principal changes introduced by the editors. "Crisis of Authority" shows how new literary forms arose out of the trauma of political conflict. E d m u n d Burke. The Early Seventeenth Century. At the heart of this section. Volpone [freshly edited by Katharine E i s a m a n M a u s ] . Eliza Haywood. and the selection from J o s e p h Addison and Sir Richard Steele has been recast. Edward Hyde. " F o r m s of Inquiry" represents the vital intellectual currents of the period by bringing together reselected texts by B a c o n . And introducing riveting reports on the trial and execution of Charles I. " J o h n s o n ' s Vanity of Human Wishes. Burton. Gay's Beggar's Opera. "Liberty. and others. Mary Wollstonecraft and Dorothy Wordsworth are now joined by two new w o m a n authors. and H o b b e s . Carew. the tragic queen for nine days. Jonson. and Epistle to Dr. Aemilia Lanyer's country-house poem "The Descrip- tion of C o o k h a m . Earl of Clarendon. and Felicia H e m a n s . Charlotte Smith (including the great long work Beachy Head and a substantial selection from The Emigrants). Hogarth's graphic satire "Marriage A-la- M o d e . Sig- nificant additions have b e e n m a d e to the works of Donne. Lady Anne Halkett. brings together texts by J o h n Locke. Browne. and Mary." and Goldsmith's "The Deserted Village. " T h e Gender Wars" offers the stark contrast between J o s e p h Swetnam's misogynistic diatribe and Rachel Speght's vigorous response." Additions have been m a d e to the works of J o h n Wilmot. Ahuthnot. and the Cary-Morison ode)." greatly expands the selections from Q u e e n Elizabeth and sets her writings alongside those of three compelling new figures: Mary Tudor ("Bloody Mary"). Bacon. and searching memoirs by L u c y Hutchinson. and Milton's Lycidas.

P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H EDITION / xxxix a n d her story "The Mortal Immortal" ( F r a n k e n s t e i n . edited by Carol Christ and Catherine Robson. bear eloquent witness to the global diffusion of English. Brian Friel's Translations and T o m Stoppard's Arcadia. C l a u d e McKay. Percy Bysshe Shelley. Ezra Pound. H. Elizabeth Barrett Browning. and Mina Loy. we present the topic " E m p i r e and National Identity. including Hardy's "On the Western Circuit. T h e section now features two brilliant plays. at once estranging and liberating. and J o h n Keats and new prose pieces by Sir Walter Scott." f o c u s e s on the controversial history of a genre that continues to s h a p e popular fiction and films. That history is not a straightforward s e q u e n c e . T h e r e are additional p o e m s by Robert Burns. Forster and J e a n Rhys. The Victorian Age. are Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll and Mr. and Naipaul's One Out of Many. There are new stories by E. and Rudyard Kipling's The White Man's Burden and If. S e a m u s Heaney's works. M. Hugh MacD i armi d. Mansfield's "The G a r d e n Party" and "The Daughters of the Late Col- onel. "Modernist M a n i f e s t o s . Charles L a m b . formerly in the anthology. H u l m e . " gets to the heart of the questions that face colonial and postcolonial writers who mu st grapple with the power. as before. and "Monk" Lewis. A host of new writers and topics mark this major revision by the editors. A new topic. Achebe's Things Fall Apart. " Pinter's The Dumb Waiter. Yeats. William Beckford. Derek Walcott. the C a n a d i a n poet A n n e C a r s o n . Wole Soyinka. Wyndham Lewis. "Nation and L a n g u a g e . H. together with comment ari es and reviews by contemporaries such as A n n a Barbauld and S a m u e l Taylor Coleridge. T h e many writers introduced to the anthology for the first time include the Indian poet A. Lessing's " T o R o o m N i n e t e e n . illuminate the promise and m e n a c e that this period saw in a mode of writing that opened up a realm of nightmarish terror to literary exploration. and the " W o m a n Q u e s t i o n " ) . A m o n g the major additions to this section. a remarkable array of complete longer texts. grappling with fiercely contentious issues that repeatedly arose across the empire's vast extent. two new long p o e m s — E l i z a b e t h Barrett Browning's poem The Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point and Dante Gabriel Rossetti's Jenny. Auden. M. highly innovative topics will enable teachers to introduce students to major a s p e c t s of the period's cultural scene. Along with the widely assigned "Victorian I s s u e s " clusters (Evolution. Industrialism. Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians. The Twentieth Century and After. Robert Browning." Conrad's Heart of Darkness. And two new. Eliot's The Waste Land. and others. Tony Harrison. and T e d Hughes. Writings by Horace Walpole. S a l m a n Rushdie. is now available in a Norton Critical Edition). J o n Stallworthy a n d j a h a n Ramazani. W. Louise Bennett. Kipling's novella The Man Who Would Be King a n d O s c a r Wilde's comedy The Impor- tance of Being Earnest continue to be featured.. Woolf's A Room of One's Own. and new p o e m s by W. of the English lan- guage. " brings together the radical experiments of T. NgugT wa Thiong'o. and J o h n Agard. R a m a n u j a n . E. a new complete text of FitzGerald's The Rubaiyat of Omar Kayyam. Dante Gabriel Rossetti. and J o h n Clare." Beckett's Endgame. The voices in this cluster. K a m a u Brathwaite. and the English poet Carol Ann Duffy." This is an innovative and highly teachable s e q u e n c e of paired texts. as does the poetry of Tennyson. William Wordsworth. a new selection from J. B. the urgency of unresolved issues of nation and identity. Ann Radcliff. T h e first. T h e second. T h e r e is. and the rich complexity of literary history. Chris- tina Rossetti. Brian Friel. Hyde. to which two new poems . both of which have vital connections to literary and cultural issues that extend throughout these volumes. D. "The Gothic and the Development of a M a s s Readership. K.

B u t what was money actually worth? Similarly. now provides. to give students the information they need to understand e a c h text. Our fidelity to a trusted a n d well-tried format may make it difficult for long- time users to take in. so that it c a n be read anywhere—in a c o f f e e bar. And. Drawing upon the latest scholarship and upon classroom experience. T h e aim of these editorial materials is to make the anthology self-sufficient. The Norton Anthology of English Literature prides itself on both the scholarly accuracy and the readability of its texts. or under a tree. Editorial Procedures T h e Eighth Edition adheres to the core principles that have always char- acterized The Norton Anthology of English Literature. we now have a freshly conceived and thoroughly rewritten "Literary Terminology" appendix. From the Victorian period onward. we cite the date of first publication on the right. revised and expanded by Deidre Lynch with the help of Alfred David and J a m e s S i m p s o n . texts in which s u c h modern- izing would chang e semantic or metrical qualities.xl / P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H EDITION have been added. We have u p d a t e d as well the bibliographies and have carefully revised the timelines. however. A n d we have provided in-text references to the Norton Literature Online W e b site. recast as a quick-reference alphabetical glossary with examples from works in The Norton Anthology of English Literature. and " G e o g r a p h i c N o m e n c l a t u r e . we have normalized spelling and capitalization in texts up to a n d includ- ing the Romantic period—for the m o s t part they now follow the conventions of modern English. which. without imposing an interpretation. " revised by J a h a n Ramazani. on a bus. at first glance. we leave unaltered. we have restored the original spelling and punctuation to selections retained from the previous edition. to the appendix on English money. Above all. at a glance. We continue other editorial procedures that have proved u s e f u l in the past. quickly a n d elegantly illuminate what students have often found obscure. the editors have substantially rewritten the period introductions a n d headnotes. E a c h volume of the anthology includes a " P o e m s in P r o c e s s " section. " rewritten by Katharine M a u s . we have tried always to keep in mind the actual classroom situation. scrutinized for accu racy by Catherine Robson and redrawn by cartog- rapher Adrian Kitzinger. Teachability is central to every aspect of these volumes. thanks to the thoroughgoing work of J a m e s S i m p s o n . provide the occasion to look back again to Heaney's trans- lation of Beowulf at the beginning of the anthology. With all aspects of the anthology's apparat u s our intention is to facilitate direct a n d informed a c c e s s to the extraordinary works of liter- ature a s s e m b l e d here. This translation is a reminder that the most recent works c a n double back upon the distant past. which reproduces from manuscripts a n d printed texts the genesis and evolution of a nu mber of poems whose final f o r m is printed in that volume. "Religions in E n g l a n d . from the endpaper m a p s . and that words set down by men and w o m e n who have c r u m b l e d into dust can s p e a k to us with astonishing directness. and annotation are designed to e n h a n c e students' reading and. Period introductions. answers to the peren- nial question. T h e editorial team undertook to rethink and update virtually everything in these pages. To e a s e students' encounter with s o m e works. in some . how thoroughgoing and extensive the revisions to the Eighth Edition actually are. headnotes. After e a c h work. thanks to J a m e s Noggle's clever chart.

