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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Philippines is an agricultural country. The geographical location of this country in

the Tropic plays the major role to this fact. Aside from rice, Filipinos produce most of

the crops that they use to make food that they serve in their dining tables. In the

countryside, houses have different kinds of vegetables, fruits and root crops planted on

their backyards. Unfortunately, people living in urban places dont have backyards.

There are a few plants that will grow with only one light in a windowless office or a one-

room apartment whose single window faces into an air shaft. (House Plants, 1975)

Artificial lighting is the answer for almost any kind of plant that can be grown if

enough artificial light is provided, even in situations where no other light is available.

Artificial lights allow regular people to plant whole gardens in places where no plant

would ordinarily grow.

A lesson in cell metabolism-energy and photosynthesis mentions that chlorophyll

absorbs most red, orange, blue, and violet light. It reflects green and yellow light, giving

its body a green coloring. This statement got the researchers curious and wondered if

plants act differently to the green and yellow colors of light, then they should have

different reactions and effects to every color of light. (Capco C., Yang G., 2010).
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This study aimed to find if there exist a significiant difference in the growth of

plants when exposed to different colors of light specifically red, yellow, green, blue, and

white. In this case, the researchers chose the mongo plant since it grows quickly and the

researchers can quickly gather the needed data immediately.

B. Statement of the Problem

This study determined and compared the effect of different colors of light on the

growth of mongo plants. Furthermore, it addressed the following questions:

1) What is the growth of the mongo seeds exposed to different colors of light and

sunlight in terms of:


a. Onset of true leaf
b. Number of sprouts
2) What is the growth of the mongo sprouts exposed to different colors of light and

sunlight in terms of:


a. Number of leaves
b. Sprout height
c. Biomass
3) Is there a significant difference among the growth of mongo seeds in terms of

onset of true leaf and number of sprouts?


4) Is there a significant difference among the growth of mongo sprouts in terms on

number of leaves, sprout height and biomass?

C. Objectives of the Study

This study aims to assess the growth of a mongo plant when exposed to different

colors of light specifically red, yellow, green, blue, and white and verify if there is a

significant difference. Specifically, it aims to compare the growth of mongo seeds in


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terms of onset of true leaf and number of sprouts while number of leaves, sprout height

and biomass of the mongo sprout.

D. Hypothesis of the Study


1) There is no significant difference among the growth of mongo seeds in

terms of onset of true leaf and number of sprouts.


2) There is no significant difference among the growth of mongo sprouts in

terms on number of leaves, sprout height and biomass.

E. Significance of the Study

This study determines the effect of different colors of light to the growth of

mongo plants. This study improves CEA (controlled-environment agriculture) by

minimizing the expenses but still having the same and more beneficial results. CEA

enables the grower to manipulate a crops environment to the desired condition.

Improvising or improving such practice can be more beneficial.

Common housewives that like gardening inside their house can benefit from this

study. They make it possible to grow healthy plants in any spot in the house as long as it

has an artificial source of light with the best color if light. The results of this study could

also help gardeners make plants grow healthier and flower abundantly by supplementing

colored lights. Businessmen more specifically flower shop owners could introduce

artificial lighting to their gardens to enhance growth. Farmers could apply artificial

lighting in their farms which could help them produce better rice, crops, fruits, vegetables

and etc.

F. Scope and Limitations of the Study


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This study is limited to the determination of the effect of the different colors of

light such as red, yellow, blue, green, and white on the growth of the mongo plant (Vigna

radiata) in terms of onset of true leaf, number of sprouts for mongo seeds and number of

leaves, sprout height and biomass for mongo sprouts. Simulation of artificial lights was

implemented using cold frames covered with colored water cellophane to suit the light

color needed then exposed to fluorescent lamp. Thirty seeds were assigned each to a cold

frame with a single color. Growth of mongo plant is monitored and recorded for a period

of two (2) weeks. The experimentations were done at the researchers home for the

school year 2011-2012.

G. Definition of Terms

Biomass It is the total mass of the mongo plant after

the experimentation.

Cold Frame It is a small movable greenhouse used for

plants used for the experiment.

Colors of light The colors to be use are red, yellow, green,

blue, and white. This will serve as the only

light that the plant can have during growing

process.

Controlled group This is the group that is not given any

special treatment. In this study, the

experimental group is the pot of plants that

is exposed to the sunlight.


