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Republic of the Philippines


Department of the Interior and Local Government
BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION
MINALABAC FIRE STATION
Minalabac, Camarines Sur

2014 UGNAYAN SA BARANGAY PROGRAM ON DISASTER PREPAREDNESS


AND FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION/FIRE PREVENTION TRAINING SEMINAR
Theme: Kahandaan at Kaligtasan ng Pamayanan, Pundasyon ng Kaunlaran

R. A. 9729 Climate Change Act of 2009

Climate Change- refers to a change in climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or
variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer, whether
due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.

Global Warming- refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and
oceans that is associated with the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Greenhouse effect- refers to the process by which the absorption of infrared radiation by the
atmosphere warms the Earth.

Greenhouse gases (GHG)- refers to constituents of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse
effect including, but not limited to, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, per
fluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.

Adaptation- refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected
climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

R. A. 10121 - Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010

"Disaster" - a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread


human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected
community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters are often described as a result of the
combination of: the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of vulnerability that are present; and insufficient
capacity or measures to reduce or cope with the potential negative consequences.

"Hazard" - a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life,
injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services, social and economic
disruption, or environmental damage.

"Vulnerability" - the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it
susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.

"Risk" - the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" - the systematic process of using administrative
directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies and
improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility of
disaster improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the possibility
of disaster.

"Disaster Preparedness" - the knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional


response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to,
and recover from, the Impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions.
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OBJECTIVES OF DISATER RISK REDUCTION MANAGEMENT


- decrease vulnerability.
- increase capacity.

1. Reduce Damages and Deaths

- Effective disaster risk reduction management reduces or avoids morbidity, mortality, and
economic and physical damages from a hazard. The methods used to achieve this include hazard
and vulnerability analysis, preparedness, mitigation and prevention measures, and the use of
predictive and warning systems.

2. Reduce Personal Suffering


- Disaster risk reduction management reduces personal suffering, such as morbidity and
emotional stress following a hazard. The methods used to prevent suffering include hazard and
vulnerability analysis, preparedness, and mitigation and prevention measures.

3. Speed Recovery
- The third objective is to speed recovery. The methods to accomplish this objective include
effective response mechanisms and the institution of recovery programs and assistance.

4. Protect Victims
- Disaster risk reduction management provides protection to victims and/or displaced persons.
Facilities utilize preparedness, response mechanisms, recovery programs and assistance to
address shelter needs and provide protective services.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE


1. Prevention - Hazard identifications and assessments/Vulnerability analysis &evaluations.
2. Mitigation - Solutions (Brgy ordinances, construction of dikes, sea wall, erosion control)
3. Preparedness - Education, training, seminars, emergency drills and planning.
4. Response - Search, rescue, evacuation and retrieval operations.
5. Relief - Assistance to the victims immediate needs and distribution of goods.
6. Rehabilitation - Evacuation, livelihood support, appropriate land use planning&mnagement.
7. Reconstruction - Temporary construction of damage facilities.
8. Development - Permanent construction of the community, disaster resistant reconstruction.
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NATURAL HAZARDS
- are severe and extreme weather and climate events that occur naturally in all parts of the world, although
some regions are more vulnerable to certain hazards than others.

1. Meteorological Hazards
- are hazards driven by meteorological (i.e., weather) processes, in particular those related to temperature
and wind. This includes heat waves, cold waves, cyclones, hurricanes, and freezing rain. Cyclones are
commonly called hurricanes in the Atlantic and typhoons in the Pacific Ocean.

Weather is the condition of atmosphere for a short period of time.


Climate is weather for a long period of time.

2. Geological Hazards
- are hazards driven by geological (i.e., Earth) processes, in particular, plate tectonics. This includes
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In general, geological extreme events are beyond human influence,
though humans have large influence on the impacts of the events.

3. Climatological Hazards
- are hazards that is caused by climate change that affect the average condition of a particular place for a
period of time, causes global warming that result to either extreme dry or wet weather such as drought, El
Nio and La Nia phenomenon.

4. Man-made Hazards
- are hazards that affect the community due to the negligence of man such as fire, terrorists activities, land
and sea accidents, pollutions, epidemics, etc.

WEATHER PHENOMENON
- a general term that describes any pulse of energy moving through the atmosphere.

1. Thunderstorm (Lightning storm)


- a local storm clouds producing lightning and thunder that also brings heavy rains, strong gust of winds,
hail and at times also formed tornado.

2. Southwest Monsoon (Habagat)


- a seasonal wind pattern coming from the southwest part of the country that brings warm and humid air
with moderate to heavy rains that usually occurs from June to September.
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3. Northeast Monsoon (Amihan)


- a cold and relatively dry air mass coming from northeast part of the country that also produces moderate
to heavy rains that affects the country from October to February.

4. Cold Front
- a cooler mass of air replacing a warmer mass of air, increasing cloudiness and occurrence of light to
moderate rains. Cold wind coming from the north part of the country that usually appears during the
month of December to February.

5. Easterly Waves
- a warm air mass coming from the east part of pacific ocean, produces less clouds, occurrence of rain is
seldom and usually appears in the country during the month of March to May.

6. Wind Convergence
- a weather system wherein two wind patterns from two different directions merge.

7. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)


- a broad area of low atmospheric pressure located in the equatorial region where the northeasterly and
southeasterly trade winds converge. Warm, humid air converges on this zone, rises and cools, forming
clouds and frequent heavy rains.

8. High Pressure Area (HPA)


- a high or anticyclone area is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the
planet is greater than its surrounding environment. Winds within high-pressure areas flow
outward from the higher pressure areas near their centers towards the lower pressure areas
further from their centers.

9. Low Pressure Area (LPA)


-an area of low pressure usually characterized by clouds of precipitation caused by rising air;
often related to inclement weather such as winds flowing counter clockwise circulation that also
produces heavy rains and gust of wind that reaches up to 55 kph or less.

10. Tropical Cyclone


-a rapidly-rotating storm system characterized by a low pressure center, strong winds, and a
spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and with wind speed of 56 kph and
above.

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TYPHOON

Low Pressure Area 55 kph or less No Signal PAG-ASA Warning


Tropical Depression 56 kph to 65 kph #1 36 hours 5 am
Tropical Storm 66 kph to 85 kph #2 24 hours 11 am
Typhoon 86 kph to 120 kph #3 18 hours 4 pm
Super Typhoon 120 kph or more #4 12 hours 10 pm

TOP TEN HAZARDS IN ASIA FIRE PREVENTION MONTH


1. TYPHOON Month of March
2. FLOOD
3. STORM SURGE DISATER PREPAREDNESS MONTH
4. EARTHQUAKE Month of July
5. VOLCANIC ERUPTION
6. TSUNAMI PAG-ASA DATA:
7. LANDSLIDE 25 Typhoons (more or less)
8. EPIDEMICS 10 Strong Typhoons
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9. DROUGHT 5 Bicol (November to December)


10. FIRE/VEHICULAR ACCIDENTS 3 Strong Typhoons

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DISASTER PREPAREDNESS PLANNING: DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT:

HAZARD IDENTIFICATIONS 1. PREVENTION


1. TYPHOON - Monitoring
2. FLOOD - Evaluation
3. (STORM SURGE) - Analysis
4. EARTHQUAKE - Mapping
5. (VOLCANIC ERUPTION) - Constructions (flood control dams;
6. (TSUNAMI) flood early warning zone marker;
7. (LANDSLIDE) clean-up drive of drainage systems,
8. EPIDEMICS canals and rivers; sea wall; landslide
9. DROUGHT control barrier; slowdown road signs,
10. FIRE/VEHICULAR ACCIDENTS pedestrian lanes; barricades; emergency
telephone numbers zone marker)

HAZARD ASSESSMENTS
DEVASTATING FACTORS OF TYPHOON:
1. Direct hit 2. MITIGATION
2. Strong wind - Barangay ordinances regarding:
3. Heavy rains (illegal settlers; squatters; houses within
4. Flood flood prone areas danger zone; flashflood,
5. Flashflood landslide & mudslide areas danger zone;
6. Landslide houses near seashore facing the danger
7. Mudslide of storm surge)
8. Storm Surge - Appropriate relocation areas for houses
9. Tornado specially those in the danger zone.
10. Possibility of fire - Construction of evacuation center.

PRIMARY CONCERNS: 3. PREPAREDNESS


1. Residence in a squatter areas - Education (disaster awareness campaign)
2. Over populated residential areas - Training (emergency drills, first-aid, rescue)
3. Houses made of light materials - Seminars (disaster preparedness program)
4. Flood prone areas - Planning (regular session of the brgy.)
5. Flashflood areas (invite brgy tanods, zone rabus orgnization
6. Landslide/Mudslide areas officers, brgy rescue teams, brgy fire
7. Storm Surge areas Brigade)
8. Map of the barangay - Information Dissemination (bandillo)
9. Emergency Telephone Numbers Zone Marker
10. Flood Early Warning Zone Marker EMERGENGY TELEPHONE NUMBERS:
11. Sangguniang Barangay/Barangay Lupon 1. BARANGAY CAPTAIN -
12. Barangay Tanod Organization 2. BARANGAY KAGAWAD -
13. Zone RabusOrganization Officers 3. CHIEF TANOD -
14. Barangay Rescue Teams 4. DEPUTY CHIEF TANOD -
15. Barangay Fire Volunteer Brigade 5. ZONE RABUS PRESIDENT
16. Basic First-Aid 6. BRGY HEALTH WORKERS
17. Emergency Carries/Rescue Transfer 7. PNP Minalabac - 470-4162
18. Bucket Relay 8. BFP (SFO3 Fresco, JA) - 09199908564
19. Water Rope Rescue 9. CASURECO - 473-3786
20. Incident Command System 10. AMBULANCE DRIVER -

THINGS NEEDED BEFORE THE TYPHOON (DISASTERS)

RESCUE EQUIPMENTS:
FIREFIGHTING AND DISASTER RESCUE EQUIPMENTS
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1. WATER DRUMS 21. SPINE BOARD


2. BUCKETS 22. FIRST-AID KIT
3. FLASHLIGHTS - Alcohol
4. AM/FM RADIO - Hydrogen Peroxide
5. CELLPHONES - Gauze Bandage
6. PORTABLE HANDHELD RADIO - Band-Aids
7. MEGAPHONE/WHISTLE - Cottons
8. CAMERA - Paracetamol (Biogesic, Bioflu, Medicol,
9. GAS MASK Neozep, Solmux, Tuseran, Diatabs, Kremel S,
10. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Dolcolax, Dolfenal, Ponstant, Mefinamic Acid,
11. KNIFE Anti-biotecs, Neoblock, etc.)
12. BOLO - Other medicines for heart ailments, etc.
13. VAULT CUTTER/JACK 23. BOAT
14. CREW BAR 24. LIFE JACKETS
15. AXE 25. BOAT
16. CHAIN SAW 26. LIFE JACKETS
17. ROPES/GLOVES/FACE TOWEL 27. TIRE INTERIOR
18. MINERAL WATER 28. EMERGENCY/RESCUE TRANSPORT VEHICLE
19. BANDAGES/ SPLINTS 29. EVACUATION CENTER
20. C-COLLAR 30. INCIDENT COMMAND CONTROL CENTER

THINGS TO DO BEFORE THE TYPHOON


1. Prepare incident command control center
2. Practice Incident Command Control System
Barangay Captain - will act as the Incident Commander
1st Barangay Councilor - will act as safety officer
Barangay Secretary will act as Information Officer
2nd Barangay Councilor will act as Liaison Officer
Chief Tanod will act as Operation Officer
3rd Barangay Councilor - will act as Planning Officer
th
4 Barangay Councilor - will act as Logistics Officer
Barangay Treasurer will act as Finance and Administrative Officer
3. Prepare evacuation center
4. Practice evacuation of disaster affected residence
5. Identify residence in a squatter areas
6. Over populated residential areas
7. Houses made of light materials
8. Flood prone areas 4. RESPONSE
9. Flashflood areas - Search
10. Landslide/Mudslide areas - Rescue
11. Storm Surge areas - Evacuation
12. Make a map of the barangay - Retrieval operations
13. Emergency Telephone Numbers Zone Marker
10. Flood Early Warning Zone Marker
11. Activate Zone Rabus Organization Officers
12. Organize Barangay Rescue Teams
13. Barangay Fire Volunteer Brigade
14. Practice Basic First-Aid
15. Emergency Carries/Rescue Transfer
16. Bucket Relay .
17. Water Rope Rescue
18. Rescue Emergency/Rescue Operations
18. Prepare firefighting and disaster rescue equipments
19. Listen to the news on the tv and radio regarding the upcoming typhoon
20. Implement information dissemination to every zone of the barangay through megaphone
bandillo regarding the upcoming typhoon and that will be evacuation for the safety of the
community.
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DISASTER PREPAREDNESS OPERATIONS


