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THE AGORA

ATHENIAN
RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS
CONDUCTED BY
THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS

VOLUME V
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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POTTERY
OF THE ROMAN PERIOD
CHRONOLOGY

BY

HENRY S. ROBINSON

ss
SAP IA
OR At

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS


PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY

1959

American School of Classical Studies at Athens


is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to
The Athenian Agora
www.jstor.org
PUBLISHED WITH THE AID OF A GRANT FROM MR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, JR.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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PRINTED IN GERMANY at J.J. AUGUSTIN GLO3CKSTADT


PREFACE
ome twenty seasons of excavation in the Athenian Agora have brought to light vast
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S
quantities of pots and potsherds of Roman times, derived in part from occupationlevels and
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destruction debris, in part from more than one hundred distinct deposits, such as wells, cisterns,
graves, building fills, etc.' Of this mass of pottery, over five thousand vessels and fragments of
vessels have been entered in the excavation inventory; a still larger quantity has been stored
in tins and wooden trays for future study and for the control of current studies. In preparingthe
publication of this material it has been necessary to recognize two facts: the very abundance of
the pottery from this one site necessitates a highly selective treatment; and the Agora pottery
itself must serve as the basis for establishing the chronologicaland typological sequence of most
of the ceramic output of the eastern Mediterraneanin Roman times. The present volume deals
with some 850 specimens from eight major deposits and attempts by means of them to establish
both a relative and an absolute chronology for the Roman wares of Athens. A subsequent
volume, subtitled Typology, will contain detailed analyses of the various local and imported
wares as well as a typological catalogue of coarse household and storage vessels. No attempt will
be made to catalogue all the inventoried pottery of Roman date.

The Roman pottery of the Agora excavations was first investigated by Frederick 0. Waage
and the late Arthur Parsons, to both of whom the author is greatly indebted for personal
communications and for the use of important notes. The study of the fine early Roman wares
(Pergamene, Samian and Arretine), which will form a portion of the second volume, was
entrusted to the writer in 1939 by the late Professor T. Leslie Shear, at that time Director of
the Athenian Agora Excavations. The material for the present volume was gatheredin 1951-1953
and in the summer of 1955; during these periods the writer held a Fulbright Research Grant at
the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (1951-1952), membership in the Institute
for Advanced Study, Princeton (1952-1953), and two grants-in-aid from the Penrose Fund of
the American Philosophical Society; assistance was also received from the Faculty Research
Committee of the University of Oklahoma.To these organizationsthe writer is deeply indebted,
as also to the many colleagues without whose encouragement,advice and practical guidance the
work could never have been completed. Particular gratitude is due to the Directors of the
American School of Classical Studies and of the Athenian Agora Excavations, Professors
John L. Caskey and Homer A. Thompson; to Miss Lucy Talcott, for her excellent counsel at
every stage of the investigations; to Miss Alison Frantz, who undertook so successfully the
often painful task of photography; to Miss Mabel Lang, for many fruitful discussions of the
storage vessels and for the reading and interpretation of the graffiti and dipinti; to Miss Judith
Perlzweig, whose knowledge of the lamps of the Roman period has been invaluable; to Mrs.
Aliki Halepa Bikaki, to whose sure hand are due the majority of the drawings (the author is
1 See Index of Roman Deposits, pp. 123-127.
vi THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

responsiblefor the drawingsof graffitiand dipinti,executed,for the most part, beforeMiss


Lang'sexaminationand readingof the originals);to Mrs.MaryWilliamsonEliot and Frederick
R. Matsonfor technicaladvice on pottery-making;to Miss MargaretCrosby,Miss Virginia
Grace,MissFrancesF. Jones,MissClaireveGrandjouan,Mrs.ElizabethLydingWill, Howard
Comfort,EugeneVanderpool,G. RogerEdwards,RichardHowland,LoukasA. Benachiand
many othersat excavationsites and museumsthroughoutthe Near East and Europe.
OFOKLAHOMA
UNIVERSITY HENRYS. ROBINsON

SEPTEMBER
15, 1957
American School of Classical Studies at Athens
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It is regrettablethat J. W. Crowfoot,G. M. Crowfoot,Kathleen M. Kenyon and others,


Samaria--Sebeste,Reports of the Work of the Joint Expeditionin 1931-1933 and of the
British Expeditionin 1935,No. 3, TheObjectsfromSamaria,London,Palestine Exploration
Fund, 1957 appearedtoo late for consultation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE..................................... ............. V

LIST OF PLATES ............................................ iX

ABBREVIATIONSAND BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................... Xi


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INTRODUCTION
.............................................
1

GLOSSARY ...... .......................................... 4

GROUP
F ............................. ....... ............ 10
G .............
GROUP ......... ...... . ........ .. 22
.. .....
GROUPH
....H............................ .................. 46
J .................................................
GROUP 50
GROUPK ................................................. 58
GROUP L ................................................... 73

GROUP M
I ................... ..... .... 82
.................. ...
N
GROUP
..............................................121
INDEX OF ROMAN DEPOSITS ................................. 123

CONCORDANCEOF INVENTORY AND CATALOGUENUMBERS 128


.......
INDEX 141
....................................................
PLATES
LIST OF PLATES
Plate
1-8 GroupF. 1st CenturyB.C.
4 GroupF. 1st CenturyB.C.
GroupG. 1st CenturyB.C. and 1st Centuryafter Christ
5, 6 GroupG. 1st Centuryafter Christ
7 GroupG. 1st and Early 2nd Centuries
8 GroupG. Late 1st and Early 2nd Centuries
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1GroupH. First Half of 2nd Century


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9-11 GroupJ. 2nd to Early 3rd Century


12-15 GroupK. Middleof 3rd Century
16 GroupL. 3rd and 4th Centuries
17 GroupL. 4th Century
18 GroupM. Middleof 1st to Early 3rd Century
19 GroupM. Middleof 1st to Early 2nd Century
20 GroupM. Late 1st to Early 2nd Century
21,22 GroupM. Late 2nd Century
23 GroupM. Late 2nd to Early 8rd Century
24,25 GroupM. Middleof 3rd Century
26 GroupM. Late 3rd to Early 4th Century
27 GroupM. Early 4th Century
28 GroupM. 4th Century
29 GroupM. Late 4th Century
80 GroupM. Early 5th Century
31 GroupM. 5th Century
32 GroupM. Early 6th Century
33 GroupM. 6th Century
34 GroupM. Late 6th Centuryand 9th and 10th Centuries
35 GroupN. Early 7th Century
86 1 StampedOrnament
Medallions - Bowls and Lamps
6
37 Painted Ornament.3rd and Early 4th Centuries
88 GroupsF and G and CollateralDeposits
39,40 CollateralDeposits
41 MicaceousWater Jars, Details of Necks and Feet
42 Handle Types
48 Beaker, Corinth. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Cf. H 8
Base of Beaker
Samian Bowl, Egypt. Coll. L. Benachi, Alexandria. Cf. M 81
Thymiaterion, Cyrene. American University Museum, Beirut. Cf. G 159
44 Lamps. Groups F and G
45 Lamps. Groups G-L
x THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Plate
46 Lamps. GroupM
47 Lamps. GroupsG, J and M
48 TerracottaFigures. GroupsG-M and CollateralDeposits
49 ArchitecturalMembers.GroupsG, K and M and CollateralDeposits
50 Terracottaand Wood. GroupsG-M
51 Buckets of Wood, Bronzeand Lead. GroupsJ, L and M
52 Sculpture.GroupsG, H and M
Stone Objects. GroupsH, K, L and M
53 Bronze,Iron and Lead. GroupsG, J-N
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54 Glassand Stone. GroupsH-N


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55 Glass. GroupsL and M


56 Bone and Ivory. GroupsG, J, L and M
Animaland VegetableRemains. GroupM
57 Painted Mottoes. GroupsK and M
Potters' Stamps. GroupsF, G, H and M
58 Graffiti.GroupsF, L and M
Dipinti. GroupsG and M
59 Dipinti. GroupsF, H, J, L and M
60 Profiles. PergameneWare
61 Profiles. PergameneWare
SamianB Ware
SamianA Ware
62 Profiles. SamianA Ware
WesternSigillata Ware
Fine Early Roman Wares
63 Profiles. Fine Early Roman Wares
West Slope Ware
64 Profiles. Late Roman Red Ware
GroupF. 1st CenturyB.C.
65 Profiles. GroupsF and G. 1st CenturyB.C. and 1st Centuryafter Christ
66 Profiles. GroupG. 1st Centuryafter Christ
67 Profiles. GroupG. 1st and Early 2nd Centuries
68 Profiles. GroupH. First Half of 2nd Century
GroupJ. 2nd to Early 3rd Century
GroupK. Middleof 3rd Century
69 Profiles. Group K. Middle of 3rd Century
70 Profiles. Group L. Late 3rd to Early 5th Century
Group M. 1st to 3rd Century
71 Profiles. Group M. 4th to 6th Century
72 Profiles. Utility Vessels.
78 Profiles. Details of Feet, Bases, Lips
Miscellaneous Objects
74 Section and Plan of Group F Deposit
Section and Plan of Group K Deposit
75 Section and Plan of Group G Deposit
76 Actual State Plan of the Athenian Agora
ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
The principalworkscited in this volume and the abbreviatedtitles by whichthey are mentionedare listed
below:
Alexandria Rudolf Pagenstecher,ExpeditionErnst von Sieglin, Ausgrabungenin Alexandria,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Band 1I, 3, Die Gefissein Stein und Ton, Knochenschnitzereien,Leipzig, 1918.


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A. J. A. AmericanJournalof Archaeology.
Antioch,I Antiochon-the-Orontes, I, The Excavationsof 1932, ed. GeorgeW. Elderkin,Prin-
ceton, 1984.
Antioch,IV, 1 Antiochon-the-Orontes, IV, 1, Ceramicsand Islamic Coins,ed. Frederick0. Waag6,
Princeton, 1948.
A. S. O. R. Suppl. Studies AmericanSchoolof OrientalResearch,SupplementaryStudies.
AthenianAgora The AthenianAgora, Results of Excavationsconductedby the AmericanSchoolof
ClassicalStudiesat Athens.
vol. I. Evelyn B. Harrison, PortraitSculpture,Princeton, 1953. (See below,
Harrison,Sculpture).
vol. II. MargaretThompson,CoinsfromtheRomanthroughthe VenetianPeriod,
Princeton, 1954. (See below, Thompson,Coins).
vol. IV. RichardH. Howland,GreekLampsand theirSurvivals,Princeton,1958.
(See below, Howland,Lamps).
vol. VI. ClairBveGrandjouan,Terracottasof the RomanPeriod,in preparation.
(See below, Grandjouan,Terracottas).
vol. VII. Judith Perlzweigand ClaireveGrandjouan,Lampsof theRomanPeriod,
in preparation.(See below, Perlzweig, Lamps and Perlzweig-Grand-
jouan, Lamps).
Ath. Mitt. MitteilungendesDeutschenarch6iologischenInstituts,AthenischeAbteilung.
B. C. H. Bulletin de correspondancehelldnique.
Beth-Shan GeraldM. Fitzgerald, Beth-ShanExcavations1921-1923, The Arab and Byzantine
Levels,Philadelphia,1931. (See also below, Comfort-Waag6,B-S.).
Bonn. Jahrb. BonnerJahrbiicher.
Broneer,Lamps Corinth,vol. IV, ii.
B. S. A. Annual of the British Schoolat Athens.
Charleston,Rom. Pot. R(obert) J. Charleston,RomanPottery,London,Faber and Faber, 1955.
Chase,Boston GeorgeH. Chase, Catalogueof ArretinePottery (Museumof Fine Arts, Boston),
Boston, 1916.
Chase,Loeb GeorgeH. Chase,TheLoebCollectionof ArretinePottery,New York, 1908.
C. I. L. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.
Comfort, Arret. Howard Comfort, "De Collectione .. vasculorum arretinorum ..," Memoirs of the
American Academy in Rome, VII, 1929, pp. 177-219.
Comfort, Minturnae Howard Comfort, "Terra Sigillata from Minturnae," A. J. A., XLVII, 1948, pp.
818-8330.
Comfort, Signatures Howard Comfort, "Arretine Signatures found in the Excavations in the Theater
District of Corinth," A. J. A., XXXIII, 1929, pp. 484-501.
Comfort, Suppl. Sigs. Howard Comfort, "Supplementary Sigillata Signatures in the Near East," Journal
of the American Oriental Society, LVIII, 1988, pp. 80-60.
xii THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Comfort,T. S. Howard Comfort, art. "Terra Sigillata," in Pauly-Wissowa,R. E., suppl. VII
(1940),cols. 1295-1852.
Comfort-Waag6, B-S. Howard Comfortand Frederick0. Waag6, "Selected Pottery from Beth-Shan,"
PalestineExplorationFund QuarterlyStatement,1936, pp. 221-224. (See also above,
Beth-Shan).
Corinth Corinth,Resultsof Excavationsconductedby theAmericanSchoolof ClassicalStudies
at Athens.
vol. IV, ii. Oscar Broneer, TerracottaLamps, Cambridge, Mass., 1934. (See
above, Broneer,Lamps).
vol. XII. GladysR. Davidson, TheMinorObjects,Princeton,1952. (See below,
Davidson,MinorObjects).
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Davidson,MinorObjectsCorinth,vol. XII.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Day, Ec. Hist. John Day, An EconomicHistory of AthensunderRomanDomination,New York,


1942.
Dragendorff,T. S. Hans Dragendorff,"Terra Sigillata," Bonner Jahrbiicher,XCVI-XCVII, 1895,
pp. 18-155.
Dura, IV, 1, 2 DorothyH. Cox, The Excavationsat Dura-Europos,Final ReportIV, Part 1, fasc.
2, TheGreekand RomanPottery,New Haven, 1949.
Ephesos,I Forschungenin EphesosveriffentlichtvomOsterreichischenarchaeologischenInstitute,
Band I, Wien, 1906.
Grandjouan,TerracottasAthenianAgora,vol. VI.
Haltern,I SiegfriedLoeschcke, "KeramischeFunde in Haltern," Altertums-Kommission fiir
Westfalen,Mittheilungen,V, 1909, pp. 101-822.
Haltern,II Karl Hiihnle, "Ausgrabungenbei Haltern," Altertums-Kommission fitr Westfalen,
Mittheilungen,VI, 1912, pp. 33-100.
Hama, I HaraldIngholt, Rapportprdliminairesur la premidrecampagnedesfouillesde Hama
(Kgl. Danske VidenskabernesSelskab, archaeol.-kunsthist.Meddelelser,I, 3),
Copenhagen,1934.
'
Hama, 11 HaraldIngholt, Rapportprdliminairesurseptcampagnesdefouilles Hamaen Syrie,
1932-1938 (Kgl. DanskeVidenskabernesSelskab,archaeol.-kunsthist.Meddelelser,
III, 1), Copenhagen,1940.
Harrison,Sculpture AthenianAgora,vol. I.
Hofheim Emil Ritterling, Das friihr-mischeLager bei Hofheim im Taunus (Annalen des
Vereinsfur nassauischeAltertumskunde,XL), Wiesbaden,1913.
Holwerda,Leiden J. H. Holwerda,Het laat-griekscheen romeinschegebruiksaardewerk uit het middel-
in het
landsche-zeegebied rijksmuseum van te
oudheden Leiden,'s-Gravenhage,1936.
Howland, Lamps Athenian Agora, vol. IV.
1. G. II2 Inscriptiones Graecae, Vols. II-III (editio minor, Berlin, 1918-1940), Inscriptiones
Atticae Euclidis anno posteriores, ed. Johannes Kirchner.
Ihm, Arret. T6pf. M(aximilian) Ihm, "Die arretinischen T6pfereien," Bonner Jahrbiicher, CII, 1898,
pp. 106-126.
Iliffe, Stamps, 1 J. H. Iliffe, "Sigillata Wares in the Near East, a List of Potters' Stamps," Q.D.A.P.,
VI, 1986, pp. 4-58.
Iliffe, Stamps, II J. H. Iliffe, "Sigillata Wares in the Near East, II, More Potters' Stamps," Q.D.A.P.,
IX, 1989, pp. 81-76.
Jahrb. Jahrbuch des Deutschen archidologischenInstituts.
Jahresh. Jahreshefte des OsterreichischenarchdiologischenInstitutes in Wien.
J. H. S. Journal of Hellenic Studies.
J. R. S. Journal of Roman Studies.
Kiibler, Kerameikos Karl Kiibler, "Zum Formwandel in der spiitantiken attischen Tonplastik," Jahr-
buch des Deutschen archeiologischenInstituts, LXVII, 1952, pp. 99-145.
AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
ABBREVATIONS xiii

Lang, DatedJars Mabel Lang, "Dated Jars of Early Imperial Times," Hesperia, XXIV, 1955, pp.
277-285.
Oberaden,I Das Ri6merlager in Oberadenund das Uferkastellin Beckinghausenan der Lippe
(Ver6iffentlichungen aus dem stlidtischen Museumfiir Vor- und Friihgeschichte,
Dortmund, Band II), Heft 1, Bodenbefund,Miinzen, Sigillaten und Inschriften,
ed. ChristophAlbrecht,Dortmund,1988.
Ohlenroth,Rdtien LudwigOhlenroth,"ItalischeSigillatamit Auflagenaus Riitienund dem rbmischen
Germanien."Archdologisches Institut des DeutschenReiches, R6misch-germanische
Kommission,24./25. Bericht, 1934/1935,pp. 234-254.
Olbia T. Knipowitsch,Die Keramikr6mischer Zeitaus Olbiain derSammiungderEremitage
(Materialienzur r6misch-germanischen Keramik,vol. IV, 1), Frankfurta. M., 1929.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Ornavasso Enrico Bianchetti, I Sepolcretidi Ornavasso(Atti della Societh di Archeologiae


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Belle Arti per la Provincia di Torino,VI), Turin, 1895.


Ostdelta S. Schott, E. Neufferand K. Bittel, "Berichtuiberdie zweite ... nach dem Ost-
delta-rand ... Erkundungsfahrt,"DeutschesInstitut fiir igyptischeAltertumskunde
in Kairo, Mitteilungen,II, 1981, pp. 89-73.
Oswald-Pryce,Introd. Felix Oswaldand T. Davies Pryce, An Introductionto the Study of TerraSigillata,
London, 1920.
Ox6, Kerameikos August Ox', "Terra Sigillata aus dem Kerameikos,"Ath. Mitt., LII, 1927, pp.
213-224.
Ox6, Rhein August Ox6, ArretinischeReliefgeftssevom Rhein (Materialienzur r6misch-ger-
manischenKeramik,vol. V), Frankfurta. M., 1933.
Pergamon,1, 2 Alexander Conze, Altertilmervon Pergamon,Band 1, 2, Stadt und Landschaft,
Berlin, 1918.
Perlzweig,Lamps AthenianAgora,vol. VII.
Perlzweig-Grandjouan,
Lamps AthenianAgora,vol. VII, chapteron Plastic Lamps.
Petra G. Horsfieldand A. Horsfield,"Sela-Petra,the Rock, of Edom and Nabatene.IV,
The Finds," Q.D.A.P., IX, 1941, pp. 105-204.
Pnyx, I Gladys R. Davidson and Dorothy B. Thompson,Small Objectsfrom the Pnyx, I
(Hesperia,Suppl. VII), 1943.
Pnyx, II1 Lucy Talcott, Barbara Philippaki, G. Roger Edwards and Virginia R. Grace,
Small Objectsfromthe Pnyx, II (Hesperia,Suppl. X), 1956.
Priene TheodoreWiegand and Hans Schrader,Priene, Ergebnisseder Ausgrabungenund
Untersuchungen in den Jahren1895-1898, Berlin, 1904.
Q. D. A. P. Quarterlyof the Departmentof Antiquitiesin Palestine.
Samaria GeorgeA. Reisner, ClarenceS. Fisher and David G. Lyon, HarvardExcavations
at Samaria, 1908-1910, 2 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1924.
Samos, I Werner Technau, "Griechische Keramik im samischen Heraion," Ath. Mitt., LIV,
1929, pp. 6-64.
Samos, II Richard Eilmann, "Friihe griechische Keramik im samischen Heraion," Ath. Mitt.,
LVIII, 1933, pp. 47-145.
Sardis, VII William H. Buckler and David M. Robinson, Sardis, Publications of the American
Society for the Excavation of Sardis, VII, Greek and Latin Inscriptions, Part I,
Leyden, 1932.
Sig. Vogell [(Johannes) Boehlau], GriechischeAltertiimersiidrussischenFundorts aus dem Besitze
des Herrn A. Vogell, Karlsruhe, Versteigerung zu Kassel durch M. Cramer, 26-80
Mai, 1908.
Svoronos, Ath. J(oannes) N. Svoronos, Tre'sorde la numismatique grecqueancienne, Les monnaies
d'Athenes, Munich, 1923-1926.
Tarsus, I Hetty Goldman, ed., Excavations at Gazlil Kule, Tarsus, I, The Hellenistic and
Roman Periods, Princeton, 1950, especially Chap. VI, The Pottery, by Frances F.
Jones.
xiv THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Thompson,Coins AthenianAgora,vol. II.


Thompson,H. P. HomerA. Thompson,"Two Centuriesof HellenisticPottery," Hesperia,III, 1934,
pp. 311-480.
Tschandarli SiegfriedLoeschoke,"Sigillata-Tbpfereienin Tschandarli,"Ath. Mitt., XXXVII,
1912, pp. 344-407.
Tiibingen Hans Dragendorffand CarlWatzinger,ArretinischeReliefkeramik mit Beschreibung
derSammlungin Tiibingen,Reutlingen,1948.
Waag6, Agora FrederickO. Waag', "The Roman and Byzantine Pottery," Hesperia,II, 1933,
pp. 279-328.
Walters,Lamps Henry B. Walters,Catalogueof theGreekand RomanLampsin the BritishMuseum,
London, 1914.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Walters,Rom. Pot. Henry B. Walters,Catalogueof theRomanPotteryin theDepartmentsofAntiquities,


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British Museum,London,1908_.
INTRODUCTION

T he potterytreatedin this volumewas usedin Athensduringsevenhundredyears,fromthe


middleof the 1st centurybeforeChristto the early7th centuryafterChrist.It is convenient,
thoughhistoricallyinaccurate,to speak of this pottery, regardlessof place of manufacture,as
Roman pottery. The chronologicallimits are determinednot on historicalbut on ceramic
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

grounds,as will be made clearbelow.


