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REINFORCED CONCRETE

Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition

A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
COMBINED COMPRESSION
AND BENDING: COLUMNS
A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

9a
By
SPRING 2004 Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf

ENCE 454 Design of Concrete Structures

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 1

Introduction
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Axial Compression
Columns are defined as members that carry
Usually they carry bending moments as well,
about one or both axes of the cross section.
The bending action may produce tensile
forces over a part of the cross section.
Despite of the tensile forces or stresses that
may be produced, columns are Generally
referred to as compression members
because the compression forces or stresses
dominate their behavior.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 2

Introduction
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Axial Compression (contd)

In addition to the most common type of
compression members (vertical elements in
structures), compression members include:
Arch ribs
Rigid frame members inclined or otherwise
Compression elements in trusses
shells

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 3

Introduction
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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 4

Introduction
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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 5

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Ohio River Bridge. Typical cantilever and suspended span bridge, showing
the truss geometry in the end span and cantilevered portion of the
the main

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 6

Introduction
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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 7

Introduction
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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 8

Introduction
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Failure of Columns
Failure of columns could occur as a result of
material failure by
Initial yielding of the steel at the tension face;
Initial crushing of the concrete at the compression
face; or
Loss of lateral stability (buckling)
If a column fails due to initial material failure, it
is then considered short or non-slender
column.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 9

Introduction
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Failure of Columns (contd)

As the length of the column increases, the
probability that failure will occur by buckling
also increases.
The slenderness ratio klu/r is a measure of the
type of column. According to ACI, if
klu
22
r
then the column is considered a short column
klu = effective length
k =factor that depends on end condition of column and condition of bracing
lu = unsupported length of column
r = radius of gyration = I / A

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 10

Introduction
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Buckling and Axial Compression

Buckling is a mode of failure generally
resulting from structural instability due to
compressive action on the structural member
or element involved.
Examples
Compressive members in bridges.
Roof trusses.
Hull of submarine

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 11

Introduction
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Buckling and Axial Compression

Figure 1a

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 12

Introduction
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Figure 1b

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 13

Introduction
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Buckling and Axial Compression

Definition
Buckling can be defined as the sudden
large deformation of structure due to a
slight increase of an existing load under
which the structure had exhibited little,
if any, deformation before the load was
increased.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 14

Introduction
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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 15

Introduction
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The critical buckling load (Euler Buckling)
for a long column is given by
2 EI (1)
Pcr = 2
where
L
E = modulus of elasticity of the material
I = moment of inertia of the cross section
L = length of column

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 16

Introduction
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Columns Bay
The spacing of columns in plan establishes
what is called a Bay.
For example, if the columns are 20 ft on
center in one direction and 25 ft in the
other direction, the bay size is 20 ft 25 ft.
Larger bay sizes increase the users
flexibility in space planning.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 17

Introduction
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Columns Bay Bay Size : 20 ft 25 ft

25 ft
20 ft

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 18

Introduction
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Column load transfer from beams and slabs

1) Tributary area method:

y
Floor load = DL + LL

DL = slab thickness conc. unit wt.

x
Example: x = 16.0 ft, y = 13.0 ft, LL = 62.4 lb/ft2, slab thickness = 4.0 in.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 19

Introduction
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Column load transfer from beams and slabs

2) Beams reaction method:

B1 B2

B4
RB1 RB2
B1 C1 B2
RB1 RB2

B3

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 20

Introduction
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Load summation on column section for design

ROOF

Design section
2nd FLOOR = Roof floor + Column wt.

Design section = load on 2nd floor column
+ 2nd floor + Column wt.
1st FLOOR Ground level

Design section = load on 1st floor column
+ 1st floor + Column wt.
Footing

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 21

Types of Columns
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Types of Reinforced Concrete Columns

Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and
lateral ties.
Members reinforced with longitudinal bars and
continuous spirals.
Composite compression members reinforced
longitudinally with structural steel shapes,
pipe, or tubing, with or without additional
longitudinal bars, and various types of lateral
reinforcement.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 22

Types of Columns
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Tie Spiral

Longitudinal
steel
s = pitch

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 23

Types of Columns
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Types of Reinforced Concrete Columns

Composite columns

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 24

Types of Columns
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Types of Columns in Terms of Their

Strengths
1. Short or Non-Slender Columns
A column is said to be short when its length is
such that lateral buckling need not be
considered. Most of concrete columns fall into
this category
2. Slender Columns
When the length of the column is such that
buckling need to be considered, the column is
referred to as slender column. It is recognized
that as the length increases, the usable strength
of a given cross section is decreased because of
buckling problem

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 25

Types of Columns
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Types of Columns in Terms of the

Position of the Load on the Cross Section
Concentrically loaded columns (see Figure 3)carry
no moment. In practice, however, all columns
have to be designed for some unforeseen
eccentricity.
Eccentricity loaded columns are subjected to
moment in addition to the axial force. The moment
can be converted to a load P and eccentricity e
(see Figure 4)

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 26

Types of Columns
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Types of Columns in Terms of the Position

of the Load on the Cross Section
P

Figure 3. Concentrically

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 27

Types of Columns
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P P P P
Mx ey Mx ey
My
y y y y
ex
x x x x

uniaxial moment biaxial moment

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 28

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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If a compression member is loaded

parallel to its axis by a load P without
induces a uniform compressive stress over
the cross-sectional area.
If the compressive load is applied a small
distance e away from the longitudinal axis,
however, there is a tendency for the
column to bend due to the moment
M = Pe.

