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PROJECTREPORT

ON
ONLINESHOPPING

PROJECTREPORTSUBMITTEDINPARTIAL
FULFILLMENTOFTHEREQUIREMENTOF
BACHELOROFBUSINESSADMINISTRATION


By:
TusharVirmani
EnrollmentNo.02980301714

Undertheguidanceof
MISSSAKSI



RukminiDeviInstituteofAdvancedStudies
AnISO9001:2008CertifiedInstitute
(ApprovedbyAICTE,HRDMinistry,Govt.ofIndia)
AffiliatedtoGuruGobindSinghIndraprasthaUniversity,Delhi
2A&2B,MadhubanChowk,OuterRingRoad,Phase1,Delhi110085

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled ONLINE SHOPPING


submitted to the Guru Gobind Singh Indrapratha University is a
recordofanoriginalworkdonebymeundertheguidanceof
MISS SAKSI, faculty member, RUKMINI DEVI INSTITUTE OF
ADVANCEDSTUDIES

.............................................
Signatureofthestudent
Place:DelhiTusharVirmani
Enrol.No.02980301714

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Tushar Virmani student of RUKMINI DEVI


INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES of course BBA Batch
(20142017), has completed her research work titled ONLINE
SHOPPINGundermyguidanceandsupervision.Theworksubmittedis
genuineandauthentic.

TusharVirmani

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With profoundsenseofgratitudeandregard,Iexpressmysincerethanks
tomy guideandmentorMISSSAKSIforhervaluableguidanceandthe
confidence she instilled in me, that helped me in the successful
completion of this project report. Without her help, this project would
have been adistant affair,her thoroughunderstanding ofthesubjectand
professionalguidancewasindeedofimmensehelptome.
I am also greatly thankful to the faculty members of our institute who
cooperatedwithmeandgavemetheirvaluabletime.

CONTENTS

S. Title Page
No. No.
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. WhatisWebsite 1
1.2 WebBasedinformationSystem 4
1.3 WhatisHTML 4
1.4 Advantagesofhtml 5
1.5 Disadvantagesofhtml 5
1.6 Needforsystem 6
2 SYSTEMREQUIREMENTANALYSIS 7
2.1 ProjectCategory 7
2.2 Methodologyadoptedforproject 8
2.3 DesignConstraints 9
2.4 SoftwareSystemAttributes 9
2.5 Featuresofthesystem 10
2.6 SystemRequirements 11
3 SYSTEM ANALYSYS & METHODOLOGY 16
ADOPTED
3.1. UseCaseDiagrams 16
3.2 DFD 19
3.3 EntityRelationshipDiagram 20
3.3 Normalization 24
4 SOFTWAREDESIGN 25
5 TESTREPORT 28
5.1 UnitTesting 28
5.2 IntegrationTesting 29
5.3 FunctionalTesting 29
5.4 SystemTesting 29
6 MYROLES&RESPONSIBILITIES 30
7 CONCLUSION&ACHIEVEMENTS 31
8 APPENDIX 32
Screenshots
Coding

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 63























CHAPTER1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 WhatisWebsite

Awebsite, also written asWeb site, web site, or simplysite,is aset of


relatedweb pagesserved from asinglewebdomain.A website ishosted
on at least oneweb server, accessible via a network such as
theInternetor a privatelocal area networkthrough an Internet address
known as aUniform resource locator. All publicly accessible websites
collectivelyconstitutetheWorldWideWeb.

TYPEOFWEBSITE

Staticwebsite

Dynamicwebsite

Staticwebsite

A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the
format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded
inHypertext Markup Language(HTML)Cascading Style Sheets(CSS)
are used to control appearance beyond basic HTML. Images are
commonly used to effect the desired appearance and aspartofthe main
content. Audio or video might also be considered "static" content if it
playsautomaticallyorisgenerallynoninteractive.

Thistype ofwebsiteusuallydisplaysthesameinformationtoallvisitors.
Similarto handingout aprintedbrochureto customersorclients,astatic

website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an


extended period oftime. Althoughthewebsiteowner may makeupdates
periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos and other
contentandmayrequirebasicwebsitedesignskillsandsoftware.Simple
forms or marketing examples of websites, such asclassic website,
afivepage websiteor abrochure websiteare often static websites,
becausetheypresentpredefined,staticinformationtotheuser.Thismay
include information about a company and its products and services
throughtext,photos,animations,audio/video,andnavigationmenus.

Staticwebsitescanbeeditedusingfourbroadcategoriesofsoftware:

Text editors, such asNotepadorTextEdit, where contentand HTML


markuparemanipulateddirectlywithintheeditorprogram

WYSIWYGoffline editors, such asMicrosoft FrontPageandAdobe


Dreamweaver(previously Macromedia Dreamweaver), with which
the site is edited using aGUIand the final HTML markup is
generatedautomaticallybytheeditorsoftware

WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online


presentation like web pages, widgets, intro, blogs, and other
documents.