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The pottery producedin Greeceand in the easternMediterranean basin duringthis Roman


periodhas only in late years been the object of carefulstudy, while the contemporarywares
of Italy and westernEuropehave long been well known.The reasonsfor this discrepancyare
not hard to find. Principalamong them are the decorativenature and the intrinsicartistic
interest of the westernwares; the easternpottery is less frequentlyand often less tastefully
ornamented.Anotherreasonlies in the fortunatediscoveryin the West of many potters'kilns
and of dated sites, whichhave made possiblethe establishmentof an accuratechronology,the
distinctionof the productsof the variousmanufacturingcenters, and a rewardingtechnical
analysisof productionmethods.But it isjust to drawattentionalsoto the fact that archaeologists
workingin the easternMediterranean area have all too often directedtheir activity primarily
toward monumentsof pre-Romandate. However, recent explorations,notably at Antioch,
Tarsus and Athens, have significantlyincreasedour knowledgeof the wares of the eastern
Mediterranean in Romantimes.ThematerialfromAntiochand Tarsus,alreadyfully published,'
has been most valuablein providingan extensive repertoryof fabrics,shapesand decorative
motifs;but the natureof these sites was such that neitheroffereda soundchronologicalframe-
work for the study of the wares.At Athens the Germanexcavationsof the Kerameikoshave
producedgreat quantities of late Roman lamps, terracottasand pottery, but chronological
evidenceseems to be meager,and the publicationis by no meanscomplete.2Fortunately,the
excavationsconductedsince 1931in the Agoraof Athenshave madeavailabledata sufficientto
establishboth the relativeand the absolutechronologyof muchof the potteryproducedin the
easternMediterraneanduringthe entire Roman period.3
In the followingpages there is presentedan analysisof eight groupsof pottery, severalof
them stratified,all of whichcan be datedwithinreasonablycloselimits.4Throughthis analysis
1 Antioch, 1; Antioch, IV, 1; Tarsus, I.
2 See Ox6,
Kerameikos; Kiibler, Kerameikos, and the references there cited in footnotes 1-2.
3 For an earlier
study of Roman pottery from the Agora excavations, see Waag6, Agora. Many of the potter's stamps have
been published by Iliffe (Stamps, I and Stamps, 1I); in the catalogue, reference to Iliffe's publication will be omitted except in
cases of correction of his readings.
4 Although in some deposits considerable numbers of coins have been found, these have proved chiefly of negative value in
confirming the chronology outlined here. Many coins were so corroded as to be wholly illegible; still more were in a condition
which permitted no more than a partial identification, or general indication of date. Only those coins sufficiently well preserved
to be included in the Agora catalogue of coins are listed here; and of these, only such as are of significance for the date of a
given group or layer. Partial identifications (e.g., Athenian New Style, Athenian Imperial) have, however, been taken into
account and it may be stated that there is nothing in any of the numismatic evidence which conflicts with the other types of
evidence presented. For Roman Imperial issues, the published catalogue (Thompson, Coins) number is given and the dates
cited follow the publication. For the Athenian Imperial issues, the dates given are those supplied by Mrs. Josephine Platner
Harwood, based on her study of these types and classes (Hesperia, V, 1936, pp. 285-332); her references to Svoronos' plates
(Svoronos, Ath.) are also added. For Athenian New Style and other types and issues, the dating in general follows the practice
set up in Mrs. Harwood's article in Hesperia, II, 1933, pp. 231-278, and is that given in the Agora catalogue.
1
2 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

it becomes possible to establish (as Thompson has demonstrated in connection with Hellenistic
pottery5), a general chronologicalframeworkwithin which fit the numerous local and imported
wares of the Roman period. The eight groups here catalogued were chosen because they seemed
to offer more satisfactory and abundant evidence for typology and chronology than the others
available up to 1953.6 Evidence from other groups will be adduced as required to supplement
that of the major eight;7 but in general it will be found that the groups not reported here
duplicate the material from Groups F to N8 without adding significantly to the information
which the latter make available. Within the eight groups studied considerableoverlapping will
be observed (especially in the case of GroupM, a stratified well filling which covers almost the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

entire Roman period and which is most important from the point of view of relative chronology).
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This overlapping seems justified, however, by the typological completeness which it makes
possible.
Group F, which is dated in the last three quarters of the 1st century B.C., represents the
beginning of the Roman period from the ceramic standpoint. In the Hellenistic period the fine
pottery in use in Athens xyas predominantly of black glaze and of local manufacture;9 this
tradition was maintained without seriousinterruptionuntil the early 1st century B.C. In 86 B.C.
Roman troops under Sulla breached the walls of Athens between the Sacred Gate and the
Piraeus Gate and sacked the city.10It is logical to suppose that the potters' quarter, lying in the
line of march of the Roman troops toward the Agora, sufferedseverely at this time. Many of the
potteries were doubtless destroyed; many potters, with their families, if they had been fortunate
enough to survive the famine of the siege-days, may have fallen a prey to the slaughter wreaked
by Sulla's soldiers on those early March days when Athenian blood flowed in the streets of the
market and the Kerameikos. Such a supposition is certainly strengthened by the nature of the
Athenian ceramic output of the generations immediately following the sack of 86 B.C.: the
good black glaze of earlier days is almost totally lacking, and the fine "pinkish buff" clay which
had characterized Attic vases for many centuries is replaced by different, and in many cases
inferior, fabrics. Further, the importation of fine wares from Italy and the East increases
considerablyas the quality of the local wares declines in the latter half of the century. Because
of this sharp break in pottery styles occurringafter the sack of Athens by Sulla's troops, it has
seemed appropriate to select the year 86 B.C. as the arbitrary dividing point between the
Hellenistic and Roman periods in the history of Attic ceramics.
The end of the Roman period, again from the point of view of pottery production, will be
placed at that point (not yet clearly defined in terms of chronology) when the dull paints of
late Roman pottery gave way to the lustrous glazes associated with Byzantine times. As this
change takes place after the early years of the 7th century of our era, it may perhaps be

6 See Thompson, H.P.


6 More useful groups may still be found, as the excellent stratified well group excavated in the summer of 1955, Deposit
Q 17:4 (Hesperia, XXV, 1956, pp. 53-57, pls. 14-15).
7 In certain instances, where uninventoried sherds from a given group reveal the presence of a significant type of vessel
preserved in too fragmentary condition to justify cataloguing, a more complete specimen of the vessel from another group or
deposit may be incorporated in the catalogue; in such cases, the foreign piece will receive a serial number within the group
catalogue, but its number will be cited (both in text and in plates) within square brackets, as [G 99].
* Since the five groups of Hellenistic pottery from the Agora previously studied by Thompson (Thompson, H.P.) are
identified by the letters A-E, the next eight letters of the alphabet (omitting I) are used here for the groups of Roman pottery.
Hereafter, reference to Hellenistic material from Thompson's five groups will be made solely by the citation of the group
letter (A-E).
O See Thompson, H.P.; a catalogue of the Hellenistic pottery
from the Agora excavations is being prepared by G. Roger
Edwards.
1oPlutarch, Su4la, xiv; Appian, Mithridates, xxxviii.
INTRODUCTION 8

associatedwith that time at which Runcimansays "the Roman empireturns the cornerto
Byzantinism."''Not all historianswill allowthat the "Byzantine"periodas such beginsat so
late a date; yet for ceramicpurposes,the changewhich then took placein methodsof manu-
facturemarksthe end of the Romanand the beginningof the Byzantineera.
Betweenthese two extremeslies one importantpointderepure,the year 267, in whichAthens
was invadedby the Heruli.The extent of the damagecausedby their sack of the city has been
demonstratedin the Agora,the Pnyx and the Kerameikos.'2Theimmediatephysicaleffectwas
the destructionof portionsof the city wallsand of manyhomesand publicbuildingswhichlay
in ruins,unoccupied,for someyears.Not long afterthe sack,perhapsin the time of the emperor
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Probus(276-282),the fortificationsof the city wererepairedand reducedin extent, the new line
embracinga small area directlynorth of the Acropolis.13 The old GreekAgorawas left outside
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the walls, its buildingsin ruinsand the ruinsalreadypillagedfor the constructionof the new
defenses.The wells whichservedthese buildingswere abandoned--somefilledwith debrisand
ultimatelycoveredby laterstructures,others,thoughunused,keptopenpendingthe reoccupation
of what had long been the center of the civic and intellectuallife of the city. Large scale
activity in the Agora was not resumeduntil probablythe early 5th century. It is unlikely,
however,that the entire populationof the city could have been accommodatedwithin the
narrowexpanseof the new fortifiedarea. Doubtlesssome of the populationmoved back very
soon onto the slopes of the Areopagusand into the old market-square,possiblyas squatters,
builttheirhuts withinthe ruinsof the olderhouses,equippedthemfromthe damagedfurnishings
whichthey pulledout fromunderfallenwalls and suppliedthem with waterfromthe old well
shafts. Thehistoriesof the two wellswhichsuppliedGroupsL and M pointto this reawakening
of life in the region.
Economicreactionto the sack by the Heruli was apparentlynot so far-reachingas might
have been expected.The coinagein circulationwithin the city showsno appreciable,prolonged
decline,14and althoughthe importationof foreignpottery fell off sharply,the local ceramic
industryremainedvigorous.The schoolsof Athens, at least duringthe 4th century,enjoyeda
period of great renownand prosperity,'5which culminatedin the early 5th century in the
construction,overthe ruinsof the Odeionof Agrippa,of a largecomplexof Universitybuildings.e6
With the closingof the schoolsof Athensby Justinianin 529, the intellectuallife of the pagan
city cameto an end; andwith the departureof the philosopher-teachers andtheironcenumerous
band of auditors,the city suffereda loss of prestige and prosperityfrom which it did not
recoveruntil Byzantinetimes.
Thechangingfortunesof the city duringthe sevencenturiesof the Romanperiodarereflected
in the ceramicoutput of the local potteries and in the quantity, quality and source of the
foreignwaresimportedinto Athens.The secondvolumeof this study will attemptto relate the
historyof the city to the severalindividualwaresor fabricswhichwill therebe analysed.In the
presentvolumehistoricalmatterwill be introducedonly insofaras it aids in the establishment
of the generalchronologicalsequenceof the Attic and non-Atticwaresused in the city.
"I
S. Runciman, Byzantine Civilisation, London, 1933, p. 40.
12Hesperia, XIX, 1950, p.
134; Thompson, Coins, p. 2; Harrison, Sculpture, pp. 90-92; Kiibler, Kerameikos, p. 101;
Hesperia, XII, 1943, pp. 370-372; Day, Ec. Hist., pp. 258-261.
13 See the plan by John Travlos, 1950 (1951), pl. A (fol. p. 52).
14
Thompson, Coins, pp. 2-3, andTTpa-rtxd&,
chart of coinage ratios, p. x.
15 Day, Ec. Hist., pp. 258-268.
16 H. A.
Thompson, Hesperia, XIX, 1950, pp. 134-139. For contemporary constructions of similar purpose in the Academy
and the Library of Hadrian, lTpaxcmKd, 1950 (1951), pp. 53-56; on the south slope of the Acropolis, B.C.H., LXXX, 1956,
pp. 232-234.
1*
GLOSSARY
In the descriptionof objectsin the catalogue,the followingabbreviations,descriptiveterms
and conventionshave been employed:
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

NUMBERS OF OBJECTS
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During the course of excavation, each object uncoveredwhich was thought worthy of
recordreceivedan inventory numberprecededby a letter or letters which indicated its
categomy or material,as shownbelow. For the purposesof this study, the objects from each
of the eight groupshave ,receivedadditional,arbitrarycataloguenumbersprecededby the
groupletter. In the text and cataloguewhich follow, group numbersare printed in bold
face type, inventory numbersin regulartype; in the plates, where type distinctionis not
made, a few inventory numbersare precededby "Inv." in order to avoid confusionwith
group numbers.

InventoryNumbers
The letters precedinginventorynumbersindicatecategoriesor materials,as follows:
A - Architecture
B - Bronze
BI - Bone and Ivory
G - Glass
I - Inscriptions
IL - Iron and Lead
L - Lamps
MC- MiscellaneousClay Objects
P - Pottery
S - Sculpture
SS - Stamps and Seals
ST - Stone
T - Terracotta
W - Wood

CatalogueNumbers
Cataloguenumbersprecededby A, B, C, D, E referto HellenisticGroupsA-E (Thomp-
son, H. P.).
Cataloguenumbersprecededby F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N referto RomanGroupspublished
in this volume.
Cataloguenumbersset within loweredbracketsindicate objects whose provenanceis
other than that of the Roman Groupsas such (see above, p. 2, note 7)
GLOSSARY 5

ABBREVIATIONS
H. height (unlessotherwisespecified,the height is measuredfrom foot to
lip and does not includeprojectionof handleabove the lip)
D. diameter(unlessotherwisespecified,this measurementis taken at the
point of maximumdiameter)
W. width
Th. thickness
L. length (in the case of lamps,the lengthis measuredto includethe handle
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and nozzle)
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Max. dim. maximumpreserveddimension


P.H. (P.D.,etc.) height (diameter,etc.) as preserved
est. estimated
rest. as restored (restoration,in plaster, has been undertakenonly where
justifiedby the remainsof the vessel itself or by analogousspecimens)
at t. (orb.) a.h. at level of top (or bottom)attachmentof handle

DESCRIPTIVE TERMS
Glaze- This termhas been interpretedfreely. The glaze of Arretineand of some Samian
potterymay trulybe saidto rivalthe best Attic glazesof the 6th and5th centuriesB.C.
Mostotherglazesof the Romanperiodare dull and thin; thereis no reason,however,
to think that their basic chemicalcompositionis differentfrom that of the Attic or
Arretinealkalineglazes-their inferiorqualityis due to poormixing,thin application
or poorlycontrolledfiring,or to a combinationof these factors.
The absence of referenceto glaze in the descriptionof an object in the catalogue
indicatesthat the piece was not glazed; whereglaze is described,tbh object will be
presumedto be glazedoverall(in the case of closedvesselsand lamps,this meansthe
entire exteriorsurface).The additionof the term "partial"to a descriptionof glaze
signifiesthat on the exteriorof the vessel the glazeis limitedto the upperpart (thus,
an open vessel, such as a bowl or plate, if partiallyglazed,has glaze on the interior
and on the upperpart of the exteriorsurface).
Slip - This term is appliedto a coatingof thinnedclay appliedin almostliquid state to
the surfaceof a vessel beforefiring.Slips are frequentlyto be found on non-glazed
vessels, especiallythe smaller-sizedjugs and amphorae;the presenceof slip is readily
detectedin many caseswhereit showsa tendencyto flakeaway fromthe body of the
vase. Generallythe slip is of the same coloras the body (self-slip);occasionallyit has
a differentcolorwhichis probablydue to the use of a differentclay mixture.The slip
was presumablyappliedafter the vase had reachedthe leather-hardcondition,when
it was given its final turning.It is not impossiblethat the slip was employedin the
hope of concealingsome of the inequalitiesof surfaceleft by carelessturning.
Mattwhite slip - This termis appliedto a relativelythick coatingof dull, white slip used
particularlyon local incenseburners(as HII15, M 74, M 224). Such vessels are often
of gray clay, not carefullyturned; the slip may have been intendedto concealthe
poor quality and color of the body, but it is itself remarkablyfugitive.
6 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Double-dipping- The open vessels of Pergamene and Samian ware were normally glazed
by dipping one half the circumferenceof the vessel into the glaze basin, then turning
the piece 1800 and dipping the other half; as a result, the two immersions into the
glaze usually overlapped slightly, leaving a narrow streak of darker glaze running
across the surface inside and out. This double-dipping process was not employed on
other Roman or on Hellenistic wares, though most pottery of the Roman era was
probably glazed by dipping (a single immersion) rather than by painting.
Wheel-ridging- In the throwing process the potter's finger tip or knuckle, or a blade with
rounded end, held against the exterior of the body and moved up or down as the
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vessel revolves on the wheel, creates a spiral groove and spiral ridges about the body
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(P1.13, K 81). Usually, in the course of turning, these grooves and ridges are eliminated
by the pressureof a wooden blade against the surface. The potter of Roman times often
removed these irregularities only over part of the body (often just above the base,
the turning of which of necessity involved the smoothing of the surface immediately
above), leaving the wheel-ridgesexposed over the balance of the surface (P1.14, K 82).
In some cases the ridges were merely flattened in the turning process (P1. 13, K 64);
in others, as in numerous jugs of the 3rd century and later, the wheel-ridges were
neatly executed and were retained as a form of decoration (P1. 13, K 69-70).
Spiral grooving - By the use of an instrument with a narrow end or even a point, the
potter may produce ridges which are close-set and sharp (P1. 34, M 371, shoulder).
This spiral grooving generally covers the upper portion of the body; in some instances
the ridges between the groove-lines are partially flattened in the turning process, as in
the case of wheel-ridging. This form of decoration appears in the 4th century and
becomes common in the 5th and 6th.
Combing- On some vessels of the 6th and 7th centuries a decoration of parallelhorizontal
or wavy lines was obtained by holding the points of a fragment of comb against the
pot as it revolved on the wheel. This practice, of great antiquity in the Near East,'
is still followed by some Athenian potters of the present day.
Gouging- Another form of decoration on later wares consists of lines cut into the exterior
surface of the vessel, after turning, by means of a round-nosed blade or chisel. The
lines are often vertical or oblique, carelessly incised all around the body (P1. 30,
M 292-293, M 298-299); occasionally they are used to create neat patterns of "leaves"
or "trees" (P1. 81, [M 312]). Gougeddecoration is rare before the time of the Herulian
sack of Athens (cf. K 32, M 116, [IM157]).
Foot types - The following terms, used to describe feet of vessels in the catalogue, are
illustrated by profile drawingson Plates 73 and 68:
1. Ring foot - a foot which is clearly set off from the wall on the exterior and from
the base on the interior (P1. 73, G 13, G 82, M 94).
2. False ring foot - a foot which is set off from the base on the interior but which on
the exterior forms the termination of the wall (P1. 73, G 21, M 176).
3. Pedestal foot (P1. 63, Gr45).
4. Tubular foot (P1. 73, P 822).
1 On gray Minyan ware in Troy VI (Blegen, Caskey, and Rawson, Troy, vol. III, The Sixth Settlement,Princeton, 1953,
p. 46, fig. 312, no. 37.1038 and passim); also reported in Troy VIII (Prof. Cedric Boulter). Cf. also J.H.S., LII, 1932, p. 5.
GLOSSARY 7

Base types - The term "base"is used to meanthat part of the undersurfaceof the vessel
whichlies insidethe line of the foot (or,in the absenceof foot, the restingsurfaceof the
pot, as J 19, N 1-11). Fourspecialtypes of base, listed below,are illustratedby profile
drawingson Plates 73 and 60:
1. Offsetbase - the base is separatedby one or moreridgesfromthe inside surface
of the foot (P1.60, F 3, F 12 and F 14).
2. Conicalbase - the base, instead of being flat, has the shape of an invertedcone
(P1.73, G 82 and P 822).
3. Moulded base- duringturningthe baseis markedby alternatingbroad,concentric
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

ridgesand grooves(P1.73, M94 and[M 101).


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4. Groovedbase - the base is markedby a groovejust insidethe foot (P1.73, M 145


and M 48).
Lip and rim types - In generalthe term"lip"is appliedto the upperterminationof the
profile; "rim"describesthat part of the vessel, near the lip, which is sometimesset
off by a markedchangein profile.Four specialtypes of lip and rim are illustratedby
profiledrawingson Plate 73:
1. Carinaterim - the rim is undercutand sharplyset off fromthe wall (G 33).
2. Flangedrim- the verticalrimis set off fromthe wall by a horizontalprojectionor
flange(G 175, G 13).
3. Rolledlip - the lip is thickenedinto a rollor collar(H 95; cf. also P1.22, M95-98).
4. Thickenedlip - the fabricof the neckis thickerat the top and often flaresoutward
(M156; cf. also P1.24, M 156 and P1.25, M 175-178).
Handle types - The following terms, used to describehandles in the catalogue, are
illustratedon Plates 42 and 41:
1. Sliced handle - these handles are apparentlymade of narrowstrips cut from a
thin sheet of clay by means of a knife or taut wire
(P1.42, [G 103] and G 183).
2. Splayedhandle- the upperand lowerattachmentsof the handleare pressedout
to the sidesby the potter'sfingersin orderto insurea firmjunctionbetweenhandle
and body (P1.41, left).
3. Straphandle- a broad,flat handle(cf. no. 4, below).
4. Ridged(grooved)handle- a straphandlemarkedby prominentgroovesandridges
runninglengthwise(P1.42, J 13, M 167, M 357).
5. Rolled handle - a handle made of a strip of clay, rolled on the potter's bench
(cf. no. 6, below).
6. Doublerolledhandle (P1.42, G 198).
7. Ribbonhandle- a horizontalhandle,often ridged,appliedclose to the body and
servingprimarilyfor decoration(P1.42, K 20).
8. Twist handle - a handle made of two or more rolls of clay twisted or braided
together(P1.42, F 68).
Filling hole - Athenianhouseholdersfrequentlybrokea hole in the shoulderof a closed
vessel, after its originalcontentshad been exhausted,in orderto facilitateits re-use
for drawingwater; this hole becamethe fillinghole, while the originalmouth served
as an escapefor air whenthe jar was loweredinto the well water (the fillingholes are
8 THE ATHENIANAGORA:POTTERYOF THE ROMANPERIOD

visiblein the photographsof J 51, [J 46] and J 50 on P1. 11). Such holes are found
commonlyin amphoraeandjars of the 2nd centuryand later. Mrs.Evelyn Smithson
informsme that similar re-use of medium-sizedoinochoaioccurredin the Proto-
geometricand early Geometricperiodsin Athens.
Mastic- Winestoragejars frequently(andsmalleramphoraeandjugs occasionally)were
linedon the interiorwith a resinoussubstance,the residueof whichis foundsettledin
a thick mass at the bottom of the vessel and in a thin coatingover the wall (P1.35,
M 99). This substanceis generallyblack in color, with a glossy surface,and very
brittle;whenchipped,it flakesawayreadily;whenheated,it gives off a pungentodor.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Mr.EarleR. Caleyin 1937examinedsamplesof this substancefrom4th centuryjars


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of GroupM and declaredit to be masticgum.2 The presenceof sucha liningin vessels


cataloguedbelow will be indicated by the addition of the word "mastic"to the
descriptionof the fabric.
Storage- In addition to the inventoriedobjects from the eight groups, there are in
storage numerouspots and fragmentswhich have not been consideredworthy of
inventory numbers;such pieces, however, may be of considerableimportancein
establishingthe chronologicallimits and relative frequencyof certain fabrics and
shapes. When such uninventoriedpieces are mentionedin the catalogue,they are
introducedunderthe heading"Storage."
Deposit- Thistermis usedto referto any physicalunit (well,cistern,grave,pit, layer of
destructiondebris,etc.) in which the recoveredfinds presentsufficienthomogeneity
to be of valuein the study of type, style, chronology.In the Index of RomanDeposits
(pp. 123-127)will be founda list of all depositsreferredto in this volume;an expla-
nation of the gridnumberingsystem for depositsis also given there.
Group- This wordis used to referto the materialcontentsof a deposit.
Context - Objectswhich do not derive from specific deposits are yet often found in
associationwith some othermaterial(pottery,lamps,coins)whichmay be helpfulin
confirmingchronology.Whensuchobjectsarecitedin the cataloguewithoutreference
to contextor date,it is to be assumedthat no validchronologicalevidenceis available.

CONVENTIONs
Dates - Dates are to be understoodas of the Christianera unlessotherwisespecified.
Measurements- All measurementsare given in meters (the "m." is omitted in the
descriptionsof the objects).
Descriptions- Detailed descriptionof the shape of a vessel is often omitted when the
shapeis clearfrom the photographor profiledrawing.
Color- As all color descriptions,those used in the followingcatalogueare boundto be
deceptiveto the reader.Uniformityin coloridentificationcan be achievedonlythrough
the use of a standardcolorchart yet the use of such a chartis unsatisfactory,except
2 ,
On the use of mastic and other resins by the ancients for flavoring their wines (both in casks and jars) see: Dioscurides,
Mat. Med., V, 34; Cato, De Agri Cultura, XXIII; Pliny, Nat. Hist., XII, 72, XIV, 120-124, 127-128, 134, XVI, 53-58,
XXIII, 45-46; Columella, XII, 18, 23-24. It is perhaps questionable whether the method of flavoring with resin described by
Cato would leave so considerable a deposit in the jars as that which can still be found in many from the Agora excavations;
but the preliminary lining of the jars with pitch would certainly do so (Cato and Columella, loc. citt.). With the ancient
name of the resin-flavored wine, Arl-nvrlMs, compare the modern A'rrovra.
3 As the
Murnell Soil Color Charts,prepared by the Munsell Color Co., Baltimore, Md.
GLOSSARY 9

for the finest fabrics, becausemost pottery vessels exhibit numerousvariationsin


color of clay on the surfaceand at the core and other variationsin the color of the
glaze, the result, for the most part, of unstable firing conditionsin the kiln. It is,
furthermore,highly probablethat the student workingprimarilywith pottery may
describethe colorof a claylamporfigurinein termscommonto potterydescriptionbut
differentfromthose whichwouldbe usedby onewhoseconcernwas primarilywith the
lamps or figurines.

CRossREFERENCES
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Lamps- In descriptionsof Greeklamps,the type classificationsestablishedby Howland


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(Howland,Lamps) are followed. The Corinthlamp types of Broneer'spublication


(Broneer,Lamps)are referredto occasionally;but the Corinthiantype distinctionsare
often not strictly applicableto the lampsfoundin Athens.The lampsof Romandate
from the Agora will be published by Miss Judith Perlzweig (Perlzweig,Lamps)
withoutdivisioninto specificallynumberedtypes; the plasticlampswill be treatedby
MissClaireveGrandjouanin the same volume (Perlzweig-Grandjouan, Lamps).Cross
referencesare providedin the ensuingcataloguefor eachlamppublishedby Howland,
Perlzweig,or Grandjouan.For Howlandthe appropriatecataloguenumberis given.
For Perlzweigand Grandjouanreferenceis by author'sname only to the volume
where cross referencemay be found by consulting the inventory number in the
Concordance.For plastic lamps the name Perlzweig-Grandjouan is used to dis-
tinguish from Grandjouan,Terracottas.
Terracottas-- MissClair~ve Grandjouanwill publishthe terracottasof Romandate from
the Agora(Grandjouan,Terracottas). Crossreferencesto her volume are providedin
the followingcatalogueby author'sname only.
GROUP F
LAST THREE QUARTERSOF 1ST CENTURY B.C.