THINGS TO DO DURING THE TYPHOON
SIGNAL NUMBER 1 (Information Dissemination)
1. Listen to the news on tv and radio regarding the location, strength, pattern and time of the
typhoon.
2. Prepare the incident command control center.
3. Implement incident command control system.
4. Final inspection of the firefighting and disaster rescue equipments.
5. Gather and give final instructions to all of the zone rabus organization officers, brgy rescue
teams and brgy fire brigade regarding theevacuation operations of the residence in the affected
areas of the barangay..
6. Conduct information disseminations to every zone of the barangayespecially those who are
in the danger zone and primary concern affected areas of the barangay through megaphone
bandilloto prepare for the evacuation operation.
7. Inform every zone householdsto cut trees or branches of trees that may affect their residence.
8. Clear roads and highways of possible obstacle (branches of trees that will cause damage to
electric posts and wirings that will cause obstacles to the highway itself).
9. Prepare the evacuation center.
10. Start evacuation at the earliest possible time, do evacuation in the morning as much as
possible.
SIGNAL NUMBER 2 (Search, Rescue and Evacuation Operations)
1. Continue the search, rescue and evacuation operations of the affected families.
2. Priority of search, rescue and evacuation operations are the primary concern affected residences.
3. ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICER:
Make a lists, documentations and pictures of families being searched, rescued and evacuated;
Make a lists, documentations and pictures of the search, rescue and evacuation operations procedure.
4. LIAISON OFFICER:
Coordinate with the municipal officials, MSWDO, DILG, PNP, BFP and other line agencies regarding the
status of the barangay with the on-going search, rescue and evacuation operations.
5. LOGISTICS AND FINANCE OFFICERS:
Provide emergency rescue transport vehicles, rescue equipments, gasoline, diesel fuel, mineral water and
foods that will be used in the search, rescue and evacuation operations.

SIGNAL NUMBER 3
1. Total stoppage of all operations.
2. All rescue operating units back to the incident command control center.

THINGS TO DO AFTER THE TYPHOON


SEARCH, RESCUE, EVACUATION AND RETRIEVAL OPERATIONS
1. Clear roads and highways of obstacle such as uprooted trees, typhoon related debris that blocked the
roads and passageways.
2. Put caution signs to all impassable and damage roads and bridges.
3. Search for other survivors of the typhoon.
4. Rescue injured survivors of the typhoon, deliver to the evacuation center and/or nearest hospital.
5. INFORMATION OFFICER:
Make records, documentations and pictures of the total number of individuals searched, rescued and
evacuated injured survivors; and retrieved casualties of the typhoon.
6. LIAISON OFFICER:
Coordinate with the municipal officials, and MSWDO concerning with the relief goods operations for the
survivors of the typhoon, medical attentions of the rescued injured survivors and proper identification and
burial of the casualty of the typhoon.
7. Provide ambulance/emergency transport vehicles for the injured victims of the calamity.
8. Request the assistance of the police mobile patrol if there are looters and peace & order concern in the
area.
9. Request the presence of fire truck and BFP personnel for rescue, evacuation, water supply and/or fire
conflagration.
10. Activate barangay zone rabus organization officers for the general cleaning of every zone of the
barangay.
11. Collect immediately all garbage in the street during the general clean up drive of the barangay.
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12. Coordinate with casureco personnel for the immediate restoration of damage electrical facilities.
13. General inspection of the pipeline and sources of potable drinking water of the community, in order to
monitor or detect the possibility of water contamination.
14. Be on the alert of possible epidemics that may happen, such as:
a. Diarrhea Outbreak
b. Dengue 5. RELIEF
c. Tigdas - Assistance to victims immediate needs
d. Liptospirosis - Distribution of goods

e. Meningitis
f. Fever 6. REHABILITATION
g. Coughs - Livelihood support
h. Colds - Appropriate land use for relocation
i. etc.
15. Attend to the needs of all the operating units and gather and store in the safety area all the rescue
equipment used in the operations.
7. RECONSTRUCTION
- Temporary construction damage facilities.

8. DEVELOPMENT
- Permanent disaster resistant reconstruction

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM:


- a standardized on-scene incident management concept designed specifically to allow
responders to adopt an integrated organizational structure equal to the complexity and demands
of any single incident or multiple incidents without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries.

INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM STRUCTURE

INCIDENT COMMANDER
|
|
(COMMAND STAFF)
|
SAFETY-----|-----INFORMATION
|
|-----LIAISON
|
|
(GENERAL STAFF)
__________________________________|__________________________________
| | | |
OPERATIONS PLANNING LOGISTICS FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION

INCIDENT COMMANDER
- responsible for all aspects of the response, including developing incident objectives and
managing all incident operations which includes:
a. Establish immediate priorities especially the safety of responders, other emergency
workers, bystanders, and people involved in the incident.
b. Stabilize the incident by ensuring life safety and managing resources efficiently and
cost effectively.
c. Determine incident objectives and strategy to achieve the objectives.
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d. Establish and monitor incident organization.


e. Approve the implementation of the written or oral Incident Action Plan.
f. Ensure adequate health and safety measures are in place.

COMMAND STAFF
- responsible for public affairs, health and safety, and liaison activities within the incident
command structure.

1. SAFETY OFFICER
- role is to develop and recommend measures to the IC/UC for assuring personnel health and
safety and to assess and/or anticipate hazardous and unsafe situations.

2. INFORMATION OFFICER
- role is to develop and release information about the incident to the news media, incident
personnel, and other appropriate agencies and organizations.

3. LIAISON OFFICER
- role is to serve as the point of contact for assisting and coordinating activities between the
IC/UC and various agencies and groups.

GENERAL STAFF
- includes Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance/Administrative responsibilities. These
responsibilities remain with the IC until they are assigned to another individual. When the
Operations, Planning, Logistics or Finance/Administrative responsibilities are established as
separate functions under the IC, they are managed by a section chief and can be supported by
other functional units.

1. OPERATIONS STAFF
- responsible for all operations directly applicable to the primary mission of the response.

2. PLANNING STAFF
- responsible for collecting, evaluating, and disseminating the tactical information related to the
incident, and for preparing and documenting Incident Action Plans (IAP's).

3. LOGISTICS STAFF
- responsible for providing facilities, services, and materials for the incident response.

4. FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF


- responsible for all financial, administrative, and cost analysis aspects of the incident.

LOGISTICS FUNCTIONS
1. Acquires resources needed.
- Logistics personnel, additional manpower for rescue operation.
- Equipments:
Transport vehicle for evacuees.
Dump trucks (for garbage collection after the disaster).
Ambulance (for emergency medical Transport).
Police mobile patrol(for police assistance, peace and order).
BFP personnel(for rescue, evacuation, water supply and fire conflagration).
Heavy equipment (for road clearing on landslide &earth removal for the victims).
Rubber boats/fishing boats (for flood rescue).
Motor cycle(for important errands).
Lorry water truck(for potable drinking water).
- Services:
Emergency medical services (Rural Health Unit).
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Special Rescue Units (for massive victims and casualty of the calamity).
Police assistance (for peace and order, thief, looters, rubbers, riots, etc.)
BFP personnel (fire suppression, fire arson investigation, fire safety inspection).
Sanitary inspectors (for proper garbage disposal and collection, toiletries, CR and
clean environments)
Food preparations.
Relief goods operations.
- Support:
In cash and in kind support.
Monetary donations.
Relief goods donations.
National Government assistance.
Local Government assistance.
Non-Government Organization assistance.
Business sectors and private individuals.
Public assistance.
2. Gets what is needed.
3. Obtains supplies (food, water, relief goods, etc.)
4. Manages internal communications equipments.
5. Maintains equipments.

BASIC FIRST-AID
First aid / carries and transporting of victim Common Pulses of Our Body
Intro to first aid / overview - temporal
Wounds / bleeding management - carotid
Bandaging - brachial
Dislocation / Fracture (broken bones) - radial
Splinting - femoral
Basic carries
Transporting victims
AR
CPR

FIRST-AID
- is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly take ill. It involves self-help
and home care when medical assistance is delayed or not available.

ROLES OF FIRST-AIDER
1. It is a bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician.
2. It is not intended to compete nor take place the services of the physician.
3. It ends when medical assistance begins.

OBJECTIVES OF FIRST-AID
1. To alleviate or lessen sufferings.
2. To prevent added or further injury or danger.
3. To prolong life.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER


1. Observant should notice all sign
2. Resourceful should make the best things at hand
3. Gentle should not cause pain
4. Tactful should not alarm the victim
5. Sympathetic should be comforting

TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS OF FIRST-AIDER


1. Emergency kit / bag
2. Bandages
3. Splints
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4. C-collar
5. Spine board / half board
6. Other rescue equipments

--

Guidelines in Giving
EMERGENCY CARE

I. Getting Started
planning of action
gathering of needed materials
initial response A - ask for help
I - intervene
D - do no further harm

II. Emergency Action Principles (EAP)


Survey the scene.
Activate medical Assistance ( AMA ) or Transfer facility.
Primary Survey of the Victim check for the ABC of life
A airway (open airway)
B breathing
C circulation

Do Secondary Survey of the Victim ( head-to-toe examination )


D deformity -
C contusion -
A abrasion - scrapping/rubbing against rough surfaces
P puncture - penetrating pointed objects/instruments
B burns - redness/blisters in the skin
T tenderness - softness of the injured wound
L laceration - blunt instruments
S swelling -

Record all assessment and time.

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
I. SOFT TISSUE INJURY (WOUND)

Wound a break in the continuity of the tissue of the body either internal or external.

Common Causes:
1. external physical forces
2. mishandling of sharp objects, tools, machinery, weapon and equipment
3. explosion

Classifications:
1. Closed soft tissue injury ( closed wound )
2. Open soft tissue injury ( open wound )

CLOSED WOUND - involves the underlying tissue without break/damage in the skin or
mucous membrane.

Signs and Symptoms:


1. pain and tenderness
2. swelling
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3. discoloration (black or blue ecchymosis)


4. hematoma (pool of blood collected within the damage tissue)

First Aid for Close Wounds:


I ice application (ices or cold packs)
C compression ( manual compression over the area)
E elevation (elevating the injured part)
S splinting/stabilization ( immobilizing the injured part)

OPEN WOUND a break in the skin or mucous membrane.

Dangers:
1. Hemorrhage 1 - glass (normal)
2 - 4 glasses (anemic)
4 - 6 glasses (fatal)
2. Infection delays healing of wound
3. Shock (hypovolemic shock) due to blood loss

Shock - a depressed condition of the many body functions due to the failure of enough blood to
circulate throughout the body following serious injury.

Signs and Symptoms of Shock:


1. pale or cyanotic, weak
2. cold and clammy skin
3. irregular breathing, rapid and weak pulse
4. nausea and vomiting
5. thirsty
6. for late stage: apathetic or unresponsive, unconscious, low blood
pressure, body temp. falls, eyes sunken w/ vacant expression, pupils dilated.

First Aid for Shock:


1. Proper positioning
2. Proper body heat
3. Proper transfer

KINDS OF OPEN WOUNDS


1. Puncture penetrating pointed objects/instruments
2. Abrasion scrapping/rubbing against rough surfaces
3. Incision sharp bladed instruments
4. Laceration blunt instruments
5. Avulsion explosion/animal bites (tissue forcefully separated from the body)

First Aid for Open Wounds (4C's):


1. Control bleeding kinds of bleeding:
capillary slow even flow
veins steady flow, dark red color
artery spurting blood, bright red color

How to control bleeding:


direct pressure
elevation
pressure point bleeding control

2. Cover the wound with dressing and bandage.


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3. Care for shock monitor vital signs (BP, PR, RR, Temp.).
4. Consult or refer to physician.