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Experimental group This is the group that is given a special

treatment. In this study, the experimental

group is the pot of plants that is given one

different color of light.

Mongo Plant (Vigna radiata) It is the test subject of the experiment. It will

be use to determine if different color of light

can affect its growth.

Number of leaves These are the total number of leaves of the

mongo plant after the first second week of

the experimentation.

Onset of true leaf This is the particular time that leaves may

appear during photosynthesis using the

artificial lights.

Sprout height It is the height of the mongo plant after the

first and second week of the

experimentation.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES


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According to Jones (1991), visible light spectrum is the section of the

electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen by the human eye. It is also known as the

optical spectrum of light with wavelength ranging from approximately 400 mm to 700

mm. The perceived color is dependent on the wavelength of the light. We actually interact

with light in the form of white light which contains many or all of these wavelength

ranges within them. When shining white light passes through a prism causes the

wavelength to bend at slightly varying angles due to optical refraction. Therefore, the

resulting light is split across the visible color spectrum. This results to rainbow

characterized by airborne water particles acting as the refractive medium. The order of

wavelength is best remembered by Roy G Biv for Red, Orange, yellow, green, Blue,

Indigo and violet.

When sunlight strikes the leaves of a plant, the light-wave energy is absorbed by

the chlorophyll. The chlorophyll absorbs most red, orange, blue, and violet light. It

reflects green and yellow, giving its body a green colorin. The idea that plants react

differently to different colors of light could be concluded. The use of artificial light was

considered in this study. (Capco C., Yang G., 2010).

Artificial lighting is any lighting that is not sunlight. Generally speaking, artificial

lighting is lighting which is manmade, such as fluorescent, tungsten, mercury vapor,

sodium vapor, halogen, compact fluorescent, etc. It can be turned on and off at a flick of a

switch. There are also very special types of artificial light for specific purposes like

infrared heat lamps, ultraviolet lights for plant growth. Although not sunlight, artificial

light still has the same effect to the plant during photosynthesis. The researchers would
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use colors red, blue, green, yellow and white as basis for the colors of the water

cellophanes in conducting this study. (Answers.com, 2011)

Every transformation is an energy that occurs at the cellular and molecular levels.

In cells, there are two basic patterns by which organisms transform energy, the

autotrophic and heterotrophic pattern. In autotrophic cells, light energy is transformed to

chemical energy that can be used by cells. Green plants contain this type of cell.

Photosynthesis is a process by which living plant cells combine carbon dioxide and water

in the presence of chlorophyll and light energy. The light excites the electrons to receive

NADP and also splits water into oxygen and hydrogen. In the experimentation, the

primary key to the plant growth of the test subjects which is the mung bean is the light.

(Capco C., Yang G., 2010)

Mung bean is commonly known in the Philippines as munggo or monggo is the

seed of vigna radiata which is native to India. These beans are small, ovoid in shape and

green in color. Mung bean seeds are either sprouted for fresh use or canned for shipment

to restaurants. The sprouts are high in protein about 21-28%, calcium, phosphorus and

certain vitamins. Because these beans can easily be digested it can replace scarce animal

protein in our diet. Due to its major use as sprout, a high quality seed with excellent

germination is required. The food industry prefers about 9-10 grams of fresh sprout for

each gram of seed. Larger seed characterized with glassy and green color is oftentimes a

preference.
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Figure 1. Mongo seeds

In mung bean, both upright and vine type of growth habit occur with plants

varying from one to five feet in length. There are many kinds of mongo beans. The most

common varieties are the native and Imelda. The grains of the native/Imelda variety are

green and yellow. Retailers sell both green and yellow in the market place. In the

experimentation, the Imelda variety would be used since it is common and can be easily

bought in the market place. Mungbeans grow best on fertile sandy, loam soils with good

internal drainage; their growth is poor on heavy soils with poor drainage. They could be

planted on vegetable gardens, green houses, cold frames, etc. (Department of Agriculture,

2005)

Cold frames are less expensive than greenhouses, take up less space and are

cheaper to keep warm. Their main disadvantage is that the gardener works outside and

not inside in the warm and dry as with a greenhouse. In the vegetable garden, cold

frames are frequently used for producing winter or early crops of such vegetables as

carrots. The frame can be in a permanent position in the garden or moved, rather like a

large cloche, onto the vegetable bed itself. The vegetables can be grown either directly

in the soil or in growing bags. Another basic use is to afford protection and warmth to
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trays of seeds or seedlings. The mung beans would be planted in the cold frame during

the experiment whilst being observed. (Anderson, D. 2011)

According to the study of Jungao and Omlero (2011), the researchers determined

the significant impact on plants growth when exposed to different genres of music. The

study aimed to know the best genre of music for growing plants by exposing mongo

plants to a genre of music changed weekly, the first week was classical music, second

week was jazz, third week was pop and the last was rock. The study concluded that jazz

is the best and rock music was not good for plants.