GroupF constitutesthe upperfillingof Deposit N 19:1, a cisternon the northslope of the


Areopagus.The building(presumablya privatehouse)withwhichthe cisternwas associated,as
well as the upperpart of the cisternneck, had beencut awayby the constructionof a modem
house in whosecellarfloorthe cisternopeningwas discovered.Two channels,meeting at an
obtuseangle,connectedthis cisternwith another,DepositN 18:1 (P1.74).' The cisternN 19:1
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

appears to have been constructedin the early 3rd century B.C.;2 it went out of use ca.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

86 B.C.3The connectingcisternN 18:1 was probablyconstructedat a date later than N 19:1


and may have goneout of use whenthe latter ceasedto function.4The upperfill of the cistern
N 19:1 (to a depth of about 3.90 m.) containedpottery of a type differentfromthat below,
with some fragmentsof wall plasterand marble-chipmosaicnear the top and twenty-eight
bronzecoins,one of whichis datedca. 50 B.C.5Thedistributionof fragmentsof individualpots
fromtop to 3.90m. indicatesthat thisfillingwasthrownin at one time; the natureof its contents
suggestshouseholdwaste and debrisfrom the destructionor repairof the house.The date at
whichthe fillingwas thrownin cannotbe determinedwith accuracy,as the debrismight have
lain exposedfor sometime beforebeingusedfor fillin the cistern.But sincethe potteryfromthe
upperfillseemsto containno strayfragmentscertainlylaterin datethanthe bulkof thematerial,6
we may assumethat the debriswas throwninto the shaft not long after it had accumulated.
And since, amongthe numerousfragmentsof fine glazedpottery, thereare no examplesof the
Arretinewarewhichwasimportedinto Athensin ratherlargequantityduringthe last decadeof
the 1st centuryB.C. (as G33ff.), it is probablethat the date for the pottery of this Grouplies
approximatelybetween75 B.C.and the end of the century.
In the subsequentcatalogueof GroupF areincludeda few piecesthe depthof whoseposition
in the cisternfillingis uncertain,but the fabric or shapeof whichis such as to associatethem
withthe Romanratherthanthe Hellenisticlevel (F 41, 51, 85, 90). Therehave been excludedall
objectswhich derivefrom the lowerfilling (ca. 3.90 m. to bottom) of the cistern and which
1 The cistern N 19:1 was excavated between February and April, 1987. It had been lined with waterproof cement. The
preserved top of the cistern neck measured 0.90 m. x 1.10 m. when excavation began; the maximum preserved depth was
5.50 m. During the course of digging it became necessary, for the protection of the workmen, to cut away some of the soft
bedrock around the neck; the section in Plate 74 shows the dimensions and condition of the cistern after this alteration of
the neck.
the
SSeven lamps and some pottery from the bottom, probably to be connected with the construction or earliest use of
cistern, are dated in the early 3rd century B.C. by R. H. Howland and G. R. Edwards respectively.
3 The cistern was filled to a level of about 1.60 m. above the floor with debris, including much pottery, which G. R. Edwards
considers to belong to the very early 1st century B.C.; this debris was probably deposited at the time of the general clean-up
of the Agora area after the sack of Athens by Sulla in 86 B.C.
, 4 The nature of the juncture between the channels leading from the two cisterns suggests that N 19:1 preceded N 18:1;
see Plate 74. The filling of N 18:1, however, was cleared out at some time during the Roman period and a well (N 18:5) was
sunk through its floor; the exact chronology of this well is not known as its excavation had to be abandoned at a depth of
ten meters because of the collapse of the bedrock sides of the shaft.
' The analysis of the significant coins is as follows:
Athens, New Style, ca. 50 B.C. (one specimen, depth 0.50 m.), as Svoronos, Ath., pl. 79, nos. 18-21.
Athens, New Style, ca. 88 B.C. (two specimens), as Svoronos, Ath., pl. 81, nos. 45-48.
Athens, New Style, ca. 110-100 B.C. (one specimen), as Svoronos, Ath., pl. 81, nos. 33-39.
* But compare F 15.
GROUPF 11

representthe latest Hellenisticperiod;therehave been excludedalso all pieceswhichcomefrom


the upper filling (top to ca. 8.90 m.) but which can be shown by analogy with datable Hellenistic
material to be Hellenistic intrusions in the dump-heapfrom which this upperfillingwas obtained.
In the study of Groups G-N, objects other than pottery (bronze, stone, bone, glass, etc.) are
includedin the catalogues.In the case of GroupF it is difficultto ascertainwhethersuch
miscellaneousobjects are contemporarywith the upper filling as a whole or are Hellenistic
intrusionsinto the dump-heap;hence objectsotherthan pottery and lampsare omittedfrom
the catalogueof GroupF.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

PERGAMENE WARE7 F 4. RIM FRAGMENT. P1. 60.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

F 1. PLATE. P 11854.P.H. 0.025; D. lip est. 0.80. A small


PlS. 1, 60.
P 11851. H. 0.043; D. rest. 0.38. Fragmentary; segmentof the rim preserved.
restored. Clay and glaze as F 3.
Hard, buff clay; reddish brown glaze, moderately F 5. PLATE. Pls. 1, 60.
lustrous;double-dippingstreak. On the floor,impres-
sions of three kiln-supportsdirectly over the position P 11850. P.H. 0.017; D. rest. 0.80. Fragmentary;
of the ring foot.8 foot and center of floor missing; partly restored.
On the floor, five neat, circulargrooves (executed Yellowishbuff clay; reddishbrownglaze.
with a roulette) arrangedin an outer group of two Therewasprobablya ringfoot:comparethe 2nd
and an inner groupof three. and early 1st centuryB.C.Hellenisticplates D 1 and
E 22-26.
F 2. PLATE, STAMPED. PIs. 57, 60.
P 11852. H. 0.028; D. rest. 0.16. Fragmentary; F 6. HEMISPHERICALCUP. P1. 60.
restored. P 12259. H. 0.05; D. 0.095. Complete.
Yellowishbuff clay; reddishbrownglaze; double- Clay and glaze as F 3; double-dippingstreak.
dipping streak. CompareF 7-11 and G 1.
A smallerversionof F 1. On the floor,five stamped
palmettes in a circularband and a stamped rosette F 7. HEMISPHERICALCUP, GRAFFITO. Pls. 58, 60.
at center, all enclosed by five rouletted grooves, P 8909.H. 0.048;D. 0.09.Almostcomplete.
arrangedas on F 1. For a very similarfragmentfrom Clay and glaze as F 5; douple-dippingstreak. On
see
Siphnos B.S.A., XLIV, 1949,p. 69, no. 1, fig. 14,1, base, a graffito.
pl. 22,17.
F 8. HEMISPHERICAL CUP, GRAFFITO. Pls. 1, 58.
F 3. PLATE. P1.60. P 8912. H. 0.046; D. 0.087. Almost complete;
P 11853. H. 0.022; D. est. 0.15. Fragmentary. restored.
Pinkish buff clay; reddishbrownglaze.
Clayand glaze as F 5; double-dippingstreak.
SmallerthanF 1-2; the base is offset;a ridgemarks
the outer edge of the floor.
Shapeas F 7. Onthe exterior,a graffito.

? A separatestudy of Pergameneware will appearin the F 9. HEMISPHERICALCUP. PI. 1.


second volume of this work. For previous studies and P 8910. H. 0.045; D. 0.091. Complete.
see Tarsus, 1,
bibliography, 172-178, 180-183. The
pp.
manufactureof Pergameneware began in the 2nd century Orange-buffclay, softerthan usualin Pergamene
B.C. and lasted well into the 1st century after Christ.Its ware;lightredglaze.
place of manufacturewas probablyin the easternMediter- Shapeas F 7.
raneanarea,in Syriaor lowerEgypt.
8 Kiln-supports or firing-discs were commonly used in the PIs.1, 58.
firingof Pergameneand of earlyArretinewares,set between
F 10. HEMISPHERICALCUP, GRAFFITO.
stackedplates of largesize in orderto preventthe adherence P 8911.H. 0.044;D. 0.084.Almostcomplete.
of one plate to anotherduringthe firing.Such a dividerstill Clay, glaze and shape as F 6; double-dipping
adheresto the floorof a black-glazedplate fragment(Agora streak.Onthe base,a graffito.
P 17105,P1. 39) from excavationsin Athens, at the site of
the ancientcity wall on AristeidesStreet;froma plate with
broadring foot, it is of hard, reddishclay with dull, black F 11. HEMISPHERICAL CUP. PI. 60.
glaze (firedred inside the foot); the fill from which this P 8913.H. 0.04;D. 0.088.Almostcomplete.
fragment comes contains some Hellenistic and some late 1st
century B.C. wares. See also Waag6, Agora, p. 286, nos. 54-61; Clay, glaze and shape as F 6, but this cup is of
Antioch, 1, p. 70, note 17; Antioch, IV, 1, p. 25. broader proportions.
12 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

F 12. BELL-CUP,GRAFFITO. Pls. 58. 60. WESTSLOPEWARE"


P 8942. H. 0.048; D. 0.098. Almost complete. F 16. DEEPBOWL. Pls. 1, 68.
Clayandglazeas F 5. P 11840. H. 0.155; D. rest. 0.287. Fragmentary;
Cupwith flaringwall on ring foot. On the base, a restored.
graffito:ME,probablyan abbreviationof the owner's Pinkish buff clay; metallic, red glaze, mottled
name.
black in part.
F 13. BELL-CUP, GRAFFITO. Pls. 1, 58. A deepbowlwith flaringwall. Decorationin added
P 9034. H. 0.05; D. 0.098. Almost complete. white and buff paints: inside the foot, a star of four
Clay and glaze as F 5; double-dippingstreak. points; on the wall, curvingfloralspraysand ribbons,
Shapeas F 14. Onthe base, a graffito:A, probably above and below which a band of large dots alter-
an abbreviationof the owner'sname. nating with pairsof shortverticalstrokes.Each band
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

of dots and vertical strokes is outlined above and


F 14. BELL-CUP. P1. 60.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

below by a wheel-rungroove,underthe glaze, which


P 8914. H. 0.05; D. 0.095. Almost complete. was probably intended as a guide to the workman
Clay and glaze as F 3; double-dippingstreak. who added the painted ornament.The stalks of the
Shape as F 12, but with more pronouncedflare to floral sprays are indicated by incision through the
the wall. glaze.
SAMIAN WXRE9 F 17. DEEP BOWL. P1. 68.
P 9069. H. 0.195; D. at lip 0.32. Almost complete;
F 15. PLATEFRAGMENT,
STAMPED. PIs. 57, 61.
restored.
P 11848.P.H. 0.009; D. of restingsurfaceest. 0.12. Reddish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze, mottled
Fragmentary;rim missing. black in part.
Soft, micaceous,cinnamon-redclay; dull, reddish Similarto F 16. Decorationin white and buffpaint
glaze. The surfaceof the clay has flaked extensively. as on F 16, except that the star inside the foot has
At the center of the floor, a potter's stamp:
eight points, the floral sprays are vertical and the
a I poCv].xo ribbonsare missing.No use of incision.
Thisfragmentis an exampleof the finerand earlier F 16-17 are examples of the latest stage of the
class of Samian ware which I have termed Sam- Attic Hellenistic fabric known as West Slope ware.
ian B. Samian pottery seems to have been manu- Late 2nd century B.C. specimensof a shape parallel
factured in imitation of and in competition with to F 16-17 aremoreshallowand makemoreextensive
Arretine ware, the importation of which into the use of incision in the exterior decoration.'2
eastern Mediterraneancertainly does not antedate
80 B.C. Thereis no evidencefor dating Samianware
OTHERFINE EARLY ROMAN FABRIC813
prior to the end of the 1st century B.C.; if not an
intrusioninto the householddumpwhich constitutes F 18. BRITTLE WARE BEAKER. P1. 1.
the upperfillingof Deposit N 19:1, F 15 must be one P 11855. H. 0.089; D. at lip 0.099. Fragmentary;
of the earliest products of the Samian kilns. The
restored.
absence of other Samian fragments and the total
absence of Arretine ware from this Deposit seem suf-
Fine, hard, reddish clay with some mica, fired
brownishgray on upperpart of exterior(probablyas
ficient evidence for placing the lower date of the
a result of stackingin the kiln); thin fabric.
Deposit no later than the turn of the era. Cupwithout handles. The wall, cylindricalat top,
9 A separate study of Samian ware will appear in the narrowsfromthe mid-pointtowarda small,flat base.
second volume of this work. For previous studies and bibli-
Single, horizontalgroove at mid-pointof wall.
ography, see Tarsus, 1, pp. 186-187. The finer quality of
Samian ware, here identified as Samian B, is characterized 11 See Thompson, H.P., pp. 438-447, for a discussion of
by hard, brownish red or cinnamon-red, micaceous clay and Hellenistic West Slope ware.
a firm, orange-red glaze; the shapes which occur in this 12 See E 62-63. A fragmentary bowl from Group F
fabric are generally sharply articulated and seem to imitate (P 11841) is so close a parallel to E 62-63 that it may be
those of Arretine ware; the potters' stamps, which occur considered a pre-Sullan element in the upper filling of the
invariably at the center of the floor, consist of the letters of cistern. This bowl, like those from group E, has a groove on
the potter's name or of a convivial greeting. Samian A the resting surface of the foot.
ware, likewise micaceous, is less hard and of lighter color both 13 A separate study of these early Roman wares will
in fabric and in glaze; the shapes are generally simpler than appear in the second volume of this work. For bibliography,
those of Samian B and the potters' stamps consist of see Tarsus, I, pp. 188-191; to which add A.J.A., L, 1946,
devices. pp. 480-482, nos. 75-82, pls. XLII, XLIX. That some of the
10 A
separate study of potters' stamps on early Roman barbotine ware was introduced in the Hellenistic period, and
pottery will appear in the second volume of this work. For even as early as 150 B.C., is indicated by specimens from
previous studies and bibliography, see Tarsus, I, pp. 208-209, Corinth (Hesperia, XVI, 1947, p. 240, pl. LX, 16) and by a
282-296. fragment in Hellenistic Group D (D 79).
GROUP F 18
F 19. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. P1. 1. A jug, probablywith flat base; a very narrow
P 11856.H. 0.098; D. 0.089. Almostcomplete; shoulderis set off fromthe roundedbody at an angle;
restored. small, everted lip. On the body, barbotine dots in
Fine, hard, reddish clay; thin fabric. five horizontalbands. No trace of handle.
Shape as F 18, but of more slender proportions. F 26. GRAY WARE CUP, TWO HANDLES.
PI. 63.
F 20. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. P1. 1. P 11886. H. 0.067; D. 0.129. Fragmentary;
P 8936.H. rest. 0.103; D. at lip rest.0.07.Fragmen- restored.
tary, base does not join; restored. Hard, brittle, gray clay; dull, gray-black glaze
Fine, hard, reddish brown clay with some mica, (partial).
fired gray-blackon upper part of exterior (as F 18); Varieties of this shape occur in the 1st century
thin fabric. after Christ, the latest examples adorned with
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Cupwithout handles.The wall rises obliquelyfrom roulettingaroundthe body at the point of maximum
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

a very low ring foot; an offset rim curves inward diameter: P 16717 (Deposit N 21:1) and P 17015,
towardthe top and terminatesin a small, evertedlip. Plate 39; comparealsoH 10. A vessel of similarshape
A horizontal groove at the base of the rim and from tomb 94 of the Personacemeteryat Ornavasso
another at the base of the wall; horizontalbands of was found together with a jug bearingon its handle
rouletted decorationaroundthe body. a plantaformstamp which should be dated no earlier
than the Tiberian period (see below, p. 26, G 37;
F 21. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. Ornavasso,pp. 248-249, pl. XXII, 18).
P 8934. P.H. 0.082; D. at base of rim est. 0.082.
F 27. GRAY WARE PLATE. P1.62.
Fragmentary;rim missing.
Fabric, shape and decorationas F 20. P 11838. H. 0.037; D. rest. 0.19. Fragmentary,
center of floormissing; restored.
F 22. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. P1. 1. Gray clay; gray-blackglaze.
P 8985. P.H. 0.078; D. at top of wall est. 0.10. A circularband of roulettingnear center of floor.
Profileof upper half preserved. This shape does occur before 86 B.C.: compare
Hard, reddish clay; thin fabric. E 154 and two largerplates of buff clay with metallic
Cup without handles, as F 20-21, but the offset black glaze which are from the upper fill of this
rim is vertical. Closely spaced, horizontal bands of cistern but are certainly contemporary with the
rouletting on the body. lower, pre-Sullanmaterial (P 11814-11815).
F 23. THORNWARE BEAKER FRAGMENTS. P1. 1.
P 8937. P.H. (est. from the two largerfragments) MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES
0.068. Threesmall, non-joiningfragmentsof rim and
upperwall; lip missing. F 28. BOWL. P1. 64.
Fine, hard, reddish brown, micaceous clay, fired P 11832. H. 0.09; D. 0.247. Muchof wall and rim
gray-blackon exterior; thin fabric. restored.
Presumably from a beaker in
resembling shape Pinkishbuff clay; lustrousglaze,firedred to black.
F 20-22. Both rim and wall decoratedwith wedge- The low rim, tilting inward, served as a flange to
shapedprojections which have given to this fabricthe hold a lid, now missing. No trace of handles.
name "thornware"; cf. G 2. The same shape occurs in P 21736, a bowl from
Deposit R 10:1.
F 24. BARBOTINE BEAKER FRAGMENTS. P1. 1.
P 11857.Two small,non-joiningfragmentsof wall; F 29. BowL, TWO HANDLES, STAMPED. P1. 64.
max. dim. 0.041. P 11846. H. 0.076; D. at lip 0.182. One handle and
Fine, hard, reddish buff clay, fired gray on upper part of wall restored.
part of exterior (as F 18); thin fabric. Hard, fine, brittle, dark buff clay; dull, black glaze
Presumably a beaker as P 9815 (P1. 39), which (partial), fired reddish brown in part on exterior.
comes from Deposit M 18:1 (construction filling). Two horizontal handles, bent upward at the outer
F 24 is decorated with small barbotine dots on the extremity of the loop. At center of floor, three large,
wall (reconstructed pattern, P1. 1). irregular, stamped palmettes (as F 30-31).
In shapeand fabricF 2940 are very similarto the
F 25. BARBOTINE JUG. P1. 1. bowls D 17-18 of the 2nd century B.C. and to
P 8915. H. rest. 0.089; D. at lip rest. 0.078. another of the 1st century after Christ, G 51. D 17-18,
Fragmentary, base missing; restored. however, are deeper than the Roman examples and
Hard, gray clay; gray-black glaze with slight lack the stamped decoration ofF 29-31. Two fragments
metallic luster (partial). of similar bowls from early Roman contexts have on
14 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

the floor,in additionto the palmettestamps,appliqu6 F 37. PLATE, INVERTED LIP. P1.65.
frogs (P 6915 and P 20456, Pl. 39). For a rim and P 11865. H. 0.035; D. est. 0.17. Fragmentary.
handle fragment from Siphnos, see B.S.A., XLIV, Micaceous,pinkish buff clay; center of floor fired
1949, p. 68, no. 16, pl. 21, 23, fig. 11,1. a darkercolor as a result of stackingin the kiln.
F 30. BOWL, TWOHANDLES, STAMPED. P1. 1. F 38. PLATE, INVERTED LIP. P1. 1.
P 8904. H. 0.075; D. at lip 0.19. Fragmentary; P 11820. H. 0.034-0.043; D. 0.172. Fragmentary;
restored. restored.
Fabric as F 29; brownishblack glaze with faint Clayas F 37; reddishglaze (partial).
metallic luster, fired reddishon exteriorof rim. Shape as F 37.
Shape as F 29. At center of floor, four palmettes,
apparentlystamped with the same die as that used F 39. PLATE, INVERTEDLIP. P1. 1.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

for F 29. P 8906.H. 0.041; D. 0.171. Fragmentary;restored.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Coarse, reddish buff clay; dull, reddish brown


F 31.BOWL FRAGMENT,STAMPED. Pl. 1.
glaze inside only; glaze fireda darkercolor at center
P 11847. P.H. 0.032; D. foot 0.069. Part of floor of floor.
and foot preserved. Shape as F 37.
Fabric and glaze as F 29.
From a bowl as F 29-30. At center of floor, F 40. PLATE, INVERTED LIP.
palmettes (originally four in number), apparently P 8907. H. 0.036-0.041; D. 0.195. Fragmentary;
stampedwith the same die as that used for F 29-30. restored.
Coarse,yellow-buffclay; dull, reddishbrownglaze
F 32. BowL, TWOHANDLES. P1. 1. (partial).
P 11845.H. rest. 0.077; D. at lip 0.17. Onehandle Shapeas F 37, but the lip is almosthorizontal.
and part of body missing; foot does not join;
restored. F 41. PLATE, EVERTED LIP. Pl. 65.
Fabric and glaze as F 29. P 11819. H. D.
0.039; 0.173.Fragmentary; restored.
Shapeas F 29-31, but without stampedornament. Buff clay; purplishbrownto black glaze (partial)
with faint metallic luster, firedred at center of floor
F 33. BOWL FRAGMENT. Pl. 64. (cf. F 37 and 39).
P 9540. P.H. 0.027; D. foot 0.057. Foot and center CompareG 181, the lip of whichslopesdownward.
of floorpreserved. Thereis no recordof the depth at whichF 41 was
Hard, reddish clay; glaze has slight metallic found in the cisternfilling (see above, p. 10).
luster and is firedorange-redinside, black to orange
F 42. PLATE, EVERTED LIP. Pl. 65.
outside.
Severalcircularbands of roulettingon floor. P 11818. H. 0.052; D. 0.228. Fragmentary;partly
restored.
F 34. BOWL. P1. 64. Coarse,reddishbuff clay; dull, reddishbrownglaze
fired darkerat center of floor (as F 39, 41).
P 11834. H. 0.04; D. rest. 0.082. Fragmentary; (partial),
restored. F 43. PLATE, EVERTEDLIP.
Hard, pinkish buff clay; orange-redglaze, much P 11823. H. 0.05; D. est. 0.235. Two fragments
worn. the full profile.
Parallels of the 2nd century B.C. may be seen in preserve
E 45 and D 10-12, in whichthe lip is slightly everted. Clay, glaze and shape as F 42.
The colorand characterof the glaze of F 34, however, F 44. BICONICAL JUG. P1. 1.
are reminiscentof Samianwareand suggesta date in P 11858. H. rest. 0.135; D. 0.112. Base, handle and
the later 1st century B.C. part of body missing; restored.
Reddish buff clay; reddish glaze, mottled black in
F 35. BowL, FRAGMENT. P1. 65.
part.
P 11849. P.H. 0.022; D. foot 0.041. Foot and lower Jug with biconical body, flat base and everted lip.
part of wall preserved. Compare the jugs of the middle to late 2nd century
Reddish buff clay; orange-red glaze (partial). B.C., D 20-21 and E 55, which are smaller and are
covered overall with black glaze; F 44 probably
F 36. PLATE, INVERTED LIP. P1.65. resembledG88 in having the base unglazed,but it is
P 8905. H. 0.042; D. 0.18. Part of floor restored. of more slender proportions. The angle of the profile
Gritty, brownish buff clay. in F 44 and G 88 lies almost at mid-height;in the
Compare G 82-84. Hellenisticjugs the angle is set lower. A bronzejug
GROUP F 15

of similar shape (H. 0.137) but with spurredhandle as G 98) was found in a tomb at Ornavasso,Italy, in
(as that of G 2) has been found in an inhumation conjunction with an assis of Augustus, struck by
cemetery at Ornavasso,Italy, in conjunction with M. Maecilius Tullus, ca. 13 B.C. (tomb 121 of the
silver denarii of M. Baebius (ca. 150-125 B.C.) and Personacemetery;Ornavasso,pp. 266-267,pl. XXIII,
of Q. Fabius Labeo (ca. 102-100 B.C.); see Ornavasso, 3). F 48 was foundin the channelconnectingthe two
pp. 46, 98, pl. XVII, 7, fromtomb 7 of the S. Bernardo cisterns N 19:1 and N 18:1; the piece is associated
cemetery;also Willers,Neue Untersuchungen ilberdie with the upperfill of N 19:1 (GroupF) becauseof the
rom.Bronze-industrie vonCapuaundNiedergermanien, fact that fragments of other vessels from the same
Hannover, 1907, pp. 11, 13-19, fig. 12, 7. channelwerefound to join fragmentsfrom the upper
fill of the cistern proper.
F 45. JUG, BUFF SLIP. Pl. 1.
P 9288. H. 0.205; D. 0.17. Parts of body and of F 49. UNGUENTARIUM.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P1.2.
handle missing; restored. P 8790. H. 0.175; D. 0.0738.Complete.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Hard, fine, buff clay; yellow-buff slip (partial); Hard, brittle, gray-blackclay; warpedin firing.
no trace of glaze or of other decoration. Ovoid body on small ring foot; tall neck with
Globularbody on ring foot; broadlip, flat on top; everted lip.
handle markedby single ridge. Note the absence here of the cylindrical stem
Jugs of this shape and fabric occur also in the 1st above the foot such as characterizesF 48 and the
century after Christ(P 11217, from Deposit B 13:1); Hellenistic fusiformunguentaria.CompareG 96.
duringthe first half of that centuryvessels of similar
form appear occasionally,decoratedwith barbotine F 50. BULBOUS UNGUENTARIUM.
ornament (P 14678; P 10714 [Deposit E 14:2, use P1. 2.
P 9084. P.H. 0.062; D. 0.046. Neck missing.
filling], the "Goblin Jug," Hesperia, VII, 1938, Hard, reddishbuff clay.
pp. 347-348, fig. 31; cf. also Hill, Journal of the Bulbous body with flat base. For the complete
WaltersArt Gallery, IX, 1946, pp. 68-79; J.H.S.,
shape see G 98.
LXXIV, 1954, p. 175, pl. XI, b). This form of toilet bottle characterizesthe late 1st
century before and the 1st century after Christ
F 46. MUG. PI. 63. (cf. G97-98, M 6-7, of threesimilarunguentaria
P 22682. P.H. 0.063; P.D. 0.097. Most of base and from the Persona [M8];
cemetery at Ornavasso,one was
part of wall preserved;partly restored. found in conjunction with a coin of Augustus,
Hard, somewhat coarse clay, mottled pink and anotherin conjunctionwith a jug, the handleof which
gray, predominantlygray at surface. is marked with a stamp of the potter Magnus in
Cylindricalbody, swelling at bottom of wall; flat planta pedis and which is thereforeprobably of the
base. Traces(2) of attachmentfor a handle, set high Tiberian period or later
[see below, p. 26, G 37]
on the wall (ca. 0.055 above base). -Ornavasso, pl. XXVI, 11, 12, 13, from tombs 69,
26 and 94, pp. 235-236, 211, 248-249). Bulbous
F 47. MuG. unguentariawere occasionallyglazed on the interior
P 8948.P.H. 0.064; P.D. 0.105.Fragmentary;most (as P 1956)and wereusuallyglazedabout the mouth,
of wall missing. inside and out. Rarer, large unguentaria of fabric
Fabric and shape as F 46. No trace of handle similar to F 50 and with interior glaze, but on ring
preserved. foot, occur in Augustan fillings (P 8480, 8481 and
8482, all from Deposit Q 13:1; see compositerecon-
F 48. FUSIFORMUNGUENTARIUM. P1.2. structed profileon P1. 73). During the latter part of
P 9814. H. rest. 0.845; D. 0.181. Edge of foot the 1st Christiancentury blown glass toilet bottles
broken away; restored. (as M156, M 106), which are so common a feature of
Roman burials in the eastern Mediterranean as also
Hard, buff clay with some mica.
Fusiform body with neatly turned ring foot; in western Europe,14seem to have driven the pottery
conical base. vessels from the market; clay unguentaria do not
The fusiform shape is characteristic of Hellenistic occur in deposits of the 2nd century and later,
unguentaria, as A 64-65, B 6-7 and 44, C 76-77, though M 369 appears to represent a recurrence of
D 77-78, E 137-138; F 48, however, has a plumper the clay bottle in the 6th century.
body than the Hellenistic specimens and is striking
for its large size and ring foot-the Hellenistic 14 Morin-Jean, La verrerieen Gaule sons l'empire Romain,

unguentaria have flat bases and usually range in Paris, 1913, forms 22, 26, 39, pp. 73-79, 91; Hardin, Roman
Glass from Karanis, Ann Arbor, 1936, pp. 265-274 (Class B
height between 0.075 and 0.20. An unguentarium of toilet bottles); Neuburger, Glass in Antiquity, London,
similar to F 48 (H. 0.28; small ring foot; neck glazed 1949, p. 42, fig. 82.
16 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