Templatebasededitors,suchasRapidWeaverandiWeb,whichallow
users toquicklycreate and uploadwebpagestoa webserverwithout
detailed HTML knowledge, as they pick a suitable template from a
palette and add pictures andtexttoit inadesktoppublishingfashion
withoutdirectmanipulationofHTMLcode

Static websites may still useserver side includes(SSI) as an editing


convenience,suchassharingacommonmenubaracrossmanypages.As
the site's behaviourto the readeris still static, this is not considered a
dynamicsite.

Dynamicwebsite

Adynamicwebsiteisonethatchangesorcustomizesitselffrequentlyand
automatically.

Serverside dynamic pages are generated "on the fly" bycomputer code
that produces the HTML and CSS. There are a wide range of software
systems,suchas CGI, Java Servletsand JavaServer Pages(JSP),Active
Server Pages and ColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate
dynamic web systems and dynamic sites. Various web application
frameworks and web template systems are available for generaluse
programming languages like PHP, Perl, Python, and Ruby, to make it
fasterandeasiertocreatecomplexdynamicwebsites.

A site can displaythecurrentstateofadialoguebetweenusers,monitora


changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to
therequirementsoftheindividualuser.Forexample,whenthefrontpage
of a news site is requested, the code running on the web server might
combine stored HTML fragments with news stores retrieved from
adatabaseoranotherwebsiteviaRSStoproduceapagethatincludesthe
latest information. Dynamic sites can be interactive by usingHTML
forms, storing and reading backbrowser cookies, or bycreatingaseries
of pages that reflect the previous history of clicks. Another example of
dynamic content is when a retail website with a database of media


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products allows a user to input a search request, e.g. for the


keywordBeatles. In response, the content of the web page will
spontaneously change the way it looked before, and will then display a
listofBeatlesproductslikeCDs,DVDsandbooks.

Dynamic HTMLusesJavaScriptcode toinstructthewebbrowserhowto


interactivelymodifythepagecontents.

One way to simulate a certain type of dynamic web site while avoiding
the performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on a peruser or
perconnection basis, is to periodically automatically regenerate a large
seriesofstaticpages.

1.2 Webbasedinformationsystem

Webbasedinformation displays many benefits of multimedia


technology. Using today's fast broadband connections, it is possible to
streamsophisticatedcontenttoacomputeranywhereintheworld.Thisis
an advantage for many people as the information can be received and
read wherever and whenever it is convenient for them, which can be a
crucial factor for a busy executive. A significant amount of interactive
multimediacontentisnowdeliveredviatheinternet.

Web information system, or webbased information system, is


aninformation systemthat usesInternetwebtechnologies to deliver
information and services, to users or other information
systems/applications. It is asoftwaresystem whose main purpose is to
publishandmaintaindatabyusinghypertextbasedprinciples.


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A web information system usually consists of one or moreweb


applications, specific functionalityoriented components, together with
informationcomponents andothernonwebcomponents.Webbrowseris
typicallyusedasfrontendwhereasdatabaseasbackend.

1.3.Whatishtml?

Hyper textmarkuplanguageis themain markup languagefordisplaying


webpagesandotherinformationthatcanbedisplayedinawebbrowser.

HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags


enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content.
HTMLtagsmostcommonlycomeinpairslike<h1>and</h1>,although
some tags, known as empty elements, areunpaired,for example<img>.
The first tag in a pair is the starttag, the secondtagis theendtag(they
arealsocalled opening tagsand closing tags). Inbetweenthese tagsweb
designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of textbased
content.

1.4.Advantagesofhtml

The basic format that is utilized on the World Wide Web isHTML.To
display web pages with a broad range of colors, shapes and objects,
HTML is used. In developing, the following the advantages of using
HTML:

1. Usageiseasy.

2. Syntaxisloose(Flexibilityhelpcomplyingwithstandards).

3. Ifnotall,itissupportedonalmostallbrowsers.


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4. FlexibilityishighinHTML.

5. If not onallwebsites, ithasbeenestablishedonmostwebsitesand


isusedwidely.

6. ItcanalsobeusedincreasinglyfordatastorageasitislikeXML
syntax.

1.5. Disadvantagesofhtml

1. Itcancreatedonlystaticandplainpages

2. Needtowritelotofcode

3. Securityfeaturesarenotgood

4. Ifweneedtowritelongcodeformakingawebpagesthanit
producesomecomplexity

1.6. Needforsystem

Thissystemis allaboutthe convertingtheshoppingsystemfrommanual


to online. Customer can buy products online. Online shopping tries to
enhance access to care and improve the continuity and efficiency of
services.

Ourprojectis anattemptto provide someknowledgeregardingthetopic


in an easy to access and a convenient way. Also itprovidesinformation
thateasilyunderstandable.

Themainobjectivesofthisprojectareasfollows:


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1. Toshopwhile inthecomfortofyourownhome,withouthavingto
stepoutofthedoor.