The cultivation of lettuce and radish was experimented using different

combinations of red components and high pressure sodium lamps and it was found out

that red and blue components are favorable for growth of lettuce. In respect to the

reference plants, content of nitrates in lettuce grown under the illumination in red was by

20% lower with no significant difference among treatments which were grown under the

illumination in blue. The results of this study confirmed that plant growth can be

modulated by applying spectrum provided by emission of different LEDs. Even

illumination with spectrum consisting of two (2) components (one in red region and

another in blue region) when properly selected can be beneficial in respect to illumination

using conventional lamps. (Urbonaviit A., Pinho P., Samuolien G., Duchovskis P., Vitta

P., Stonkus A., Tamulaitis G., ukauskas A., and Halonen L, 2007 )

In the study of Whiting, (2007) it stated light quality refers to the color or

wavelength reaching the plant's surface. A prism (or raindrops) can divide sunlight into

respective colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The study also
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concluded that blue light is considered to be the primary responsible for vegetative leaf

growth while red light encourages flowering.

From the different related studies, the information is gathered that it is possible

that the blue and red colors can greatly affect the growth of a plant. Another study says

that blue is responsible for leaf growth and red develops flowering. With these in mind,

the researchers focused on the impact on growth of mongo when exposed to different

colors of light.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design

This study aimed to determine the different effects of the colors of light on the

growing plants by means of the looking on the growth of mongo seeds and sprouts. To

attain this, the researchers used two groups, the controlled group where a plant would

only be exposed to sunlight and the experimental group where water cellophane was used

to selectively provide necessary color. The water cellophane in this study has variations

of colors such as colors red, yellow, green, blue, and white. A plant was exposed just to

a single color throughout this whole study.

Since this study is concerned about the significant effects of a color of light to a

growing plant, the researchers observed the growth of the mongo plant weekly from the
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very beginning of the experiment. Extraneous variables or factors that could affect on the

behaviour of the subject being studied were strictly maintained to be able to get the

desired data from this investigation. All subjects were watered everyday by 500mL of

water. The cold frame was placed outdoors to be exposed to the light for the whole day.

The plants were observed for two weeks to attain the said data.
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B. Materials and Equipment

Materials
or 1 kilo of Mongo seeds Cloth
1 kg Soil Marker
5 Water cellophanes (red, yellow, Measuring cup
Tape measure
green, blue and white)
6 Cold frames Water
Barbeque Sticks
Equipment

Analytical Balance

C. General Procedures:

Gathering of Materials

Water cellophane, barbecue sticks, and a kilo of mongo seeds were bought from

the store. A sack of garden soil was also bought.

Preparation of Cold Frame

The researchers hired a carpenter to construct a cold frame with the dimensions

12x12x14 as shown in Figure 8 of Appendix A. The cold frame was filled with loam

soil. Loam soil is an equal mix or sand, silt, and clay which can make the plants grow

healthier. The soil in the cold frame were ensured equal in every pot so that it will not

affect the subject materials or the factor that is being tested. A cloth was divided into six

equal parts for the six set-ups. The cloth was assigned to specific colors of light. The

cloth was used as the place for the seeds to grow into sprouts.

The cold frames have holes or open parts at the side; the holes served as the

entrance of air for the plants to breathe. Each cold frame has different colored water

cellophanes: red, yellow, green, blue and white. The last cold frame was assigned to the
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controlled group which is exposed to sunlight. If the color of the water cellophane is red,

this means that all other colors of light were reflected and only red is absorbed and will

pass through the cold frame.

Preparation of Seeds Set-up

Thirty (30) mongo seeds were selected for each cloth which means there are 180

mongo seeds for the five colors (red, blue, green, yellow and white) of light and sunlight

(control). Each seeds were laid on top of each cloth. Water was sprinkled to the seeds to

help them grow into sprouts. Observations were made for the whole day until it grows

into sprouts. After three (3) days of observation, the mongo seeds are now full blown

sprouts.

