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You are on page 1of 31

A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition

CHAPTER

COMBINED COMPRESSION

AND BENDING: COLUMNS

A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

9a

By

SPRING 2004 Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Maryland, College Park

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Axial Compression

Columns are defined as members that carry

loads in compression.

Usually they carry bending moments as well,

about one or both axes of the cross section.

The bending action may produce tensile

forces over a part of the cross section.

Despite of the tensile forces or stresses that

may be produced, columns are Generally

referred to as compression members

because the compression forces or stresses

dominate their behavior.

1

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 2

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

In addition to the most common type of

compression members (vertical elements in

structures), compression members include:

Arch ribs

Rigid frame members inclined or otherwise

Compression elements in trusses

shells

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

2

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 4

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Ohio River Bridge. Typical cantilever and suspended span bridge, showing

the truss geometry in the end span and cantilevered portion of the

the main

span. (Madison, Indiana)

3

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 6

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

4

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 8

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Failure of Columns

Failure of columns could occur as a result of

material failure by

Initial yielding of the steel at the tension face;

Initial crushing of the concrete at the compression

face; or

Loss of lateral stability (buckling)

If a column fails due to initial material failure, it

is then considered short or non-slender

column.

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

As the length of the column increases, the

probability that failure will occur by buckling

also increases.

The slenderness ratio klu/r is a measure of the

type of column. According to ACI, if

klu

22

r

then the column is considered a short column

klu = effective length

k =factor that depends on end condition of column and condition of bracing

lu = unsupported length of column

r = radius of gyration = I / A

5

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 10

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Buckling is a mode of failure generally

resulting from structural instability due to

compressive action on the structural member

or element involved.

Examples

Overloaded metal building columns.

Compressive members in bridges.

Roof trusses.

Hull of submarine

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Figure 1a

6

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 12

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Figure 1b

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Definition

Buckling can be defined as the sudden

large deformation of structure due to a

slight increase of an existing load under

which the structure had exhibited little,

if any, deformation before the load was

increased.

7

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 14

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

The critical buckling load (Euler Buckling)

for a long column is given by

2 EI (1)

Pcr = 2

where

L

E = modulus of elasticity of the material

I = moment of inertia of the cross section

L = length of column

8

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 16

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Columns Bay

The spacing of columns in plan establishes

what is called a Bay.

For example, if the columns are 20 ft on

center in one direction and 25 ft in the

other direction, the bay size is 20 ft 25 ft.

Larger bay sizes increase the users

flexibility in space planning.

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

25 ft

20 ft

9

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 18

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

1) Tributary area method:

Half distance to adjacent columns

y

Floor load = DL + LL

x

Example: x = 16.0 ft, y = 13.0 ft, LL = 62.4 lb/ft2, slab thickness = 4.0 in.

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

2) Beams reaction method:

Collect loads from adjacent beam ends

B1 B2

B4

RB1 RB2

B1 C1 B2

RB1 RB2

B3

10

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 20

Introduction

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

ROOF

Design section

2nd FLOOR = Roof floor + Column wt.

Design section = load on 2nd floor column

+ 2nd floor + Column wt.

1st FLOOR Ground level

Design section = load on 1st floor column

+ 1st floor + Column wt.

Footing

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and

lateral ties.

Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and

continuous spirals.

Composite compression members reinforced

longitudinally with structural steel shapes,

pipe, or tubing, with or without additional

longitudinal bars, and various types of lateral

reinforcement.

11

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 22

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Tie Spiral

Longitudinal

steel

s = pitch

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Composite columns

12

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 24

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strengths

1. Short or Non-Slender Columns

A column is said to be short when its length is

such that lateral buckling need not be

considered. Most of concrete columns fall into

this category

2. Slender Columns

When the length of the column is such that

buckling need to be considered, the column is

referred to as slender column. It is recognized

that as the length increases, the usable strength

of a given cross section is decreased because of

buckling problem

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Position of the Load on the Cross Section

1. Concentrically Loaded Columns

Concentrically loaded columns (see Figure 3)carry

no moment. In practice, however, all columns

have to be designed for some unforeseen

eccentricity.

2. Eccentricity Loaded Columns

Eccentricity loaded columns are subjected to

moment in addition to the axial force. The moment

can be converted to a load P and eccentricity e

(see Figure 4)

13

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 26

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

of the Load on the Cross Section

P

Figure 3. Concentrically

Loaded Column

Types of Columns

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

P P P P

Mx ey Mx ey

My

y y y y

ex

x x x x

Figure 4a. Axial load plus Figure 4b. Axial load plus

uniaxial moment biaxial moment

14

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 28

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

parallel to its axis by a load P without

eccentricity, the load P theoretically

induces a uniform compressive stress over

the cross-sectional area.