OTHER TYPES OF OPEN WOUNDS


1. Penetrating chest wound
First Aid:
1. If a projectile or other sharp object has penetrated the chest, a whistling sound may be
heard as air is sucked into and blown out of the chest cavity. To avoid lung collapse, the
hole (wound) must be sealed.
2. You can do this immediately with your bare hand, with a plastic bag, with tape or with a
thick pad of clean cloth.
3. Whether the patient is conscious or not, he must be placed with the injured side down the
recovery position.
4. Do not remove any penetrating or impaled object.

2. Abdominal wound
First Aid:
1. Cover the wound with a clean dressing. If the intestines or other internal organs protrude,
do not attempt to push them back into the abdomen.
2. Place the patient in most comfortable position and put a folded blanket under his bent
knees to reduce pressure on the abdominal wall.
3. Do not give victim nothing by mouth.
4. Cover the victim to prevent shock.
3. Eye injury
First Aid:
1. Cover both eyes.
2. Do not attempt to remove impaled object.
3. For irrigating the eye- start from inside to outside part of the eye.

4. Gunshot wound
First Aid:
1. If the bullet pass out into the body cover both wounds (entry and exit wound).
2. If the bullet hit the bone, immobilize the injured part.

BANDAGING

Triangular bandage (42 x 42 x 56 inches)


Roller bandage gauze / elastic bandage

TRIANGULAR BANDAGE
Uses:
to hold dressing in place
to control bleeding
to immobilize or support body part

Parts:
apex
sides
base
face

OPEN PHASE
Head (topside)
Face; back of head
Chest; back
Hand; foot
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Arm sling; underarm sling

CRAVAT PHASE
Forehead; eye
Ear; cheek; jaw
Arm; leg
Sprained ankle bandage (shoe on, shoe off)
Cravat sling; cuff sling

ROLLER BANDAGE
Uses:
1. Anchoring
a) Spiral for limbs
- open spiral / close spiral
- spiral reverse
b) Figure-of-eight for joints
c) Recurrent with spiral turns for tips or ends of body part

2. Securing
a) Use of accompanying clips (for elastic roller bandage)
b) Split method
c) reverse method

DISLOCATION AND BROKEN BONES

BONE FRACTURE - injury involving the bone.


Closed fracture involves unbroken skin.
Open fracture involves one or both ends of the fractured bone piercing the skin.

Reminders:
If you cant completely mobilize the injury at the scene by yourself, call
emergency medical assistance.
Dont move the victim unless the injured area is totally immobilized.
Dont attempt to straighten a misshapen bone or joint or to change its position.
Dont test a misshapen bone or joint for loss of function.
Dont give the victim anything by mouth.

Signs and Symptoms:


Pain
Bruising
Swelling
misshapen appearance and obvious deformity
exposed bone
pale bluish skin, loss of pulse in an injured limb
numbness further down the arm or leg

First Aid:
1. Check the victims ABC; open airway, if necessary begin AR/CPR or bleeding
control.
2. Keep the victim still. Calm the victim.
3. Immobilized the injured part. Splint or sling the injury in the position which you
found it.
4. If the skin is pierced by broken bone, or if there is broken bone beneath an open
wound take steps to prevent infection. Cover the wound with dressing and
bandage before applying splint or sling.
5. Get medical help.
15

--

SPLINT - use for immobilization of an injured part.

Types of Splint:
1. hard or rigid splint
2. soft splint
3. anatomical splint

General Guidelines in the Use of Splint:


1. Always care for wounds before applying splints.
2. Splint an injury in the position in which you found it.
3. The splint must extend both above and below the injured area to keep it immobile.
4. Secure the splint to uninjured parts of the body.
5. For ties, you can use cloth strips, neckties, torn sleeves, belts, etc.
6. Make sure knots are not pressing against the injury. Tie them securely, but not so
tightly that circulation is impaired.

BASIC EXTRICATION AND SPIRAL MANAGEMENT

Extrication is a removal of victim from difficult situation or position, or removal of a patient


from a wrecked car or other places of entrapment.

Indication of Extrication
1. vehicular accidents
2. collapse building
3. train derailment
4. emergency situation
cave-ins
fire
water accidents
farm machine injuries

Principles of Extrication
1. Evaluate (size up) the situation
2. Locate all victims
3. Provide for the safety of rescue personnel and the patient
4. Secure the scene
5. Gain access to the victim
6. Provide emergency medical care
7. Disentangle the victim
8. Prepare the victim for transfer
9. Transfer the victim

Spinal Injury Management


Cause:
1. vehicular accident
2. gunshot wound
3. shallow, water diving injuries
4. fall from heights
16

5. cave-ins

Signs and symptoms of spinal cord injury


1. pain in the head, neck or back
2. numbness, tingling and weakness
3. pain when in motion
4. deformity
5. tenderness
6. laceration or contusion
7. paralysis or anesthesia

Emergency care (first aid) for spinal injury


1. Check for victims ABC of life. Institute AR/CPR if necessary.
2. Control serious bleeding using pressure dressing/bandage.
3. Splint/immobilize the victim before you move him/her.
proper helmet removal motorcyclist, football player
maintain C-spine Control until necessary
proper use of cervical/extrication collars. If none, improvise collar (rolled
blanket or towel).
4. Transport the victim promptly to the hospital.

EMERGENCY RESCUE AND TRANSFER

Emergency Rescue - a procedure of moving a victim from unsafe place to a safe place.
Emergency Transfer - moving a victim from one place to another after giving first aid.

Indication for Emergency Rescue


1. danger of fire or explosion
2. danger of toxic gases
3. serious traffic hazards
4. risk of drowning
5. danger of electrocution
6. danger of collapsing wall

Selection in the methods of transfer depends on the following:


1. nature and severity of injury
2. size of the victim
3. physical capabilities of the first aider
4. number of personnel and equipment available
5. nature of evacuation route
6. distance to be covered
7. sex of the victim (last to be considered)

Methods of Transfer
1. One man assist/carry/drag
a. Assist to walk
b. Carry in arms/Lovers carry
c. Pack strap carry
d. Piggy pack strap
e. Firemans carry
f. Firemans drag
g. Shoulder drag
h. Cloth drag
17

i. Blanket drag
j. Incline drag
k. Feet drag

2. Two man assist/carry


a. Assist to walk
b. Four-hand seat
c. Hands as a liter
d. Chair as a liter
e. Carry by extremities
f. Fireman's carry with assistance

3. Three man carry


a. Bearers along side (for narrow alley)
b. Hammock carry

4. Other carries/options ( 4-6 man carry )


a. Commercial stretcher
b. Improvised stretcher
- two poles with blanket
- empty sacks
- empty shirts

INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LIFE SUPPORT

Clinical Death when breathing and circulation stop.


0 -4 min brain damage not likely.
4 -6 min damage probable.

Biological Death when the brain has been deprived of oxygenated blood.
6 10 min irreversible brain damage probable.
10 or more min irreversible brain damage is certain.

Respiratory Arrest - breathing stops, pulse and circulation may continue for some time.
Cardiac Arrest circulation stops, the pulse disappears and breathing stops at the same time or soon thereafter.

LIFE SUPPORT
the goal of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

Stages of Life Support


1. Basic Life Support (BLS)
an emergency procedure that consist of recognizing respiratory and cardiac arrest or both and the proper
application of CPR to maintain life or until victim recovers or advanced life support is available.
2. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS)
3. Prolonged Life Support (PLS)

Artificial Respiration (rescue breathing)


A procedure of causing air to flow into and out of the lungs when his natural breathing ceased and
is inadequate.
No breathing but with pulse.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)


1. A combination procedure of external chest compression and ventilation.
2. No breathing and no pulse.

Methods of Artificial Respiration


1. mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
2. mouth-to-nose resuscitation
3. mouth-to mouth and nose resuscitation (for infant and small child)
4. mouth-to-stoma resuscitation

Objectives of Artificial Resuscitation


18

1. to open airway
maximum head tilt-chin lift maneuver
jaw thrust maneuver (for head, neck, and spinal cord injury)
2. to ventilate the lungs

When to stop CPR


S spontaneous breathing and circulation restored
T turned over to professional help
O operator (rescuer) is exhausted to continue
P physician assumes responsibility

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION (AR)


(adult/one rescuer)
Steps:
1. Check for responsiveness (LOC-level of Consciousness)
2. Call for help ( activate medical assistance )
3. Position the victim ( turn if necessary )
4. Open airway ( head tilt-chin lift maneuver or jaw thrust maneuver )
5. Check for breathing ( LLF-look, listen & feel for 10 sec. ), if breathless
6. Give 2 initial ventilations
7. Check for circulation (carotid pulse) for 10 sec., if not breathing but with pulse
8. Follow-up medical assistance or transfer facility
9. Perform rescue breathing
1002, 1003, 1001, blow.. up to 1024 (24 cycles)
10. Recheck pulse and breathing for 10 sec. and continue AR until necessary
if with breathing and pulse place the victim in recovery position.
But if with no breathing and pulse perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR)
(adult/one rescuer)

Steps:
1. Same procedure of artificial respiration from steps 1 to 6.
2. Check pulse and breathing for 10 sec. if still not breathing and without pulse.
3. follow-up medical assistance or transfer facility
4. Perform CPR. Locate the nipple, in line with your middle finger, position the heel of the
hand over the sternum and the other hand on top and perform external chest
compression (ECC).
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 20, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 1, blow (2X) up to 5
cycles.
5. Recheck pulse and breathing for 10 sec. and continue CPR until necessary.
if with breathing and pulse turn to recovery position.

AR/Rescue Breathing
Adult 1 : 5 : 24 ( 1 ventilation : 5 sec. : 24 cycles )
Child 1 : 3 : 40 ( 1 ventilation : 3 sec. : 40 cycles )
Infant 1 : 3 : 40 ( 1 ventilation : 3 sec. : 40 cycles )

CPR
Adult 30 : 2 : 5 ( 30 external chest compressions : 2 ventilations : 5 cycles )
Child 30 : 2 : 5 ( 30 external chest compressions : 2 ventilations : 5 cycles )
Infant 30 : 2 : 5 ( 30 external chest compressions : 2 ventilations : 5 cycles )

--

Basic Life Support Comparative Chart

AR/CPR Adult Child Infant


Head tilt Maximum head tilt Neutral plus Neutral
19

AR blows/ 2 min. 24 vent./2 min 40 vent./2 min. 40 vent. /2 min.


CPR ratio of ECC to 30 ECC : 2 vent. 30 ECC : 2 vent. 30 ECC : 2 vent.
Ventilation (5 cycles / 2min.) (5 cycles / 2min.) (5 cycles / 2min.)
Depth of ECC 1.5 to 2 inches 1 to 1.5 inch 0.5 to 1 inch
Manner of 2 hands 1 hand 2 fingers
Compression
Site of Compression Imaginary nipple line Imaginary nipple line 1 finger below the
and over the sternum and over the sternum imaginary nipple line

--

Rapid Triage
( for multiple patients scenes)

Priority Color Condition Notes


1 red immediate Life threatening ( e.g. Respiratory and cardiac arrest, severe and
uncontrolled bleeding, shock )
2 yellow urgent Can delay up to 1 hour ( e.g. conscious, oriented, with any
significant fracture or injury but w/o sign of shock
3 green delayed Can delay up to 3 hrs. ( e.g. walking wounded, minor injury )
4 black deceased No care needed

WATER SAFETY
Emergency Response Training

I. PERSONAL SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES


A. FLOATING it is how human body acts to keep afloat and move through the water. It is also
the best way to conserve energy.

TYPES OF FLOATING
a. BACK FLOAT this is the best relaxing float and excellent way of floating during
long periods in the water.

* Lie on your back in water with your head thrown back so that
your chin and nose are above water. Let your arms and legs
relax.

b. JELLYFISH or TUCK FLOAT


this floating is used for relaxing muscles tired from the stretch out of
swimming, massage cramps on legs or toes and remove shoes.