Preparation of Sprout Set-up

Among the thirty (30) seeds grown, five (5) best sprouts of nearly equal growth

were selected for the next part of experimentation. The other sprouts not selected were

removed from the cold frame. The five (5) selected sprouts were arranged in

approximately two inches away from one another to let the plants breathe in each of the

cold frame exposed to different color of light. Observations were made and recorded

every week for two weeks.

Monitoring of Growth

After the preparation for the set-up for was done, the next task was to take care of

the plants. All the subject materials were watered equally everyday with 500mL of water.

The plants were exposed to light for a whole day until the seeds will grow into sprouts.

The number of sprouts and onset of true leaf for each cold frame were monitored and

recorded within the three-day period of sprout growing.


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When sprouts have grown, barbeque sticks were stuck on the soil beside each

mongo plant sample where markings of weekly height level were noted so as not to

disturbed plant growth while measuring their height. The barbeque sticks were then

removed at the end of experimentation and each markings per week recorded. Aside

from sprout height, the number of leaves was monitored and recorded every week while

the biomass was taken after the end of the experimentation by measuring mongo sprouts

using an analytical balance.

D. Statistical Tools for Data Analysis

The data gathered was analyzed and interpreted using appropriate tools. ANOVA

was used in order to know if there is a significant difference among results of sprout

height and biomass. Post-hoc analysis was done to verify which groups differ from the

rest. The Chi-Square test was also used to identify if there is a difference among results of

non-parametric data such as onset of true leaf, number of leaves, and number of sprouts.
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Growth of seeds
assessment

Prepare the cloth Pick 10 seeds for Lay seeds on top of


and sacks and each treatment. each cloth; expose
assign colors. seeds to light.
Observe and record Water the seeds,
data. observe until seeds
grow into sprouts.

Growth of seeds
assessment

Pick 5 sprouts for Put soil in the cold Assign colors and
each treatment. frame and plant the put water
seeds. cellophanes into
Observe and record Monitor growth, each frame.
Sunlight will
data. water the plants change in color
with 500mL of when passing in the
Figure 2. Flowchart water everyday frames glass.
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CHAPTER IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this chapter, the results of the gathered data from the experiment are presented

to compare the effects of different colors of light on growth of mongo. The discussions

of the results of the analyzed data are also presented in this chapter. The results are

shown in graphs and tables to provide easy explanations and easy visuals. The raw data

are shown in the appendices.

Growth of Mongo Seeds

The growth of mongo seeds into sprouts by just letting them rest on a piece of

cloth and exposing them to different colors of light: sunlight, white, red, green, blue and

yellow were monitored. The researchers recorded and analyzed the onset of true leaf and

the number of leaves of the sprouts in every set-up as shown in Figures 3 and 4.

Onset of True Leaf


100
80
60
40
Number of Hours 20
0

Color of Light
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Figure 3. Graph of onset of true leaf


Figure 3 represented the gathered data of the onset of true leaf. The first leaf of

the plants exposed to light in which the colors were yellow, red, green, and white

appeared on the third day or until 72 hours of the experiment. The first leaf of the plants

exposed to light in which the colors were blue and sunlight only grew until the fourth day

or 96 hours of the experiment.


Chi-Square test was used to identify if there is a significant difference between

the groups with the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the

groups against the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the

groups. Using an alpha at 0.05 level of significance, the critical value is 11.071 since

there are 6 different groups. Based on the data gathered, the test value is 9.6 which is less

than the critical value thus there is not enough evidence to support the claim that there is

a significant difference between the groups.

Number of Sprouts
12
10
8
6
Day 3
Number of Sprouts 4 Day 4
2
0

Color of Light

Figure 4. Graph of the number of sprouts


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Figure 4 represents the data gathered of the experiment. No seed grew into sprout

until the third day of the experiment. On day three, the seeds exposed to the light in

which the colors were white, red, green and yellow grew: white which has four sprouts

grown; red which has two sprouts grown; green where only a seed grew and yellow

where three seeds grew into sprouts. On the fourth day, sunlight has one sprout; white has

11; five sprouts grew in the set-ups which have red, green and blue light; and yellow has

10 sprouts.