2. Sellatlowerrateduetolessoverhead.

3. Understand the importance of the web as a medium of


communication

4. Understand the principles of creating an effective web page,


includingasindepthconsiderationofinformationarchitecture.

5. Becomefamiliarwith graphic designprinciplesthatrelatestoweb


designandlearnhowtoimplementthesetheoriesintopractices.

6. Developskillsinanalyzingtheusabilityofawebsite.

7. Learnthelanguageoftheweb:HTML&CSS.

8. Beabletoembedsocialmediacontentintowebpages.

CHAPTER2

SYSTEMREQUIREMENTANALYSIS

2.1.ProjectCategory

Themain aim todesignthis project istoprovidegraphicaluserinterface


thathelps theusertoaccessinformationwithoutanycomplexityandwith
minimum operation. We categorize this project for commercial usage.
This document also describes the various interfaces i.e. the hardware,


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software and the user interfaces. Along with that the document also
describes thevariousfunctionsandsomegeneralconstraints.Thisproject
is cost efficient as well as highly optimized as per the requirement of
user.

AssumptionsandDependencies:

We assume all users have basic knowledge. We also assume that the
users will be given software training, documentation and reference
material

Future:

Thedoors fortheamendments and improvementsarealwayswidetoany


system. Inorder togetbetterservicesoutofitdesiremodificationcanbe
made to the system without much effort. As and when required new
modules can easily be incorporatedintoexistingsystem.Butthisis sure
thatprovidedsystemdoesnotshowanyproblem.


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2.2. Methodologyadoptedforproject

Methodologyisgenerally aguidelinesystemforsolvingaproblem,with
specificcomponentssuchasphases,tasks,methods,techniquesandtools.
Itcanbedefinedalsoasfollows:

1. "The analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates


employedbyadiscipline"

2. "The systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been
appliedwithinadiscipline"

3. "Thestudyordescriptionofmethods".

A methodology can be considered to include multiple methods, each as


appliedtovariousfacetsofthewholescopeofthemethodology.

2.3.DesignConstraints

In our professional training design phase we have come across


followingconstraints:

TechnologyWe have used html for our project. Regarding it we


havetobecarefulaboutfollowingthings:

o FontsWehavetousefontsthatareproperlyvisible.

o FormsNumber of forms used in our project are needtobe


lesstoavoidcomplexity

o GUIUserinterfaceshouldbeeasytooperate.


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RequirementsWhile designingweneedtochangedesignofproject
accordingtorequirementsoflibrary

Policies of institute according to new policies of institute. We


needtochangeourmodules

2.4 SoftwareSystemAttributes

Therearefollowingsoftwaresystemattributes:

MaintAyeenability

Our software is maintAyeenable according


toenvironmentalchanges

Dependability

Our software is dependable on adobe, dream weaver


andvvscipt

Performance

Oursoftwareperformsinaefficientmanneri.e.itis

Userfriendly

Therearefollowingsoftwaresystemattributes:

PerformanceMaintAyeenability

Our software is maintAyeenable according to environmental


changes


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MaintAyeenabilityIndex67

Dependability

Our software is dependable on .NET framework i.eframework


shouldbeproperlyinstalled.

Oursoftwareperformsinaefficientmanneri.e.itisUserfriendly

2.5 Featuresofthesystem

Sends emails (if enabled and internet is available) to the newly


registered members of the system as a notification andalsosends
emailsindifferentmodules.

Maximumamountoftrainingisrequiredtousethesystem.

Savesthe errorsoccurredinthe systeminafilethatcanbeusedto


troubleshoottheproblems.

Itisveryuserfriendly

2.6 SystemRequirements

To be used effectively, all computer software needs certain hardware components or


software resources to be present on computer the perquisites are known as system
requirements.TheMISprojectrequiresacertainminimumsystemrequirement

HardwareRequirements

ForServer:


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Componen Minimum Recommended


t

Processor 2.6GHz Dualprocessorsthatareeachfaster


than2.6GHz

RAM 1GB 4GB

Disk 5GBoffreespace 10GBfreespace

Display 1024768 1024768orhigherresolution


monitor

Network 56Kbpsconnectionbetween 56Kbpsorfasterconnection


clientcomputersandserver betweenclientcomputersand
server

SOFTWARE

OS:WindowsXPminimumorhigher.

InternetExplorer8

LANGUAGE

HyperTextMarkupLanguage(HTML)

Technologiesused:


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FRONTEND:

Userinterface orthatpartof asoftwareofwebsitethatauserseesonthe


screen, and acts on to enter commands or to access other parts of the
softwareorwebsiteisknownasfrontend.

HTML/FRONTPAGE

Itisfrontpageofthewebsite

Features

SomeofthefeaturesinthelastversionofFrontPageinclude:

FrontPage2003consistsofaSplitViewoption toallowtheusertocode
in Code View and preview in Design View without the hassle of
switchingfromtheDesignandCodeViewtabsforeachreview.