* done by bending in the legs, pulling the knees to the chest, arms
clasp knees, so that you float like a ball with only part of your
back above the water.

c. DEADMANS FLOAT
this float also keep body relax in the water.

* take a deep breath and hold it. The air in your lungs is enough
to make you float. Play as a dead man on the water with arms
and legs relaxed.

d. TREADING to be able to stay afloat longer. To raise the head and look around, or
20

to call for help, or to use the hand.

Three Methods of Treading


1. Modified Frog Kick
performed by froglike kick.
Pushing the legs out and pressing them together is what gives the
upward thrust of the body.

* this treading is not so tiring.

2. Scissors Kick for Treading


this is similar to walking.
This movement should be slow, steady and continuing.

* this is easy to learn, effective and not tiring.

3. Sculling this is by the use of the hands that enables a man to control his body
in a number of positions without the help of the feet.
* while holding oneself upright in the water, weave, the hands
vigorously back and forth in front of and to the sides of the body
in a figure-eight movement. This force the water downward and
keeps the body up.
B. SWIMMING - It is the combined arms, legs and body movement to provide propulsion.

KINDS OF SWIMMING
1. COMPETITIVE (SPORTS)
2. EMERGENCY (RESCUE SWIM)
3. SURVIVAL SWIM

Different Swimming Strokes


a. Dog Paddle or Human Stroke
is valuable sustaining stroke for men fully clothed or wearing life jacket.
This is recommended in narrow and crowded place.

* this is done in the same manner as climbing a ladder using


hands
and feet.

b. Sidestroke
on either side if one hand is disabled, used to carry equipment above water
or to carry another man.

* this is performed by lying on your side in the water, whichever


side feel natural, with legs extended and side of face in the water.

c. Backstroke
this is a good relief stroke, and it allows a man to rest other muscles
while making considerable progress over a long distance. This is also used
when arms are disabled or when necessary to carry equipment above
water.

* perform back float then frog kick or scissors kick.


21

d. Breaststroke
this is easy and relaxed. It provides power, conserves energy and best for
long range. This is used in calm and choppy water and underwater
swimming.

* this is similar to backstroke in the kick, total recovery


underwater, and moving the arms and legs in unison.

e. Underwater Swimming
to avoid surface hazards such as floating debris, oil or even flaming oil or
gasoline. It is also used to rescue a victim gone under.

* almost any swimming stroke can be used underwater.

II. IN WATER LIFE SAVING


Near Drowning Rescue Major Causes of Drowning
1. Throw 1. Not wearing life jacket
2. Tow 2. Too much drink of alcohol
3. Row 3. Lack of sufficient swimming skills
4. Go 4. Hypothermia

A. RESCUE SWIM / LIFESAVING CARRIES

1. Hair Carry
this is the easiest of the carries because it allows the most freedom of movement
on the part of the rescuer. The rescuer should turn on his left side, slides his right
hand up the back of the victims head to the top and grasps the hair tightly; using
the left arm and legs for swimming sidestroke.

2. Head/Chin Carry
the rescuer should turn on his back, holding the victims head above the
water with both hands meeting under his chin.

3. Cross Chest Carry


the rescuer should turn on his left side and plug his arm over the victims
right shoulder, across the chest and under the left arm. The victims body should
be supported on the rescuers right hip, and the rescuer should swim sidestroke,
using his free left arm and both legs.

4. Tired Swimmers Carry


if the victim has enough control of himself to obey orders, he should be ordered to
turn on his back, faces his rescuer, spreads his legs and places both of his hands
on the rescuers shoulders with his arms stiff. The rescuer then
assumes the position for the breaststroke and swims pushing the victim ahead of
him.

B. LIFESAVING APPROACH

1. Front Approach
the rescuer should swim slowly toward the victim and, if he is not too far gone,
attempt to calm and reassure him by talking to him. The victim should be told
exactly what the rescuer is going to do and must be instructed to follow orders.
Then the rescuer should reach with his right hand for the victims wrist, turn the
22

victims body slowly, and use one of the carries describe.

2. Rear Approach
if the victim is too excited to pay attention to directions, the rescuer should swim
behind him, grasps his chin with the right hands, applies pressure to his back with
his left hand.

3. Underwater Approach
is by far the safest because the drowning person does not have a chance to get a
grip on his rescuer. The rescuer should swim within the feet of the victim and
surface dives to a depth at which the victims legs can be easily reached. If the
victim is facing the rescuer, he should be turned in the opposite direction
by
pressure on his upper legs. The rescuer should slide his right hand up the
drowning persons back and grasps him by the chin, applying pressure to his back
with the left hand. He should be brought to the surface as quickly as possible.

C. LIFESAVING RELEASE / BREAKS (DEMO)

1. WRIST LOCK RELEASE


2. FRONT STRANGLEHOLD RELEASE
3. BACK STRANGLEHOLD RELEASE
4. MULTIPLE STRANGLEHOLD RELEASE

ROPEMANSHIP
Rope - is made of short fibers spun into yarn, which is made into a flat or twisted strands.
- is a cord or a string made up of strands of fibers.

Rope Properties/Materials
1. Synthetic rope made from plastic and/or textile materials.
2. Natural rope made from plants, leaves, branches and other natural materials.

Synthetic rope
1. Polypropylene rope
2. Polyester rope
3. Nylon rope
4. Aramid

Natural rope
1. Coir - Is a coarse fiber extracted from the fibrous shell of a coconut.
2. Cotton - White tree strand twisted rope made from 100% cotton fiber.
3. Sisal - Leaves of the plant Agave Sisalana (waterproofed rope).
4. Manila - Made from the plant Musa Textilis or abaca plant.
5. Hemp - Made from stalk of Cannabis Sativa.

PARTS OF THE ROPE


Working end - The active part of a rope used while tying a knot.
Standing part - The part of a rope that is inactive during the tying of a knot.

Working end

Standing part
23

FREESTANDING CURVES

Bight Loop Crossing turn

Bight - The rope is folded back on itself.


Loop - The rope is formed into a circle without being crossed over itself.
Crossing turn - The rope is crossed to form a full circle.

5 FAMILY OF KNOTS
1. Stopper Knots
- for binding the end of the rope.
- for preventing a rope from slipping through a hole.
2. Binding Knots
- for securing a binding around an object.
3. Bends
- for joining together two lengths of rope.
4. Hitches
- for tying a rope around an object.
- for threading a rope around an object.
5. Loops
- for dropping a rope over an object.
- a knot joining a rope to itself.
8 BASIC KNOTS
1.) OVERHAND KNOT
- the simplest knot.
- simple stopper knot.
- knot at the end of the rope.

RELATED KNOTS:
DOUBLE OVERHAND KNOT HALF HITCH
- a larger knot. - attach rope to something.
- increase security of another knot. - secures a knot.

OVERHAND KNOT SLIP KNOT


WITH A DRAW LOOP - temporary knot.

OVERHAND LOOP OVERHAND BEND


24

2.) SQUARE KNOT (REEF KNOT)


- joins equal size ropes.
- best known &most widely used knot.
- used to bind a package.
- used to tie a shoe lace.
- right over left, left over right.

RELATED KNOTS:
SHEET BEND
- joins two unequal size ropes. DOUBLE SHEET BEND

3.) FIGURE EIGHT (8) KNOT


- stopper knot.
- more easy to untie than the overhand knot. RELATED KNOTS:
- similar to double overhand knot. FIGURE 8 BEND

FIGURE 8 LOOP KNOT FIGURE 8 DOUBLE LOOP

FIGURE 8 FOLLOW THROUGH DIRECTIONAL FIGURE 8

4. CLOVE HITCH 5.) TIMBER HITCH


- used to start a lashing. - used to attach a rope
- attaching a rope to a pole. to a log for dragging.
25

6.) FISHERMAN'S KNOT 7.) SHEEP SHANK


- used to tie two ropes. - used to temporarily
- more easy to untie. shorten a rope.

8.) FRENCH BOWLINE


- used to make a non-slipping rope. RELATED KNOT:
- one of the most used loop knots. DOUBLE BOWLINE BOWLINE ON A BIGHT

ANCHORING OTHER USEFUL KNOTS


1.) ANCHORING WITH A CARRABINER WATER KNOT

2.) FIGURE 8 FOLLOW THROUGH COW HITCH PRUSIK KNOT

3.) CLOVE HITCH HEAVING-LINE KNOT


26

4.) BOWLINE BUNTLINE HITCH

5. ) HIGHWAYMAN'S HITCH PILE HITCH

RESCUE KNOTS
1.) IMPROVISED SEAT HARNESS
- SWISS SEAT RAPPEL HARNESS

2.) IMPROVISED SIMPLE BODY HARNESS


- HASTY HARNESS
27

3.) PURTOGUESE / FRENCH BOWLINE


- DOUBLE BOWLINE

4.) BOWLINE USING ONE HAND

5.) EMERGENCY SEAT HARNESS

EARHTQUAKE
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Cannot be predicted and strikes unexpectedly.

THINGS NEEDED:
THINGS TO DO:
- Perform and practice Earthquake Evacuation Drill.

4 OBJECTIVES OF EARTHQUAKE DRILL


1. To ensure safety of students and teachers during and after earthquake.
2. To help school administrators and their disaster action groups to design Special Response Plan
of the school for the earthquake.
3. To train teachers and students on how to practice proper actions and response during
earthquake.
4. To test various elements of the response plan designed by the school disaster management
committee.

6 PHASES OF EARTHQUAKE DRILL


1. ALARM PHASE
2. RESPONSE PHASE
1. Do the Duck, Cover and Hold.
2. INSIDE THE BUILDING:
Go under the desk or table, protect head with hands and face away from window
with glass, mirror, etc.
28

3. OUTSIDE-OPEN PLACE:
Stay away from open lines, concrete structures that may collapse.
4. NEAR SEASHORE:
Move to higher grounds, tsunami may occur.
5. INSIDE MOVING VEHICLE:
Move away from bridges, overpasses and fly-overs; make it stop at the shoulder
of the road and stay inside.
6. LANDSLIDE AREAS:
Move away from mountainous areas, steep hills and slopes.

3. EVACUATION PHASE
1. When shaking stops, stay calm, do not panic, have presence of mind, take the fastest a
and safest way out of the building in an orderly and calm manner,
2. Do not use elevator, use stairs.
3. Proceed to a safest place - Place of Rallying Point (PRP) #3.

4. ASSEMBLY PHASE
1. Stay down.
2. Do not walk/run around.
3. Do the Duck, Cover and Hold until everything is alright.

5. HEAD COUNT PHASE


1. Check everyone, make sure all is present and safe.
2. If someone is injured, do first-aid.
3. Help victims to be safe.

6. EVALUATION PHASE
1. Discuss things to be done in case earthquake happens again.
2. Discuss helpful things to avoid further injuries and death.

BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION

Intro. to Fire Safety

A. BFP Historical Highlights


PERIOD EVENTS
1900 On August 7, 1901, the first Fire Department was established in Manila during
the American occupation.

1935 On October 1935 the first Filipino Fire Chief in the name of Captain Lorenzo
was appointed and began the American Policy to transfer the reign of
responsibility to Filipinos.

1940 Fire Department was established to neighboring cities and town each has their
own organizational set-up.

1973 Fire Service Recognition Day, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1312 issued
by the late President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed on his behalf by Executive
Secretary Melchor in commemoration to the unforgettable incident during the
Meralco Rockwell Power Plant in Makati on the 14th day of December 1973.

1975 Integration of the local Fire Departments in city / municipality police forces
under a national organization called Philippines Constabulary Integrated
National Police (PC-INP).
29

1976 President Ferdinand E. Marcos issued Proclamation No. 115-A on 17 November


1976 making the month of March and every year thereafter as the observance of
Fire Safety Month.

1977 Highlighted by the Promulgation of PD1185, known as the Fire Code of the
Philippines on August 25, 1977 and the complete publication of the Arson
Investigation Manual subsequent to the creation of Anti-Arson Task Force
(AATF) under C-2, PC-INP.

1990 Republic Act 6975 was enacted establishing a separate Fire Protection Bureau
designated to be a national in scope and civilian in character.

1991 August 2, 1991 considered as the inaugural date of BFP Official function
marked by its preparation of Operation Plans and Budget as a distinct agency of
the government.