Chi-Square test was used to identify if there is a significant difference between

the groups with the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the

groups against the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the

groups. Using an alpha at 0.05 level of significance, the critical value is 11.071 since

there are 6 different groups. Based on the data gathered, the test value is 11.15 which is

more than the critical value thus there is enough evidence to support the claim that there

is a significant difference between the groups.

Growth of Mongo Sprouts

The growth of mongo sprouts was continually monitored for two (2) weeks. The

growth in terms of number of leaves and sprout height was recorded every week and

biomass taken after two weeks. Results are shown in Figures 5 and 6.
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Week 1: Number of Leaves


2

1.5

1
Number of Leaves
0.5

Color of Light

Figure 5. Graph of the number of leaves after a week


Figure 5 represents the number of leaves of the plants on week one of the

experiment. Each group has five plants: trial one, trial two, trial three, trial four and trial

five. This was the result of the gathered data. All of the plants in each group have two

leaves.
Chi-Square test was used to identify if there is a significant difference between

the groups with the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the

groups against the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the

groups. Using an alpha at 0.05 level of significance, the critical value is 11.071 since

there are 6 different groups. Based on the data gathered, the test value is 0 which is less

than the critical value thus there is not enough evidence to support the claim that there is

a significant difference between the groups.


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Week 2: Number of Leaves


5
4
3
2
Number of Leaves
1
0

Color of Light

Figure 6. Graph of the number of leaves after two weeks

Figure 6 represents the number of leaves of the plants on the second week of the

experiment. This was the result of the gathered data. All of the plants exposed to sunlight

and yellow had had 5 leaves. All of the plants exposed to the light in which the color was

white had five leaves except for T5. All of the plants in each remaining group in which the

light was colors red, blue and green have not yet grown another leaf from week one, they

still had two leaves each.

Chi-Square test was used to identify if there is a significant difference between

the groups with the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the

groups against the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the

groups. Using an alpha at 0.05 level of significance, the critical value is 11.071 since

there are 6 different groups. Based on the data gathered, the test value is 12 which is more

than the critical value thus there is enough evidence to support the claim that there is a

significant difference between the groups.


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Sprout Height: Week 1


30
25
20
15
Average Sprout Height (cm) 10
5
0

Colors of Light

Figure 7. Graph of the sprout height after one week


Figure 7 represents the averaged data on the sprout height after one week which is

showed in centimetres (cm). The average sprout height of the plants exposed to red light

is 24.3cm; yellow light is 25.18cm, green light is 27.16, blue light is 27.08cm, white light

is 19.12cm and sunlight is 19.5cm.


Table 1. ANOVA Results for Sprout Height on the First Week
Source SS df MS F p-value
Treatment 296.379 5 59.2758 8.29 .0001
Error 171.548 24 7.1478
Total 467.927 29
This is the ANOVA result conducted for the mongo plants sprout height of the

first week. The null hypothesis (Ho) that there is no significant difference among the

group where the subjects were exposed to sunlight to the groups where the lights used

were color white, red, green, blue and yellow was compared against the alternative

hypothesis (H1) that at least one group differs from the others.

The ANOVA table shows the p-value = 0.001. Since p-value is less than = 0.05,

then there is enough evidence to support the claim that at least one group differs. It would
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then proceed to post-hoc analysis to determine which group differs. Table 2 compares the

p-value of the different samples.

Table 2. Posthoc Analysis on Statistical Tests for Sprout Height during 1st Week
Sunligh
White t Red Yellow Blue Red
19.12 20.10 24.30 25.18 27.00 27.16
White 19.12
Sunlight 20.10 .5676
Red 24.30 .0053 .0204
Yellow 25.18 .0015 .0061 .6075
Blue 27.00 .0001 .0004 .1234 .2925
Green 27.16 .0001 .0003 .1037 .2531 .9254

In post-hoc analysis, the groups were compared. White is significantly different

with red since the p-value=0.0053 which is less than =0.05. White is significantly

different with yellow since the result of p-value=0.0015 which is less than =0.05. White

is significantly different with blue their p-value=0.0001 which is less than =0.05. White

is significantly different with the green since the p-value=0.0001 which is less than

=0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared to red since the resulted p-

value=0.0204 which is less than =0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared

to yellow since the p-value=0.0061 which is less than the =0.05. Sunlight has a

significant difference compared to blue since the p-value=0.0004 which is less than the

=0.05. Sunlight has a significant difference compared to green since the p-value=0.0003

which is less than the =0.05.