Dynamic Web Templates (DWT) were included for the first time in
FrontPage 2003 allowing users to create a single template that couldbe
usedacrossmultiplepagesandeventhewholeWebsite.

InteractiveButtonsgiveusers aneweasywaytocreateWebgraphicsfor
navigation and links, eliminating the need for a complicated
imageeditingpackagesuchasadobePhotoshop.

The accessibility checker givesthe user the abilityto checkif theircode


is standardscompliant and that their Web site is easily accessible for
people with disabilities. An HTML optimizer is included to aid in
optimizingcodetomakeitlegibleandquickertoprocess.

Intellisense, which is a form of auto completion , is a key feature in


FrontPage 2003 that assists the user while typing in Code View. When


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working in Code View, Intelligence will suggest tags and/or properties


forthecodethattheuserisenteringwhichsignificantlyreducesthetime
to write code. The Quick Tag Editor shows the user the tag they are
currentlyinwheneditinginDesignView.Thisalsoincludestheoptionto
editthespecifictag/propertyfromwithintheTagEditor.

Code Snippets give users the advantage of creating snippets of their


commonly used pieces of code allowing them to storeitforeasyaccess
wheneveritisnextneeded.

FrontPage 2003 includes support for programming in ASP.Net a server


side, scripting language that adds interactivity to Web sites and Web
pages.

FrontPage2003includessupportformacrosinVBA

SCRIPTINGLANGUAGE

A scripting language or script language is a programming language


thatsupports the writing of scripts. Environments that can be
automatedthrough scripting include software applications, web pages
within a webbrowser, the shells of operating systems (OS), and several
generalpurpose and domainspecific languages such as those for
embeddedsystems. Scripting is usually a property of the primary
implementations ofa language, rather than a language per se, although
many languages arenot very suited to this kind of implementation.
Forexample, C++ interpreters do exist, but C++ is generally not
considered ascripting language, as not only are these implementations


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rarely used, butthe time taken to write a script in C++ would be far in
advanceofthatrequiredtowriteinalanguagelikePython.

Typically, a scripting language is characterized by the following


properties:

Ease of use. Scripting languages are intended to be very fast to pickup


and author programs in. This generally implies relatively simple syntax
&semantics.

OS facilities especially file system and related, built in with easy


interfaces. Scripting is usually aimed at desktop, limiting the portability
needsoftheprebuiltlibraries.

Interpreted from source code to givethefastest turnaroundfrom script


toexecution.On adesktop, the performanceofeven aslowinterpreteris
often nonproblematic. In comparison, nonscripting languages intended
for large programs are often precompiled in at least some sense for
superiorperformance.

Relatively loose structure. It wouldbedifficultto usejavaasascripting


language due to the rules about which classes exist in which files
contrasttoPython,whereit'spossibleto simplydefinesomefunctionsin
afile.

VBSCRIPT

VBScript (Visual BasicScripting Edition)isanActiveScriptinglanguage


developedby Microsoftthatis modeledonVisualBasic.It isdesignedas
a lightweightlanguagewithafastinterpreterforuseinawidevarietyof
Microsoft environments. VBScript usesthe Component Object Model to


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access elements of the environmentwithin which it is running for


example, the FileSystemObject (FSO) isused to create, read,updateand
deletefiles

JAVASCRIPT

A scripting language developed by Netscape to enable Web authors


todesign interactive sites. Although it shares many of the features
andstructures of the full Java language, it was developed
independently.Java script caninteractwithHTMLsource code, enabling
Web authors tospice up their sites with dynamic content. JavaScript is
endorsed byanumber ofsoftwarecompaniesandisanopenlanguagethat
anyone canuse without purchasing a license. It is supported by recent
browsers fromNetscapeandMicrosoft,thoughInternetExplorersupports
onlyasubset,whichMicrosoftcallsJscript.

BACKEND:

Back end languages are the languages used to write the parts of
theprogram used to interact with the hardware. Thus game engines,
browserengines and so forth are often written in C++ because first it is
acompiled language which provides straightforward tools for
modellingany device logically you don't already have a driver for and
becauseit hasmanyfeaturesof data security whichmakeiteasiertokeep
trackofmanyvariables.

DATABASE


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Databaseare designed to offer an organized mechanism for storing,


managing and retrieving information. They do so through the use of
tables. If youre familiar with spreadsheets like Microsoft Excel, youre
probably already accustomed to storing data in tabular form. Its not
muchofastretchtomaketheleapfromspreadsheetstodatabases.



CHAPTER3
SYSTEMANALYSYS&METHODOLOGY
ADOPTED

This chapter will focus on the design of the system using diagrams to
illustrategraphicallycertainsectionsofthesoftwaresystem.