1999 Highlighted by the launching and MOA signing of Project EARNet on August
23, 1999 and putting into operation the Fire Control Operation Center (FCOC)
which coordinate the dispatch of fire fighting apparatus, ACLS ambulances and
911 type rescue vehicles, as BFP assumes a lead role in Public Safety.

B. Vision. A modern, efficient and responsive national fire protection agency working towards a
public safety conscious society.

Mission. To protect lives and properties through the prevention and suppression of
destructive fires, investigation of their causes, and the provision of emergency medical and
rescue services with the active support of the public.

C. Program Thrusts
1. On Fire Prevention
* Professionalization of fire safety inspection through trainings and tapping
private professionals as fire inspectors (PROSAFE Program).
* Amendment of the Fire Code to include latest trends in fire safety technology
and improvement of fire code fees collection.
* Enhanced fire safety information campaign through Ugnayan, tri-media
campaign, fire Olympics and other similar activities.
2. Fire Suppression
* Improve organization and coordination with fire volunteer brigades.
* Massive rehabilitation of fire stations and firefighting equipment.
* Enhanced linkages wit NOGs and LGUs for donations and other assistance.
* Packaging equipment and loan proposals for local and foreign financing to
establish and/or upgrade fire protection.
3. Fire Investigation
* Enhanced linkages with other law enforcement agencies for apprehending
arsonists and for technical assistance.
* Establishment of an arson laboratory unit and acquisition of fire
investigationkits for arson investigators.
* Trainings, scholarships for arson investigators.
4. EMS & Rescue
* Expanded implementation of Project EAR Net to Regions 3 & 4.
* Establishment of EMS & SRU in other urban centers nationwide.
* Conduct of drug tests for organic personnel.
* Enhance civic action and related special projects.
30

5. General Administration
* Setting up of vital computer-based information systems
* Refinement of performance measurement system
* Implementation of the BFP RSBS
* Fine-tuning of BFP Operations Manual
* Construction of national office and other facilities

D. Legal Mandates R.A 6975


The Bureau of Fire Protection was created by virtue of R.A 6975 primarily to perform the
following functions:
SEC. 54. Powers and Functions. The Fire Bureau shall be responsible for the prevention and
suppression of all destructive fires on buildings, houses and other structures, forests, land
transportation vehicles and equipment, ships or vessels docked at piers or wharves or anchored in
major seaports, petroleum industry installations, plane crashes and other similar incidents, as
well as the enforcement of the Fire Code and other related laws.

The Fire Bureau shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires and, if necessary, file
proper complaints with the city or provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case.

SEC. 12. Relationship of the Department with the Department of National Defense. (paragraph
2 reads as follows) In times of national emergency, all elements of the PNP, the Bureau of fire
Protection, and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology shall, upon the direction of the
President, assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in meeting the national emergency.
SECT. 56. Establishment of Fire Station. There shall be establishment at least one (1) fire
station with adequate personnel, firefighting facilities and equipment in every provincial
capital, city and municipality subject to the standards, rules and regulations as may be
promulgated by the Department. The local government unit shall, however, provide the
necessary land or site of the station.

CHEMISTRY OF FIRE
FIRE
is the active principle of burning characterized by heat and light of combustion.
- the process of combustion.
- is a chemical reaction that takes place between fuel, heat, and oxygen in the form of light and
noticeable heat.

Elements of Fire
1. HEAT
2. FUEL
3. OXYGEN

TRIANGLE OF FIRE
Formula:

a. O + H + F = Fire
b. O + H F = No Fire OXYGEN HEAT SOURCES:
c. O + F H = No Fire 16% solar energy
d. F H O = No Fire chemical energy
mechanical energy
FUEL
electrical energy
solid/liquid/gas
nuclear
compressed gases
31

Note: Absence of any one of the elements mentioned above will prevent the occurrence of fire.

Oxygen - is supplied by the normal oxygen content of the atmospheric air (21%).
- at least 16% or more oxygen is needed to support combustion.
- oxidizing agent

Oxidizing Agent- are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course
of a chemical reaction. Oxidizers are not themselves combustible, but they support combustion
when combine with a fuel.

Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.
- reducing agent
- evolved from solid by pyrolysis
- evolved from liquid through vaporization
- is a kind of matter and can be found in any of these three physical states, namely:
1. Solid
2. Liquid
3. Gas

SOLIDS: LIQUIDS: GASES: .


Bulky Finely divided - gasoline - carbon monoxide
- wood - hay - diesel - hydrogen acetylene
- paper - grain - paint,varnish - natural gases
- cloth - sugar - alcohol - propane
- wax - leather . - olive oil .

Heat - is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron. when heat comes into contact with a
fuel, the energy supports the combustion reaction.

NOTE: For many years, the fire triangle (heat, Oxygen, Fuel) was used to teach the components
of fire. While this simple example is useful, it is not technically correct, for combustion to occur.

For combustion to occur four (4) components are necessary;


1. Oxygen (oxidizing agent)
2. Fuel (reducing agent)
3. Heat
4. Self-sustained chemical reaction.

These components can be graphically described as:

FIRE TETRAHEDRON

Reducing Agent Fuel Oxidizing Agent

AGENCIES

Heat
32

The forth element in Fire Tetrahedron:


Self Sustained Chemical Chain Reaction

Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in gaseous or in vapor) . Scientists call
this type of reaction a chain reaction. A chain reaction is a series of reactions that occur in
sequence with the results of each individual reaction being added to the rest.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER


Conduction- is a transfer of heat through actual contact from one body to another body or
through an intervening solid, liquid or gas heat-conducting material.
Convection- is a transfer of heat through a circulating medium either liquid or gas (air). Heated
air expands and rises.
Radiation- is a transfer of heat through a no intervening space or straight path such as X-Ray or
heat from the sun that radiates to the earth.

Flammability Principles
The science of fire protection rest upon the following principles:
1. an oxidizing agent, a combustible materials and an ignition source are essential for the
combustion.
2. the combustible materials must be heated to its piloted ignition temperature before it can be
ignited or support flame spread.
3. its subsequent burning of a combustible is governed by the heat feedback from the flames to
the pyrolizing or vaporizing combustible.
4. the burning will continue until:
a. the combustible material is consumed; or
b. the oxidizing agent concentration is lowered to below the concentration necessary to
support combustion; or
c. sufficient heat is removed or prevented from reaching the combustible materials to
prevent further fuel pyrolysis; or
d. the flames are chemically inhibited or sufficiently coded to prevent further reaction.

Note: Exemplify the principle with the use of matchstick, let the participants observed the
pyrolysis that undergoes in the lighted matchstick.

Pyrolysis chemical decomposition of the substance through the action of heat.

Schematic Diagram of the By-Products of Fire

HEAT

THERMAL

FLAME

FIRE

SMOKE
NON-THERMAL

GASES
33

NOTE: Explain the effects of the four by-products during fires.

METHODS OF EXTINGUISHMENT
1. COOLING/QUENCHING - removal of heat.
2. SMOOTHERING/BLANKETING - removal of oxygen.
3. STARVING - removal of fuel.
4. INHIBITING - breaking of fire chain reaction.

Philippine Standard Fire Classification


A. CLASS A (SOLID FIRE)
1. Materials common combustible solid materials.
a. Wood d. Rope
b. Cotton, clothes e. Plastic rubber
c. Paper
2. Characteristics:
a. Deep seated fires
b. Likely to rekindle
c. Mostly organic in nature
d. It leaves ashes and embers
3. Extinguishing Methods:
a. Cooling - using water or quenching.
b. Smothering - using blanket and sand and similar materials.
c. Oxygen dilution
4. Extinguishing Agents:
a. Water
b. Foam
c. Halon *
d. CO2
e. Dry chemicals

B. Class B - (LIQUID FIRE)


1. Materials - Involving flammable liquids and gases.
a. Gasoline
b. Diesel
c. Paint
d. Grease
2. Characteristics:
a. Surface burning liquid
b. Likely to re-flash
c. It leaves no ashes and embers
d. Explosion hazards
3. Extinguishing methods:
a. smothering
b. oxygen dilution (shut-off outlet valve in case of leakage on pumping station.)
c. cooling only if the water applied is in form of fog or spray.
4. Extinguishing Agents:
a. Foam d. CO2
b. Water spray e. Dry chemicals
c. Halon *

C. Class C - (ELECTRICAL FIRE)


1. Materials - Involving electrical and system appliances, equipment, devices, and tools.
a. Generators
b. Electric motors
c. Transmitters
34

d. Panel board
e. Switches
f. Fuses
2. Characteristics
a. Electrocution hazard
b. Caused by misuse of electricity, sparks, overloading of circuit and improper grounding
system.
3. Extinguishment Methods
a. De-energized the circuit or shut-off power
b .Oxygen dilution
c. chemical
D. cooling with the use of water
4. Extinguishment Agents
a. CO2
b. Dry chemical
c. Halon *
d. H2O as long as power is de-energized

D. Class D - (METAL FIRE)


1. Materials involving combustible metals.
a. Aluminum f. Sodium
b. Chromium g. Titanium
c. Lithium h. Rhodiun
d. Magnesium i. Uranium
e. Potassium j. Zirconium
2. Characteristics
a. Ignites once in contact with foreign substance.
3. Extinguishing Methods
a. Smothering
4. Extinguishing Agents
a. Dry powder (metallic fire extinguisher)

Note: Never use a solid stream of water on liquid fires.


Never apply the stream of foam directly into the poll of burning liquids.
Never use foam and water on electrical and gas fire.

STAGES OF FIRE
1. Incipient stage there is no visible smoke or flame.
2. Smoldering stage there is smoke but no flame.
Be reminded that even smoke endanger human lives.
3. Flame stage actual fire exist and heat builds up.
4. Heat stage there is an uncontrolled spread of superheated air.

Note: Before a material burns, it must reach its flash point and ignition temperature.
Flash Point is the minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor
insufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air.

Fire Alarm Detection System


a. Assessment of the following:
i. Fire alarm
ii. Fire detection system
iii. Portable fixed extinguishing system, if any
b. Present the above cited equipment/devices/tools as to its mandated requirements and
operational use (show visual aids and augment with other available tools).
c. Demonstrate the use or operation of the aforementioned equipment
35

d. Return-demo by the participants.

Fire Extinguisher a device that contains within its chemicals for the extinguishment of fires.

Extinguishing Agent Methods of Operation Discharge Time Discharge Operation


(Expellant) Distance
Water base extinguisher Stored pressure Dependent to Approx. 5 20 ft. P pull the pin
(nitrogen) size
cartridge (CO2)
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Self expelling -do- -do- A aim the
Dry chemical (Sodium Stored pressure cartridge -do- -do- hose at the base
bicarbonate, potassium of fire
bicarbonate, potassium chloride,
ammonium phosphate
Halon Stored self expelling -do- -do- S squeeze
1211-Bromodirdiflouromethane operating
13011- Bromotriflouromethane handle
Foam Chemical reaction with acid -do- -do-
when inverted Cartridge
S sweep side
by side

HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER PARTS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER


1. P - pull the pin. 1. Pin 6. Pressure gauge
2. A - aim the nozzle. 2. Nozzle 7. Tube
3. S - squeeze the lever. 3. Hose 8. Gas cannister
4. S - sweep side to side. 4. Lever 9. Dry Chemicals
5. Handle 10. Carbon dioxide
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER
1. Water -A
2. Dry chemicals - ABC/Powder CAUSES OF FIRE
3. Carbon dioxide - BC/Gaseous 1. Negligence
4. Metal/Sand - D/Powder 2. Accident
5. Non-Metallic - D/Foam, Ice maker 3. Intentional
6. Halon - ABC/Gaseous
COMMON SOURCES OF FIRE
1. Unattended burning candle
2. Cigarettes and matches
3. Kitchen fire
4. Flammable liquids and chemicals
5. Flammable gas leaks
6. Electrical equipment and appliances
7. Lightning and other forces of nature
8. Forrest fire
9. Vehicular fire/bomb explosion
10. Arson