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Sprout Height: Week 2


38
36

34
32
Average Sprout Height (cm)
30
28

Colors of Light

Figure 8. Graph of the sprout height after two weeks

Figure 8 represents the averaged data on the sprout height after two weeks which

is showed in centimetres (cm). The average sprout height of the plants exposed to red

light is 32.96cm; yellow light is 37.02cm, green light is 32.32cm, blue light is 32.84cm,

white light is 32.08cm and sunlight is 33.98cm.


Table 3. ANOVA results for sprout height on the second week

ANOVA
table
p-
Source SS df MS F value
Treatment 92.243 5 18.4486 1.89 .1337
Error 234.344 24 9.7643
Total 326.587 29

The One factor ANOVA shows the different means and standard deviations of

each group. The group that is exposed to yellow has the biggest mean among the other

groups and it also has the least standard deviation. White has the smallest mean among

the other groups. Finally, red has the greatest standard deviation.
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This is the ANOVA result conducted for the mongo plants sprout height of the

second week. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference among the group

where the subjects were exposed to sunlight to the groups where the light used were color

white, red, green, blue and yellow was compared against the alternative hypothesis that at

least one group differs from the others.

The ANOVA table shows the p-value=1.337 which is greater than =0.05. With

this result, we do not reject the null hypothesis (Ho) that there is no significant difference

among the group where the subjects are exposed to sunlight with the groups that are

exposed to the different colors of lights.

Biomass
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
Average Biomass (g) 0.4
0.2
0

Colors of Light

Figure 9. Graph of the biomass after two weeks

Figure 9 represents the averaged data on the sprout height after two weeks which

is showed in centimetres (g). The average sprout height of the plants exposed to red light

is 0.79g; yellow light is 0.824g, green light is 0.824g, blue light is 0.844g, white light is

1.402g and sunlight is 1.408g.


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Table 4. ANOVA Results for Biomass after Two Weeks

ANOVA table
Source SS df MS F p-value
Treatment 2.2852 5 0.45705 19.63 8.91E-08
Error 0.5589 24 0.02329
Total 2.8441 29

This table represents the biomass of the plants of our experiment. These were the

results of the gathered data from week one. Each group which is exposed to different

colors of light has a corresponding group number: group one refers to sunlight, group two

pertains to white, group three refers to red, group four indicates green, group five pertains

to blue and group six indicates yellow.

One-way ANOVA was used to compare the null hypothesis that there is no

significant difference between the biomass of the plants exposed to sunlight from the

biomass of the plants exposed to light in which the colors were white, red, green, blue

and yellow against the alternative hypothesis that there is at least one groups biomass

that differs from the other groups biomass.

Based in the results of the one-way ANOVA, it was shown in the ANOVA table

that the p-value is equal to 8.91x10-8, which is less than the level of significance = 0.05.

Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, there is enough evidence to support the

claim that at least one groups biomass differs from the other groups biomass. And so

post-hoc analysis was used to determine which of the groups differ.

Table 5. Posthoc Analysis on Statistical Tests for Biomass


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p-values for pairwise t-tests


Red Green Yellow Blue White Sunlight
0.790 0.824 0.824 0.844 1.402 1.408
Red 0.790
Green 0.824 .7277
Yellow 0.824 .7277 1.0000
Blue 0.844 .5810 .8376 .8376
White 1.402 1.48E-06 3.50E-06 3.50E-06 5.85E-06
Sunlight 1.408 1.28E-06 3.01E-06 3.01E-06 5.01E-06 .9509

On the post-hoc analysis, the groups were compared to identify the group that

differs. Sunlight is significantly different form red since the p-value is 1.28x10 -6 which is

less than =0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form green since the p-value is

3.01x10-6 which is less than =0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form yellow since

the p-value is 3.01x10-6 which is less than =0.05. Sunlight is significantly different form

blue since the p-value is 5.85 x10-6 which is less than =0.05. White is significantly

different form red since the p-value is 1.48x10 -6 which is less than =0.05. White is

significantly different form green since the p-value is 3.5x10 -6 which is less than =0.05.

white is significantly different form yellow since the p-value is 3.5x10-6 which is less than

=0.05. White is significantly different form blue since the p-value is 5.85x10 -6 which is

less than =0.05.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


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A. Summary
This study determined the effect of different colors of light on the growth of

mongo using both the seedlings and sprouts was decided. Mongo was used since this

plant grows fast. The seeds were observed for days until sprouts were grown. The onset

of true leaf and number of sprouts grown for each set-up were monitored and recorded.