If the compressive load is applied a small

distance e away from the longitudinal axis,

however, there is a tendency for the

column to bend due to the moment

M = Pe.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Symmetry

When the line of action of the axial load P

passes through the centriod of the cross

section, it can be assumed that the

distribution of normal stress is uniform

throughout the section, i.e, f=P/A.

Such a loading is said to be centric, as shown

in Figure 3.

15

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 30

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Symmetry

When the line of action of the concentrated

load P does not pass through the centroid of

the cross section, the distribution of normal

stress is no longer uniform.

Such loading is said to eccentric, as shown in

Figure 4.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Symmetry

The stress due to eccentric loading on a

beam cross section is given by

P Mx y M yx

f = (2)

A Ix Iy

16

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 32

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Example 1

The T-section shown in the figure is used

as a short post to support a compressive

load P of 150 kips. The load is applied on

centerline of the stem at a distance e = 2

in. from the centroid of the cross section.

Determine the normal stresses at points A

and B on a transverse plane C-C near the

base of the post.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Example 1 (contd)

P

z e

6 in 2 in y

y

2 in A B 6 in x

x

C C

Section C-C

17

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 34

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Example 1 (contd)

Computing the cross-sectional properties:

y Area = A = 2[6 2] = 24 in 2

3(6 2) + (6 + 1)(6 2)

xC = = 5 in. from point A

x 24

6 in 2 in

3 3 3

2 in A B 6 in Iy = + = 136 in 4

3 3 3

xC = 5 in

N.A.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Example 1 (contd) f =

P Mx y M yx

A Ix Iy

Equivalent force system:

P = 150 kip acts through centroid

M = Pe = (150 )(2 ) 12 = 3,600 kip in

Computations of normal stresses:

P M yx 150 300(5)

fA = + = + = 4.78 ksi (T)

A Iy 24 136

P M yx 150 300(3)

fB = = = - 12.87 ksi (C)

A Iy 24 136

18

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 36

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Background

The concrete column that is loaded with a

compressive axial load P at zero eccentricity

is probably nonexistent, and even the

axial/small eccentricity combination is

relatively rare.

Nevertheless, the case of columns that are

loaded with compressive axial loads at small

eccentricity e is considered first. In this case

we define the situation in which the induced

small moments are of little significance.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Notations for Columns Loaded with

Small Eccentricities

Ag = gross area of the column section (in2)

Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement (in2)

P0 = nominal or theoretical axial load at zero eccentricity

Pn = nominal or theoretical axial load at given eccentricity

Pu = factored applied axial load at given eccentricity

g = ratio of total longitudinal reinforcement area to

cross-sectional area of column:

Ast (3)

g or t =

Ag

19

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 38

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns

P0

Steel

fy

Stress

f c

Section A-A A A Concrete

Strain

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns

P0

[ Fy = 0 ]

P0 = f c(Ag Ast ) + f y Ast

From experiment (e.g., ACI):

where

fy fy

Ag = Gross area of column section

Fs = Ast fy

Fc = (Ag - Ast) f c Ast = Longitudinal steel area

20

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 40

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Column Failure by Axial Load

Pu

Heavy spiral

Initial failure

Pu ACI spiral

Light

Tied column spiral

Axial load

0

Axial deformation

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

ACI Code Requirements for Column

Strength

Pn Pu (4)

Spirally reinforced column:

Tied column:

21

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 42

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Table 1. Resistance or Strength Reduction Factors

Structural Element Factor

Beam or slab; bending or flexure 0.90

Columns with ties 0.65

Columns with spirals 0.70

Columns carrying very small axial load 0.65 0.9 or

(refer to Chapter 9 for more details) 0.70 0.9

Beam: shear and torsion 0.75

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

ACI Code Requirements for Column

Strength (contd)

Normally, for design purposes, (Ag Ast) can

be assumed to be equal to Ag without great

loss in accuracy.