PHASES OF FIREFIGHTING
1. PRE-FIRE PLANNING - advance planning and apply appropriate action when fire occurs.
2. SIZE-UP - mental evaluation and possible action to perform/safety first.
3. RESCUE OPERATION - looking for anyone to be saved.
4. CONFINEMENT - firefighting by means of avoiding fire to spread.
5. VENTILATION - letting fresh air to come in, letting smoke and heat to come out.
6. EXTINGUISHMENT - (COVER EXPOSURE) putting off the source of fire.
7. SALVAGING - saving valuable properties.
8. FORCIBLE ENTRY - breaking through building to have full control of fire.
9. OVERHAULING - (MAPPING OPERATION) preventing fire from re-kindling.
10. CRITIQUE - (POST FIRE ANALYSIS) investigates the cause of fire.
36

EXIT DRILL IN THE HOUSE (EDITH)


1. Family conference regarding fire safety.
2. Make escape plan:
A. Gather family and draw a floor plan of ground and upper bedrooms
B. Label each bedroom, locate windows, doors and stairways.
C. Identify by shading any portion that might be used as a "fire" from upper floor.
D. Draw (a) long arrows to show usual exit through the doors to hall and stairways.
(b) several short arrows to show the emergency exit through the windows.
E. If the usual exits are blocked by fire, decide on a place out of the house where all
members of the household can meet for safety check.
3. Organize and provide specific tasks for family members to ensure its effectiveness:
TASKS/ROLES OF A FAMILY MEMBER
A. Father - Retrieve/get bucket of water to provide first-aid firefighting initiative.
B. Son A - Deactivate the electric circuit.
C. Daughter - Provide property conservation by retrieving priority household needs.
(Documents, birth certificates, diplomas, land titles, marriage certificate)
D. Son B - Telephone call the fire station/police station.
PNP MINALABAC - 4704162
SFO3 FRESCO, JA - 09199908564
4. Choose the alarm/signal. (Shout/buzzer/strike metal)
5. Choose Place of Rallying Point.
6. Acquire needed equipment:
B - Bucket of water.
F - Flashlight.
P - Phone, telephone, cellphone, portable handheld radio.
7. Practice your plan and conduct fire evacuation drill.
8. Start from bedroom, majority of fatality occurs at night when people are sleeping.
9. Practice safety precautions in opening doors, windows, etc.
10. Always have a bucket, pail and drums full of water that can be used in case of fire.

FLOOR PLAN OF GROUND AND UPPER BEDROOM

UPPER BEDROOM
____
-----| |----------| |----- __ | |
| | | | | | x |
= '| = '| | |___'|
_ |_________________| | |
____________ | | =________________= '| |
| '| | | | | | |
| '| | = | = '| |
| '| | | | | |
| '|_| -----| |----------| |------ '|_|
|
|
| GROUND FLOOR
|
| -----| |----------| |-----
| | | |
| = '| =
| |_________________|
_"|___ =________________=
| '| | | |
| PRP | <-------------- = | =
37

|____''| | |
-----| |----------| |------

FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES


1. Do not play with fire.
2. In case of fire, do not hide, go outside.
3. Keep matches away from children.
4. Never leave children unattended or lock-up while you're away.
5. Do not allow children to play near bonfire.
6. To escape during fire:
A. Go out of the building immediately.
B. Crouch low if full of smoke.
C. Find alternative exit.
D. Close door behind you.
7. In case clothes catches fire:
Do the Stop, Drop and Roll.
A. Stop, do not run.
B. Drop on the ground.
C. Roll over and over.
a. Cover your face with your hands for prevention.
b. By-standers help the victim put out the fire.
c. Evacuate the victim from the burning place and give immediate first-aid care.
8. Make an escape plan and practice it with your family.
9. Practice EDITHS (Exit Drill In The House and School).
10. Teach children to report immediately if they observe and notice:
A. Burning signs G. Damage electrical cords
B. Burning smell H. Damage appliances
C. Smoke I. Flickering lights
D. Gas leaks J. Sizzling sound
E. Fire K. Discoloration of the wall
F. Tingling feeling on switches L. Electrical short circuit
THINGS TO DO TO PREPARE FOR FIRE
1. Keep the fire station telephone number accessible.
SFO3 FRESCO, JA - 09199908564
PNP MINALABAC - 4704162

REPORTING BY TELEPHONE
A. Dial the telephone number.
B. Say greetings: Good morning/afternoon/evening.
C. Give name and address.
D. Give exact address of fire scene.
E. Give your telephone number.
F. State nature of emergency.
G. Stay on line if requested to.
H. Say good bye and thank you.

2. Set up a fire escape plan.


3. Teach children to report immediately if discovered burning signs, etc.

WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF FIRE


- Do not panic.
- Presence of mind.
- Safety first for yourself and others.
1. S - Shout fire/Sound the alarm.
2. A - Advice fire station/neighbors.
38

3. F - Fight fire (water/blanket/rug/towel/sand/mud).


4. E - Evacuate (do not block passage ways).
5. T - Tell others.
6. Y - You get clear.

HOW TO ESCAPE FROM A BURNING BUILDING


1. Locate fire escape plan.
2. Be aware of fire exits and fire extinguishers.
3. Get out of the building as fast as you can.
4. Do not go to the CR, get out of the building.
5. If full of smoke, crawl down, one feet from the floor plenty of fresh oxygen.
6. If dark, use hand and feel the wall, if hot go to the other direction.
7. Do not use elevator, use stairs.
8. When using stairs, stay away from the center of the stair, stay at the outer part of the stair.
9. Fight fire if you still can.
10. Close door behind you.
11. Do not go back, if there is no one to be saved.
12. Call for help.

Prepared by:

GERARD FRANCIS P STO TOMAS


FIRE OFFICER 2 BFP
Fire Safety Educ/Public Info Svcs/EMS
Radio Operator /Nozzleman /Firefighter
JULY 1, 2014
Republic of the Philippines
Department of the Interior and Local Government
BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION
MINALABAC FIRE STATION
Minalabac, Camarines Sur

2014 UGNAYAN SA BARANGAY PROGRAM ON DISASTER PREPAREDNESS


AND FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION/FIRE PREVENTION TRAINING SEMINAR
Theme: Kahandaan at Kaligtasan ng Pamayanan, Pundasyon ng Kaunlaran

R. A. 9729 Climate Change Act of 2009

Climate Change refers to a change in climate that can be identified by changes in the mean
and/or variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period typically decades or
longer, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.

Global Warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface
air and oceans that is associated with the increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere.

Greenhouse effect refers to the process by which the absorption of infrared radiation by the
atmosphere warms the Earth.
39

Greenhouse gases (GHG) refers to constituents of the atmosphere that contribute to the
greenhouse effect including, but not limited to, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,
hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.

Adaptation refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or


expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial
opportunities.

R. A. 10121 - Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010

"Disaster" - a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving


widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the
ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. Disasters are often
described as a result of the combination of: the exposure to a hazard; the conditions of
vulnerability that are present; and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce or cope with the
potential negative consequences.

"Hazard" - a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause
loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihood and services,
social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

"Vulnerability" - the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that


make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard.

"Risk" - the combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.

Disaster Risk Reduction and Management" - the systematic process of using administrative
directives, organizations, and operational skills and capacities to implement strategies, policies
and improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of hazards and the
possibility of disaster.improved coping capacities in order to lessen the adverse impacts of
hazards and the possibility of disaster.
1.
"Disaster Preparedness" - the knowledge and capacities developed by governments,
professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively
anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the Impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events
or conditions.

TOP TEN HAZARDS IN ASIA FIRE PREVENTION MONTH


1. TYPHOON Month of March
2. FLOOD
3. STORM SURGE DISATER PREPAREDNESS MONTH
4. EARTHQUAKE Month of July
5. VOLCANIC ERUPTION
6. TSUNAMI PAG-ASA DATA:
7. LANDSLIDE 25 Typhoons (more or less)
8. EPIDEMICS 10 Strong Typhoons
9. DROUGHT 5 Bicol (November to December)
10. FIRE/VEHICULAR ACCIDENTS 3 Strong Typhoons

NATURAL HAZARDS
- are severe and extreme weather and climate events that occur naturally in all parts of the world,
although some regions are more vulnerable to certain hazards than others.

1. Meteorological Hazards
40

- are hazards driven by meteorological (i.e., weather) processes, in particular those related to
temperature and wind. This includes heat waves, cold waves, cyclones, hurricanes, and freezing
rain. Cyclones are commonly called hurricanes in the Atlantic and typhoons in the Pacific Ocean.

Weather is the condition of atmosphere for a short period of time.


Climate is weather for a long period of time.

2. Geological Hazards
- are hazards driven by geological (i.e., Earth) processes, in particular, plate tectonics. This
includes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In general, geological extreme events are beyond
human influence, though humans have large influence on the impacts of the events.

3. Climatological Hazards
- are hazards that is caused by climate change that affect the average condition of a particular
place for a period of time, causes global warming that result to either extreme dry or wet weather
such as drought, el nino and la nina phenomenon.

4. Man-made Hazards
- are hazards that affect the community due to the negligence of man such fire, terrorists
activities, land and sea accidents, pollutions, epidemics, etc.

WEATHER DISTURBANCES
- a general term that describes any pulse of energy moving through the atmosphere.

1. Thunderstorm (Lightning storm)


- a local storm clouds producing lightning and thunder that also brings heavy rains, strong gust of
winds, hail and at times also formed tornado.

2. Southwest Monsoon (Habagat)


- a seasonal wind pattern coming from the southwest part of the country that brings warm and
humid air with moderate to heavy rains that usually occurs from June to September.

3. Northeast Monsoon (Amihan)


- a cold and relatively dry air mass coming from northeast part of the country that also produces
moderate to heavy rains that affects the country from October to Februaty.

4. Cold Front
- a cooler mass of air replacing a warmer mass of air, increasing cloudiness and occurrence of
light to moderate rains. Cold wind coming from the north part of the country that usually appears
during the month of December to February.

5. Easterly Waves
- a warm air mass coming from the east part of pacific ocean, produces less clouds, occurrence of
rain is seldom and usually appears in the country during the month of March to May.
2.
6. Wind Convergence
- a weather system wherein two wind patterns from two different directions merge.

7. Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)


-
abroadareaoflowatmosphericpressurelocatedintheequatorialregionwherethenortheasterlyandsouth
easterlytradewindsconverge. Warm,humidairconvergesonthiszone,
risesandcools,formingcloudsandfrequentheavyrains.

8. High Pressure Area (HPA)


41

- ahigh or anticyclone area is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet
is greater than its surrounding environment.Winds within high-pressure areas flow outward from
the higher pressure areas near their centers towards the lower pressure areas further from their
centers.

9. Low Pressure Area (LPA)


- an area of low pressure usually characterized by clouds of precipitation caused by rising air;
often related to inclement weather such as winds flowing counter clockwise circulation that also
produces heavy rains and gust of wind that reaches up to 55 kph or less.

10. Tropical Cyclone


- a rapidly-rotating storm system characterized by a low pressure center, strong winds, and a
spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and with wind speed of 56 kph and
above.

1.) TYPHOON
THINGS TO KNOW:

Low Pressure Area 55 kph or less No Signal PAG-ASA Warning


Tropical Depression 56 kph to 65 kph #1 36 hours 5 am
Tropical Storm 66 kph to 85 kph #2 24 hours 11 am
Typhoon 86 kph to 120 kph #3 18 hours 4 pm
Super Typhoon 120 kph or more #4 12 hours 10 pm
3.
10 THINGS NEEDED:
1. AM/FM RADIO with batteries for 3 days.
2. FLASHLIGHT with batteries for 3 days.
(Candles, posporo, lighters, etc.)
3. FOOD (Rice, noodles, sardines, delata, etc.)
4. WATER
5. FIRST-AID KIT
(Alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, aguaoxinada, cotton, cotton buds, gause bandage, band aid,
medicine for fever, headache, colds, cough, toothache, antibiotics, wounds, lbm, high blood
pressure, heart ailments, arthritis, etc.)
6. BLANKETS (Clothes, rain coat, rubber boots, etc. )
7. BASIC EQUIPMENTS for babies, elderly, sick and disable.
8. PASTIC BAG
(Storage for important items, cellphone, wallet, documents, wet clothes, money, etc.)
9. CASH
10. KNIFE

10 THINGS TO DO:
1. Listen to radio/tv news and fully charge your cellphone.
2. Iligpit at itaas ang mga mahahalagang gamit para hindi maabot ng baha.
(Bigas, tubig, electrical appliances, furnitures, gasul, etc.)
3. Pag-brownout, turn off main switch.
4. Flooded areas, proceed to evacuation center.
5. Avoid low-lying areas, heavy rains can trigger landslide.
6. Do not attempt to cross flowing streams.
7. Stay indoor at huwag lulusong sa baha.
8. Do not operate electrical appliances during flood.
9. Do not use electrical appliances and gas stove/gasul that have flooded.
10. Call for help, when in danger.
42

2.) FLOOD
3.) STORM SERGE
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Usually occurs during typhoon.
THINGS NEEDED:
THINGS TO DO:
- Same as typhoon.

