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different types of errors occuring during measurement

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Errors in Measurement

correction.

unreliable.

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Classification:

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1)Systematic or Cumulative Errors

Errors that occur each time a measurement is made

Tends to have same sign and magnitude for a given set of conditions

Tends to accumulate, hence known as cumulative errors

Tend to change instrument reading by a fixed magnitude and sign for

each reading, hence called instrument bias

These Errors can be eliminated by making corrections to your

measurements

Applying correction factor to the spring balance

Instrument errors: are inherent in the system.

May be caused due to poor design/ construction of the instrument.

- inequality of balance arms,

- irregular spring tension etc.

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Environmental errors:

Caused due to variations in conditions external to the system.

Eg. Effect to changes in temp., barometric pressure., humidity , electric

field etc.

Errors in strain measurement using strain gauge due to change in

ambient temperature.

Loading errors:

Caused by the effect of physical system being tested.

Eg. Obstruction type of flow meters may partially obstruct the flow

conditions,

Introduction of thermometer alters thermal capacity of the system

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2) Random or Accidental Errors

Any factors that randomly affect measurement of the variable across the

sample.

Such errors vary in magnitude, may be + ve or - ve on the basis of

chance alone.

They are accidental, small and independent

These type of errors can be detected by lack of consistency in measured

value, when same input is imposed repeatedly.

Backlash

Parallax error between pointer and scale

Mechanical vibration

Hysteresis in elastic members

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3) Gross errors

These are partly systematic or random in nature

Due to human mistakes in reading instruments and recording and calculating

measurement results.

Reasons:

Personal or Human errors: caused due to limitation in the human

senses.

Eg. One may consistently read the observed value either high or low,

introducing systematic error in the result.

Another time , value may be recorded slightly different from actual one,

causing random error.

Due to oversight, The read of temperature as 31.5 while the actual reading

may be 21.5 .

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1. Observational errors.

2. Reading with parallax error.

3. Incorrect adjustments of zero and full-scale adjustments.

4. Improper applications of instruments:

Using a 0100 V voltmeter

to measure 0.1 V, etc.

5.Operational error.

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Statistical Analysis of Data

1. Multi sample Test

2. Single Sample Test

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1. Multi sample Test:- In this test, the repeated measurement

of a given quantity are done using different test conditions

such as :

employing different instruments,

different ways of measurement

by employing different observers.

of measurement done under identical conditions.

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Arithmetic Mean

readings of the same quantity also called Mean value.

mean is computed by summing all the values and dividing

by the number of measurements

x1 x2 ......xn 1 n

x xi - - - - - -(1)

n n i 1

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Median

are arranged in numerical order.

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Mode:

_ _ _

1 x1 _ x; 2 x2 x ..... n xn x

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Average deviation: sum of the absolute values of the

deviations divided by the no. of readings. It is taken as a measure

of the accuracy of measurement.

1 2 ........ n n xi x

D

n i 1 n

Standard Deviation or Root mean square (rms):

Square root of the sum of individual deviations dvided by no. of

readings

2

12 2 2 ..... n 2 n ( xi x )

n i 1 n

2

n ( xi x )

2

i 1 n

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Normal or Gaussian distribution

referernce to Normal or Gaussian Distribution

negative random effects

having a central tenedency

error will be symmetrical about zero value.

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Law of Probability states that normal occurance of deviations

from average value of an infinite no. of measurements can be

expressed as 1

2

P 2 2

e

2

standard deviation

magnitude of deviation from mean

1

precision index h

2

Value of h determines the sharpness of the curve. Large

value of h represents high precision of data.

Small value of h represents low precision

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Curve showing P .vs. is called Normal or Gaussian

distribution

Curve is symmetrical about mean value

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Probable error:

Consider two points -r and +r as marked in figure located so that half

the deviations lie between = r. ie. X axis and ordinates erected at =+r

and -r equals half the total area under curve.

Larger value of flatter the curve and hence larger the expected error

of measurement.

deviation

x

Area under probability curve is unity ie,

Pdx 1.0

x

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r

1

Location of point r is given by

Pd

r

2

0.4769

And Probable error r 0.6745 0.8453D

h

Probable error represents the intervel about the mean in which lies half of data.

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Problem

Qn. Following readings are taken of a certain physical length with the help of

micrometer screw:

1.41, 1.45, 1.63, 1.54, 1.49, 1.51, 1.6, 1.55, 1.47, 1.65mm

Assuming only random errors are present, calculate the arithmetic mean,

average deviation,standard deviation, variance and probable error of reading.

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Arithmetic mean=1.531

0.65

0.065mm

Average deviation=D n 10

(For average deviation sign is not considered)

1 n 2

Standard deviation

1

(0.0586) 0.0765 mm

n i 1 10

r 0.0156

Probable error of the mean= rm 0.0052

n 1 10 1

21

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Least square method

Experimental data consists of measurements of dependent

variable y with another variable x.

From point to point

A faired curve through theses points ie. Drawing a smooth curve with

equal no of points on each side and maximum no. Points on the curve.

Different persons may draw different curves for the same set

data.

y=mx+c can be drawn using the least square fit technique.

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Theory of least squares states that if the points are distributed normally

and independently, the best line would be drawn that the sum of the

squares of the deviations of point from the line is minimum.

dependent variable y has a random error in the whole range.

and x

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m

x y x y

i i i i

or

n x i yi xi yi

x x n xi xi

2 2 2 2

i i

x y x (x y )

2

c yi m xi or i i i i i

n x x

2 2

i i

26

mxi c yi

1

Standard deviation of ' y ' Sy

2

Sy

Standard deviation of ' x ' Sx

a

27

28

n x i yi xi yi

m

n xi xi

2 2

xi y x (x y )

2

c i i i i

n x x

2 2

i i

29

30

31

32

Assignment Questions for M6 A& B Batches.

33

Assignment question for P6

1) From the following data obtain y as a linear function of x

using method of least squares

Y 1.2 2.0 2.4 3.5 3.5

x 1.0 1.6 3.4 4.0 5.2

Value 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Frequency 1 2 3 6 7 6 4 2 1

deviation (iv) Probable error

34

References

Mechanical Measurements Nakra

Mechanical Measurements Rajput

Mechanical Measurements Sawhney

Mechanical Measurements R K Jain

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