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Symmetry
When the line of action of the axial load P
passes through the centriod of the cross
section, it can be assumed that the
distribution of normal stress is uniform
throughout the section, i.e, f=P/A.
in Figure 3.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 30

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Symmetry
When the line of action of the concentrated
load P does not pass through the centroid of
the cross section, the distribution of normal
stress is no longer uniform.
Figure 4.

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Symmetry
beam cross section is given by

P Mx y M yx
f = (2)
A Ix Iy

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 32

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Example 1
The T-section shown in the figure is used
as a short post to support a compressive
centerline of the stem at a distance e = 2
in. from the centroid of the cross section.
Determine the normal stresses at points A
and B on a transverse plane C-C near the
base of the post.

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Example 1 (contd)

P
z e
6 in 2 in y

y
2 in A B 6 in x
x

C C
Section C-C

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 34

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Example 1 (contd)
Computing the cross-sectional properties:
y Area = A = 2[6 2] = 24 in 2
3(6 2) + (6 + 1)(6 2)
xC = = 5 in. from point A
x 24
6 in 2 in

2(5) 6(3) 4(1)

3 3 3

2 in A B 6 in Iy = + = 136 in 4
3 3 3
xC = 5 in

N.A.

Strength of Short or Slender Columns

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Example 1 (contd) f =
P Mx y M yx

A Ix Iy
Equivalent force system:
P = 150 kip acts through centroid
M = Pe = (150 )(2 ) 12 = 3,600 kip in
Computations of normal stresses:
P M yx 150 300(5)
fA = + = + = 4.78 ksi (T)
A Iy 24 136
P M yx 150 300(3)
fB = = = - 12.87 ksi (C)
A Iy 24 136

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 36
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Strength of Non-Slender
Background
The concrete column that is loaded with a
compressive axial load P at zero eccentricity
is probably nonexistent, and even the
axial/small eccentricity combination is
relatively rare.
Nevertheless, the case of columns that are
eccentricity e is considered first. In this case
we define the situation in which the induced
small moments are of little significance.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 37

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Strength of Non-Slender
Small Eccentricities
Ag = gross area of the column section (in2)
Ast = total area of longitudinal reinforcement (in2)
P0 = nominal or theoretical axial load at zero eccentricity
Pn = nominal or theoretical axial load at given eccentricity
Pu = factored applied axial load at given eccentricity
g = ratio of total longitudinal reinforcement area to
cross-sectional area of column:
Ast (3)
g or t =
Ag

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 38
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Strength of Non-Slender
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
P0

Steel
fy

Stress
f c
Section A-A A A Concrete

Strain

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 39

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Strength of Non-Slender
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
P0

[ Fy = 0 ]
P0 = f c(Ag Ast ) + f y Ast
From experiment (e.g., ACI):

f c P0 = 0.85 f c(Ag Ast ) + f y Ast

where
fy fy
Ag = Gross area of column section
Fs = Ast fy
Fc = (Ag - Ast) f c Ast = Longitudinal steel area

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 40
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Strength of Non-Slender
Pu

Heavy spiral
Initial failure
Pu ACI spiral
Light
Tied column spiral

0
Axial deformation

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 41

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Strength of Non-Slender
ACI Code Requirements for Column
Strength
Pn Pu (4)
Spirally reinforced column:

Tied column:

Pn (max ) = 0.80 [0.85 f c(Ag Ast ) + f y Ast ], = 0.65 (6)

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 42
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Strength of Non-Slender
Table 1. Resistance or Strength Reduction Factors
Structural Element Factor
Beam or slab; bending or flexure 0.90
Columns with ties 0.65
Columns with spirals 0.70
Columns carrying very small axial load 0.65 0.9 or
(refer to Chapter 9 for more details) 0.70 0.9
Beam: shear and torsion 0.75

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 43

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Strength of Non-Slender
ACI Code Requirements for Column
Strength (contd)
Normally, for design purposes, (Ag Ast) can
be assumed to be equal to Ag without great
loss in accuracy.
Accordingly, Eqs. 5 and 6, respectively, give
Pn
Ag = (7a)
0.68 f c + 0.8 t f y
Ast
t = Pn
Ag Ag = (7b)
0.78 f c + 0.85 t f y