3.1.UseCaseDiagrams

Ause case diagramat its simplest is a representation of a user's


interactionwiththesystemand depictingthespecificationsofausecase.
A use case diagram can portray the different types of users of a system
and the various ways that they interact with the system. This type of
diagramistypicallyusedinconjunctionwiththetextualusecaseandwill
oftenbeaccompaniedbyothertypesofdiagramsaswell.

While ause caseitself might drill into a lot of detail about every
possibility, a usecase diagram can help provide a higherlevel view of
the system. It has been said before that "Use case diagrams are the
blueprints for your system". They provide the simplified and graphical
representationofwhatthesystemmustactuallydo.


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Usecasediagramsdepict:

Usecases.Ause casedescribesasequenceofactionsthatprovide
something of measurable value to an actor and is drawn as a
horizontalellipse.

Actors. An actor isa person,organization,orexternal systemthat


plays a role in one or more interactions with your system.Actors
aredrawnasstickfigures.

Associations. Associations between actors and use cases are


indicated inusecasediagrams bysolidlines.Anassociationexists
whenever an actor is involved with an interaction described by a
use case. Associations are modeled as lines connecting use cases
and actors to one another, with an optional arrowheadononeend
of the line.Thearrowheadisoften usedtoindicatingthedirection
of the initial invocation of the relationship or to indicate the
primary actor within the use case. The arrowheads are typically
confusedwithdataflowandasaresultIavoidtheiruse.

System boundary boxes (optional). You can draw a rectangle


around the use cases, calledthesystemboundarybox,to indicates
the scope of your system. Anything within the box represents
functionality that is in scope and anything outside theboxisnot.
System boundary boxes are rarely used, although on occasion I
have used them to identify which use cases will be delivered in
eachmajorreleaseofasystem.

Packages (optional). Packages are UML constructs that enable


you to organize model elements (such as use cases) into groups.


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Packages aredepicted asfilefoldersandcan beusedonanyofthe


UML diagrams, including both use case diagrams and class
diagrams. I use packages only when my diagrams become
unwieldy, which generally implies they cannot be printed on a
singlepage,toorganizealargediagramintosmallerones.


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3.1.1UseCaseDiagram
USECASEDIAGRAM:
CUSTOMER

Information
Surfing

Contact

Order


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Fig.2:UseCaseDiagram

3.2.DataFlowDiagram

Adataflow diagram(DFD)is agraphicalrepresentationof the"flow"of


data through aninformation system, modeling itsprocessaspects. Often
they are a preliminary step used to create an overview of the system
which can later be elaborated. DFDs can also be used for
thevisualizationofdataprocessing(structureddesign).

A DFDshows whatkindsofinformationwillbeinputtoandoutputfrom
thesystem, wherethedatawillcomefrom and goto,andwherethedata
will be stored. It does not show information about the timing of


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processes, or information about whether processes will operate in


sequenceorinparallel(whichisshownonaflowchart).

It is common practice to draw thecontextlevel data flow diagramfirst,


which shows the interaction between the system and external agents
whichact asdatasourcesanddatasinks.Thishelps tocreateanaccurate
drawing on the context diagram. The system's interactions with the
outside world are modelled purely in terms of data flows across
thesystem boundary. The context diagram shows the entire system as a
singleprocess,andgivesnocluesastoitsinternalorganization.

Fig.3:DFD

This contextlevel DFD is next "exploded", to produce a Level 1 DFD


that shows some of the detailof thesystembeing modeled. The Level1
DFD showshowthesystemisdividedintosubsystems(processes),each
ofwhichdeals withoneormore ofthedataflows toor froman external
agent,andwhichtogetherprovideallofthefunctionalityofthesystemas
a whole.Italsoidentifiesinternaldatastoresthatmustbepresentinorder
for the system to do its job, and shows the flow of data between the
variouspartsofthesystem.


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Data flow diagrams were proposed byLarry Constantine, the original


developer of structured design,based on Mattew and Peter"data flow
graph"modelofcomputation.

3.3.EntityRelationshipDiagram

It isadetailedlogicalrepresentationofdataforanorganizationanduses
threemainconstructs.

Anentitymaybe defined asathing whichisrecognizedasbeingcapable


of an independent existence and which can be uniquely identified. An
entity is an abstraction from the complexities of a domain. When we
speak of an entity, we normally speak of some aspect of the real world
whichcanbedistinguishedfromotheraspectsoftherealworld.

Anentity may beaphysicalobjectsuchasahouseoracar,aneventsuch


as a house sale or a car service, or a concept such as a customer
transaction or order. Althoughthetermentity istheonemostcommonly
used, following Chenweshould reallydistinguishbetweenan entityand


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anentitytype.Anentitytypeisacategory.Anentity,strictlyspeaking,is
aninstanceof agivenentitytype.Thereareusuallymanyinstancesofan
entitytype. Becausethe termentitytype issomewhatcumbersome,most
peopletendtousethetermentityasasynonymforthisterm.