COARSE WARES
HOUSaHOLD (cf. P 12154, cited underF 55); F 58 may be earlier
F 51. SHALLOW BOWL. P1.65. than the mass of materialin the upperfill of Deposit
N 19:1.
P 11864. H. 0.049; D. rest. 0.168. Fragmentary;
restored. F 59. JuG. P1. 1.
Yellow-buffto pinkish buff, micaceousclay. Base P 8902. H. 0.117; D. 0.101. Part of lip restored.
left roughfrom wheel. Hard, reddishclay; yellow-buffslip.
Thereis no recordof the depth at whichF 51 was Plump,ovoid body on flat base; roundmouthwith
found in the cisternfilling (see p. 10). everted lip; handlerises above lip.
F 52. SHALLOWBOWL. F 60. DEEP BOWL. Pls. 2, 72.
P 11863. H. 0.045; D. rest. 0.16. Fragmentary; P 11883. H. 0.17; D. 0.285. Fragmentary;
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

restored. restored.
Gray-buffto buff clay.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Greenishgray clay with large grits; the interior


Shapeas F 51, but the base is offset fromthe wall. surface is mottled with irregular streaks of light
F 53. SHALLOW BOWL. P1. 65. purplecolor.
P 8908.H. 0.038; D. 0.103. Fragmentary;restored. Deep bowl on ring foot; everted, horizontalrim,
grooved on top.
Soft, gritty, pinkish buff, micaceous clay. Base A close parallel to this shape can be found in
left roughfrom wheel. P 21755,fromthe Augustanfillingof DepositR 10:1.
CompareF 54, G 60 and 216, [M 66]. The colorationof the clay of F 60 is typical of much
F 54. SHALLOW BOWL. 65. of the coarse Attic pottery (and of some of the
P1.
P 11866. H. 0.032; D. rest. 0.128. Fragmentary; storageamphorae)of the late 1st centurybeforeand
restored. the 1st centuryafter Christ.
Soft, gritty, reddishbuff clay, firedpartly yellow- F 61. DEEP BOWL. Pls. 2, 72.
buff on surface.Base left roughfrom wheel. P 11884. H. 0.176; D. 0.25. Fragmentary;
CompareF 63. restored.
F 55. SMALLJUG. P1. 1. Soft, pinkishbuff clay with grits.
P 8940. H. 0.087; D. 0.05. Handle missing. Similarto F 60 but of more slenderproportions.
Hard, buff clay. Faint traces (?) of white paint on F 62. BASIN. P1. 72.
exterior.
P 11888. H. 0.145; D. est. 0.435. Fragmentary;
Squat jug with flat base (left rough from wheel)
and small, everted lip; single, vertical handle. partly restored.
Coarse, dark red clay with grits, fired buff at
CompareD 22 (middle of 2nd century B.C.) and surfaceon
P 12154 (early 1st century B.C. filling of Deposit upperpart of exterior;dull, reddishglaze
inside.
N 20:4), both of which are coveredwith black glaze. appliedirregularly
Shallow basin with flat base; the rim may have
F 55 may be earlierthan the mass of materialin the
been oval rather than round. Two horizontal twist
upperfill of Deposit N 19:1. handlesapplied under and along the edge of the rim;
F 56. SMALL JUG. P1. 1. at center each handle was made to adherefirmly by
P 8939. H. 0.085; D. 0.044. Part of lip restored. pressure of the potter's thumb drawingthe clay of
Hard, buff clay. the handle over onto the top the rim.
of
Jug with ovoid body on flaringfoot; flat base (left
Earlier variations of this shape, as E 119 (Thomp-
rough from wheel); small, everted lip. son, H.P., p. 414, fig. 101) and P 11889 (from the
upper fill of Deposit N 19:1, but probably representing
F 67. SMALLJUG. an intrusion of earlier material) have a down-turned
P 9580. P.H. 0.055; D. 0.0833.Foot missing. rim without grooves. A parallel to F 62 can be found
Hard, buff clay. Handmade. in P 7969, which comes from the Augustanfilling of
As F 56, but smaller. Deposit R 13:1.
F 58. SMALL JUG. P1. 1. F 63. FUNNEL. P1. 2.
P 11868. H. rest. 0.083; D. rest. 0.062. Fragmen- P 11893. P.H. 0.129; D. rest. 0.156. Fragmentary;
tary; base does not join; restored. restored. Original bottom surface of spout apparently
Coarse, gritty, reddish clay. brokenin antiquityand trimmedoff to a smoothedge.
Jug with ovoid body, rounded base. Hard,brownishbuff clay with grits; purplishblack
A parallel is found in P 19113, which comes from glaze applied in a wide, spiral band around the
the early 1st century B.C. filling of Deposit N 20:4 exterior.
GROUP F 17

The broad,round-bodiedbowl terminatesabove in Until the late 4th century the jars have but one
a flat-topped lip, set off by a deep groove on the handle, always markedby splayed attachmentsand
exterior; below, the body narrowssharply into the a single,broad,verticalgroove;with the changefrom
tapering spout. Single, horizontal, flat handle just tubular to pointed foot, a second splayed handle is
below the lip. added. These jars are generally lined with mastic
For a Hellenisticparallel,see E 136;laterspecimens resin; they frequentlybear a dipintoor graffitobelow
are to be seen in P 21752 (Augustanfillingof Deposit the handle.15They were presumablyused as shipping
R 10:1), M 9 (middleof 1st centuryafter Christ)and containersfor wine; the Agoraspecimensoften have
M 119 (early 3rd century). a fillinghole brokenin the shoulder,testifying to the
re-use of the jars for drawing water. Jars of the
F 64. FUNNEL. Pls. 2, 19. typically brown or black micaceous and laminated
P 11894.H. 0.232; D. 0.847; D. spout at base 0.105. fabric, which is found first in [J 46], occur over a
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Fragmentary; restored. Broken in antiquity and wide areain the easternMediterranean;I have noted
repaired with lead clamps, attachment holes for specimens at Kourion on Cyprus (University of
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

which are present in some of the fragments. Pennsylvania excavations), from Nubia (in Cairo:
Hard, buff clay; thick fabric. W. B. Emery, The Royal Tombs of Ballana and
The broad, deep bowl terminates above in an Qustul,Cairo,1938, type 13a, p. 390, pl. 111; also an
incurvinglip; the cylindricalspout is extremelywide imitation of this shape in bronze, likewise from
and short and is separatedfrom the bowl by a pro- Nubia, ibid., cat. no. 781, p. 355, p. 125, pl. 93B) and
jecting collar. from Tarsus(Tarsus,I, no. 797, figs. 162, 205). A jar
It is possible that the spout was originallylonger found at Haltern, the site of a trans-Rhenishfort on
and at the time of the ancient repair was trimmed the Lippe river (occupied11 B.C.-A.D. 16), appears
down to its present length of 0.035. It seems more to belong to this series and to occupy a typological
likely, however, that the spout retains its original position between our F 66 and [J 461 (Haltern,1,
length and that the funnel was designed for use in pp. 292-293, type 90, fig. 47). An apparentlysimilar
filling some standard-sizecontainerinto whose neck jar is reportedin Spain (presumablyfrom Baetica:
the spout would fit closely, with the collarresting on G. E. Bonsor, An ArchaeologicalSketch-bookof the
the container-lip.The funnel spout is too wide to fit Roman Necropolis at Carmona, New York, 1931,
into the necks of most Hellenistic storageamphorae, no. 108, p. 138, pl. LXXXI).
but it does fit readily in the necks of some amphorae
of the 1st century after Christ,as [M 14]. F 66. JAR, ONE HANDLE. P1. 2.
P 11870. H. 0.477; D. 0.261. Fragmentary;
F 65. JAR, ONE HANDLE. Pls. 2, 41. restored.
P 11871. H. 0.443; D. 0.256. Parts of lip, handle Fine, hard, buff to pinkish buff clay with some
and body restored. mica; self-slip.
Hard, reddish buff, micaceous clay, the surface Shape as F 65, but the body does not taper quite
much pitted. so much above the foot, and the point of maximum
Tapering, ovoid body on neatly turned, flaring diameter lies lower on the body.
ring foot; short neck with spreadinglip, flat on top; F 67. JAR, ONE HANDLE. P1.2.
single vertical handle, marked by a groove which P 8903. H. 0.443; D. 0.342. Intact.
occupiesthe full width of the outer surface. Fine, hard, light buff clay; self-slip.
F 65-66 represent the earliest stage in a long Plump body on low, false ring foot; taperingneck
successionof micaceousjars, the subsequentstages of with thickenedlip, flat on top; vertical, flat handle.
which can be seen in G 107, [J 46], J 47, L 60-651,
and in a series from Group M: 45--46, 125-126, F 68. JUG FRAGMENT. Pls. 1, 42.
240-242, 255-259, 275-282, 307, 335, 373. For P 20514. P.H. 0.17; D. neck est. 0.105. Fragment
detailed illustration of feet and necks, see Plate 41. of shoulder, neck and handle.
In the course of development of this type of jar, Pinkish buff clay with grits; micaceous, buff slip.
the pronounced shoulder of F 65 disappears and a From the sloping shoulder of a one-handled (2)
plump, fusiform shape occurs ([J 46]); this in turn vessel; vertical, twist handle.
becomes steadily more slender in the succeeding F 69. AMPHORA. P1. 2.
centuries. The neatly turned foot of F 65 becomes
P 11873. H. rest. 0.334; D. 0.12. Fragmentary;
narrower in [J 46j and then turns into the charac- base missing; restored on the basis of F 70.
teristic tubular foot seen in M 255; subsequently, in
15 Miss Mabel
the specimens of the end of the 4th century and later, Lang has studied these inscriptions (Lang,
Dated Jars, pp. 277-285) and has identified one class of
the foot, though remaining hollow, tapers toward the
graffiti as representing dates according to the Actian era
bottom and is sometimes almost closed at the tip. (M 45, M 46, M 125).
2
18 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Gritty, yellow-buffto pinkishbuff clay. F 76. CASSEROLE. Pls. 4, 72.


Slender body tapering to a small ring foot; P 11902.H. 0.09; D. 0.275. Fragmentary;restored.
cylindrical neck with plain lip; handles round in Hard, coarse,darkred clay.
section; body faintly wheel-ridged. The rim designedfor receivinga lid such as F 86.
Comparethe late 2nd centuryB.C.specimenE 126, Two horizontal handles applied just under and
which has a pointed toe. against the rim.
CompareE 141, which has a slightly convex wall
F 70. AMPHORA. and a widerrim. A close parallelto F 76 is found in
P 11874.P.H. 0.283; D. 0.124. Handles,neck and P 7971 (DepositR 13:1, upperfilling,Augustan).
part of body missing; partly restored.
Fabric and shape as F 69. F 77. CASSEROLE. PI. 72.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 11882.H. 0.066; D. 0.25. Small segmentof rim,


F 71. AMPHORA. P1.2. wall and floor.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 11876. H. 0.387; D. 0.238. Fragmentary; Hard, coarse,reddishclay with grits.


restored. Possibly had two horizontal handles as G 190.
Hard,coarse,reddishclay with grits and numerous F 78.
small air-pocketsthroughoutthe fabric; buff slip. COOKING PAN. P1.72.
Plump, ovoid body on ring foot; high, wide neck P 11900. H. 0.053; D. 0.295. Fragmentary;
with horizontal, rounded ridge at t.a.h.; plain lip. restored.
Handlesroundin section, bowedout slightly toward Coarse,gray to brownishgray clay with grits.
the top. For a Hellenisticparallel,see E 140.
The shape and fabric of F 71 recur in a slightly
F 79. FRYING PAN HANDLE. P1. 1.
plumperform in a deposit of the 1st century after P 11910. P.L. 0.111. Handle and
Christ(P 9139, Deposit D 11:1); similarfabric,neck part of lip
and handles occur in large storage amphoraeof the preserved.
1st and early 2nd centuries after Christ (P 14265, Gritty, reddish clay, fired gray at core and on
interiorof pan.
Deposit R 19:1; P 11748, Deposit M 19:1).
Slender,cylindrical,hollow handle, flaringat the
F 72. AMPHORA. P1. 2. open end; attachedbelowthe lip in a nearlyhorizontal
position; the shaft markedby spiralridges.The lip of
P 11877. H. 0.46; D. 0.315. Fragmentary;
the pan flaresout slightly.
restored.
Fine, hard, reddishbuff, micaceousclay; self-slip. Frying pans of the Hellenistic period (none are
represented in GroupsA-E) are generally shallow,
Ovoid body on flaringring foot; cylindricalneck
have a groove on top of the lip and a short, smooth-
with small, everted lip; handles oval in section.
shaftedhandle (cf. P 6340, from the late 3rd or early
F 73. AMPHORA. P1. 2.
2nd centuryB.C. fillingof Deposit E 14:1). For later
of the 1st century after Christ,see G 113-115.
P 11875. H. 0.297; D. 0.208. Fragmentary; pans,
restored. F 80. COOKINGPOT. Pls. 3, 72.
Hard, buff clay with grits; self-slip. P 11903. H. 0.115; D. 0.212. Fragmentary;
Plump body on low ring foot; flat, ridgedhandles; restored.
two grooves around the shoulder.Compare[M 12]. Hard, coarse,gray to gray-blackclay.
Wide-mouthedpot with roundedbottom; the rim
F 74. AMPHORA (2) FRAGMENT, DIPINTO. P1.59. is shapedto hold a lid. No handle.
P 8943. Max. dim. 0.054. Fragment from body of
pot. F 81. COOKINGPOT. Pls. 3, 72.
Hard, reddish clay; buff slip. P 11906. H. 0.165; D. 0.205; D. lip 0.17. Fragmen-
On exterior surface, an inscription in black paint. tary; restored.
Hard, coarse, reddish brown clay with grits, fired
gray-black in part at the surface. The clay identical
with that of F 82-85.
COOKING WARES
Round-bottomed pot with constricted neck and
flaring lip. Two horizontal handles, round in section,
F 75. SMALL BOWL. P1. 1. tilted upward so as to touch the lip at its outer edge.
P 8941. H. 0.07; D. 0.138. Intact.
Coarse, gritty, reddish brown clay; blackened on F 82. COOKINGPOT. Pls. 3, 72.
exterior from use. P 11907. H. rest. 0.18; D. 0.286; D. lip0.195.
Flat base; flaring wall, terminating in plain lip. Fragmentary; restored.
GROUP F 19

Clay as F 81. LARGE STORAGE VESSELS, ETO.


Plump body with round bottom; the wide mouth
is formed by a low lip, flat on top. Two horizontal F 89. PITHOS LID. P1. 88.
handles, round in section, attached at shoulderand P 11911. D. est. 0.36; Th., not includinglug, 0.018.
tilted upward, rising above the lip. Five joining and one non-joiningfragments;restored.
Coarse, reddish buff clay with large grits.
F 83. COOKING POT. Pls. 3, 72. Flat disk with a small central hole. On the edge,
P 11904.H. 0.195; D. 0.213; D. lip 0.18. Fragmen- a triangularnotch, just inside of which, on the top
surface, a raised lug; two more holes adjacentto the
tary; restored.
lug, toward the center. Three concentric grooves on
Clay as F 81.
Almost globular body with flaring rim and top surface near edge and another around the central
thickenedlip. Two vertical, ridgedhandles. hole. The notch, lug and pair of holes were probably
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

duplicated at a point diametrically opposite (as


F 84. COOKING Pls. 8, 72. restored).
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

POT.
P 11909. H. rest. 0.295; D. 0.342; D. lip 0.228. A close parallel to this lid is found in P 14481
A few portions,includingthe base, restored. (Pl. 38), which comesfrom the early 1st century B.C.
Clay as F 81. filling of Deposit M 20 :1; for parallels of the 1st
Almostglobularbodywith flaringrimandthickened century after Christ, see G 124, P 17148 (Deposit
B 20:1; Pl. 38) and P 15564. The notches, lugs and
lip. Onehorizontalhandle,roundin section and tilted holes were employedwith a rope device
upward; one vertical, flat handle with single ridge. whichpresumablyserved to anchor the lid firmlyover the rim of a
Two horizontalgrooves at level of the attachmentof
the horizontalhandle. large pithos or storage jar. P 17148 is adornedwith
relief patterns, is also a much earlier specimen,
as
Compare G 116 and P 7974 (Deposit R 13:1, T
516, which derivesfrom Thompson'sGroupB (not
upper filling, Augustan).
publishedwith the pottery of that Group).
F 85. COOKINGPOT. PIs. 3, 72. F 90. LARGE BASIN, WITH SPOUT. P1. 2.
P 11908.H. 0.18; D. 0.238; D. lip 0.173. Fragmen- P 11887. H. 0.085; D. rest. 0.60. Over one-half
tary; restored. missing; restored.
Clay as F 81. Rather soft, coarse, reddishclay with large grits;
Shape as F 84, but the base is flattened. traces of dull, red paint inside and on spout.
Thereis no recordof the depth at which F 85 was
Extremelylarge,shallowbasin with flat base; low,
found in the cistern filling (see above, p. 10).
slightly flaringwall and plain lip, flat on top. Groove
on top of lip and another at top of wall inside. A
F 86. COOKING LID. P1.4.
heavy, broad spout (not bridged)projects from the
P 11896. H. 0.066; D. 0.274. Fragmentary; wall
just above floor-level.
restored. Thereis no recordof the depth at which F 90 was
Hard, coarse,buff to gray-buffclay with grits. found in the cistern filling (see above, p. 10).
Coverin the form of a very broad, low cone, with
plain lip and a central round knob, flat on top. F 86 F 91. LARGE VAT (2). P1.4.
might have served as a lid for a casserolesuch as F 76. P 8938. H. 0.365; D. rest. 0.60; D. base 0.43. About
one-quarterof rim, more than half of floor and a
F 87. COOKINGLID. P1.4. considerablepart of wall and shelf missing; partly
P 11897. H. 0.054; D. rest. 0.193. Fragmentary; restored.
restored. Hard, coarse, reddish to buff clay with large grits.
Hard, coarse, gray-brown clay with grits. Traces of three stripes of white paint on the shelf,
Shape as F 86. radiating toward the wall.
Large, deep basin with flat bottom, vertical walls
F 88. COOKINGPOT (?) FRAGMENT. P1. 4. and lip thickened toward the exterior. At the front,
P 11891. P.H. 0.14; D. rest. 0.205. About one-half over a width of about 0.33 (nearly one-quarter of the
restored; the top of the vessel seems to have been circumference), the wall is reduced to a height of only
cut away in antiquity along the line of the present 0.205. At the base of the wall, beneath this opening,
preserved upper edge. a vent, 0.015 in diameter, apparently used for draining
Coarse, buff to reddish buff clay with large grits; the contents of the vat. Diametrically opposite, at the
reddish slip on exterior. base of the wall in back, a similar vent set at a slight
Globular body; there appear to be traces of the angle upwards toward the exterior, where, around the
lower attachment of a vertical handle about 0.055 vent, are traces of an additional member (a funnel-
below the present top edge. like mouth for pouring liquids in from above ?). On
2'
20 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

the interior, extending around two-thirds of the easternMediterranean and exampleshave penetrated
circumference(at back and sides), a shelf 0.13 wide, as far east as Arikamedu(Pondicherry)on the eastern
raised0.06 above the floor and supportedby several coast of India.e1
struts of clay. On one side, a large horizontal,flat
handle; on the other side, but not diametrically F 94. STORAGEAMPHORA, RHODIAN. P1. 8.
opposite,traces of anotherhandle. P 11878.H. 0.85; D. 0.28. Fragmentary;restored.
The purposeserved by this vat is obscure;it may Rather fine, buff clay; self-slip.
have been designedas a foot-bathin whichhot water, Slenderbody taperingto a narrowtoe with knob;
poured in from the outside funnel and spreading lip marked by deep groove on exterior. Pointed
slowly over the floor, could cool somewhat before handles,roundin section (not stamped).
coming in contact with the bather's feet resting on Jars of this type seem relatedin fabric and shape
the shelf.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

to stamped Rhodian amphorae of the Hellenistic


Uncataloguedfragmentsof a similarvat of smaller period; the pointed handles do not occur, however,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

size (D. base est. 0.32) appearedin Deposit C 18:8, on the stamped specimens. CompareP 21780 and
a filling contemporarywith the lower fill of the 21781, similaramphoraefrom the Augustanfillingof
presentDeposit (N 19:1). Deposit R 10:1, and a neck fragment from Arika-
F 92. STORAGEAMPHORA,DIPINTO. medu.17Fragments of such amphoraeoccur also in
PIe. 8, 59. GroupG, Layer Ha (uninventoried).
P 9670. P.H. 0.86; D. 0.309. Fragmentary;one
handle and tip of toe missing; partly restored. F 95. STORAGE AMPHORA. P1.8.
Fine, hard, reddishbuff clay. P 11879. P.H. 0.615; D. 0.33. Fragmentary;
Ovoid body, tapering sharply toward toe; plain,
handles and part of neck missing; partly restored.
rounded lip, marked by a groove on the exterior;
handlesroundin section. On shoulder,inscriptionin Light red, micaceousclay; buff slip.
Ovoidbody, moreplumpthan F 92-94, with short,
black paint, readinguncertain.
blunt toe; slight angle between shoulderand wall;
F 93. STORAGEAMPHORA, COAN. P1. 8. handleswere oval in section.
P 11880. H. 0.878; D. 0.325. Fragmentary;
restored. F 96. STAMPED AMPHORA HANDLE, KNIDIAN. Pl. 86.
Buff to pinkishbuffclay, buffto greenishbuffslip. SS 6711. Max. dim. 0.079. Upper part of handle
Slenderbody taperingat bottom to a short, blunt only preserved;part of stamp missing.
toe; shoulderset off from wall at an angle and from Rectangular stamp on top surface of handle:
neck by a deep groove (which probably marks the amphora,[K]WaEvl Irriless. I owe the reading to Miss
joint between separately made neck and shoulder Virginia Grace, who considersthis stamp to belong
sections,as in G 198); shortneck with plain,rounded to the 1st century B.C., subsequentto Sulla's sack
lip; double rolled handles (not stamped). of Athens. For a generalstudy of Knidianamphorae
This type of jar is considered to be of Coan (primarilyHellenistic) see V. Grace, Hesperia, III,
manufacture.It is found distributedthroughoutthe 1934, pp. 241-275; Grace,in Pnyx, 11, pp. 144-164.