The grown sprouts were then further monitored where height was recorded weekly and

number of leaves and biomass taken after a month. Simulation of artificial lights was

implemented using cold frames covered with colored water cellophane to suit the light

color needed then exposed to fluorescent lamp.


No seed grew into sprout until the third day of the experiment except for the seeds

exposed to sunlight and blue light which only grew the next day. The plants exposed to

white light have the most number of sprouts and plants exposed to sunlight have the least

number of sprouts. The results showed that on week one, the sprout height of the plants

exposed to sunlight and white light was shorter than the other groups. On week two,

plants exposed to sunlight and yellow light have the most number of leaves and plants

exposed to red, blue, and green lights have the least number of leaves. The biomass of the

plants exposed to sunlight and white light is greater than the other groups.

B. Conclusions

Based on the results of the gathered data from the experiment, the researchers

concluded the following:

1. The seeds started to grow into sprouts on the third and fourth day of the

experimentation.
2. The plants exposed to white light have the most number of sprouts and

plants exposed to sunlight have the least number of sprouts.


28

3. On week two, plants exposed to sunlight and yellow light have the most

number of leaves and plants exposed to red, blue, and green lights have

the least number of leaves.


4. On week one, the sprout height of the plants exposed to sunlight and white

light is shorter than the other groups.


5. The biomass of the plants exposed to sunlight and white light is greater

than the other groups.


6. There is a significant difference among the growth of the mongo seeds in

terms of number of sprouts.


7. There is a significant difference among the growth of the mongo sprouts in

terms of number of leaves: week two, biomass, sprout height: week one,

and number of leaves: week 2.

C. Recommendations

To further improve this kind of research, the researchers recommend to future

researchers the following:

1. Find a much bigger place to conduct the experiment


2. Extend the duration of the experiment to attain more significant results.
3. Try using secondary colors to have more efficient results.
4. Use artificial lighting instead of water cellophane to see a greater and

more specific effect to plants.


29

REFERENCES

Books:

Capco C., Yang G. (2010). Biology: You and the Natural World. Quezon Avenue,
Quezon City. Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. 927

Rochford T. (1975). House Plants. London, England. London: Royal Horticultural


Society

Internet Sources:

Andrew Zimmerman Jones. (1991). The Visible Light Spectrum Retrieved:


from:http://physics.about.com/od/lightoptics/a/vislightspec.htm

Colorado State University Extension. (December 2011). Plant Growth Factors:


Light. Retrieved from: http://cmg.colostate.edu/gardennotes/142.pdf

Derrick Anderson. (June 16, 2011). Building and Using Cold Frames in Your
Vegetable Garden. Retrieved from:
http://mangorevolution.com/98/househome/gardening/building-and-using-
cold-frames-in-your-vegetable-garden

Urbonaviit A., Pinho P., Samuolien G., Duchovskis P., Vitta P., Stonkus A.,
Tamulaitis G., ukauskas A., Halonen L. (2007). Effect of Short-
Wavelength Light on Plant Physiology. Retrieved
from:http://www.lightinglab.fi/enlighten/publications/internetui_akvile.pdf

What Is Artificial Lighting. (September 14, 2007). Retrieved from:


http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_artificial_lighting

Department of Agriculture, Western Visayas, Philippines. (2005). Mongo.


Retrieved from: http://www.rfu6.da.gov.ph/agribiz/mongo.htm

Unpublished Research:

Jungao G., Omlero R. (2011). The Effect of Different Genres of Music to Mongo
Plants Growth. Integrated Developmental School, MSU-Iligan Institute of
Technology.
30

APPENDIX A

DOCUMENTATION

Figure 10. Gathering of materials Figure 11. Cold frame

Figure 12. Preparation of materials Figure 13. Watering of plants


31

Figure 14. 3rd day of experimentation Figure 15. 4th day of experimentation

Figure 16. 1st week sprout experimentation Figure 17. Last week experimentation
32

APPENDIX B

DATA GATHERED

Table 6. Raw data of number of sprouts


Light Exposed Number of Sprouts
Day 3 Day 4
Red 2 5
Yellow 3 10
Green 1 5
Blue 0 5
White 4 11
Sunlight 0 1