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 44
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Strength of Non-Slender
ACI Code Requirements for Column
Strength (contd)
For first trial section, with appreciable
eccentricity, the designer can try the following
equations for assuming gross section area Ag:
Pn (8a)
Ag for tied columns
0.45( f c + f y t )

Pn
Ag for spirally reinforced columns (8b)
0.55( f c + f y t )

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 45

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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 2
A non-slender (short column) column is
subjected to axial load only. It has the
geometry shown and is reinforced with three
No. 9 bars on each of the two faces parallel to
the x axis of bending. Calculate the maximum
nominal axial load strength Pn(max). Assume
that fy = 60,000 psi and f c = 4000 psi.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 46
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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 2 (contd)
0.003 in./in.
2.5 in. 0.85 f c

As f y
3 No. 9

20 in.

3 No. 9
As f y

12 in.
Strain Stress
2.5 in.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 47

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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 2 (contd)
As = As = 3 in 2
Therefore, Ast = 6 in2. Eq. 6 gives

Pn (max ) = 0.80[0.85(4000 )(12 20 ) + 60,000(6 )] = 940,800 lb

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 48
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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 3 (contd)
A 20-in.-diameter, non-slender, spirally
reinforced circular column is symmetrically
reinforced with six No. 8 bars as shown.
Calculate the strength Pn(max) of this column if
subjected to axial load only. Use f c = 4000 psi
and fy = 60,000 psi.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 49

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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 3
0.003 in./in.
0.85 f c

Ast
fy
3
6 No. 8 Ast
f y + Cc
3
Ast
fy
3

Strain Stress

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 50
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Strength of Non-Slender
Example 3 (contd)
Ast = 4.74 in 2 (6 No. 8 bars)

Ag = (20)2 = 314 in 2
4
Therefore, Eq. 5 gives

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 51

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Strength of Non-Slender
ACI Code Limits on percentage of
reinforcement
A
0.01 g = st 0.08 (9)
Ag

Upper limit: To maintain proper clearances between bars

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 52
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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Minimum Number of Bars
The minimum number of longitudinal bars
is
four within rectangular or circular ties
Three within triangular ties
Six for bars enclosed by spirals
Clear distance between Bars
The clear distance between longitudinal
bars must not be less than 1.5 times the
nominal bar diameter nor 1 in.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 53

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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Clear distance between Bars (contd)
Table 2 (Table 9 Handout) may be used to
determine the maximum number of bars
allowed in one row around the periphery of
circular or square columns.
Cover
Cover shall be 1 in. minimum over
primary reinforcement, ties or spirals.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 54
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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Table 2. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row
Table 1

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 55

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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Tie Requirements
According to Section 7.10.5 of ACI Code,
the minimum is
No. 3 for longitudinal bars No. 10 and smaller
Otherwise, minimum tie size is No. 4 (see
Table 2 for a suggested tie size)
The center-to-center spacing of ties must
not exceed the smaller of 16 longitudinal
bar diameter, 48 tie-bar diameter, or the
least column dimension.

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 56
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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Spiral Requirements
According to Section 7.10.4 of ACI Code,
the minimum spiral size is 3/8 in. in
diameter for cast-in-place construction (5/8
is usually maximum).
Clear space between spirals must not
exceed 3 in. or be less than 1 in.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 57

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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Spiral Requirements (contd)
The spiral steel ratio s must not be less
than the value given by
Ag f
s (min ) = 0.45 1 c (10)
Ac fy
where
volume of spiral steel in one turn
s =
volume of column core in height ( s )
s = center-to-center spacing of spiral (in.), also called pitch
Ag = gross cross-sectional area of the column (in2)
Ac = cross-sectional area of the core (in2) (out-to-out of spiral)
fy = spiral steel yield point (psi) 60,000 psi
= compressive strength of concrete (psi)

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 58
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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Spiral Requirements (contd)
An Approximate Formula for Spiral Steel
Ratio
A formula in terms of the physical properties of
the column cross section can be derived from
the definition of s.
In reference to Fig. 5, the overall core diameter
(out-to-out of spiral) is denoted as Dc, and the
spiral diameter (center-to-center) as Ds.
The cross-sectional area of the spiral bar or
wire is given the symbol Asp.

CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 59

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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Spiral Requirements (contd)
Dc

Spiral

Ds
Figure 5. Definition of Dc and Ds

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CHAPTER 9a. COMBINED COMPRESSION AND BENDING: COLUMNS Slide No. 60
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Code Requirements Concerning

Column Details
Spiral Requirements (contd)
From the definition of s, an expression
may written as follows:
AspDs
actual s = (11)
(D / 4)(s )
2
c

If the small difference between Dc and Ds is

neglected, then in terms of Dc, the actual
spiral steel ratio is given by
4 Asp
actual s = (12)
Dc s

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