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

F 97. LAMP. P1. 44. fillingof the cistern,probablybelongsto its laterperiod.


L 2698.L. rest. 0.101; W. 0.057; H. 0.036. Handle F 98. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
missing;restored. L 2699. L. rest. 0.118; W. 0.066; H. 0.034. End of
Reddish buff clay; reddishglaze. nozzle missing;restored.
Rim: wreathof leaves and buds. Nozzletriangular; Hard, brownishred clay; dull, brownishred glaze.
base concave.Howlandno. 762, type 54 A. Rim: boukraniajoined by festoons of bead-and-
R. Howlandinformsme that this type of rim deco- reel pattern; a rosette above each festoon. On base,
ration begins before 86 B.C. but continuespast that signature,incisedin the clay whilemoist,AtovIvaiov.
date.F97, locatedat a depthof 1.25fromthe top of the Howlandno. 804, type 57.
16 V.
Grace,Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, 1949, pp. 181, 186,189, identifying stamps on the handles; later specimens, such as
pl. 19, 8; A. Maiuri, Nuova silloge epigrafica di Rodi e Cos, F 93, that from Arikamedu and one from Rhodes (cited by
Firenze, 1925, pp. 245-248 (note especially the figure on Maiuri, p. 245) bear no stamps. The shape is also known in
p. 246, an amphora of more nearly cylindrical shape than the west in Augustan and Tiberian times: Halter~, 1,
F 93); M. Wheeler, Ancient India, II, 1946, pp. 41-45, pp. 250-25i, fig. 36; Hofheim, pp. 301-302, fig. 71.
fig. 9,53-57. The Hellenistic jars of Coan type generally have 17 Wheeler, op. cit., p. 45, fig. 10,81.
GROUP F 21

F 99. LAMP. P1.44. F 102. LAMP. Pl. 44.


L 3223. L. rest. 0.119; W. 0.073; H. 0.037. Tip of L 2719. L. rest. 0.133; W. 0.073; H. 0.04. Handle
nozzle, handle and part of body missing; restored. and tip of nozzle missing;restored.
Hard, pinkishbuff clay; dull, reddishbrownglaze. Hard, reddish clay with some grits; dull, reddish
Rim: ridges radiating from center. Base flat and glaze.
undecorated.Howlandtype 52 E (seeunderHowland Rim plain; base concave. Two grooves along top
no. 786). of nozzle. Howlandno. 569, type 44 A.

F 100. LAMP. F 103. LAMP. P1.44.


P1.44.
L 2697. L. rest. 0.110; W. 0.063; H. 0.081. Handle L 3222. L. rest. 0.121; W. rest. 0.068; H. 0.042.
Handle,tip ofnozzleandpartof bodymissing;restored.
missing;restored.
Hard, reddish clay with grits; dull, dark reddish
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Brownish red clay; metallic, reddish brown to


black glaze. glaze.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Rim: as F 99. Nozzle triangular. Base concave. Rim plain; base flat. Howlandno. 571, type 44 A.
Solid lug on left edge of rim. Howlandno. 718, type F 104. LAMP.
52 C. L 3225. D. rim est. 0.08. Severaljoining and non-
joining fragmentspreservepart of discus and body;
F 101. LAMP. PI. 44. base missing.
L 2721. L. rest. 0.129; W. 0.081; H. 0.034. Handle Soft, gritty, gray-buffclay; traces of dull, orange-
and parts of rim and nozzle missing; restored. brownglaze.
Hard, reddish clay; reddish glaze, fired brownish Narrowrim (as M 19) set off from discus by two
black on underside. grooves. Discus concave and decorated in relief:
Rim: as F 99-100. Nozzle triangular with five nude male figure (preservedfrom shoulderto thigh),
grooves along top. Raised lip all around rim and facing left. Volutes at either side of nozzle, against
nozzle. Base concave and undecorated. Howland rim.Thenozzleterminatedeitheras G 150 or as G 151.
no. 736, type 52 E. A lamp of Broneer's type XXII. Perlzweig.
GROUP G
18STAND 2ND CENTURIES

GroupG constitutesthe entirefillingof DepositD 4:1. Thisis the westernunit of a complex


of two cisternslocatedabout fifty metersnorth of the northwestcomer of the Hephaisteion;
they arejoined by a passage5.00 m. long (the easternunit is DepositE 5: 1).1Plate 75 shows
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

both plan and section of the complex.The easterncisternprobablyhad an originaldepth of


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

about 6.30 m.; at some time duringthe Roman period,however,its depthwas increasedto
11.50m. andit was subsequentlyfilledwith debrisconsistingof stonesand brokenpottery(the
filling of the eastern cistern is not treated here). The passage connectingthe two cisterns,
2.40 m.-2.80 m. in height, was,at its mid-point,walledacrossby a barrier1.80 m. high; this
barrierwas piercedby a channelplaced0.60 m. abovethe floorof the passage.The purposeof
barrierand channelwas to controlthe flow of waterfrom one cisternto the other duringthe
monthswhen the water supplywas low. The structureswhich the two cisternsservedare no
longer preserved,for the surfacein the vicinity of the cistern-mouthsis occupied by the
foundationsof a Byzantinebuilding,the constructionof whichobliteratedearlierarchitectural
remains.Thedate of constructionof the cisterns,however,is indicatedby the fewbits of pottery
foundin the basinof the westernchamber;these, of the 3rdcenturyB.C.,areso few in number
and so fragmentarythat none have been catalogued.
The historyof the fillingof the westernchamberseemsto be as follows:immediatelyoverthe
floor, whereit perhapsaccumulatedduringthe use of the cistern, was a filling (LayerI -
G 1-7) containingpottery and lamps of the early 1st or even of the 2nd centuryB.C. Sub-
sequentlythe cisternwent out of use (perhapsfollowingthe sackin 86 B.C.)and not long after
the middleof the 1st centuryafter Christthe chamberwas filled (LayerII - G 8-165) to a
depthof about 1.75 m. (reachingas muchas 2.25 m. at one side)with debriscontaining(along
with brokenpottery,lampsand otherobjectsof householduse) numerousfragmentsof painted
wall stucco,somewith mouldedornament;tracesof ash wereobservedin this blackfill. Fifteen
coinswerefoundin LayerII, the latest a denariusof Tiberius(A.D.26-37).2 At a still laterdate,
probablyat the end of the 1st or in the early 2nd centuryafter Christ,the chamberwas filled
to the top, againwith buildingdebriscontainingbrokenpiecesof paintedstucco and of terra-
cotta windowtiles. This fill (LayerIII - G 166-212), primarilyreddishin color, contained
tracesof burning,as LayerII. Noneof the elevenbronzecoinsfromLayerIII is significantfor
chronology;but the parallelismbetweencertainvesselsof this Layer (as G 176, 188, 191, 197)
and othersof GroupJ and of LayerIII of GroupM suggeststhe early 2nd centurydate.
It seemspossible,on the basisof the potteryandlamps,that LayerII shouldbe dividedinto
two portions:Layer IIa, to a depth of about 1.15 m. from the bottom, thrownin duringthe
first quarterof the 1st century after Christand containingspecimensof Arretineware with
rectangularpotter'sstamps(as G33, q.v.,and G34); andLayerIIb, to a depthof about1.75 m.
from the bottom, thrown in twenty-fiveto forty years later and containingthe Tiberian
1 This cistern complex was excavated between March 23rd and
April 26th, 1937.
2 As H.
Mattingly, Coins of theRoman Empire in the British Museum, I, London, 1923, p. 126, no. 52 (pl. 23,6 and p. cxxx);
Thompson, Coins, no. 18. The other coins were issues of much earlier date and of no chronological significance in this Layer.
GROUP G 28

denarius mentioned above along with specimens of Arretine ware of latest Augustan or Tiberian
times (as G 37, with plantaform stamp, and G 38).3 But in view of the many imponderables
involved in the fall of debris when dropped through a narrow cistern mouth into the wider
storage space below, it is unwise to insist upon a narrowly defined stratigraphy in any cistern
filling. For that reason, the two subdivisions of Layer II are not separately listed in the following
catalogue; those pieces, however, which derive from the lower 1.15 m. of fill (i.e. Layer Ha) are
marked with an asterisk.
The channel leading eastward from the cistern at D 4:1 was partially filled, as far east as the
barrier, with debris which had accumulated on the several occasions of filling the cistern
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

chamber (P1.75). This fill could not profitably be dug stratigraphically; the objects from it may
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

therefore be individually contemporary with any one of the three Layers observed in the
cistern chamber. It is likely, however, that this filling is not associated with Layer I, a period-
of-use filling. Most of it is probably contemporary with the first dumped fill, Layer II; the
character of the pottery and lamps from this channel filling correspondsmore closely with that
of Layer II than with that of Layer III. The inventoried objects from the channel filling are
listed separately in the following catalogue, as G 213-228.

LAYER I (EARLY1ST CENTURYB.C.)


G 1. PERGAMENE HEMISPHERICAL CUP.
P1.4. Broneer(Broneer,Lamps,p. 54) observesthat
P 10164. H. 0.046; D. est. 0.095. Fragmentary; lampsof this type (Knidoslamps,Broneertype XIII)
restored. were manufacturedbefore 200 B.C. but were most
Light buff clay; reddish glaze; double-dipping commonin the firsthalf of the 2nd century;Howland
streak. p.126)datesthemin thesecondhalfof the2nd
(Lamps,
Shape as F 6-11, but less high than is usual in this century and first quarterof the 1st centuryB.C. For
cup. parallels,see Walters,Lamps,nos. 350-389, especially
nos. 364 and 366.
G 2. THORN WARE JUG. Pi. 4.
P 10165. H. 0.11; D. 0.105. Most of handle and G 4. LAMP. Pl. 44.
of
part body and lip missing; restored. L 2934. P.L. 0.114; W. 0.07; H. 0.041. Tip of
Fine, brittle, gray clay of thin fabric; fired darker nozzle and part of body missing.
on exteriorthan on interior. Gray clay; dull, black glaze.
Plump, roundedbody on ring foot; shoulderand Deep, mouldmadebody; sloping rim, set off from
neck form a continuouscurve and join the wall at an the flat discus by a raisedridge (the latter also made
angle.Evertedlip, turnedup at the outeredgeand in the mould). On the rim, in relief, on either side:
grooved on the outer, vertical surface.Handle from a leafflankedby tworosettes.Twogroovesalongthe
shoulderto lip, round in section, with a small top of the nozzle. Flat handle. Base undecorated.
projectingspur above for thumb-support.At top of Howlandno. 806, type 58 A.
wall, an irregular band of vertical, wedge-shaped AnotherAgoralamp (L 4691, Howlandno. 807) is
projections(cf. F 23); below, horizontalgrooves. derived from the same mould as G 4. Howland's
type 58 A shows some of the characteristicsof
G 3. LAMP. P1.44. Broneer's lamp XVIII and some of those of his
type
L 2935.L. 0.111;W. 0.071;H. 0.084.Intact. type XIX; it is impossible,in the absenceof adequate
Gray clay; dull, black glaze. chronologyfor this specifictype, to employ it as an
Body wheelmade; rim adorned with applique aid in dating Layer I of GroupG.
reliefs:pairedleaves and dots. Nozzle broad,rounded
at tip, with flukes at the sides. Double rolled handle G 5. TERRACOTTA FIGURINE. P1.48.
encircled by a grooved band near the rim. Base T 1444. P. H. 0.044; P. W. 0.028. Head only,
concave. Howlandno. 521, type 40 A. brokenat back and at neck.

3 Miss Judith Perlzweig considers that the lamps G 141 and G 143-146 (all from Layer IIb) do not antedate the middle of
the century. Insofar, however, as ceramic evidence is available from other sources, there seems to be no reason for bringing
the pottery of Layer IIb much beyond the time of Tiberius.
24 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Light buff clay; no tracesof paint preserved. Rather soft, pinkish buff clay; traces of white
A femalehead, the featuresnot sharplyexpressed. paint on back of head.
Braided locks of hair hang down at the sides; a As G5; a heavy wreathcrownsthe head; above the
heavy roll crowns the head, with an attached knot forehead,a large knot, over whichhangs a veil (?).
(? now missing)over the forehead(cf. G 6).
G 7. BONE INSTRUMENT. P1.56.
G6. TERRACOTTAFIGURINE. P1.48. BI 359. P.L. 0.055. Brokenat top.
T 1445. P.H. 0.065; P. W. 0.039. Head only; face A pointed instrument (hair-pin?), the upper part
brokenaway. of the shaft markedby spiralgrooving.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

LAYER II (FIRST HALF OF 1ST CENTURY)


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

PERGAMENE
WARE G15. PLATE FRAGMENT P1. 60.
P 22074. P.H. 0.016; D. foot est. 0.15. Single
G 8. PLATEFRAGMENT. P1. 60.
P 22069.P.H. 0.033; D. foot est. 0.145. Fragment fragment of floor and foot.
Soft, cinnamon-brown, micaceous clay (similar to
of foot and floor. that of Samian A ware, for which see p. 12, note 9);
Yellowishbuff clay; reddishglaze; double-dipping reddish glaze (similar to that of Pergamene ware),
streak. much worn.
*G 9. PLATE. P1.60. Storage, Layer II, Pergamene ware-fragments of a
P 11521. H. 0.029; D. est. 0.155. Fragmentary; cup as F 12 and of plates as F 3 and F 4 (the last two
centerof floormissing;restored. from Layer Ha).
Light buff clay; dark reddishglaze.
Storage,Layers Ia and IIb-fragments of similar SAMIANWARE
plate. G16. SAMIANB PLATEFRAGMENT,STAMPED.Pls. 57,
G 10. PLATEFRAGMENT. P1.60. 61.
P 22070. P.H. 0.013; D. est. 0.153. Fragment of P 22067.P.H. 0.021; D. foot est. 0.10. Twojoining
floor and foot, with a trace of the rim. fragmentspreservepart of floor and wall.
Clayand glaze as G 8; double-dippingstreak. Hard,brownishred,micaceousclay; orange-brown
glaze.
G 11. PLATEFRAGMENT. P1.60. On the floor: circular, rouletted band; at the
P 22071. P.H. 0.02; D. est. 0.10. Fragmentof rim center, potter's stamp of rectangularshape with one
and floor; traces of the attachmentof the foot. line of illegible lettering.
Orange-buffclay; darkreddishglaze. *G 17. SAMIANB CUP FRAGMENT. P1.61.
G12. BOWL FRAGMENT. Pl. 60. P 22099. P.H. 0.007; D. foot est. 0.05. Small
of floor and foot; centerof floor
P 22072. P.H. 0.021; D. est. 0.155. Fragmentary; fragment missing.
Clay and glaze as G 16; double-dippingstreak.
foot missing. From a very small cup or pyxis.
Clayand glaze as G 11.
G13. HEMISPHERICAL G 18. SAMIANB CUPFRAGMENT. P1. 61.
CUP,FLANGED
RIM.
P 22068.P.H. 0.019; D. est. 0.085. Singlefragment
Pls. 4, 61, 78.
of rim and wall.
P 22078. H. rest. 0.053; D. rest. 0.118. Two non-Cinnamon-red,micaceous clay; orange-redglaze
joining fragments preserve almost the full profile; which has in part peeled from the surface.
restored. The clay and glaze of this piece resemblethose of
Clay and glaze as G 8. Samian A ware, but the articulated rim and the
neat on the ridges of the rim bespeakthe
G14. HEMISPHERICAL BOWL,FLANGED RIM.Pls. 4,61. finerrouletting
quality of SamianB.
P 9868. H. 0.087; D. 0.194. Fragmentary;
restored. G19. SAMIANA PLATE,STAMPED. Pls. 4, 57, 61.
Buff clay; reddishbrownglaze. This may be only P 9866. H. 0.034; D. 0.167. Almost complete;
an imitation of Pergamene fabric. restored.
Storage, Layer II-fragments of three bowls of Rather soft, cinnamon-red, micaceous clay; orange-
similar shape (two not of Pergamene fabric). red glaze; double-dippingstreak.
GROUPG 25

Roulettingat top and bottom of rim. On floor,two Soft, pinkishcinnamon,non-micaceousclay; dull,


circular grooves and, at center, a device-stamp: reddishorangeglaze.
eight-rayedstar. This is probablyan imitation of Samianware; the
absence of rouletting and grooving on the rim is
G 20. SAMIAN A PLATE.
unusual, as is also the absenceof any stamp on the
P 22065. H. 0.025; D. est. 0.12. Fragmentary; floor. The shape occurs in true Samian (M 33),
center of floormissing.
Pergamene(Antioch,IV, 1, pl. V, 460, a-q), Arretine
Clay, glaze and shape as G 19. (G 35) and local Attic (?) wares (G 70-71, H 6-7).
G 21. SAMIAN A BOWL, STAMPED. Pls. 4, 57, 62, 73.
P 9855. H. 0.04; D. 0.103. Fragmentary;restored. G 29. SAMIAN A CUP, STAMPED. Pls. 4, 57, 62.
P 9859. H. 0.052; D. rest. 0.123. Fragmentary;
Clay and glaze as G 19; double-dippingstreak.
restored.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Rouletting on top surface of rim; appliqu6


ornamentsfrequentlyoccuron the lip of bowlsof this Clay and glaze as G 19.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

On the floor, a circulargroove and, at the center,


shape and of the shape of M 33 but were not present
on G 21. At center of floor, a rectangularstamp: an illegible lettered stamp in plantapedis (impressed
from a worn die).
KipISos.
G 22. SAMIAN A BOWL. Pl. 61. G 30. SAMIANA cuP, STAMPED. Pls. 57, 62.
P 9856. H. 0.027; D. est. 0.116. Fragmentary; P 9860. H. 0.047; D. 0.108. Fragmentary;
center of floormissing. restored.
Clayas G 16; glaze as G 19. Clay and glaze as G 19; thin fabric.
On the floor, circulargroove and, at the center, a
G 23. SAMIAN A BOWL FRAGMENT, STAMPED PI.57.
device-stamp:rosette of six dots.
P 22066. P.H. 0.012; D. foot est. 0.05. Single
fragmentof floor and wall. G 31. SAMIAN A PLATE. P1. 61.
Clay and glaze as G 19; double-dippingstreak. P 9864. H. 0.03; D. est. 0.146. Fragmentary;floor
Foot and wall similar to G 21 so far as preserved.
missing; restored.
At center of floor, a device-stamp:rosette.
Clay and glaze as G 19.
G 24. SAMIAN A BOWL, STAMPED. Pls. 4, 57, 61.
P 9857. H. 0.021; D. 0.087. Fragmentary; G 32. SAMIAN A PLATE. Pls. 4, 61.
restored. P 9865. H. 0.022; D. est. 0.185. Fragmentary;
center of floormissing; restored.
Clayas G 16; glaze as G 19; double-dippingstreak.
At center of floor, a device-stamp:leaf. Soft, light cinnamon, micaceous clay; dull, red
glaze.
G 25. SAMIAN A PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 57, 61.
Storage, Layer II, Samian ware--two fragmentsof
P 9861. H. 0.03; D. 0.146. Fragmentary;restored.
SamianB fromLayer Ha; fromLayer IIb, numerous
Clay and glaze as G 19; double-dippingstreak.
fragmentsof typical SamianA plate and cup shapes.
On the floor,three circulargroovesand, at center,
a device-stamp:rosette of five dots. Althoughthe few pieces of Samian B ware from this
Layer occurin both Ha and IIb, the greaterquantity
G 26. SAMIAN A PLATE. P1.4. of Samian A ware occurs in levels above Ha. This
P 11504. H. 0.026; D. 0.12. Fragmentary;center evidence tends to support the contention, based on
of floor missing; restored. the study of the Samianfabrics as a whole, that the
Ratherfirm,cinnamon-red,micaceousclay; orange- finer quality B ware antedates the poorer A ware.4
red glaze. The appearance of A ware in Athens may be placed
Shape as G 25. in the late Augustan or early Tiberian period.

G 27. SAMIAN A PLATE FRAGMENT, STAMPED. P1. 57.


P 9871. Max. pres. floor D. est. 0.165. Several WESTERN SIGILLATA WARES
joining fragments of floor; partly restored.
Clay and glaze as G 19. *G 33. ARRETINE PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 4, 57, 62, 73.
From a plate as G 25-26. On the floor, two groups P 9846. H. 0.041; D. rest. 0.32. Fragmentary;
of three circular grooves and, at the center, a device- restored.
stamp: palmette. Hard, buff clay; lustrous, reddish brown glaze
(except on base and inside of foot).
G 28. SAMIAN A CUP. P1. 4, 62.
P 11498. H. 0.061; D. est. 0.113. Fragmentary;
restored. ' This point will be discussed in greater detail in the
second volume of this work.
26 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

On floor, a circular rouletted band set off by Clay and glaze as G 36.
grooves, over the position of the foot; at center of At center of floor,stamp in plantapedis: C.amuri.
floor, a rectangularpotter's stamp: L. TitilThyrsi. This floorfragmentmay be a part of G 36.
This plate is of the shape known as Haltern lb; The plantaform stamp is characteristicof post-
examples with central stamp (as opposed to the Augustantimes; its terminuspost quemmay even be
earlier, radial, sextuple stamping) are to be dated as late as A.D. 21.5Camuriuswas an Arretinepotter
between 10 B.C. and A.D. 9 approximately (Haltern, of the Tiberianperiod (Comfort,Arret.,pp. 190-191).
I, pp. 138-142).L. Titius Thyrsus,a freedmanof the
contemporarypotter L. Titius, was active indepen- G 38. ARRETINE RELIEF FRAGMENT. P1.5.
dently at Arezzo from about 10 B.C. (Ihm, Arret. P 9852. Max. dim. 0.058. Fragmentfrom rounded
T6pf., p. 118). wall of a mouldedbowl.
Cinnamon-redclay; thick, lustrous,reddishbrown
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

*G 34. SIGILLATA PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 57, 62.


glaze.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 9627 (+ 9988).H. 0.036; D. rest. 0.17. Fragmen- From the lower part of the body. In relief on
tary; restored. exterior:Eros, winged, to r., both feet together,left
Hard, buff clay; lustrous,reddishbrownglaze. arm extendedforwardand right arm drawnback at
The vertical rim is grooved and rouletted on shoulder level; to left and right, floral spikes; at
exterior. On the floor, two circulargrooves and, at extremeleft, three rosettes or flowers(2).
the center, a rectangularstamp: Severi. The portion The attributionof this piece is not certain.It may
of the stamp preservedon P 9988 was publishedby belongto the workshopof M. PerenniusBargathesor
Iliffe (Stamps,I1, p. 55) as "C. Meri";the discovery to that of Publius Cornelius;6 it should be dated in
of the join between P 9988 and P 9627 providesthe the late Augustanor Tiberianperiod.
correctreading.
The shape is Haltern 2 (Haltern,I, pp. 142-143). Storage, Layer II, Arretineware-fragments of two
ProfessorHoward Comfortinformsme that at least cups similarto G 35, of threeplates of Halterntype 2
three potters of the name were active, but that the (cf. G 34) and of one Tiberianplate as G 36, all from
Severusof G 34 is probablya potter of the Po Valley, Layer IIa; from Layer IIb, several rim fragments
the dates of whose activity are not preciselyfixed; as G 36.
the shape Haltern 2, however,is probablylimited to
the first quarterof the 1st century after Christ.
OTHER FINE EARLY ROMAN FABRICS
*G 35. ARRETINE CUP. P1. 62.
*G 39. BRITTLE WARECUP. P1. 4.
P 9991. P.H. 0.021; D. est. 0.074. About half of
P 11520. H. 0.055; D. rest. 0.095. Fragmentary;
rim and upperwall preserved.
restored.
Hard, light reddishclay; lustrous,light orange-red Rather coarse, gray clay with some grits; thin
glaze. fabric.
Therim markedwith roulettingat top and bottom.
No trace of appliqueornamentson rim. Cupwith small, flat base, roundedwall and plain
The shape as G 28 and Haltern 8 (Haltern,1, lip. The lower attachment of one vertical handle is
preserved;a second handle may have been present
pp. 147-149, pl. X). and the cup has been so restored.
G 36. ARRETINE PLATE FRAGMENT. Pls. 5, 62. Storage,LayerIIa-fragments of two similarcups.
P 9851.P.H. 0.025; D. est. 0.17. Aboutone-quarter *G 40. BRITTLEWARE CUP. P1. 4.
of rim and part of floor preserved.
P 22098. H. rest. 0.071; D. rest. 0.099. Two non-
Hard, reddish clay; reddish brown glaze with faint
luster. joining fragments preserve the complete profile;
restored.
On exterior of rim, two appliqu6 ornaments: Eros,
Hard, reddish, micaceous clay.
piping, to 1.; long-haired mask. The spacing of these
Small cup on ring foot, the wall curving in slightly
ornaments suggests that there were originally seven or
toward the plain lip. No trace of handles preserved.
eight on the complete rim. G37 may belong to this plate.
This type of rim, with appliqu6 ornaments, is not G 41. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. P1. 4.
earlier than the Tiberian period (Oswald-Pryce,
P 22076. H. 0.098; D. rest. 0.098. Fragmentary;
Introd.,pl. XLII, 9-11 ; Ohlenroth, Rdtien, pp.239-241, restored.
243-245).
G37. ARRETINEPLATEFRAGMENT,STAMPED. P1. 57. 5 Comfortin Antioch, IV, 1, p. 62; Comfort, T-S, col. 1312;
Ox6, BodenaltertiimerWest/alens, VI, 1944, p. 70.
P 9850. Max. dim. 0.045. Small fragment from e Cf. Tilbingen, pls. 16,235, 17,260, 24,229-230, 35,525;
center of floor, without trace of foot. Comfort, A.J.A., XLII, 1938, pp. 506-508, no. 1.
GROUP G 27

Brittle, gray-brown clay with small grits. The Reddish brown clay of slightly granulartexture;
upperhalf of the body firedblack on the exterioras a lead glaze, bluishgreenon exterior,brownon interior.
result of stackingin the kiln. The mouldmadebody of the cup is adornedwith a
Ovoid body on false ring foot; base concave. relief pattern of compound,sexfoliaterosettes.
Verticalrim set in from the top of the wall at a sharp On the subject of lead glazes, see Tarsus, I,
angle; a groove at top of rim. No handles. pp. 191-196.