Accordingly, Eqs. 5 and 6, respectively, give

Pn

Ag = (7a)

0.68 f c + 0.8 t f y

Ast

t = Pn

Ag Ag = (7b)

0.78 f c + 0.85 t f y

22

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 44

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

ACI Code Requirements for Column

Strength (contd)

For first trial section, with appreciable

eccentricity, the designer can try the following

equations for assuming gross section area Ag:

Pn (8a)

Ag for tied columns

0.45( f c + f y t )

Pn

Ag for spirally reinforced columns (8b)

0.55( f c + f y t )

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 2

A non-slender (short column) column is

subjected to axial load only. It has the

geometry shown and is reinforced with three

No. 9 bars on each of the two faces parallel to

the x axis of bending. Calculate the maximum

nominal axial load strength Pn(max). Assume

that fy = 60,000 psi and f c = 4000 psi.

23

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 46

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 2 (contd)

0.003 in./in.

2.5 in. 0.85 f c

As f y

3 No. 9

20 in.

3 No. 9

As f y

12 in.

Strain Stress

2.5 in.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 2 (contd)

As = As = 3 in 2

Therefore, Ast = 6 in2. Eq. 6 gives

24

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 48

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 3 (contd)

A 20-in.-diameter, non-slender, spirally

reinforced circular column is symmetrically

reinforced with six No. 8 bars as shown.

Calculate the strength Pn(max) of this column if

subjected to axial load only. Use f c = 4000 psi

and fy = 60,000 psi.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 3

0.003 in./in.

0.85 f c

Ast

fy

3

6 No. 8 Ast

f y + Cc

3

Ast

fy

3

Strain Stress

25

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 50

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

Example 3 (contd)

Ast = 4.74 in 2 (6 No. 8 bars)

Ag = (20)2 = 314 in 2

4

Therefore, Eq. 5 gives

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Strength of Non-Slender

Concentrically Loaded Columns

ACI Code Limits on percentage of

reinforcement

A

0.01 g = st 0.08 (9)

Ag

26

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 52

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Minimum Number of Bars

The minimum number of longitudinal bars

is

four within rectangular or circular ties

Three within triangular ties

Six for bars enclosed by spirals

Clear distance between Bars

The clear distance between longitudinal

bars must not be less than 1.5 times the

nominal bar diameter nor 1 in.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Clear distance between Bars (contd)

Table 2 (Table 9 Handout) may be used to

determine the maximum number of bars

allowed in one row around the periphery of

circular or square columns.

Cover

Cover shall be 1 in. minimum over

primary reinforcement, ties or spirals.

27

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 54

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Table 2. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row

Table 1

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Tie Requirements

According to Section 7.10.5 of ACI Code,

the minimum is

No. 3 for longitudinal bars No. 10 and smaller

Otherwise, minimum tie size is No. 4 (see

Table 2 for a suggested tie size)

The center-to-center spacing of ties must

not exceed the smaller of 16 longitudinal

bar diameter, 48 tie-bar diameter, or the

least column dimension.

28

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 56

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Spiral Requirements

According to Section 7.10.4 of ACI Code,

the minimum spiral size is 3/8 in. in

diameter for cast-in-place construction (5/8

is usually maximum).

Clear space between spirals must not

exceed 3 in. or be less than 1 in.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Spiral Requirements (contd)

The spiral steel ratio s must not be less

than the value given by

Ag f

s (min ) = 0.45 1 c (10)

Ac fy

where

volume of spiral steel in one turn

s =

volume of column core in height ( s )

s = center-to-center spacing of spiral (in.), also called pitch

Ag = gross cross-sectional area of the column (in2)

Ac = cross-sectional area of the core (in2) (out-to-out of spiral)

fy = spiral steel yield point (psi) 60,000 psi

= compressive strength of concrete (psi)

29

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 58

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Spiral Requirements (contd)

An Approximate Formula for Spiral Steel

Ratio

A formula in terms of the physical properties of

the column cross section can be derived from

the definition of s.

In reference to Fig. 5, the overall core diameter

(out-to-out of spiral) is denoted as Dc, and the

spiral diameter (center-to-center) as Ds.

The cross-sectional area of the spiral bar or

wire is given the symbol Asp.

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Spiral Requirements (contd)

Dc

Spiral

Ds

Figure 5. Definition of Dc and Ds

30

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 60

ENCE 454 Assakkaf

Column Details

Spiral Requirements (contd)

From the definition of s, an expression

may written as follows:

AspDs

actual s = (11)

(D / 4)(s )

2

c

neglected, then in terms of Dc, the actual

spiral steel ratio is given by

4 Asp

actual s = (12)

Dc s

31

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