Entitiescanbe thoughtofasnouns. Examples: acomputer,anemployee,


asong,amathematicaltheorem.

A relationship captures how entities are related to one another.


Relationships can be thought of asverbs, linking two or more nouns.
Examples: anownsrelationship between a company and a computer,
asupervisesrelationship between an employee and a department,
aperformsrelationship between an artist and a song,
aprovedrelationshipbetweenamathematicianandatheorem.

The model's linguistic aspect described above is utilized in


thedeclarativedatabasequery languageERROL, which mimicsnatural
languageconstructs. ERROL'ssemanticsand implementation are based
onreshaped relational algebra(RRA), a relational algebra which is
adaptedtotheentityrelationshipmodelandcapturesitslinguisticaspect.

Entities and relationships can both have attributes. Examples:


anemployeeentitymight haveaSocialSecurityNumber(SSN)attribute
theprovedrelationshipmayhaveadateattribute.

Every entity (unless it is aweak entity) must have a minimal set of


uniquelyidentifyingattributes,whichiscalledtheentity'sprimarykey.

Entityrelationshipdiagrams don'tshowsingleentitiesorsingleinstances
ofrelations. Rather,theyshow entitysetsandrelationshipsets.Example:


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a particularsongis an entity. The collectionofall songsin adatabaseis


an entity set. Theeatenrelationship between a child and her lunch is a
single relationship. The set of all such childlunch relationships in a
database is a relationship set. In other words, a relationship set
correspondstoarelationinmathematics,whilearelationshipcorresponds
toamemberoftherelation.

Certaincardinality constraintson relationship sets may be indicated as


well.

Entities

It is a fundamental thing about which data may be maintained. Each


entityhasitsownidentity.

EntityTypeisthedescriptionofallentitiestowhichacommondefinition
andcommonrelationshipsandattributesapply.


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AnexampleofERDiagram


Fig.4:ERDiagram


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3.3 Normalization

Normalization usually involves dividing a database into two or more


tables and defining relationships between the tables. The objective is to
isolate data so that additions, deletions, and modifications of afieldcan
be made in just one table and then propagated through the rest of the
databaseviathedefinedrelationships.

There are three main normal forms, each with increasing levels of
normalization:

First Normal Form (1NF): Each field in a table contains different


information.

Second Normal Form (2NF): Each field in a table that is not a


determinerof thecontents ofanotherfieldmustitselfbeafunctionofthe
otherfieldsinthetable.

ThirdNormalForm(3NF):Noduplicateinformationispermitted.


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CHAPTER4

SOFTWAREDESIGN

Software designis the process by which anagentcreates a specification


of asoftware artifact, intended to accomplishgoals, using a set of
primitive components and subject toconstraints.Software design may
refer to either "all the activities involved in conceptualizing, framing,
implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex
systems" or "the activity followingrequirementsspecification and
beforeprogramming,as...astylizedsoftwareengineeringprocess."

Software design usually involves problem solving and planning


asoftwaresolution. This includes both lowlevel component
andalgorithmdesignandhighlevel,architecturedesign.

Software designis the process ofimplementing softwaresolutionstoone


ormoresetofproblems. One oftheimportantpartsofsoftwaredesignis
thesoftware requirements analysis(SRA). It is a part of thesoftware
development processthat listsspecificationsused insoftware
engineering. If the software is "semiautomated" oruser centered,
software design may involveuser experience designyielding astory
boardto help determine those specifications. If the software is
completelyautomated(meaning nouseroruser interface), a software
design may be as simple as aflow chartor text describing a planned
sequence of events. There are also semistandard methods likeUnified
Modeling LanguageandFundamental modeling concepts. Ineithercase,
somedocumentationof the plan is usually the product of the design.
Furthermore, a software design may


35

beplatformindependentorplatformspecific, depending on the


availabilityofthetechnologyusedforthedesign.

Software designcanbeconsidered ascreatinga solution toaproblem in


hand with available capabilities. The main difference between Software
analysis and design is that the output of a software analysis consist of
smallerproblems tosolve.Also,theanalysisshould notbeverydifferent
even if it is designed by different team members or groups. The design
focusesonthecapabilities,andtherecanbemultipledesignsforthesame
problemdependingonthe environmentthatsolutionwillbehosted.They
can be operations systems, webpages, mobile or even the new cloud
computing paradigm. Sometimesthedesign depends ontheenvironment
that it was developed, whether if it is created from with
reliableframeworksorimplementedwithsuitabledesignpatterns.

When designing software, two important factors to consider are its


securityandusability.

HOMEpage>>welcometoyoursite

Onclickingthehomepageapagewillopenwhichwilltellaboutthesite
andtraining

Athomepagewewillfindthelinksof
Flower
Books
Music
Toys


36

LAYOUTOFTHEPROJECT

Fig.5:LayoutPlan


37

CHAPTER5

TESTREPORT

Executing a program with the intent of finding errors is called testing.