G 42. BRITTLEWAREBEAKERFRAGMENTS. P1. 68.


G 46. GRAY WARE PLATEFRAGMENT. P]. 62.
P 22077. Max. P.H. 0.041; D. base est. 0.05. Two P 22075. P.H. 0.016; D. foot est. 0.175. Part of
foot and floorpreserved,with commencementof rim.
joining fragments of body and one non-joining
fragmentof base. Soft, gray clay; dull, black glaze, much worn.
On the floor, two pairs of circulargrooves; there
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Fine, brittle, light yellow-buffclay; extremelythin


fabric. may have been stamped ornament, but none is
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

From a beakerwith flat base; the wall apparently preservedon this small segment of the floor.
flared out from the base slightly before turning Such platters generallywere extremelylarge, with
a very low, plain rim. Three rim fragmentsof gray
upward;vertical wall surfaceindented as in H 2 and ware platters in Storage (Layer IIa) have estimated
J 69 (glass). The double profiledrawingon Plate 63
showsthe lines of maximumconvexity and maximum diametersof 0.60, 0.40 and 0.28 respectively.
concavity of the wall. G 47. GRAY WARECUP. P1. 62.
P 9870. H. 0.033; D. 0.066. Almost complete;
G43. BRITTLEWARECUP. LPl.4.
restored.
P 22094.H. 0.069; D. rest. 0.097. Handlesand part
Hard, gray clay; dull, gray-blackglaze.
of body and rim missing; traces of the attachments
for both handles are preserved;restored. *G 48. MOULDEDBOWL. P1.5.
Fine, hard, gray clay, mottled in part to reddish P 9848. H. 0.079; D. 0.142. Complete.
brown; the fabric somewhat thicker than in most Rather fine, buff clay; dull, reddish glaze, fired
brittle ware pieces. black on base and on much of interior.
Shallow cup on ring foot; offset, vertical rim, Hemisphericalbowl with high rim and everted,
concaveon exterior. undercut lip. The body adorned with imbricate
patternin relief, surmountedby a horizontalband of
Storage, Layer II, brittle ware-from Layer Ha, circles; the base marked by a circle of small leaves
fragmentsof severalcupswith flat base and of a kan- surroundedby two concentricridges.
tharos (2); from Layer IIb, similar fragmentsand The and techniqueare those of the Megarian
two piecesof a beakerof creamyyellow clay in a fabric bowls shape
(see Thompson, H.P., pp. 451-459; Tarsus,I,
of eggshellthickness (cf. H 3).
pp. 163-165; Pnyx, II, pp. 83-112), but the rather
thick fabric and undercutlip are not found
*G 44. GLAZED BEAKER. P1. 4. on the Hellenisticheavily
bowls; the lip may well reflect the
P 9990. H. 0.081; D. 0.07. Fragmentary;restored. influence of
imported Arretine footed bowls (as
Fine, light brick-red clay; thin fabric; reddish Oswald-Pryce,Introd.,pl. II, 3).
glaze, lustrous on exterior,thin and dull on interior.
Cylindricalbeakerwith flat base, set off from wall
at an oblique angle. Horizontal band of rouletting, MISCELLANEOUS GLAZEDAND NON-GLAZED WARES
set off by grooves,about center of body; a groove at *G 49. PLATE. Pls. 4, 65.
lip and another near base. It is possible, though P 9987. H. 0.054-0.058; D. 0.30. Half missing;
unlikely, that this vessel had a handle. restored.
The cylindrical beaker shape occurs commonly in Buff clay; dull, brownish red glaze, fired black in
early Imperial wares of north Italy and even in true
part.
Arretine fabric, as Haltern type 16 (Haltern, I,
Probably an imitation of the Augustan plate of
pp. 155-156, pl. XVI, 16). The Haltern example must western manufacture, Haltern type 3b (Haltern, I,
be placed before A.D. 16, the date at which the
occupation of the site came to an end. pl. X, Sb).
Storage, Layer IIa-fragment of a similar plate.
G45. STEMMEDCUP, LEAD GLAZE. PIs. 5, 63. G 50. PLATE. P1. 65.
P 9844. H. est. 0.135; D. est. 0.185. Three non- P 11489. H. 0.053; D. est. 0.40. Small portion of
joining fragments of rim, body and foot, from which rim and floor preserved; center of floor missing;
the composite profile (P1. 63) has been prepared. No partly restored.
trace of handles preserved. Coarse, pinkish buff clay; dull, red glaze,
28 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

G 51. BowL, TWOHANDLES. P1. 5. G 57. BOWL. P1. 5.


P 11490. H. 0.068; D. at lip 0.14. Fragmentary; P 9863. H. 0.04; D. 0.1338.Fragmentary;center
one handle missing;restored. of floormissing;restored.
Rathercoarse,gray-buffclay; dull, blackto brown Clay anidglaze as G 55.
glaze (partial). Shapeas G 53-56. On the floor,two circularbands
Shape as F 29, but the rim is slightlyhigherand the of rouletting.
horizontalbar of the handleis pressedin close to the
rim. No stampedornamenton the floor. G 58. BOWL. Pls. 5, 66.
P 9862. H. 0.029; D. rest. 0.132. Fragmentary;
G 52. BOWL, TWOHANDLES. P1.66. centerof floormissing;restored.
Rather coarse, reddishbuff clay; dull, orange-red
P 11505. H. 0.068; D. at lip rest. 0.133. Fragmen-
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

glaze.
tary; both handles missing; restored (the handles
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

restoredon the analogyof F 29). G 59. BOWL. Pls. 5, 66.


Rather coarse,pinkishbuff clay; thin fabric; dull,
P 11507. H. 0.034; D. rest. 0.15. Fragmentary;
red glaze (partial),firedbrownishred on exterior.
center of floormissing;restored.
Shapeas G 51 and F 29, but the rim is higherthan Rather
in G 51. No stampedornamenton floor. soft, buff clay with some mica; orange-red
glaze, much worn on floor (base may have been
Storage, Layer II-fragments of at least three without
bowls similarto G 51--52. glaze).
CompareM 34.

G 53. BOWL, STAMPED. Pls. 57, 66. *G 60. SHALLOW


BOWL. Pls. 5, 66.
P 9867. H. 0.05; D. rest. 0.17. Fragmentary; P 11519. H. 0.032; D. 0.106. Fragmentary;
restored. restored.
Rather soft, orange-buffclay; orange-brownglaze. Micaceous,reddish brown clay; dull, red glaze
On floor,four circularbands of roulettingand, at (partial).
center, a device-stamp:sandalledfoot (cf. G 54-56, The shape is an elaborationof the form seen in
G61). Thestamppublishedby Iliffe(Iliffe,Stamps,II, F 53-54; comparealso G 216 and [M 66] for develop-
p. 51) as "P. Hertorius?". ments of the later 1st and 2nd centuries.
Storage, Layer II--fragments of several bowls
similarto G 53-57 in Layers IIa and IIb. G 61. BOWL,STAMPED. Pls. 5, 57, 66.
P 9858. H. 0.03; D. 0.113. Fragmentary;restored.
G 54. BOWL, STAMPED. P1. 66. Fine, hard, orange clay; orange glaze (partial).
P 11499. H. 0.037; D. rest. 0.125. Fragmentary; On floor,circularband of roulettingand, at center,
restored. a device-stamp:sandalledfoot (as G 53-56). Compare
H 31.
Soft, gray clay; dull, grayish black glaze.
As G 53, but smaller. On the floor, two circular Storage, Layer IIb--fragments of two similar
bands of rouletting and, at center, a device-stamp, bowls.
much worn: sandalledfoot (?).
G 62. BOWL FRAGMENT,STAMPED. P1.57.
P 22079. P.H. 0.017; D. foot 0.057. Fragment of
G 55. BOWL FRAGMENT, STAMPED. P1. 57. foot and floor.
P 11484. P.H. 0.017; D. foot 0.052. Fragment of Buff clay; orange-brownglaze.
foot and floor. From a bowl or plate with slightly concave floor,
Rather coarse, reddish clay; dull, dark red glaze. on ring foot. On the floor, several indistinct circular
From a bowl as G 54. On the floor, three circular bands of rouletting and, at center, a device-stamp:
bands of rouletting and, at center, a device-stamp: rosette.
sandalled foot.
0 63. BOWL FRAGMENT, STAMPED. P1. 57.
G 66. BOWL, STAMPED. Pls. 5, 57. P 22081. P.H. 0.017; D. foot est. 0.06. Fragment
P 11497. H. rest. 0.039; D. rest. 0.159. Fragment of foot and floor.
of foot and floor with non-joining rim fragments; Reddish clay; brownish red glaze with faint
restored. metallic luster. Very similar clay and glaze are found
Orange-red clay; dull, reddish orange glaze. in G 68, G 70-71, G 173, H 4--6, H11 16.
As G 53-54. On the floor, three circular bands of From a bowl or plate with concave floor, on low
rouletting and, at center, a device-stamp: sandalled ring foot. On the floor, two circular grooves and, at
foot. center, a device-stamp: rosette.
GROUP G 29

G 64. BOWL FRAGMENT, STAMPED. P1. 57. G 72. Cup, FLANGED RIM. P1.5.
P 22080. P.H. 0.02; D. foot 0.046. Fragment of P 22084.H. rest. 0.038; D. 0.07. Fragmentary,rim
foot and floor. missing;restored.
Buff clay; dull, black glaze (partial). Buff clay; reddishbrownglaze.
From a small bowl or cup of hemisphericalshape, Shallow cup on ring foot; a high, flanged rim is
on ring foot. At center of floor, a device-stamp: restoredon the analogy of P 9171 (Deposit D 11:1).
rosette.
*G 73. HEMISPHERICAL CUP. Pls. 5, 66.
*G 65. BOWL. Pls. 5, 66.
P 11517. H. 0.05; D. 0.078. Almost complete;
P 11512. H. 0.047; D. rest. 0.10. Fragmentary; restored.
center of floormissing; restored. Rather soft, pinkish clay with some grits; dull,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Hard, buff clay; orange-redglaze. orange-redglaze.


This shape is common in the earlier varieties of
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

G 66. BOWL. P1. 66. Pergameneware (F 6-11, G 1), but it was supplanted,
P 9854. H. 0.06; D. 0.107. Fragmentary;restored. in that fabric, in the late 1st century B.C., by the
Rather soft, buff clay; dull, red glaze (partial), bell-cupwith flangedrim (see referencesunderG 28).
fired buff in part.
Rouletting on top surfaceof rim.
G 74. HEMISPHERICALCUP, FLANGED RIM.
Storage,Layers IIa and IIb-fragments of several Pls. 5, 66.
similarbowls. P 11500. H. 0.052; D. 0.108. Fragmentary;
restored.
G 67. BOWL. PI. 5. Hard, gray clay; black glaze, faintly lustrous on
P 11491. H. 0.064; D. 0.11. Fragmentary; interior.
restored. This shape, too, occurs in Pergamene ware, as
Rather soft, gray clay; dull, black glaze. G 13-14. It is found in western sigillata waresof the
Shape as, G 66. The bowl has warped slightly in Tiberian and Claudianperiods(Oswald-Pryce,Introd.
firing. pl. XL). Compare G 75, G 180, H 8-9.

*G 68. BOWL,FLANGEDRIM. G 75. HEMISPHERICAL CUP, FLANGEDRIM.


Pls. 5, 66.
P 11515. H. 0.067; D. 0.124. Fragmentary; P 9869. H. 0.044; D. 0.084. Almost complete;
center of floor missing; restored. restored.
Reddish buff clay; black glaze with faint metallic Gray clay; dull, black glaze.
luster, mottled red to black on exterior (cf. G 63). Shape as G 74, but the base is conicaland there is
Storage, Layer IIb-fragments of a similar bowl. a groove at the top of the rim.

*G 69. BOWL, FLANGEDRIM. *G 76. HEMISPHERICAL BOWL. Pls. 4, 66.


P1. 66.
P 11516. H. 0.055; D. 0.094. Fragmentary; P 9628 P H.
(+ 9989). 0.073; D. 0.213. Fragmen-
restored. tary; center of floormissing; restored.
Soft, brownishbuff clay; dull, orange-brownglaze.
Fine, hard, brownishbuff clay; metallic, brownish On floor,five circularbands of rouletting.
glaze (partial).
*G 77. BOWL. Pls. 4, 67.
G 70. BELL-CUP, FLANGED RIM, GRAFFITO. Pls. 5, 66.
P 11518. H. 0.092; D. rest. 0.197. Fragmentary;
P 11501. H. 0.058; D. 0.122. Almost complete; restored.
restored.
Reddish buff to buff clay; red glaze (partial),
Light, reddish brown clay; slightly lustrous, black mottled to brown and black.
glaze, mottled red in part on rim and exterior
(cf. G 63). G 78. BOWL FRAGMENT. P1. 5.
Shapeas G28. Onthe base, graffito:lunate epsilon. P 22082. P.H. 0.032; D. foot est. 0.10. Fragment
of foot and floor.
G 71. BELL-CUP, FLANGED RIM, STAMPED. P1. 5. Pinkish buff clay, with some mica; an almost
P 9853. H. 0.045; D. 0.088. Fragmentary; imperceptible wash of dull, orange-brown glaze
restored. (partial).
Reddish clay with small grits; slightly lustrous, From a bowl probably similar to G 184; ring foot;
reddish orange glaze, mottled black in part on rim circular depression (D. est. 0.07) at center of floor;
and exterior (cf. G 63). around the depression, a spiral band of rouletting.
Shape as G 70 and G 28. At center of floor, a stamp, Storage, Layer IIb-a fragment of a similar bowl,
impressed from a worn die and illegible. without rouletting.
80 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

G 79. CurP,TWOHANDLES. P1. 4. Globularbody on small ring foot; vertical rim


P 22083. H. 0.073; D. rest. 0.09. The complete marked by three horizontalgrooves on exterior. A
profile is preserved in three fragments, without horizontal band of rouletting on shoulder. Single,
certaintraceof handles;restored(the verticalhandles grooved handle, provided with lug (thumb-rest)at
based on P 21783, a brittle ware cup from Deposit top. CompareG 86, H 11.
R 10:1). Storage,Layer IIb-fragments of two jugs similar
Soft, orange-buff clay; dull, reddish glaze on to G 85 and 86.
exteriorand at rim on interior.
Shallow body on ring foot; high rim, set off G 86. GLOBULAR JUG.
slightly from body; plain lip. A grooveat top of rim P 11510. P.H. 0.074; D. lip est. 0.06. Handle and
on exterior. part of wall and rim preserved.
Rather soft, reddishbuff clay; dull, orange-brown
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Storage,Layer IIa-a fragmentof a similar cup.


glaze.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

G 80. Cup, TWOHANDLES. P1.4. As G 85, but smaller; six bands of rouletting on
P 11503. H. 0.075; D. rest. 0.09. Fragmentary; shoulder.
restored.
Hard, buff clay; reddishglaze (partial). G 87. GLOBULARJUG. P1. 5.
Straight-sided cup on ring foot; two vertical P 11506. P.H. 0.093; D. lip 0.105. The upperhalf
handles.CompareM 2. of the body preservedin fragmentarycondition;most
Storage,LayerIIa-fragments of two similarcups, of handle missing; partly restored.
one with incision on the exteriorbelow the lip. This Hard, gray clay; black glaze.
type of cup is presumably a late version of the Shapeas G85-86, but largerandwithoutrouletting
Hellenistickantharos,as B 21. on shoulder.Comparealso [M 37], M 67.
G 81. BICoNICALCUP, TWOHANDLES. P1.4. Pl. 5.
*G 88. BICONICAL JUG.
P 11502. H. 0.088; D. 0.086. Fragmentary;both
handlesmissing;restored. P 22097. H. 0.126; D. rest. 0.114. Handle and
about two-thirdsof body, including center of floor,
Hard, buff clay; dull, brownishglaze, irregularly
missing; restored.
applied.
Biconical body on small ring foot; high, swelling Rather coarse,buff clay; dull, red glaze (excepton
rim with groove at top and bottom; two vertical base).
handles. Shape as F 44.
Storage,LayersHa and IIb-fragments of several Storage,Layer IIa-fragments of two similarjugs
similarcups in both red and black glaze. (black glaze and red glaze).
G 82. PLATE, INVERTEDLIP. Pls. 67, 73. *G 89. SPOUTEDJUG. Pl. 5.
P 22088. H. 0.045; D. rest. 0.185. Fragmentary; P 11511. H. 0.15; D. rest. 0.117. Fragmentary;
restored. restored.
Rather coarse,reddishbuff clay. Hard, gray-buffclay; black glaze (except on foot),
Compare F 36-40. mottled reddishbrownin part.
Ovoid body on very low ring foot; narrowneck
G 83. PLATE, INVERTED LIP. P1. 6. terminates in a
projecting spout, open on top.
P 22100.H. 0.045; D. 0.18. Fragmentary;restored. Grooved handle. Groove along lip (top of spout)
Buff clay. and two grooves around the under surface of the
As G 82; a broadgroove on top of lip. spout at its outer edge.
0 84. PLATE, INVERTED LIP. P1. 6.
*G 90. JUG, TREFOIL LIP. P1. 5.
P 11485. H. 0.048; D. rest. 0.17. Fragmentary;
restored. P 11522. H. 0.121; D. 0.081. Fragmentary, handle
Rather soft, brownish buff clay. missing; restored.
As G 82-83. Buff clay; red glaze (except on foot).
Storage, Layers IIa and IIb-fragments of more Piriformnbody on ring foot; narrow neck and
than ten plates similar to G 82-84; among those from bulbous mouth; everted, horizontal, trefoil lip. Two
Layer IIa are a few covered with black glaze. grooves on shoulder, above b. a. h.
While the piriform body and trefoil lip are not
G 85. GLOBULARJUG. P1. 5. uncommon in Hellenistic wares (as A 36, C 10), the
P 9843. H. 0.09; D. 0.099. Fragmentary; restored. bulbous mouth below the lip appears to be an
Hard, pinkish buff clay; black to brown glaze innovation of Roman date. It should be noted also
(except on base). that, in general, early Roman trefoil lips display a
GROUP G 81

very wide frontal lobe and small side lobes, the two Hard, buff clay with some grits; the lip and top of
indentationsof the lip occurringclose to the handle the neck were probablyglazed as in G 98 and many
attachment. other similarunguentaria.
Shape as F 50 and G 98.
G 91. Juo, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 5.
P 22254.H. rest.0.162;D. rest.0.108.Fragmentary; G 98. BULBOUS UNGUENTARIUM. Pl. 5.
most of handle, neck and lip missing; restored. P 22095. H. 0.146; D. rest. 0.081. Fragmentary,
Gray clay; black glaze (except on foot). center of base missing; restored.
Plump body on ring foot; the concave shoulder Hard, reddish clay, fired gray at core; reddishto
curves up into a wide, flaringneck which terminates black glaze inside lip and on upperhalf of neck.
in a plain lip, flat on top. The handleis restoredwith Shape as F 50 and G 97; the lip, preservedin this
three vertical grooves on the analogy of P 10460 specimen,is small and everted, flat on top.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

(Deposit B 13:2, 2nd century filling). Storage,Layers Ha and IIb--fragments of many


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

similarunguentaria.
*G 92. JUG. P1. 5.
P 11513. P.H. 0.143; D. 0.185. Body only pre- Storage, Layer IIb, miscellaneous glazed wares--
served,in fragmentarycondition;partly restored. fragments of three plates of buff clay and reddish
Fine, gray clay; black glaze. glaze, shaped as G 19-20; parts of two bowls similar
Globular body on wide ring foot. No traces in shape to G 179 and G 185 of Layer III; part of an
preservedof neck or of handle attachment. amphorasimilar to J 48, K 68 and L 3, but more
nearly globularin shape.
G 93. NECK FRAGMENT, JUG. P1.5.
P 11486. P.H. 0.10; D. lip 0.049. Neck and handle COARSE HOUSEHOLD WARES
only preserved.
Hard, buff clay; dull, black to brownglaze. *[G 99]. BASIN. Pls. 6, 72.
At the base of the neck, three grooves,the lowest P 8487. Deposit Q 13:1 (Augustan).
correspondingwith the point at which the separately H. 0.322; D. 0.55. Fragmentary;restored.
turned body and neck were joined. Everted lip, flat Rather soft and coarse, buff to pinkish buff clay;
on top. Groovedhandle. dull, black glaze inside and on top of rim.
Deep, wide basin on heavy ring foot. Thick,
G 94. BEAKER (?) FRAGMENT. P1.63. everted lip; top of lip marked by two grooves with
P 22078. P.H. 0.031; D. foot est. 0.08. Fragment an incised wave line between.
of foot and of lower part of wall. Storage, Layer IIa-fragments of a basin (D. est.
Buff clay, less carefully finished inside than out; 0.43) similarto P 8487.
creamy buff slip on exterior to below the angle of the
wall. *[G 100]. BASIN. Pls. 6, 72.
Froma beakeror possiblya closedvessel; ringfoot. P 21753. Deposit R 10 :1 (Augustan).
CompareII 3, M 4. H. 0.144; D. 0.24. Fragmentary;restored.
The fabric is similar to that of F 45. A neck Coarse,soft, darkbuff clay with grits; dull, brown
fragment,possibly from a jug such as F 45, is among glaze (partial),much worn.
the stored sherdsfrom Layer IIa of this Group. Deep bowlon ring foot; evertedrim with grooveon
top. Horizontalhandles,roundin section, bent up at
G 95. MINIATURE JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1. 5.
mid-pointto touch undersurfaceof rim.
P 9842. H. 0.128; D. 0.065. Almost complete. Storage,LayersIIa and IIb-fragments of several
Hard, pinkishbuff, micaceousclay. basins similar to P 21753.
Elongated, piriform body with flat base and plain,
flaring lip. Small, arched basket handle. Storage, Layer IIa, basins-fragments of several
basins similar to F 62; they are of reddish buff or buff
G 96. UNGUENTARIUM. P1.5. clay with dull, red to brown glaze on interior.
P 22096. P.H. 0.093; H. rest. 0.167; D. 0.071.
G 101. STAMNOS, PARTLY GLAZED. P1. 6.
Neck and parts of body and foot missing; restored
on basis of F 49. P 11487. P.H. 0.146; D. rest. 0.233. Fragments,
Hard, brittle, brownish buff clay, fired gray at core. including one handle, of upper part of body; partly
restored.
Shape as F 49.
Yellowish buff clay; dull, black glaze applied in a
*G 97. BULBOUS UNGUENTARIUM. PI. 5. band around the rim and another just below the
P 9847. P.H. 0.105; H. rest. 0.111; D. 0.061. Top handle attachments; between these bands, large
of neck missing; restored (the neck height is con- unconnected spots of glaze. Two horizontal grooves
jectural). at level of handles.
82 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