4.) EARHTQUAKE
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Cannot be predicted and strikes unexpectedly.
THINGS NEEDED:
THINGS TO DO:
- Perform and practice Earthquake Evacuation Drill.

4 OBJECTIVES OF EARTHQUAKE DRILL


1. To ensure safety of students and teachers during and after earthquake.
2. To help school administrators and their disaster action groups to design Special Response Plan
of the school for the earthquake.
3. To train teachers and students on how to practice proper actions and response during
earthquake.
4. To test various elements of the response plan designed by the school disaster management
committee.

6 PHASES OF EARTHQUAKE DRILL


1. ALARM PHASE
2. RESPONSE PHASE
1. Do the Duck, Cover and Hold.
2. INSIDE THE BUILDING:
Go under the desk or table, protect head with hands and face away from window
with glass, mirror, etc.
3. OUTSIDE-OPEN PLACE:
Stay away from open lines, concrete structures that may collapse.
4. NEAR SEASHORE:
Move to higher grounds, tsunami may occur.
5. INSIDE MOVING VEHICLE:
Move away from bridges, overpasses and fly-overs; make it stop at the shoulder
of the road and stay inside.
6. LANDSLIDE AREAS:
Move away from mountainous areas, steep hills and slopes.

3. EVACUATION PHASE
1. When shaking stops, stay calm, do not panic, have presence of mind, take the fastest a
and safest way out of the building in an orderly and calm manner,
2. Do not use elevator, use stairs.
3. Proceed to a safest place - Place of Rallying Point (PRP) #3.

4. ASSEMBLY PHASE
1. Stay down.
2. Do not walk/run around.
3. Do the Duck, Cover and Hold until everything is alright.

5. HEAD COUNT PHASE


1. Check everyone, make sure all is present and safe.
2. If someone is injured, do first-aid.
3. Help victims to be safe.
43

6. EVALUATION PHASE
1. Discuss things to be done in case earthquake happens again.
2. Discuss helpful things to avoid further injuries and death.

5. VOLCANIC ERUPTION
THINGS TO KNOW:
220 volcanoes
23 potentially active
2 mayon, bulusan

THINGS NEEDED:
- Same as typhoon.

THINGS TO DO:
1. Listen to the radio/tv for the announcement of the Phivolcs.
2. Move away from declared permanent danger zone.
(To avoid volcanic hazard that may produce pyroclastic flow, ash fall, lava and lahar flow)
3. Cover mouth and nose with wet cloth for better and safer breathing.
4. Cover food and water to prevent contamenation.
5. Clean roof from ash fall to prevent collapsing.
6. Moving vehicles seek safe shelter immediately and move away from declared permanent
danger zone.
7. Avoid lava/lahar flow areas, move to a higher grounds or designated evacuation center.

6. TSUNAMI
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Occurs during earthquake near seashores and under the sea volcanic eruption.
- Sudden lowering of sea level.
- Unusual rise and fall of the sea.
- Unusual sound coming from the sea.
THINGS NEEDED:
- None due to unexpected/spontaneous reaction.

THINGS TO DO:
- Move away from seashore areas.
- Seek higher grounds.

7. LANDSLIDE
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Occurs during typhoon, heavy rains, flood, earthquake, tsunami, etc.

THINGS NEEDED:
THINGS TO DO:
- Same as typhoon.

8. EPIDEMICS
A(H1NI), SARS, MERSCOV, dengue, tigdas, diarhea, liptospirosis, etc.

THINGS TO KNOW:
- Uncontrollable
- Massive spread
- No immediate cure
- Contagious
44

- Deadly illnesses

THINGS NEEDED:
- Listen to radio/tv for information
- Immediately seek proper medication
- Treat all illnesses seriously
- Consult doctor
- Isolate patient to prevent contamination
- Evacuate to designated evacuation areas.

9. DROUGHT
THINGS TO KNOW:
- Lack of rainfall for long period of time.
- Food and water supply insufficient and hardly available.
- Creates famine, sickness and death.

BUREAU OF FIRE PROTECTION

FIRE
Intro. to Fire Safety

A. BFP Historical Highlights


PERIOD EVENTS
1900 On August 7, 1901, the first Fire Department was established in Manila during
the American occupation.

1935 On October 1935 the first Filipino Fire Chief in the name of Captain Lorenzo
was appointed and began the American Policy to transfer the reign of
responsibility to Filipinos.

1940 Fire Department was established to neighboring cities and town each has their
own organizational set-up.

1973 Fire Service Recognition Day, pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 1312 issued
by the late President Ferdinand E. Marcos signed on his behalf by Executive
Secretary Melchor in commemoration to the unforgettable incident during the
Meralco Rockwell Power Plant in Makati on the 14th day of December 1973.

1975 Integration of the local Fire Departments in city / municipality police forces
under a national organization called Philippines Constabulary Integrated
National Police (PC-INP).

1976 President Ferdinand E. Marcos issued Proclamation No. 115-A on 17 November


1976 making the month of March and every year thereafter as the observance of
Fire Safety Month.

1977 Highlighted by the Promulgation of PD1185, known as the Fire Code of the
Philippines on August 25, 1977 and the complete publication of the Arson
Investigation Manual subsequent to the creation of Anti-Arson Task Force
(AATF) under C-2, PC-INP.

1990 Republic Act 6975 was enacted establishing a separate Fire Protection Bureau
designated to be a national in scope and civilian in character.
45

1991 August 2, 1991 considered as the inaugural date of BFP Official function
marked by its preparation of Operation Plans and Budget as a distinct agency of
the government.

1999 Highlighted by the launching and MOA signing of Project EARNet on August
23, 1999 and putting into operation the Fire Control Operation Center (FCOC)
which coordinate the dispatch of fire fighting apparatus, ACLS ambulances and
911 type rescue vehicles, as BFP assumes a lead role in Public Safety.

B. Vision. A modern, efficient and responsive national fire protection agency working towards a
public safety conscious society.

Mission. To protect lives and properties through the prevention and suppression of
destructive fires, investigation of their causes, and the provision of emergency medical and
rescue services with the active support of the public.

C. Program Thrusts
1. On Fire Prevention
* Professionalization of fire safety inspection through trainings and tapping
private professionals as fire inspectors (PROSAFE Program).
* Amendment of the Fire Code to include latest trends in fire safety technology
and improvement of fire code fees collection.
* Enhanced fire safety information campaign through Ugnayan, tri-media
campaign, fire Olympics and other similar activities.

2. Fire Suppression
* Improve organization and coordination with fire volunteer brigades.
* Massive rehabilitation of fire stations and firefighting equipment.
* Enhanced linkages wit NOGs and LGUs for donations and other assistance.
* Packaging equipment and loan proposals for local and foreign financing to
establish and/or upgrade fire protection.

3. Fire Investigation
* Enhanced linkages with other law enforcement agencies for apprehending
arsonists and for technical assistance.
* Establishment of an arson laboratory unit and acquisition of fire
investigationkits for arson investigators.
* Trainings, scholarships for arson investigators.

4. EMS & Rescue


* Expanded implementation of Project EAR Net to Regions 3 & 4.
* Establishment of EMS & SRU in other urban centers nationwide.
* Conduct of drug tests for organic personnel.
* Enhance civic action and related special projects.

5. General Administration
* Setting up of vital computer-based information systems
* Refinement of performance measurement system
* Implementation of the BFP RSBS
* Fine-tuning of BFP Operations Manual
* Construction of national office and other facilities
46

D. Legal Mandates R.A 6975


The Bureau of Fire Protection was created by virtue of R.A 6975 primarily to perform the
following functions:
SEC. 54. Powers and Functions. The Fire Bureau shall be responsible for the prevention and
suppression of all destructive fires on buildings, houses and other structures, forests, land
transportation vehicles and equipment, ships or vessels docked at piers or wharves or anchored in
major seaports, petroleum industry installations, plane crashes and other similar incidents, as
well as the enforcement of the Fire Code and other related laws.

The Fire Bureau shall have the power to investigate all causes of fires and, if necessary, file
proper complaints with the city or provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction over the case.

SEC. 12. Relationship of the Department with the Department of National Defense. (paragraph
2 reads as follows) In times of national emergency, all elements of the PNP, the Bureau of fire
Protection, and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology shall, upon the direction of the
President, assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in meeting the national emergency.
SECT. 56. Establishment of Fire Station. There shall be establishment at least one (1) fire
station with adequate personnel, firefighting facilities and equipment in every provincial
capital, city and municipality subject to the standards, rules and regulations as may be
promulgated by the Department. The local government unit shall, however, provide the
necessary land or site of the station.

CHEMISTRY OF FIRE
FIRE
is the active principle of burning characterized by heat and light of combustion.
- the process of combustion.
- is a chemical reaction that takes place between fuel, heat, and oxygen in the form of light and
noticeable heat.

ELEMENTS OF FIRE
1. HEAT
2. FUEL
3. OXYGEN

TRIANGLE OF FIRE
Formula:

a. O + H + F = Fire
b. O + H F = No Fire OXYGEN HEAT SOURCES:
c. O + F H = No Fire 16% solar energy
d. F H O = No Fire chemical energy
mechanical energy
FUEL
electrical energy
solid/liquid/gas
nuclear
compressed gases

Note: Absence of any one of the elements mentioned above will prevent the occurrence of fire.
47

Oxygen - is supplied by the normal oxygen content of the atmospheric air (21%).
- at least 16% or more oxygen is needed to support combustion.
- oxidizing agent

Oxidizing Agent- are those materials that yield oxygen or other oxidizing gases during the course
of a chemical reaction. Oxidizers are not themselves combustible, but they support combustion
when combine with a fuel.

Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in the combustion process.
- reducing agent
- evolved from solid by pyrolysis
- evolved from liquid through vaporization
- is a kind of matter and can be found in any of these three physical states, namely:
1. Solid
2. Liquid
3. Gas

SOLIDS: LIQUIDS: GASES: .


Bulky Finely divided - gasoline - carbon monoxide
- wood - hay - diesel - hydrogen acetylene
- paper - grain - paint,varnish - natural gases
- cloth - sugar - alcohol - propane
- wax - leather . - olive oil .

Heat - is the energy component of the fire tetrahedron. when heat comes into contact with a
fuel, the energy supports the combustion reaction.

NOTE: For many years, the fire triangle (heat, Oxygen, Fuel) was used to teach the components
of fire. While this simple example is useful, it is not technically correct, for combustion to occur.

For combustion to occur four (4) components are necessary;


1. Oxygen (oxidizing agent)
2. Fuel (reducing agent)
3. Heat
4. Self-sustained chemical reaction.

These components can be graphically described as:

FIRE TETRAHEDRON

Reducing Agent Fuel Oxidizing Agent

AGENCIES

Heat
48

The forth element in Fire Tetrahedron:


Self Sustained Chemical Chain Reaction

Combustion is a complex reaction that requires a fuel (in gaseous or in vapor) . Scientists call
this type of reaction a chain reaction. A chain reaction is a series of reactions that occur in
sequence with the results of each individual reaction being added to the rest.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER


Conduction- is a transfer of heat through actual contact from one body to another body or
through an intervening solid, liquid or gas heat-conducting material.
Convection- is a transfer of heat through a circulating medium either liquid or gas (air). Heated
air expands and rises.
Radiation- is a transfer of heat through a no intervening space or straight path such as X-Ray or
heat from the sun that radiates to the earth.