Testing is vital tothesuccessof any system.Testingisdone atdifferent
stages within the development phase. System testing makes a logical
assumption that if all parts of the system are correct, the goals will be
achieved successfully. Inadequate testing or no testing at all leads to
errors that may come up after a long time when correction would be
extremely implementation. The testing of the system was done on both
artificial and live data. In order to test data test cases are developed.
Followingarethevariousmethodsthatareemployedfortesting:

5.1. UnitTesting

In unit testing the module is tested independently. It is done to testthat


themoduledoessatisfythefunctionalspecification.Thisisdonetocheck
syntax and logical errors in programs. At the time of preparation of
technical specifications, unit test data wasalsoprepared.Thecoding for
that program was considered after verifying its output against this test
data.

Followingaretheunittestingmethods:

In Conditional Testing, the logicalconditionsthatare givenin the


module were checked to seewhethertheysatisfythe functionality
ofthemodule.Thisisdonebyusingthetestdatawasprepared.


38

In Loop Testing, different loops in the module like nested loops


were tested using the data. Attempts to execute the loops to their
maximumrangearedone.

5.2 IntegrationTesting

In Integration testing whole system was checked when all the


individual modules were integrated together in order to test
whether the system is performing as according to the
requirementsspecified.Interfaceerrorsifanywerecorrected.

Testdatawasprepared was fed intothesystemtocheckwhether


thesystemfailstodetectsanerror.

5.3.FunctionalTesting

This is done for each module/sub module of the system.


Functional testing serve as a means of validating whether the
functionality ofthesystem confers theoriginaluser requirement
i.e. does the module do what it was supposed to do? Separate
schedules were made for functional testing. It involves
preparation of test data, writing of test cases, testing for
conformance to test cases and preparation of bugs listing for
nonconformities.

5.4. SystemTesting

System testing is done when the entire system has been fully
integrated. The purpose of the system testing is to test how the
differentmodules interact witheachotherandwhethertheentire
systemprovidesthefunctionalitythatwasexpected.


39

Systemtestingconsistsofthefollowingsteps:
ProgramTesting
SystemTesting
SystemDocumentation
UserAcceptanceTesting

CHAPTER6

MYROLES&RESPONSIBILITIES

BeingtheleaderofmyteamIwasgiventhefollowingresponsibilities:

Dividetheworkamongtheteammembers.

Iwasinvolvedinrequirementgatheringwithotherteammembers.

Iwasresponsibleforcoding,designing,implementationandunit
testingofmodules.

I was involved in combining all modules of the professional


trainingwebsite


40

CHAPTER7
CONCLUSION&ACHIEVEMENTS

The reason to have professional training system is to providing


professional courses, vocational training ,improve skillsthroughinternet
and institutions itself. it also saves time of students who do not want to
wastetimegoinghereandthere.

The project is still goingon.Wehavereleased thefirststableversionas


perourprojectschedule&theworkonthenextversionisinprogress.

Achievements

The project has beenan excellentlearningopportunityformeand


hashelpedmeinunderstandinganddevelopingaliveproject.

Technical Knowledge is something one can always get sitting at


home and devouring books. But being a part of a team which is
working on a deliverable Live Project means a lot more other
thingsapartfromthetechnicalknowledgegained.

Ilearnttoimplementhardwaredevicesinthesystem.

Ilearneditstheteamwork and working intandemwiththeteam,


complimenting the team efforts that hold more priority than
individualskills.

I learned how important deadlines are, and that clients are like
gods, we just have to provide them what they want .The ultimate
goalistomeetclientsrequirements.


41

Ilearnedtotakeresponsibilitiesandtohandletheworkpressure.


42

CHAPTER8
APPENDIX

Screenshots

INDEX.HTML

Fig.6:Index


43

BOOKS.HTML

Fig.7:Books

FLOWERS.HTML

Fig.11:Flowers


44

MUSIC.HTML

Fig.14:Music

TOY.HTML


45

SUBMIT.HTML

Fig.20:Submit


46

CODING
INDEX.HTML

<html>
<head>
<title>HomePage</title>
</head>

<bodybackground="images/background.jpg">

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><imgsrc="images/logo.jpg"alt="logo.jpg(12856bytes)"
WIDTH="631"HEIGHT="83"></td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><br>
</p>

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="Flowers.htm"><imgsrc="images/flowerlink.jpg"
alt="flowerlink.jpg(2517bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>


47

<tdalign="center"><ahref="music.htm"><imgsrc="images/musiclink.jpg"
alt="musiclink.jpg(2268bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="171"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="books.htm"><imgsrc="images/bookslink.jpg"
alt="bookslink.jpg(2183bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="toys.htm"><imgsrc="images/toyslink.jpg"
alt="toyslink.jpg(2014bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><br>
</p>

<p><fontcolor="#FFFFFF"size="4"><marqueebgcolor="#0000FF"
border="0">.................ClickItemsforOnline
Shopping..................</marquee></font></p>