For the completeshape see P 4503 (P1.40), which pl. XI,3). The bronze applique mask from the
comes from the contemporaryDeposit F 11 :1: gray- StroganoffCollectionis now in the Baker Collection,
buff clay; plump, ovoid body on ring foot; wide New York (Greek,Etruscanand RomanAntiquities,
mouth with plain, low, vertical rim; two horizontal an Exhibitionfrom the Collectionof WalterC. Baker
handles, round in section, tilted upward; two ..... , New York, 1950, no. 48). The miniature
horizontal grooves at level of handles; bands of bronzesitula fromMeroe*, cited by Squarciapino,has
brown to black glaze at rim, below handle zone and generally been considered to be of earlyImperialdate
above foot, with a wave pattern of glaze betweenthe (Schreiber, "Die alexandrinische Toreutik,"Abh.d. k.
upper two bands. CompareJ 4, J 40 and M 39-40. sichs. Gesellsch.d. Wiss., Leipzig, Phil.-hist. Cl.,
Storage, Layers IIa and IIb--fragments of XIV, 5, 1894, pp. 433-435; Schaifer,Agyptische
severalsuch stamnoi. Goldschmiedearbeiten, Berlin, 1910, p. 99), while the
from Cilli in Stiria (now in Vienna) was
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

example
G 102. SITULA, BAIL HANDLE. P1. 6. found with a coin of Claudius-these two dates
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 9845. H. 0.365; D. 0.377. Part of rim and body, accord well with that of Layer II of Group G.
includingmost of handle, both loop handlesand one Further,the three bronzesitulae fromMehrum(near
appliqu' mask missing;restored. Duisburg,on the Rhine), of shape similarto but not
Hard, reddishclay; fine, creamybuff slip. identical with that of G 102, were found in a tomb
Deep body supportedon three lug feet; flat floor. with fragmentsof terra sigillata stampedby Bassus/
The wall is sharply constrictedat the top, below a Coelus(OF BASSI.CO)and by Canus(OFF.CANI),
neatly turned, everted, overhanging rim; at two south Gaulish potters whose activity extends from
diametricallyopposedpoints on the rim a small, flat, the time of Tiberiusto the early years of Vespasian
semicircularlug projectsout beyondthe peripheryof (Furtwangler, "Die Bronzeeimer von Mehrum,"
the rim; beneath each lug, attached to its under- Festschr.zum fiinfzig-jiihrigenJubilium des Vereins
surfaceand to the wall of the situla below,a moulded, von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande, 1891, pp.
appliqu' mask of Dionysos. The god is represented 23-34, pls. II-III; for the dating of the potters,
with flowing beard and mustache, garland of ivy Oswald,Index of Potters'Stampson TerraSigillata,
leaves and berries,a bunchof grapesat either side of East Bridgford, Notts., 1931, s.v.v.). Numerous
the face; a fillet (mitra) crosses the foreheadbelow parallelsare to be found also at Pompeii (cf. Willers,
the garland,its trailing ends hanging down in front Die Bronzeeimervon Hemmoor,Hannover, 1901,
of the grapesat either side; the ears are not visible. p. 116, fig. 45, nos. 2, 4, 5). There seems to be no
Each of the two rim-lugsis surmountedby a vertical, reason to believe that any of the metal or clay
loop handle; aroundthe top of one half of the rim, situlaewith appliqu6masksof the type seen in G 102
and united with it, runs the handle proper,roundin were manufacturedearlierthan the 1st centuryafter
section and made in imitation of the free-moving Christ. Some two dozen clay situlae representedby
bail handle of the metal prototype of this situla; fragmentsin the Agoracollectionwill be treatedmore
each end of the clay bail handle, where it passes fully in the secondvolume of this work.
through the vertical loop handle, may have been PIs. 7, 42.
mouldedin the formof a duck'shead (as can be seen [G 103]. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH.
P 15319. Deposit N 17:2 (1st century).
in other fragmentarysitulae of similar form in the H. 0.13; D. 0.11. Fragmentary;restored.
Agoracollection:e.g., P 5313 and 19376,P1. 39). Buff, gritty clay; thin fabric; gray slip. The lower
G 102 is a closeparallelin shapeand size to a situla portion fired reddish buff on exterior as a result of
of porphyry in the museum at Angers (Delbrueck, stackingin the kiln.
AntikePorphyrwerke, Berlin,1932,pp. 201-202,pl. 93) Plump body, constricted in lower portion to a
and to a fragmentary bronze situla from Ostia fat base; high, flaringrim; sliced handle.
(Squarciapino, Boll. d'Arte, XXXIV, 1949, pp. 139 Storage, Layer IIb-fragments of over a dozen
- 144). To the other parallels cited by Squarciapino jugs similar to P 15319. For a similar vessel from
add: a bronze applique mask found at Vindobona (in Siphnos, see B.S.A., XLIV, 1949, p. 72 ("Early
Vienna: Radn6ti, Die rimische Bronzegefdi/3evon Christian," no. 1), pl. 22, 23.
Pannonien [Diss. Pannonicae, II,6], Budapest, 1938,
p. 122, pl. XXX,4); a fragmentary clay situla from [G 1041. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 7.
Capua (C.V.A., Michigan, pl. XXXIX, 3); clay P 10759. Deposit B 14:3 (second half of 1st
appliqu6 masks in the Greco-Roman Museum in century).
Alexandria (Inv. no. 6483), in the Museum Antiker H. 0.192; D. 0.128. Intact.
Kleinkunst, Munich (Inv. no. 1132 ), and possibly Hard, gritty, reddish clay.
in Odessa (Derewitzky, Pavlowsky and Stern, Das Plump, ovoid body on low ring foot; almost
Museum der k. Odessaer Gesellschaft filr Gesch. u. horizontal shoulder. High neck with small, everted
Altertumskunde, Lief. I, Terracotten, Odessa, 1897, lip, horizontal on top. The neck is enlarged at front
GROUP G 33
to accommodatethe forwardprojection of the large G 109. LID. P1. 6.
frontal lobe of the trefoil mouth. Grooved handle. P 22089. H. 0.021; D. 0.051. Intact.
A groove around neck below lip and another on Dark buff clay, self-slip.
shoulder. Lid in form of a broad, shallow cone; large knob,
Storage, Layer IIb-neck fragments of a jug flat on top.
similarto P 10759.
G 110. LID. P1.6.
P 22090.H. 0.04; D. 0.089. Fragmentary;restored.
[G105]. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 6.
P 15314.Deposit N 17:2 (as [G 103]; Ist century). Orange-buffclay, self-slip.
H. 0.268; D. 0.212. Intact. As G 109, but of more truly conicalform.
Gritty, buff to pinkish buff clay; gray-buff slip. G 111. FLOWERPOT (?) FRAGMENT. P1.6.
Plump, ovoid body on low ring foot; low neck with
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 22092.Max. dim. 0.056. Singlefragmentof base.


small, everted lip, round mouth. Grooved handle; Reddish buff clay, buff slip.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

the lip is deeplyindented at t.a.h.; horizontalgroove


From the slightly roundedbottom of an open pot;
at b. a. h. Compare[J 421, which comes from the
at the center, a hole, piercedbeforefiring (D. of hole
upper level of the same deposit.
approx. 0.024).
Storage,LayerIIb- fragmentsof neck andhandle Flat-bottomed flowerpots occur in the late
of a jug similar to P 15314.
Hellenistic planting of the garden around the
Storage, Layer IIb-fragments of three round- Hephaisteion(Hesperia,VI, 1937, pp. 404-409).
mouthedjugs as M 43.
COOKING WARES
[G106j. WATER JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1. 6.
P 10715. Deposit E 14:2 (1st century). G 112. COOKING DISH. P1. 72.
H. 0.234; D. 0.187. Intact. P 11483.H. 0.063; D. 0.25. Fragmentary;restored.
Rather soft, dark buff clay with grits; buff slip. Gritty, reddish brown clay, blackenedby fire on
Ovoid body on low ring foot; very low neck with exterior.
plain, everted lip; ridged handle. Contrast J 44, CompareF 78, G 191.
[J 45], M 44, M 88-89, M 198.
Storage, Layer IIa-fragments of a jar similar to G 113. FRYING PAN.
Pl. 72.
P 10715. P 11493.H. 0.041; D. 0.28. Fragmentary;restored.
Coarse, gritty, brown to gray clay; traces of
G107. JAR FRAGMENT,ONE HANDLE. P1.7. burnishing on the floor.
P 11488.P.H. 0.115; D. lip 0.061. Neck,handleand Pan with short, tubular handle which terminates
in a flaringknob; the handle,groovedon the exterior,
part of shoulderpreserved.
is attached at the lip and is set at an angle following
Fine, hard, pinkishclay; buff slip.
From a jar of the type of F 65-66 (q.v.).Thereis a the line of the wall.
For an earliertype of frying pan handle see F 79.
deep groove on the neck just below the roundedlip;
A similar handle is reported from Methymna on
splayed handle with broad longitudinalgroove.
Lesbos (J.H.S., LII, 1932, p. 8, fig. 3,16).
Storage, Layer IIb-fragments of at least five
other similarjars, as well as of a jar of related shape G 114. FRYING PAN. P1.7.
in micaceousfabric, coveredwith dull, reddishglaze
P 11495. H. 0.035; D. 0.293. Fragmentary;
(cf. P 15280, from the 2nd century level of Deposit restored.
N 17:2).
Clay as G 113, but the fabric is thinner; partly
blackened by fire on the exterior.
[G 108j. AMPHORA. P1.6. Shape as G 113, but the lip is rounded.
P 18877. Deposit S 21:1 (first half of 1st century).
H. rest. 0.363; D. rest. 0.13. Fragmentary, lip G 115. FRYING PAN. P1.7.
missing; restored (the lip restored on the basis of an P 11494. H. 0.046; D. 0.275. Almost complete;
uninventoried fragment from Layer IIb of Group G). restored.
Soft, buff clay; self-slip. Clay as G 113; traces of burnishing on the floor.
Slender, almost cylindrical body on ring foot; Shape as G 113-114.
angular shoulder and narrow, tapering neck; grooved,
flat handles. G 116. COOKINGPOT. Pls. 7, 88, 72.
Storage, Layer IIb---fragments of a neck and P 11509.H. rest. 0.165; D. lip 0.152. Fragmentary,
handle similar in shape and fabric to P 18877. base missing; restored.
3
34 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Coarse,reddish buff clay; lower part of exterior Coarse,gritty, brownclay; thick fabric;the surface
blackenedby fire. blackenedby fire inside and out.
As F 84. Single groove around body at level of Conical lid with broad knob resembling an
horizontalhandle. invertedring foot.
Round-bottomed cooking pots as G( 116 and Storage, Layer IIa-fragments of three similar
F 80-85 were probably intended for use with a lids, one of which has a solid knob.
braziersuch as P 14122 (cf. ( 123), with which G 116
is illustratedin Plate 38. G 122. LID. Pl. 6.
P 11508. H. 0.038; D. 0.122. Fragmentary;
G 117. COOKINGPOT. P1.7. restored.
P 22085. P.H. 0.10; H. rest. 0.118; D. rest. 0.125. Coarse,reddishbuff clay.
Conical lid with roughlyfinishedknob,flat on top.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Fragmentary;bottom and most of handle missing;


restored(the base on the analogy of P 16089). Storage,LayersHa and IIb-fragments of several
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

similarlids.
Coarse,brittle,reddishclay, firedblackon exterior;
thin fabric. Storage, Layer IIb, cooking ware-fragments of a
Globularbody on flat base, set off from the wall; flat cooking pan similar to F 77; fragments of
the lip flaresout and is set off from the body by an cookingpots similarto G 193 and G195.
angular ridge. Single handle. Three horizontal
grooveswithin the handle zone.
LARGE STORAGE VESSELS, ETC.
G 118. COOKINGPOT, RING FOOT. P1. 7.
G123. BRAZIERFRAGMENTS.
P 22086. P.H. 0.086; H. rest. 0.09; D. 0.098. Foot
and part of body missing;restored(the foot restored P 11492. Threenon-joiningfragments;max. dim.
on the basis of an analogousfragmentstoredwith the (a) 0.115, (b) 0.087, (c) 0.064.
uninventoriedsherdsof Layer IIb). Coarse reddish (a, b) or brownish (c) clay; (a)
Fabric as G 117. coveredwith dull, black glazeinside and out, (b) and
Almost globular body on low ring foot; body (c) not glazed.
constrictedsharplybelow the plain, everted rim; no Fragmentsfromthe rimsof threedifferentbraziers.
handles. On each fragmentis preserveda lug which served as
supportfor a pot; one (a) is a rearlug, the other two
P1. 7. are front lugs. On the exteriorof (b) traces of broad
G 119. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH.
and very shallow grooves arrangedin a horizontal
P 22087. H. 0.152; D. 0.131. Fragmentary;most wave pattern.
of handle missing; restored. The nature of the braziersfrom which these lugs
Rather coarse, brittle, brownish buff clay, fired derive is illustrated by a more nearly complete
gray-blackon exterior;thin fabric. specimen:
Plump body narrowingsharply at bottom to a P 14122 (P1.38).
small, flat base; plain, low, evertedrim. Singlerolled Deposit 0 17:1 (1st century)
handle. H. rest. 0.182; D. rim of pan 0.417; W. brazier
The shape is similar to that of [G 103], but the
proper across front 0.19. Several joining and non-
fabric and handle are quite different.
joining fragmentspreserveabout one-quarterof the
pan (including two feet), portions of the wall of
*G120. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 7. the brazier proper (including the rear rim lug
P 11514.H. 0.19; D. 0.143. Fragmentary;restored. and vent hole and clear indicationsof the positions
Coarse, reddish brown to gray-brown clay. of the front vertical edges of the wall). Restored;
Plump body with flat base; shoulder almost the front rim lugs are based on G(123, the two side
horizontal; high neck, widening toward the plain, vent holes on P 12044; the height of the brazier wall
trefoil lip; grooved handle; four grooves around neckis uncertain and has been restored at 0.135 above the
at lip. floor of the pan.
The shape is similar to that of [( 104i, but the Coarse, reddish clay.
fabricis different. A large circular pan with flat floor and low, flaring
Storage,Layer IIa-neck fragmentsof two similar rim; supported on four (?) low, tubular feet (H. foot
jugs. 0.025). The rim is thickened at the top, slightly
everted and marked by a deep groove on the upper
( 121. LID. P1. 7. surface. About one-third of the floor space of the pan
P 11496. H. 0.071; D. 0.224. Fragmentary; is occupied by the brazier proper, consisting of a
restored. vertical wall, approximately semicircular in plan,
GROUP G 85

with the open end towardthe center of the pan. This G124. PITHOS LID FRAGMENT. P1. 6.
wall, at its central point, is contiguousto the outer P 22091. D. est. 0.30. Small rim fragment.
edge of the pan floor; at that point the rim of the Very coarse,reddishbuff clay.
pan is bent inward to touch the brazier wall. The From a lid similar to F 89, with traces preserved
thickened lip of the brazierwall is markedby three of one notch, a raisedlug and a pair of holes just to
lugs; that at the back is horizontal,those at the two the inside of the lug.
front ends are vertical. The wall is pierced by three
vent holes, one at the back and one at either side. G125. COOKING(2) UTENSIL. Pl. 50.
The purposeof the two types of lug on the brazier MC417. H. 0.035; D. 0.225. Almost complete.
rim was to hold cooking pots firmly in position (see Coarse,reddishbuff clay; self-slip.
P1. 38, whereP 14122is illustratedsupportingG 116). A circular disk, flat on bottom; upper surface
The areaof the brazierproperwas used for laying the markedby three concentricridges (H. ca. 0.02), one
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

fire; ashes and coals could be rakedout into the open at the outer edge, the other two with diametersof
area of the pan floor, which might also be used on
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

0.141 and 0.042 respectively.No traces of any spout


occasionas a supportfor pots which were to be kept or handle.
warm. The purpose served by this object is uncertain.
Numerousfragments of such braziersturn up in Possibly a supportfor hot cookingpots or fryingpans
deposits of the 1st century after Christin the Agora when removed from the brazier (?).
excavations. The type is quite differentfrom that in
use in the Hellenistic period (as D 76, E 150) and it G 126. AMPHORA FRAGMENT, DIPINTO. P1.58.
seems not to have survived the 1st century, after P 22093.Max.dim. 0.109. Singlefragmentof body.
which time one must assume that metal braziers Coarse,buff clay with grits; creamybuff slip.
became sufficiently inexpensive to serve the needs Probably from the upper half of the body of a
of almost all Athenianfamilies.For a Pompeianmetal storage amphorasimilar to [M 54]. On exterior, an
brazier of somewhat similar though more elaborate inscriptionin red paint: ]trr[ and traces of another
character,see Naples Mus. Naz. 72986 (a replica of letter below.
which is illustratedby Tarbell,Catalogueof Bronzes, Storage, Layer II, amphorae-fragments of two
etc., in Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, amphoraeas F 94, from Layer IIa; from Layer IIb,
1909, no. 101, p. 117, pl. LXVI); in this case the unit parts of two amphoraeas G 197, of one as G 198, and
served both as brazierand as water heater. of one as [M 54] and G 126.

OBJECTS
OTHERTHANPOTTERY

*G 127. LAMP. Pl. 44. Shape as G 128. Rim: rinceaux and bunches of
L 2932. L. 0.111; W. 0.066; H. 0.033. Almost grapes. The filling hole is large, with a heavy edge
complete. surroundingit; there is, properlyspeaking,no discus.
Brownishbuff clay; light brownglaze. Perlzweig.
Rim: on either side, one shield-likeornamentand
one of heart shape. Nozzle triangular. Base flat and
*G 130. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
offset from body. Howland type 50 B (see Howland L 2982. L. 0.102; W. 0.057; H. 0.027. Almost
no. 674). complete;restored.
Buff clay; dull, blackglaze.
*G 128. LAMP, BASKETHANDLE. P1. 44. As F 99-100. The base, offset from the body and
L 3204. L. rest. 0.117;W. 0.083; H. 0.035.Fragmen- concave on the undersurface,bears a signature in
tary; handle missing; partly restored. relief,'Aroh IAcoviov.Howland no. 735, type 52 E.
Pinkish buff clay; black to brownishglaze. *G 131.LAMP, SIGNED.
As G 127, with additionof a high flaringedge (not
L 2983. L. 0.099; W. 0.058; H. 0.032. Fragmen-
made in the mould) all around the rim; the edging
tary; restored.
continuesaroundthe nozzle, but is flush with the top
Buff clay; dull, red to black glaze.
of it. Basket handle, archingover the small, concave
As G 130. On the base, incised in the clay before
discus (cf. H 22). Howlandno. 674, type 50 B.
firing, the letters pi alpha (the formermuch smaller
*G 129. LAMP. than the latter). Howland no. 727, type 52 E.
P1. 44.
L 2931. L. rest. 0.127; W. 0.08; H. 0.035. Handle *G 132. LAMP. P1.44.
missing; restored. L 2962. P.L. 0.087; W. 0.066; H. 0.037. Handle,
Soft, micaceous,buff clay; dull, reddishglaze. nozzle and much of body missing.
3*
86 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Buff clay; dull, black glaze, fired brownto red on *G 138. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
underside. L 2978.L. rest. 0.114;W. rest. 0.064;H. rest.0.032.
Rim: imbricatepatternand four schematicleaves Handle, tip of nozzle and part of body missing;
in crossarrangement,the points downward.Howland restored.
no. 803, type 56 variants. Buff clay; dull, brownishblack glaze.
Rim: wreath of leaves and flowers. On base,
G 133. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
within raisedridge,the letter alphain relief.Howland
L 2971. L. rest. 0.097; W. 0.056; H. 0.083. Handle no.
781, type 54 D.
missing; restored.
Buff clay; dull, brownishblack glaze, much worn. G 139. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.44.
Rim: pattern of alternating broad and narrow L 4884.L. rest. 0.117; W. 0.065; H. 0.03. Fragmen-
radiateridges.Discus smalland plain, surroundedby tary, handlemissing; restored.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

a raisedridge. Nozzleround.On the concavebase, in Reddish buff clay; reddishglaze.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

relief, the letter alpha. Howland no. 761, type 53. Plain, narrow rim. Wide, flat discus with raised
edge which at front extends out to enclose the
*G 134. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.44. roundednozzle. On the flat
base, the letter alpha in
L 2933. P.L. 0.106; W. 0.061; H. 0.029. Handle relief.Howlandno. 826.
missing.
Buff to grayish clay; dull, reddish brown glaze, G 140. LAMP. P1. 44.
much blackenedaround nozzle and discus. L 4883. L. rest. 0.115; W. rest. 0.065; H. 0.032.
Ratherflat body; wide discussurroundedby raised Fragmentary;restored.
edge. On the narrowrim, imbricatepattern. Nozzle Reddish clay; darkreddishbrownglaze.
triangular.On the flat base, signaturein relief, the Plain, narrow rim; flat discus surroundedby a
letters retrograde,TTaplapo6Iyvov. Howland no. 665, raised edge which is connectedby a ridge to the flat
type 49 B. top surface of the triangular nozzle. Base plain.
Thoughnot of the gray clay and blackglaze typical CompareG 220. Howlandno. 577, type 44 D.
of Ephesoslamps (Broneer'stype XIX), G 134 has a
shape not inconsistentwith that type; the signature G 141. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
TTapap.6vou occurs also on another Agora lamp of L 2973. L. 0.109; W. rest. 0.068; H. 0.032.
Howland'stype 49 A whichis of gray clay with gray Fragmentary;restored.
glaze (L 4027, Howlandno. 664). Dark buff clay; dull, grayishblack glaze.
Rim plain, except for a degenerate lug (not
G 135. LAMP. P1.44.
pierced)at right side. Discus flat and surroundedby
L 2972. P.L. 0.076; W. 0.062; H. 0.03. Nozzle, a raisedridge; similarridgeson the top of the nozzle
handle and part of body missing. form a channel leading to the wick-hole. On base,
Light, reddishbuff clay; dull, reddishbrownglaze. within raisedring, the letter alphain relief.Perlzweig.
Rim: wreath.Discusflat and surroundedby raised
*G 142. LAMP FRAGMENT. P1. 44.
edge. Base flat. Howlandno. 783, type 54 D.
L 2979. P.L. 0.068. Nozzle only preserved.
G 136. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44. Gray clay; dull, gray glaze.
L 2970.L. 0.113; W. rest. 0.069; H. 0.03. Fragmen- Triangularnozzle; the shankconnectingthe nozzle
tary; restored. to the rim is markedby grooveson top and by three
Reddishclay with white grits; dull, brownishblack stamped palmettes adjacent to the rim. Howland
glaze. no. 661, type 49 A.
Rim: band of large rosettes alternating with pairs
of rays; above, a band of smaller rosettes. Discus G 143. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
plain and surroundedby raised edge. Nozzle triangular. L 2976. L. rest. 0.103; W. 0.066; H. 0.088. Handle
On the base, encircled by a raised ring, the letter and end of nozzle missing; restored.
alpha in relief. Howland no. 808, type 58 B. Buff clay; red to black glaze.
Plump body and rounded rim, both decorated with
G 137. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44. fine, close-set dots in relief; discus concave and set
L 2969. P.L. 0.082; W. est. 0.068; H. 0.081. off from rim by a ridge. Nozzle round, with relief
Nozzle, handle and part of body missing. volutes between wick-hole and rim. On base, within
Buff clay; dull, brownish black glaze. raised ring, the letter alpha in relief. Perlzweig.
Rim: rosettes alternating with paired rows of dots;
similar rosettes on lower body, at base of nozzle. G 144. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 44.
Traces of a signature in relief on the base. Howland L 2967. L. rest. 0.101; W. 0.069; H. 0.043. Fragmen-
no. 809, type 58 B. tary, handle missing; restored.
GROUP G 37

Reddish clay; dull, black glaze. Deep body; narrow,flat rim set off from discus by
As G 143, but the body is deeperthan usual as a a groove; only a trace of the discusis preserved,but
resultof carelessjoiningof the two mouldmadehalves it was probablyornamentedwith a relief rosette (as
of the lamp. The relief dots are widely spaced. On Broneer, Lamps, no. 383, pl. VIII, and Agora
base, within raised ring, the letter alpha in relief. L 4150). Two rounded nozzles set off from rim by
Perlzweig. largevolutes; alongthe shaft of the nozzle,a caduceus
in relief as on the two parallelscited above (of. the
G145.LAMP, SIGNED. Pl. 44. nozzle ornamentof the Ephesos lamps, as Broneer,
L 2968. L. rest. 0.103; W. 0.065; H. 0.04. Handle Lamps, p. 68, fig. 30; also Agora L 382, Howland
missing; restored. no. 657, type 49 A, which is similarly marked with
Reddish clay; dull, black glaze. the caduceus).A large handle-guardin the form of
As G 143-144. On base, within raised ring, alpha five serrate leaves, bound together, rises obliquely
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

in relief. Perlzweig. from the rim. Base flat, with groove near edge and
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

traces of a signaturein relief (alpha,repeatedtwice?).