University of S o u t h Florida. e a c h topic includes an introduction. the Online Archive is being expanded with all public-domain texts trimmed from The Norton Anthology of English Liter- ature over six editions. For use with the Eighth Edition. more than 100 maps. we have reconsidered annotations throughout and increased the n u m b e r of marginal glosses for archaic. and someti mes reintroduced. University of Exeter. a gathering of annotated texts and images. St u dent s who activate the password included in e a c h new copy of the anthology will find at Norton Literature Online a deep and broad array of general resources. L a u r a Runge. dropped. three entirely new Twentieth Century topics—"Imagining Ireland. a m o n g them a glossary of literary terms. a portrait gallery featuring 3 8 0 authors. lists over 1 . T h e G u i d e offers extensive help with teaching a course. dialect. Elizabeth Fowler. a Publication Chronology. and study questions a n d research links. from planning. D at es of composition." "Modernist Experiment. cross-references in the anthology draw attention to relevant materials. and over 90 minutes of recorded readings and musical selections. and the archive of texts now being a s s e m b l e d (a massive project of a few years' dura- tion) are a unique window on changing interests in the teaching of English literature over four d e c a d e s . teaching suggestions that call out interesting textual or contextual features. 0 0 0 texts and the edition of the anthology in which each was introduced. as well as s o m e 80 audio files. Additional Resources With the Eighth Edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature. study aids and quizzes. this date is followed by the date of a revised edition for which the author was responsible. a " Q u i c k R e a d " section to help instructors review essential information about a text or author. An ongoing project. If the omitted portion is important for following the plot or argument. Norton Literature Online is also the portal to the Online Archive (wwnorton. S a n t a Cruz. we have indicated that omission with three asterisks. c o m / l i t e r a t u r e ) — t h e gateway to all of the outstanding online literature resources available from Norton. are provided on the left. As notably to the 27 topical clusters (augmenting the 17 in-text topics) in the much-praised Norton Topics Online site. For authors and works. the G u i d e entries provide a "hook" to start class discussion. Prepared by the anthology editors. Finally. we have provided a brief s u m m a r y within the text or in a footnote. A new feature of the archive. University of Virginia. to preparing exams. and Philip Schwyzer. To e n c o u r a g e students to explore Norton Literature Online. the publisher is proud to launch an extensive new r e s o u r c e — N o r t o n Literature Online ( w w n o r t o n . University of California. We have used sq u are brackets to indicate titles supplied by the editors for the convenience of readers. or unfamiliar words." have been added. which offers more than 150 downloadable texts from the Middle Ages through the early Victorian period. Whenever a portion of a text has been omitted." and "Representing the G r e a t W a r " — a n d a recast Romantic topic. the table. P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H EDITION / xli instances. a m o n g other updates and improvements. teaching clusters of suggested . Teaching with T h e Norton Anthology of English Literature: A Guide for Instructors has been reconceived for ease of u s e and substantially rewritten by Sondra Archimedes. " T h e Sat ani c and Byronic Hero. when they differ from those of publication and when they are known. advice on writing about literature and using M L A documentation style. to developing a syllabus and course objectives.