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdalign="right"></td>
<td><ahref="books.htm"><imgsrc="images/checkout_ebooks.gif"
alt="checkout_ebooks.gif(995bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="215"
HEIGHT="21"><imgsrc="images/ebook.gif"alt="ebook.gif(1077bytes)"
border="0"WIDTH="70"HEIGHT="45"></a></td>
<td><br>
</td>
</tr>


48

<tr>
<tdwidth="30%"><br>
</td>
<tdwidth="40%"></td>
<tdwidth="30%"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="center"></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="Flowers.htm"><imgsrc="images/flowerlogo.jpg"
alt="flowerlogo.jpg(22194bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="311"
HEIGHT="274"></a><br>
<ahref="Flowers.htm">ClicktobuyFreshFlowersonline</a></td>
<td><br>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="right"><ahref="Music.htm"><imgsrc="images/musiclogo.jpg"
alt="musiclogo.jpg(9910bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="169"
HEIGHT="169"></a><br>
<ahref="Music.htm">ClicktobyonlineCDsandMusic</a></td>
<tdalign="center"><br>
</td>
<td><ahref="Toys.htm"><imgsrc="images/toyslogo.gif"alt="toyslogo.gif(5397
bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="120"HEIGHT="150"></a><br>
<ahref="Toys.htm">Clicktobuyonlinetoys</a></td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><br>
<br>
</p>


49

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="Flowers.htm"><imgsrc="images/flowerlink.jpg"
alt="flowerlink.jpg(2517bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="music.htm"><imgsrc="images/musiclink.jpg"
alt="musiclink.jpg(2268bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="171"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="books.htm"><imgsrc="images/bookslink.jpg"
alt="bookslink.jpg(2183bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="toys.htm"><imgsrc="images/toyslink.jpg"
alt="toyslink.jpg(2014bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>


50

MUSIC.HTML

<html>
<head>
<metaname="GENERATOR"content="MicrosoftFrontPage3.0">
<title>Music</title>
</head>

<bodybackground="images/strtxtr.jpg">

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><imgsrc="images/logo.jpg"alt="logo.jpg(12856bytes)"
WIDTH="631"HEIGHT="83"></td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><br>
</p>

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="index.htm"><imgsrc="images/homelink.jpg"
alt="homelink.jpg(2043bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>


51

<tdalign="center"><ahref="books.htm"><imgsrc="images/bookslink.jpg"
alt="bookslink.jpg(2183bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="Flowers.htm"><imgsrc="images/flowerlink.jpg"
alt="flowerlink.jpg(2517bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="toys.htm"><imgsrc="images/toyslink.jpg"
alt="toyslink.jpg(2014bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
</table>

<p><br>
</p>

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><font
color="#FF0080"><strong><big><big><big><big><big>MUSIC
CDs</big></big></big></big></big></strong></font><p>&nbsp</td>
</tr>
</table>
<divalign="center"><center>

<tableborder="0"cellspacing="0"width="70%">
<tr>
<tdwidth="50%"align="center"valign="top"><ahref="music1.htm"><img
src="images/music1.jpg"alt="music1.jpg(2552bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="75"


52

HEIGHT="75"></a><b><fontface="arial"size="1"><p></font><fontface="arial"
size="3">GooGooDolls</b>Gutterflower</font></td>
<tdwidth="50%"align="center"valign="top"><ahref="music2.htm"><img
src="images/music2.jpg"alt="music2.jpg(2625bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="74"
HEIGHT="100"></a><b><fontface="arial"><p>Sheryl
Crow</font></b></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td></td>
</tr>
</table>
</center></div>

<p><br>
<br>
</p>

<tableborder="0"width="100%"cellspacing="0">
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="index.htm"><imgsrc="images/homelink.jpg"
alt="homelink.jpg(2043bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>


53

<tdalign="center"><ahref="books.htm"><imgsrc="images/bookslink.jpg"
alt="bookslink.jpg(2183bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="Flowers.htm"><imgsrc="images/flowerlink.jpg"
alt="flowerlink.jpg(2517bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"
HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
<tdalign="center"><ahref="toys.htm"><imgsrc="images/toyslink.jpg"
alt="toyslink.jpg(2014bytes)"border="0"WIDTH="172"HEIGHT="32"></a></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tdcolspan="4"align="center"></td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>


54

CHAPTER8

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Booksconsulted:

1. Kevin A. Siegel, Essentials of Dreamweaver 4: Skills & Drills


Training

2. DavidR.Brooks,AnIntroductiontoHTMLandJavaScript

3. ShellyWoods,HTMLIntroductoryConceptsandTechniques

WebsitesandURLs:

http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_intro.asp

http://www.w3.org/TR/REChtml40/intro/intro.html

Personsconsulted:

Ms.InderpreetKaur(H.O.DS.G.T.B.I.M&I.T)

Ms.Ayeena(LECTURER,S.G.T.B.I.M&I.T)