Table 7. Raw data of sprout height after one week


Light
Expose Sprout Height (cm)
d

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tave
Red 22. 19 24. 27. 28 24.3
3 5 7
Yellow 23. 24. 27. 22 28. 25.1
5 3 8 3 8
Green 24 27. 27. 27. 29. 27.1
2 6 1 9 6
Blue 24 28. 29. 26 27. 27.0
4 5 5 8
White 16. 16 20. 19 23. 19.1
7 7 2 2
Sunlight 19. 18 20 20 20 19.5
5

Table 8. Raw data of sprout height after two weeks


Light Sprout Height (cm)
Exposed T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Tave
Red 31.5 22.6 35.3 36 34.5 32.96
Yellow 38.5 37.2 36.5 35.6 37.5 37.02
Green 33 34.6 29.6 35.5 29 32.32
Blue 29.6 34.5 32.6 32.7 34.8 32.84
White 29.4 30.5 36.8 32.4 31.1 32.08
Sunlight 32.6 32 35.5 32.8 37 33.98
33

Table 9. Raw data of biomass after two weeks


Light Biomass (g)
Exposed T 1 T 2 T 3 T4 T5 Tave
Red 0.81 0.93 0.72 0.55 0.94 0.79
Yellow 0.96 0.87 0.73 0.79 0.77 0.824
Green 1.02 0.86 0.67 0.92 0.65 0.824
Blue 0.75 0.72 0.98 0.83 0.94 0.844
White 1.19 1.44 1.7 1.3 1.38 1.402
Sunlight 1.27 1.27 1.32 1.65 1.53 1.408

Table 10. ANOVA results for sprout height on the second week
One factor ANOVA

Std.
Mean n Dev
Sunligh
33.41 33.98 5 2.159 t
33.41 32.08 5 2.858 White
33.41 32.16 5 5.633 Red
33.41 32.34 5 2.924 Green
33.41 32.84 5 2.072 Blue
33.41 37.06 5 1.088 Yellow
33.41 30 3.356 Total

Table 11. Raw data of the onset of true leaf


Onset of True Leaf
Color of Light Number of Hours
Red 72
Yellow 72
Green 72
Blue 96
White 72
Sunlight 96
34

Number of Leaves: Week 1


10
2 2 2 2 2 2
8 T5
2 2 2 2 2 2
6 T4
2 2 2 2 2 2 T3
Sum Total of Number of Leaves 4
2 2 2 2 2 2 T2
2 T1
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
Sunlight Red Blue

Color of Light

Figure 18. Raw data of number of leaves after a week

Number of Leaves: Week 2


25
5 5
2
20 T5
5 5 5
15 T4
5 5 5 T3
Sum Total of Number of Leaves 10
2 2 2 T2
5 5 2 2 2 5
5 2 2 2 T1
5 5 2 2 2 5
2 2 2
0
Sunlight Red Blue

Color of Light

Figure 19. Raw data of number of leaves after two weeks


35

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Angela Shemae San Felipe Gonzales

Nickname: Ling-ling, Aila

Birthdate: January 25, 1997

Birthplace: Iligan City

Sex: Female

FAMILY BACKGROUND

Father: Ferzenio Socorro G. Gonzales

Mother: Ma. Olivia S. Gonzales

Siblings: Ray Fergil SF. Gonzales

Don Lindley SF. Gonzales

Fer Mykiel SF. Gonzales

Donelle Jahziel SF. Gonzales

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: Iligan City East Central School

Secondary: MSU-IIT Integrated Developmental School

HONORS RECEIVED

Elementary Grade one: 3rd Honor; Grade two: with Distinction; Grade three: with

Distinction; Grade four: with Distinction; Grade five: with Distinction;

Grade six: with Distinction


36

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Rendel John D. Rulona

Nickname: Janjan

Birthdate: July 14, 996

Birthplace: Cebu City

Sex: Male

FAMILY BACKGROUND

Father: Rene J. Rulona

Mother: Maria Delina D. Rulona

Siblings: Renne Joy D. Rulona

Rhoda Mae D. Rulona

Jasmin Rose D. Rulona

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: South II Central School

Secondary: MSU-IIT Integrated Developmental School

HONORS RECEIVED

Elementary Grade one: 2nd Honor; Grade two: 2nd Honor; Grade three: 2nd Honor;

Grade four: 1st Honor; Grade five: 4th Honor; Grade six: Valedictorian