M o r g a n Myers (University of Virginia). J o a n n a Lip- king (Northwestern University). Kate Pilson (Harvard University). Angelique Richardson (Exeter University). also by Philip Schwyzer. which offers specific suggestions for integrating the anthology's rich multimedia resources with the text a n d for incorporating them into traditional or distance-learning courses. Shay na Kessel (University of S o u t h e r n California). developmental and project editor. essay assignments. art researcher. asso- ciate editor. a n d R a m i e T a r g o f f (Brandeis University). H i s shaping power over these volumes and the profession it serves will long endure. Elaine Musgrave (University of California. the Norton R e s o u r c e Library ( w i v n o r t o n .xlii / P R E F A C E TO THE E I G H T H EDITION groups or pairs of texts. permissions managers. electronic m e d i a editor. who served not only as the inhouse supervisor but also as an unfailingly wise and effective collaborator in every aspect of planning and accomplishing this Eighth Edi- tion. enhanced period timelines. mentor. Daniel C o o k (University of California. Alan Shaw. S a n d i e Byrne (Oxford University). William F l e s c h (Brandeis Univer- sity).I. We especially thank J o h n W.T. and inspiring guide M. C a n d a c e Levy. who kept the project moving forward with a remarkable blend of f o c u s e d energy. Diane O'Connor. J o s e p h W. Finally. O m a a r H e n a (University of Virginia). T h e s e materials are compatible with W e b C T a n d other course m a n a g e m e n t systems. Davis). . Erin Granville. Erin Minear (Harvard University). T h e editors are deeply grateful to the hundreds of teachers worldwide who have helped us to improve The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Kurt Wildermuth. T o m Keirstead (Indiana University). m a n a g i n g editor for college books. offers instructors brief period introductions and "class ses- s i o n s " to facilitate close reading. manuscript editors. designer. Davis). T h e editors would like to express appreciation for their assistance to Elizabeth Anker (University of Virginia). under Acknowl- edgments. editorial assistant. Linda David. and Ann Tappert. Tricia Loo- tens (University of Georgia). Philip Schwyzer (Exeter University). Ian Little (Liverpool University). Emily Peter- son (Harvard University). Christopher F a n n i n g ( Q u e e n s University). and instructions for cus- tomizing the material. J. Toni Krass. Kate N a s h (University of Virginia). Alice Falk. intelligence. a n d discussion questions. Fulk (Indi- a n a University). Katharine Ings. We dedicate this Eighth Edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature to our friend. Built into the Guide for Instructors is a freestanding M e d i a Gui de. L e a h Price (Harvard University). art galleries a n d literary links. Irvine). Riverside). Abrams. Robert Folkenflik (University of California.). by Philip Schwyzer. Eileen Connell. Marian J o h n s o n . N a n c y Rodwan a n d Katrina Washington. J a n e Potter (Oxford Brookes University). Timothy C a m p b e l l (Indiana University). a n d C a t h e r i n e Spencer. Sider (Westmont College) for his meticulous review of standing annotations and myriad suggestions for improvements. Sarita C a r g a s (Oxford University). c o m / n r l ) . All these friends pro- vided the editors with indispensable help in meeting the challenge of representing the unparalleled r a n g e a n d variety of English literature. H. Ruth Perry (M. Robert D. Childers (University of Cali- fornia. a n d c o m m o n sense. A list of the advisors who prepared in-depth reviews a n d of the instructors who replied to a detailed questionnaire follows on a separate page. J a s o n C o a t s (University of Virginia). production manager. s a m p l e syllabi. We also t hank the many people at Nor- ton who contributed to the Eighth Edition: J u l i a Reidhead. Neil Ryder H o o s .

and friends. Paula McDowell (Rutgers University). the following were of especial help toward the preparation of the Eighth Edition. William Cohen (University of Maryland. Louis University). Cambridge University). Mary Beth Rose (University of Illinois at Chicago). J e s s e Matz (Kenyon College). Anderson (Butler County Community Col- lege). Santa Cruz). Aune (North Dakota State College). Vincent Gillespie (Oxford University). College Park). Jackson Barry (University of Maryland. Bruce King. Peter Lindenbaum (Indiana Uni- versity). Elizabeth Hanson (Queen's University). Beshero-Bondar (The xliii . Ian Duncan (University of California). Scott Boltwood (Emory and Henry College). Miller (St. France). Leah S. Michele Stanco (Universita degli Studi di Napoli "Frederico"). Mark Addison Amos (Southern Illinois University. Anderson (Indiana University). Janet Soren- sen (Indiana University). Louis). Johnny Wink (Ouachita Baptist Univer- sity). Marta Straznicky (Queen's University). Rebecca Krug (University of Minnesota). M. David Barnard (University of Regina). Michael Moses (Duke University). Marcus (Vanderbilt University). Timothy Drake (Queen's University). Ian Baucom (Duke University). Helen Thompson (Northwestern University). Judith H. Elizabeth Scala (University of Texas). Thomas Amarose (Seattle Pacific University). Phillip Rogers (Queen's University). Tyrus Miller (University of California. J a m e s Chandler (University of Chicago). David Porter (University of Michigan). Kimberly VanEsveld Adams (Elizabethtown College). Suzanne Keen. Richard Beadle (St John's Col- lege. David Wyatt (University of Maryland). Adela Pinch (University of Michi- gan). Claudia Johnson (Princeton University). Brean Hammond (University of Nottingham). Bar- bara Newman (Northwestern University). Ruth Perry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). G. Shanya Kessel (University of Southern California). Avis Adams (Green River Community College). Laura Quinney (Brandeis Uni- versity). Carbondale). Los Angeles). The editors would like to express appreciation and thanks to the hundreds of teachers who provided reviews: Laila Abdalla (Central Washington Univer- sity). Steven Zwicker (Washington University. Stephen Orgel. Nigel Smith (Princeton University). Elleke Boehmer (Nottingham Trent University). Acknowledgments Among our many critics. David Kuijt (University of Maryland). Michael North (University of Cali- fornia. Joseph Bristow (University of California. E. either by offering advice or by providing critiques of particular periods of the anthology: Daniel Albright (University of Rochester). Baldwin (University of Victoria). advisors. Emrys J ones (Oxford University). (Stanford University). Alan Richardson (Boston College). Dr. College Park). Valentine Cunningham (Oxford University). St. Clarence H. Los Angeles). Father Germain Marc'hadour (Angers. John Leonard (University of Western Ontario). Brian May (Northern Illinois Univer- sity). Rich- ard Wendorf (Boston Athenaeum). David L. Blakey Vermeule (Northwestern University). Helen Cooper (Oxford Uni- versity). Elisa E.

K. Ruth McAdams (Tarrant County College). Jennie Wakefield (Clem- son University). Erik Simpson (Grinnell College). Jennifer Panek (University of Ottawa). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS / xlv versity of Lethbridge). Tracy Ware (Queen's University). Jennifer Phegley (University of Missouri. Elizabeth Signorotti (Binghamton University). Donald Stone (City University of New York. Kristen McDermott (Central Michigan University). Schuler (University of Victoria. George Shuffelton (Carleton College). Lachlan Whalen (Marshall University). David Ward (University of Pittsburgh). Cincin- nati). Michael North (University of California. Rebecca Totaro (Florida Gulf Coast University). C. Malinda Snow (Georgia State University). Alexander Weiss (Radford University). D. Paul). Michael Schoenfeldt (University of Michigan). D. Thomas. Orchard (Indiana University of Penn- sylvania). Chapel Hill). Jodi Wyett (Xavier University. Neill (University of Victoria. Los Angeles). Stony Brook). Andrew Taylor (University of Ottawa). J a m e s Persoon (Grand Valley State University). Bente Videbaek (State University New York. Kathryn Rummel (California Polytechnic State University). Mary's University. Michael Schwartz (California State University. Dawn Sim- mons (Ohio State University). Joseph Viscome (University of North Carolina. William Scheuede (University of South Florida). Christian Michener (St. Gwendolyn Morgan (Montana State University). Christopher Wheatley (Catholic University of America). Tison Pugh (University of Central Florida). Douglas Nordfor (James Madison University). Eric Reimer (University of Montana). Jonathan Smith (University of Michigan. Michael Olmert (Uni- versity of Maryland. Joseph McGowan (University of San Diego). Harbindar Sanghara (University of Victoria. Richard Zeikowitz (University of South Alabama). Trey Philpotts (Arkansas Technical University). Nicholas Moschovakis (George Washington University). . C. Dr. Katherine Quinsey (Uni- versity of Windsor). Mary-Antoinette Smith (Seattle University). Keith Mikolavich (Diablo Valley Col- lege). Brenda Powell (University of St. R. Los Angeles). British Columbia). John Pfordreshen (Georgetown Univer- sity). John McCombe (University of Dayton). Q u e e n s ) . Sarah Singer (Delaware County Community College). R. Jean Soren- son (Grayson County College). Daniel Mosser (Virginia Polytechnic Institute). Sara Pfaf- fenroth (County College of Morris). Kansas City). M. D. Spinks (Trinity College). Jiyeon Yoo (University of California. Minnesota). British Columbia). St. Bernie O'Donnell (University of Florida). Schwartz (Cal Poly. Chico). College Park). Cynthia Patton (Emporia State University). Saint Louis Obispo). Canada). Dearborn). Brandie Sigfried (Brigham Young University). Richard Sha (American Uni- versity). Nigel Smith (Princeton University). C. Kevin Swafford (Bradley University). Wil- liams (Mississippi State University).