Flammability Principles
The science of fire protection rest upon the following principles:
1. an oxidizing agent, a combustible materials and an ignition source are essential for the
combustion.
2. the combustible materials must be heated to its piloted ignition temperature before it can be
ignited or support flame spread.
3. its subsequent burning of a combustible is governed by the heat feedback from the flames to
the pyrolizing or vaporizing combustible.
4. the burning will continue until:
a. the combustible material is consumed; or
b. the oxidizing agent concentration is lowered to below the concentration necessary to
support combustion; or
c. sufficient heat is removed or prevented from reaching the combustible materials to
prevent further fuel pyrolysis; or
d. the flames are chemically inhibited or sufficiently coded to prevent further reaction.

Note: Exemplify the principle with the use of matchstick, let the participants observed the
pyrolysis that undergoes in the lighted matchstick.

Pyrolysis chemical decomposition of the substance through the action of heat.

Schematic Diagram of the By-Products of Fire

HEAT

THERMAL

FLAME

FIRE

SMOKE
NON-THERMAL

GASES
49

NOTE: Explain the effects of the four by-products during fires.

METHODS OF EXTINGUISHMENT
1. COOLING/QUENCHING - removal of heat.
2. SMOOTHERING/BLANKETING - removal of oxygen.
3. STARVING - removal of fuel.
4. INHIBITING - breaking of fire chain reaction.

Philippine Standard Fire Classification


A. CLASS A (SOLID FIRE)
1. Materials common combustible solid materials.
a. Wood d. Rope
b. Cotton, clothes e. Plastic rubber
c. Paper
2. Characteristics:
a. Deep seated fires
b. Likely to rekindle
c. Mostly organic in nature
d. It leaves ashes and embers
3. Extinguishing Methods:
a. Cooling - using water or quenching.
b. Smothering - using blanket and sand and similar materials.
c. Oxygen dilution
4. Extinguishing Agents:
a. Water
b. Foam
c. Halon *
d. CO2
e. Dry chemicals

B. Class B - (LIQUID FIRE)


1. Materials - Involving flammable liquids and gases.
a. Gasoline
b. Diesel
c. Paint
d. Grease
2. Characteristics:
a. Surface burning liquid
b. Likely to re-flash
c. It leaves no ashes and embers
d. Explosion hazards
3. Extinguishing methods:
a. smothering
b. oxygen dilution (shut-off outlet valve in case of leakage on pumping station.)
c. cooling only if the water applied is in form of fog or spray.
4. Extinguishing Agents:
a. Foam d. CO2
b. Water spray e. Dry chemicals
50

c. Halon *

C. Class C - (ELECTRICAL FIRE)


1. Materials - Involving electrical and system appliances, equipment, devices, and tools.
a. Generators
b. Electric motors
c. Transmitters
d. Panel board
e. Switches
f. Fuses
2. Characteristics
a. Electrocution hazard
b. Caused by misuse of electricity, sparks, overloading of circuit and improper grounding
system.
3. Extinguishment Methods
a. De-energized the circuit or shut-off power
b .Oxygen dilution
c. chemical
D. cooling with the use of water
4. Extinguishment Agents
a. CO2
b. Dry chemical
c. Halon *
d. H2O as long as power is de-energized

D. Class D - (METAL FIRE)


1. Materials involving combustible metals.
a. Aluminum f. Sodium
b. Chromium g. Titanium
c. Lithium h. Rhodiun
d. Magnesium i. Uranium
e. Potassium j. Zirconium
2. Characteristics
a. Ignites once in contact with foreign substance.
3. Extinguishing Methods
a. Smothering
4. Extinguishing Agents
a. Dry powder (metallic fire extinguisher)

Note: Never use a solid stream of water on liquid fires.


Never apply the stream of foam directly into the poll of burning liquids.
Never use foam and water on electrical and gas fire.

STAGES OF FIRE
1. Incipient stage there is no visible smoke or flame.
2. Smoldering stage there is smoke but no flame.
Be reminded that even smoke endanger human lives.
3. Flame stage actual fire exist and heat builds up.
4. Heat stage there is an uncontrolled spread of superheated air.

Note: Before a material burns, it must reach its flash point and ignition temperature.
Flash Point is the minimum temperature at which any material gives off vapor
insufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air.

Fire Alarm Detection System


51

a. Assessment of the following:


i. Fire alarm
ii. Fire detection system
iii. Portable fixed extinguishing system, if any
b. Present the above cited equipment/devices/tools as to its mandated requirements and
operational use (show visual aids and augment with other available tools).
c. Demonstrate the use or operation of the aforementioned equipment
d. Return-demo by the participants.

Fire Extinguisher a device that contains within its chemicals for the extinguishment of fires.

Extinguishing Agent Methods of Operation Discharge Time Discharge Operation


(Expellant) Distance
Water base extinguisher Stored pressure Dependent to Approx. 5 20 ft. P pull the pin
(nitrogen) size
cartridge (CO2)
CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) Self expelling -do- -do- A aim the
Dry chemical (Sodium Stored pressure cartridge -do- -do- hose at the base
bicarbonate, potassium of fire
bicarbonate, potassium chloride,
ammonium phosphate
Halon Stored self expelling -do- -do- S squeeze
1211-Bromodirdiflouromethane operating
13011- Bromotriflouromethane handle
Foam Chemical reaction with acid -do- -do-
when inverted Cartridge
S sweep side
by side

HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHER PARTS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER


1. P - pull the pin. 1. Pin 6. Pressure gauge
2. A - aim the nozzle. 2. Nozzle 7. Tube
3. S - squeeze the lever. 3. Hose 8. Gas cannister
4. S - sweep side to side. 4. Lever 9. Dry Chemicals
5. Handle 10. Carbon dioxide
TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHER
1. Water -A
2. Dry chemicals - ABC/Powder CAUSES OF FIRE
3. Carbon dioxide - BC/Gaseous 1. Negligence
4. Metal/Sand - D/Powder 2. Accident
5. Non-Metallic - D/Foam, Ice maker 3. Intentional
6. Halon - ABC/Gaseous

COMMON SOURCES OF FIRE


1. Unattended burning candle
2. Cigarettes and matches
3. Kitchen fire
4. Flammable liquids and chemicals
5. Flammable gas leaks
6. Electrical equipment and appliances
7. Lightning and other forces of nature
8. Forrest fire
9. Vehicular fire/bomb explosion
10. Arson

PHASES OF FIREFIGHTING
1. PRE-FIRE PLANNING - advance planning and apply appropriate action when fire occurs.
2. SIZE-UP - mental evaluation and possible action to perform/safety first.
3. RESCUE OPERATION - looking for anyone to be saved.
4. CONFINEMENT - firefighting by means of avoiding fire to spread.
52

5. VENTILATION - letting fresh air to come in, letting smoke and heat to come out.
6. EXTINGUISHMENT - (COVER EXPOSURE) putting off the source of fire.
7. SALVAGING - saving valuable properties.
8. FORCIBLE ENTRY - breaking through building to have full control of fire.
9. OVERHAULING - (MAPPING OPERATION) preventing fire from re-kindling.
10. CRITIQUE - (POST FIRE ANALYSIS) investigates the cause of fire.

EXIT DRILL IN THE HOUSE (EDITH)


1. Family conference regarding fire safety.

2. Make escape plan:


A. Gather family and draw a floor plan of ground and upper bedrooms
B. Label each bedroom, locate windows, doors and stairways.
C. Identify by shading any portion that might be used as a "fire" from upper floor.
D. Draw (a) long arrows to show usual exit through the doors to hall and stairways.
(b) several short arrows to show the emergency exit through the windows.
E. If the usual exits are blocked by fire, decide on a place out of the house where all
members of the household can meet for safety check.

3. Organize and provide specific tasks for family members to ensure its effectiveness:

TASKS/ROLES OF A FAMILY MEMBER


A. Father - Retrieve/get bucket of water to provide first-aid firefighting initiative.
B. Son A - Deactivate the electric circuit.
C. Daughter - Provide property conservation by retrieving priority household needs.
(Documents, birth certificates, diplomas, land titles, marriage certificate)
D. Son B - Telephone call the fire station/police station.
PNP MINALABAC - 4704162
SFO3 FRESCO, JA - 09199908564
4. Choose the alarm/signal. (Shout/buzzer/strike metal)
5. Choose Place of Rallying Point.
6. Acquire needed equipment:
B - Bucket of water.
F - Flashlight.
P - Phone, telephone, cellphone, portable handheld radio.
7. Practice your plan and conduct fire evacuation drill.
8. Start from bedroom, majority of fatality occurs at night when people are sleeping.
9. Practice safety precautions in opening doors, windows, etc.
10. Always have a bucket, pail and drums full of water that can be used in case of fire.

FLOOR PLAN OF GROUND AND UPPER BEDROOM

UPPER BEDROOM
____
-----| |----------| |----- __ | |
| | | | | | x |
= '| = '| | |___'|
_ |_________________| | |
____________ | | =________________= '| |
| '| | | | | | |
| '| | = | = '| |
| '| | | | | |
| '|_| -----| |----------| |------ '|_|
|
|
| GROUND FLOOR
53

|
| -----| |----------| |-----
| | | |
| = '| =
| |_________________|
_"|___ =________________=
| '| | | |
| PRP | <-------------- = | =
|____''| | |
-----| |----------| |------

FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES


1. Do not play with fire.
2. In case of fire, do not hide, go outside.
3. Keep matches away from children.
4. Never leave children unattended or lock-up while you're away.
5. Do not allow children to play near bonfire.
6. To escape during fire:
A. Go out of the building immediately.
B. Crouch low if full of smoke.
C. Find alternative exit.
D. Close door behind you.
7. In case clothes catches fire:
Do the Stop, Drop and Roll.
A. Stop, do not run.
B. Drop on the ground.
C. Roll over and over.
a. Cover your face with your hands for prevention.
b. By-standers help the victim put out the fire.
c. Evacuate the victim from the burning place and give immediate first-aid care.
8. Make an escape plan and practice it with your family.
9. Practice EDITHS (Exit Drill In The House and School).
10. Teach children to report immediately if they observe and notice:
A. Burning signs G. Damage electrical cords
B. Burning smell H. Damage appliances
C. Smoke I. Flickering lights
D. Gas leaks J. Sizzling sound
E. Fire K. Discoloration of the wall
F. Tingling feeling on switches L. Electrical short circuit

THINGS TO DO TO PREPARE FOR FIRE


1. Keep the fire station telephone number accessible.
SFO3 FRESCO, JA - 09199908564
PNP MINALABAC - 4704162

REPORTING BY TELEPHONE
A. Dial the telephone number.
B. Say greetings: Good morning/afternoon/evening.
C. Give name and address.
D. Give exact address of fire scene.
E. Give your telephone number.
F. State nature of emergency.
G. Stay on line if requested to.
H. Say good bye and thank you.

2. Set up a fire escape plan.


3. Teach children to report immediately if discovered burning signs, etc.
54

WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF FIRE


- Do not panic.
- Presence of mind.
- Safety first for yourself and others.
1. S - Shout fire/Sound the alarm.
2. A - Advice fire station/neighbors.
3. F - Fight fire (water/blanket/rug/towel/sand/mud).
4. E - Evacuate (do not block passage ways).
5. T - Tell others.
6. Y - You get clear.

HOW TO ESCAPE FROM A BURNING BUILDING


1. Locate fire escape plan.
2. Be aware of fire exits and fire extinguishers.
3. Get out of the building as fast as you can.
4. Do not go to the CR, get out of the building.
5. If full of smoke, crawl down, one feet from the floor plenty of fresh oxygen.
6. If dark, use hand and feel the wall, if hot go to the other direction.
7. Do not use elevator, use stairs.
8. When using stairs, stay away from the center of the stair, stay at the outer part of the stair.
9. Fight fire if you still can.
10. Close door behind you.
11. Do not go back, if there is no one to be saved.
12. Call for help.
Prepared by:

GERARD FRANCIS P STO TOMAS


FIRE OFFICER 2
BFP
Fire Safety Educ/Public Info Svcs/EMS
Radio Operator /Nozzleman /Firefighter
JULY 1, 2014