G146.LAMP,MINIATURE. P1.44. Compare Pnyx, I, pp. 62-64, lamps nos. 119ff.
L 4882. P.L. 0.042; H. 0.024. Handle, nozzle and Perlzweig.
most of base missing. *G 150. LAMP. Pl. 44.
Reddish clay; dull, red glaze.
L 2980. L. 0.14; W. 0.09; H. 0.036. Fragmentary;
Shape as G 143-145, but much smaller.Perlzweig. restored.
Buff clay; brownto reddishbrownglaze.
G 147. LAMP. P1.44. Deep body; wide, concave discus adornedwith a
L 2977. P.L. 0.094; W. 0.071; H. 0.035. Part of six-leaved rosette in relief. No true rim. Triangular
handle missing. nozzlewith rudimentaryflukes.Verticalstraphandle,
Soft, buff, micaceousclay; dull, orange-redglaze. not made in the mould. Flat base marked by one
The flat rim slopes slightly to exterior and is circulargroove.Perlzweig.
decorated -with relief dots; body plain. Nozzle
rounded and set deep into rim, without volutes. G 151. LAMP. P1. 44.
Base plain. L 4879. L. rest. 0.088; W. rest. 0.065; H. 0.027.
The rim decorationand the handleresemblethose About one-third of body and a non-joiningnozzle
of Broneer's type XX (as G 143-145); the lack of fragmentpreserved;restored.
decoration on the body and the shape of the rim, Pale yellowishbuff clay; brownishglaze.
however, suggest that this lamp is a precursorof Discus: figuredscene of which there remain only
Broneer's type XXVIII lamps (as M 283-284; two paws and the tip of the muzzle of an animal (?)
cf. L 14). Perlzweig. to r. On the base, a raised circularband. No handle.
Perlzweig.
G 148. LAMP. P1.47.
*G 152. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.44.
L 2974. L. 0.185; W. rest. 0.085; H. rest. (incl.
L 2981. P.L. 0.075; H. 0.028. Small fragment of
handle-guard)0.07. Part of discus and body missing; base and with a trace of discus.
partly restored. body,
Buff clay; light reddish brown glaze with faint Buff clay; reddish brownglaze.
metallic luster. Shape as G 150, so far as preserved,includingtraces
The flat discus is heart-shapedwithin an ovoid of attachment for vertical handle. On the flat base,
the letter alphain relief. Perlzweig.
rim. Triangular,fluked nozzle. Leaf-shapedhandle-
guard (separately moulded and hollow) rises ob- G 153. LAMP. P1. 44.
liquely from the rim; beneath the guard, a vertical
L 4878. P.L. 0.091; P.H. 0.028. Part of discus,
lug handle, pierced for finger grasp (of. Waiters,
nozzle, wall and base preserved,
Lamps,pl. XIII, 419 and 426). Part of base preserved, Buff clay; dark brown glaze with metallic luster.
with a small pelta in relief. Perlzweig.
narrow rim set off
Plain, by a groove from the
concave discus, on which there appears in relief an
G 149. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 47. erotic symplegma. Nozzle pointed and set off from
L 2966. L. handle-guard0.12; H. body 0.052. rim by volutes. Perlzweig.
Several joining and non-joiningfragments preserve
the full height of the body, part of the base, two *G 154. LAMP. P1. 44.
nozzles and much of the handle-guard;handle-guard L 2930. L. 0.094; W. 0.067; H. 0.025. Intact.
partly restored. Reddish buff clay; brownish glaze (partial) with
Gray clay; dull, gray-blackglaze. slight metallic luster.
38 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Plain, narrowrim set off by two groovesfrom the Pergamon,Corinth,Athens, Puteoli and elsewhere.7
discus; the subject of the relief ornament on the By the kind permission of Mr. D. C. Baramki,
discus is uncertain.Nozzle roundedand set off from Curatorof the American University Museum, the
rim by volutes. Base plain. No handle. Perlzweig. Beirut specimen is illustrated on Plate 43 and is
describedbelow:
G 155.LAMP. P1.44. Mus. Inv. 718. From Cyrene. L. overall 0.187;
L 2965. P.L. 0.104; W. rest. 0.072; H. rest. 0.026. H. 0.174. Th. basis 0.06. Finial (lamp?) of right-hand
Fragmentary;restored. vertical membermissing.
Hard, brittle, reddish brown clay, fired gray at Dark buff clay with grits; dull, reddish brown
core; brownishglaze, with metallic luster. glaze.
Shape as G 154. On the discus,in relief, a rosette. A rectangular, hollow basis, without bottom,
supports three vertical members. The front of the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

No handle.Perlzweig.
basis is adornedwith three femaleheads in relief, the
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

G 156. LAMP. P1. 44. heads connected by wreaths looped from their
crowns.The top surfaceof the basis is not solid but
L 4880. P.L. 0.10; W. 0.099. Base, handleand part
is pierceddirectlyundereachof the verticalmembers.
of discus and nozzle missing.
The three vertical elements, from left to right, are:
Dark buff clay; dull, brownishblackglaze.
1) a hollowpedestalterminatingin a shallowincense-
Narrow,plain rim set off by a single groove from
the deep, concave, undecorated discus; a channel cup and decoratedon the front by a figurein relief,
apparently Dionysos as Herakles, with wreath and
throughthe rim connectsthe nozzle with the discus. fillets, wearingthe lion's skin and carryinga club in
Tripartitelug at rim on either side. Traceof attach- the left hand, an uncertainobject in the right hand;
ment of a vertical handle, not made in the mould.
2) a pine cone; 3) a hollowpedestalonce surmounted
Perlzweig.
by a separatelymouldedobject(lamp?)and decorated
on the front by a figurein relief,wingedEros wearing
G 157. LAMP. P1. 44.
a lion's skin over his back, the paws knotted in front
L 2975. P.L. 0.093; W. 0.083; H. 0.028. Handle of his neck.
and part of discusand base missing.
Soft, micaceous,buff clay; surfaceworn, no trace Storage,Layer II, lamps-Among the uninventoried
of glaze remains. lamp fragmentsfrom Layer IIa are specimensof the
As G 156; roundednozzle.Perlzweig. following Broneer types: XVIII (6 examples; cf.
G 127-132), XX (a few fragments;cf. G 143-146),
G 158.LAMP. P1.44. XXIV (cf. G 157-158),XXV, XXVII (1 dubious
L 4881.P.L. 0.055;P.W.0.058;H. 0.024.Handle, fragment).FromLayerIIb the followingarerecorded:
nozzle and most of body missing. XX (25-30 examples),XVIII, XIX (cf. G 134-141),
Brownishclay; brownishglaze with faint metallic XXI (cf. G 148-149),XXIV, XXV, XXVII (2 handle
luster. fragments).Also fromLayer II, a discus fragmentof
As G 156-157, but without channelfromnozzle to a type XXIV lamp decorated with a figure of
discus. Bipartitelugs at rim on either side. Tracesof Herakles standing to left (formerlyinventoried as
attachmentof verticalhandle (madein the mould?). part of G 200; now separatedand reinventoriedas
Perlzweig. L 4877a; not illustratedhere).

7 Mackay, A Guide to the Archaeological


Collectionsin the
G159. THYMIATERION
FRAGMENTS.
University Museum, American University of Beirut, Beirut,
L 4885. P.H. largestunit 0.115. Numerousjoining 1951, no. 718, p. 72, pl. VI, 10; Alexandria, pl. XXXIX,
and non-joining fragments of a mouldmade lamp and 1 and 3, p. 213; Adriani, Annuaire du Musde Grdco-romain,
incense-burner. 1935-1939, Alexandria, 1940, pl. XLV, 1 and 3, p. 116;
Wigand, "Thymiateria," Bonn. Jahrb., CXXII, 1912, p. 91;
Brownish clay; reddish brown glaze with metallic Walters, Lamps, nos. 1408-1409; lamp (Inv. 1398) exhibited
luster. in a case in the Casa dell'atrio a mosaico at Herculaneum
Among the preserved fragments we have: figure of (Barr6and Roux, Herculanumet Pompei, Paris, 1840, pl. 38).
I am informed by Mr. Reynold Higgins that there are in the
Eros (right side only, from shoulder to toe) standing British Museum fragments of similar thymiateria deriving
on the rectangular hollow basis of the thymiaterion; from Newton's excavations at Knidos (including Inv.
a plain, flat fragment from the side or rear of the 59/12-26/536 and 59/12-26/547). Miss Claireve Grandjouan
basis; a lamp nozzle;three bits of a plastic pine cone. has kindly provided the following additional parallels:
The object represented by these pieces was probably fragment from Corinth (Inv. MF 5106); fragment in the
Loukas Benachi collection, Alexandria; fragment from the
a lamp and incense-burner combined, comparable to Kerameikos excavations (Inv. 487); a closely related piece
well preserved specimens in Herculaneum and Beirut published by Panofka, Terracottendes k. Museums zu Berlin,
(from Cyrene) and to other pieces from Alexandria, Berlin, 1842, pl. XXV, a.
GROUP G 39

It is worthy of note that while lamps of Broneer's Coarse,reddishbuff clay with grits.
type XX are abundantin Layer IIb, only a few small Each weight is discoid, flat on back, convex on
fragmentsof them occur in the uppermostlevels of front, piercedwith two holes for suspension.
Layer IIa; on the other hand, types XXIV and XXV For this type of loomweight,see: Pnyx, I, p. 79;
occur in IIa as well as in IIb. It is likely that the Davidson,MinorObjects,pp. 162-163. Becauseof the
introductionof the type XX lamp is to be dated late introduction of the horizontal loom, loomweights
in the first half of the 1st century after Christ,8while were probably not employed after the 1st century
types XXIV and XXV may have precededXX by as after Christ (Pnyx, I, pp. 70-71).
much as twenty-five or thirty years. The absence of
type XX lampsin LayerIII of GroupG is apparently *G 163. BONE OBJECT. P1.56.
fortuitous,for lamps of this type do occurin Groups BI 374. L. 0.095; W. 0.005. Intact, but the pointed
H and J (H 21-22, J 59-60); the type seems not to
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

end appears to have been broken in antiquity and


have survivedthe 2nd century (nonein GroupK). resharpened.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

A slender,pin-likeimplement,pointedat one end,


*G 160. FAIENCE9 PLATTER(?) FRAGMENT. Pls. 5, 62. roundedat the other; at the broad,roundedend, one
A 806. P.L. 0.062; P.H. 0.046. face is hollowedout.
Grayish, gritty fabric; dull, yellow coloring on Compare M 26 and Davidson, Minor Objects,
surface overall (probably the remains of a vitreous nos. 1328-1330, where this type of implement is
glaze damagedduringburialor cleaning). called an unguent spoon.
Small fragment from an object which was pre-
sumably rectangular; the original straight edge is *G 164. BONE OBJECT. P1. 56.
preserved at one point. The profilereveals a shallow, BI 424. Max. dim. 0.026; Th. 0.008. Intact, except
flat-flooredplatter (?) on low ridge foot; flaringrim, for the lid, which was made in a separate piece.
grooved on the interior. CompareM 35. The bottom surface (shown in Pl. 56; top surface
not illustrated) is flat, with a broad bevel to the
*G 161. TERRACOTTACOLUMNSECTION. P1.50. roundededges; throughthe flat centralsection three
A 807. D. est. 0.32; Th. 0.063. About one half small holes are pierced.The top surfacehas a narrow
missing. elevated rim around the rounded edges; the rim is
Coarse,reddishbuff clay with grits. cut transversely by grooves at four points and is
A thick disk piercedat centerby a hole (D. of hole pierced by a hole, from either side, adjacent to the
0.038). The top and bottom surfaces marked by straight edge. These holes served to hold a pin for a
irregularlyspaced depressionsmade by the pressure hinged lid, now missing; the holes through the base
of the potter's fingers. Tracesof mortar on the edge may have served for bone tenons which held the
and in some of the depressions.CompareJ 7. object to another surface.
Storage,Layers II-III (seeabove, p. 23)--fragment The purpose served by this object is uncertain.
of a similarcolumnsection. For similar pieces from Corinth and Delos, see
This may representa tile for use in the hypocaust Davidson, Minor Objects,nos. 1400-1401, pl. 84;
chamber of a bath. For other similar tiles, see: Deonna, Explorationarchdologique de De'los,XVIII,
Crowfootet al., The Buildings at Samaria, London, Le mobilierDe'lien,Paris, 1938, p. 239, pl. LXXVII,
1942, p. 134 (3rd century tiles-D. 0.17; Th. 0.055); 637, 1-4. Of the specimensknownto me G 164 is the
The Excavations at Dura-Europos, Preliminary only one which can be accurately dated. It is not
Reportof Sixth Season of Work, New Haven, 1936, improbable,however,that similarobjects were made
pp. 87, 93, 99 (3rd century tiles-D. 0.24-0.26 and at both earlierand later times, perhapseven as late
0.30-0.34; Th. 0.04-0.05). as the Byzantine period, to which the Corinth
examples have been tentatively assigned.
*G 162. DISCOID TERRACOTTA LOOMWEIGIITS. PI. 50.
MC418-425. Eight weights: six intact or slightly G 165. MARBLE REVETMENT FRAGMENT, GRAFFITO.
chipped,two brokenand incomplete.D. 0.091-0.101; P1. 52.
Th. 0.021-0.028. Only one weight is illustrated on S 894. P.L. 0.179; P.W. 0.046; Th. 0.029. Two
Plate 50 (MC418). joining fragments from the rounded edge of a
revetment slab; an original straight edge, at right
Broneer considered type XX to belong chiefly to the
8 angles to the rounded one, may be preserved at the
Augustan period (Broneer, Lamps, pp. 71-73). Miss Judith lower end of the fragment (i.e., toward the feet of the
Perlzweig considers that this type of lamp does not make its incised Herm).
appearance until just after the middle of the 1st century. Pentelic marble.
9 In spite of recent strictures against the use of the term
"faience" (Charleston, Rom. Pot., pp. 27-29), it seems Incised on the surface, a crude representation of
preferable to the more cumbersome "glazed quartz frit ware." a Herm.
40 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

LAYER III (LATE IST TO EARLY 2ND CENTURY)

PERGAMENE WARE Storage,LayerIII, Samianware-fragments of three


platesas G 25-27; of two cups as G 28; and of three
Storage,LayerIII, Pergameneware--a rim fragment plates,one apparentlyshapedas G 174, two as G 176.
as G 11; fragments of two hemisphericalcups (cf.
F 6-11, G 1); a smallpieceof mottledPergameneware
(for which see H 1). WESTERN SIGILLATA WARES

Storage, Layer III, Arretineware--a plate fragment


SAMIAN WARE as G 34; a rim fragmentas G 36 (but the rim height
is 0.032).
G 166. SAMIAN B PLATE FRAGMENT, STAMPED.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 22058. Max. dim. 0.069. Small fragment of OTHERFINE EARLYROMANFABRICS


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

floor,without trace of foot or wall.


Clay and glaze as G 16. G 172. MOULDEDPLATE,RIM FRAGMENT. Pls. 5, 63.
On the floor,a circularband of roulettingbetween P 10170.Max. dim. 0.058. Small fragmentof rim.
grooves;at center,tracesof an illegiblepotter'sstamp, Pinkish red clay; mottled, red to yellowish red
probablyplantaform. glaze, dull and worn.
From the broad,horizontalrim of a plate. On top,
G 167. SAMIAN A PLATE. P1.61. figuresin relief:at center,a tree; at r., panther( ?) r.
P 22057. P.H. 0.014; D. rim est. 0.096. Part of attacking another animal from rear; at 1., vase (?)
floorand wall, with a trace of the rim; centerof floor against which leans a garlanded thyrsos (?). The
missing. nature of the relief decorationand of the surfaceof
Clay and glaze as G 19. the clay indicates that this plate was thrown in a
From a small plate as G 19. Rouletting on lower mould. Thereis no trace of relief on the interior,so
edge of rim; two concentricgrooveson floor. far as preserved.
For metal parallels to this type of plate, see:
G 168. GRAY SAMIAN A PLATE FRAGMENT, STAMPED. Babelon, Le trdsord'argenteriede Berthouville,Paris,
P1.57. 1916, pp. 117-118, pl. XX; Walters,Catalogueof the
P 11480. P.H. 0.011; D. base est. 0.12. About Silver Plate in the British Museum, London, 1921,
one-thirdof floor,with the start of the wall,preserved. no. 187, pp. 35-36, pls. XX-XXI (patera from
Grayclay with some mica; dull, black glaze. Caubiac); Drexel, Bonn. Jahrb., CXVIII, 1909,
The shape, so far as preserved,resemblesthat of pp. 182ff., nos. 12 and 34, pls. VIII,1 and IX,2. For
G 213. At center of floor, a device-stamp:rosette. parallelsin clay, see Walters,Rom. Pot., M 108-111,
pl. XIV; D6chelette, Vases ceramiquesornds de la
G 169. SAMIANA BOWLFRAGMENT. P1.61. Gauleromaine,Paris, 1904,I, p. 229, fig. 136, pl. V,71,
P 22056. D. rim est. 0.21. Rim fragment. also II, pp. 316-321, pl. VII,5-8; Drexel, op. cit.,
Clay and glaze as G 19. pp. 182ff., nos. 41-44, 64, 71, pl. IX,4-5; Dragen-
Rouletting on the vertical surface of the lip; a dorff, T.S., pl. VI,78-79 (not referredto in text, but
groove on the exterior,below the rim. cf. Drexel, op. cit., no. 43).

G 170. SAMIAN A PLATE FRAGMENT, STAMPED. Pl. 57. Storage, Layer III, gray ware--rim fragments of
P 22059.Max. dim. 0.059. Floor fragmentwithout at least three large platters (of. G 46); fragmentsof
trace of foot or wall. smallerplates with flat floor and low ring foot; ring
foot of a closedvessel.
Clayand glaze as G 19.
At center of floor, partly preserved, a device-
stamp: dot-rosette. MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES

G 171. SAMIANA JUG (?) FRAaMENT. P1. 62. G 173. PLATE. P1. 67.
P 22060. Max. dim. 0.063; D. foot est. 0.11. P 22068. H. 0.04; D. rest. 0.20. Fragmentary;
Fragment of foot, base and lower wall. center of floor missing; restored.
Soft, buff clay with some mica; reddish glaze on Reddish clay with grits; metallic, black to greenish
exterior only. black glaze, fired red on exterior of lip. Clay and glaze
From a closed vessel on low ring foot; the body similar to those of G 63 and the pieces there cited.
possibly globular. Shape as G 25.
Closed vessels are extremely uncommon in the Storage, Layer III--fragments of at least three
Samian fabric; no complete specimen is known to me. similar plates of buff clay, with reddish to black glaze.
GROUP G 41

G 174. PLATE. P1.67. terminating in plain lip. On exterior of rim, two


P 22062. H. 0.03; D. est. 0.17. Fragmentary, grooves just below lip and two bands of rouletting.
center of floormissing. Originallyhad ring foot as P 17143 (DepositB 20:1,
Hard, reddish clay; firm, reddish glaze; double- lower part of use filling-Pl. 7).
dippingstreak. G 180. HEMISPHERICALCUP, FLANGEDRIM. P1.7.
Similarto G 173, but with overhangingrim.
The occurrenceof the double-dippingstreak is P 11469. H. 0.056; D. 0.118. About one-half
unusual,for this plate is clearlynot of Pergamenenor preserved.
of Samianmanufacture;yet it is in those two wares Light reddishclay; dull, reddishglaze (partial).
alone that this method of glazing open vessels was Shape as G 74-75, H 8-9.
Storage,Layer III-fragments of about six similar
regularlypractised.
cups.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

G 175. PLATE. Pls. 67,78.


G181. PLATE, EVERTEDLIP. P1.67.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 22061. H. 0.046; D. est. 0.20. Fragmentary, P 11465. H. 0.044; D. rest. 0.193. Fragmentary;
center of floormissing.
restored.
Hard, reddish, micaceous clay; red glaze, much Rather coarse,orange-redclay.
worn, fired black on exterior of rim. Comparethe For the shape, compareF 41-43, G 82-84 (which
shape of G 19-20, G 167, H 4-5, J 28. latter have inverted lips).
Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar Storage, Layer III-fragments of at least five
plates.
plates similarto G 181.
G 176. PLATE. P1.67. G 182. GLOBULAR JUG. P1.7.
P 11473. H. 0.068; D. 0.292. Almost complete; P 9697. H. 0.098; D. 0.097. Intact.
restored.
Rather coarse, gray-black clay; black glaze
Rather soft, orange-buff, micaceous clay; dull,
(partial)with faint metallic luster.
orange-redglaze (partial). Globular body on small, flat base. Plain, low,
This shape is a development from the Samian
flaringlip, set off from wall by a sharp ridge. Sl'ced
shape G 25-26 and the local imitations G 173-174; handle.
comparealso J 32.
G 183. GLOBULAR JUG. PI. 42.
0 177. PLATE. P 9694. H. 0.093; D. 0.098. Intact.
P 11467. H. 0.061; D. 0.247. Fragmentary; Reddish clay; dull, red glaze (partial).
restored. As G 182.
Rather coarse, orange-buffclay; dull, red glaze
(partial). Storage, Layer III, miscellaneousglazed and non-
As G 176, but the overhang of the rim is less glazed wares--fragmentsof two bowls as G 51 (but
pronounced. with higher rims and handles which project further
out from the rim); fragmentsof jugs as G 85, 0 86
G 178. PLATE FRAGMENT, STAMPED. PI. 57. and G 88; a neck fragmentsimilarto G 93; fragment
P 11464.Max.dim.0.037. Small,flatfloorfragment, of a liqueurcup as G 215.
without trace of foot or rim.
Rather coarse,reddishclay; dull, red glaze inside.
Tracesof two stamped palmettes, the tips toward COARSE HOUSEHOLD WARES
the centerof the floor,and of two concentricgrooves.
This tiny fragmentsuggests the local, late Roman G 184. BOWL, SEMI-GLAZED. Pls. 7, 67.
stamped ware which occurs in deposits of the 4th P 11461. H. 0.09; D. rest. 0.297. Fragmentary;
and 5th centuries (cf. L 59-61, M 289); if of such restored.
fabric, G 178 must certainly be an intrusionhere in Light reddish clay; dull, red glaze (partial).
a fill which contains no other fragments which can be At the center of the floor, a shallow, circular
dated later than the 2nd century. depression (D. 0.06) surrounded by a ridge. Two
horizontal handles, applied below the rim and
0 179. HEMISPHERICAL BOWL, FLANGED RIM. P1. 7.
pressed up at the center against the undersurface of
P 11479. P.H. 0.075; D. est. 0.212. About one- the rim.
third of rim and part of wall preserved. Compare G 78. P 9926, a similar bowl from
Orange-buff, micaceous clay; orange-red glaze, Deposit M 19:1, has a pattern of stamped diamonds
much worn, fired dark brown over most of the impressed within the central depression of the floor.
interior. Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar
Hemispherical bowl with vertical, flanged rim, bowls (one with diameter est. 0.40).
42 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

G 185. BOWL, SEMI-GLAZED. G 191. COOKING PAN.


Pls. 7, 67. P1.72.
P 11472. H. 0.058; D. 0.205. Fragmentary; P 11462. H. 0.042; D. 0.28. Almost complete;
restored. restored.
Reddish brownclay; dull, red glaze (partial). Coarse, reddish clay with grits; dull, red glaze
Two concentricgrooveson floor. No handles. inside. Both interior and exterior blackenedby fire.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar CompareF 78, G 112.
bowls.
G 192. COOKINGPOT. Pl. 7.
G 186. BOWL, SEMI-GLAZED. P 11463.H. 0.095; D. 0.11. Fragmentary;restored.
P 11470. H. 0.055; D. est. 0.20. Fragmentary; Rather coarse, orange-red clay, fired gray at
restored. surface on exterior (except base) as a result of
Light reddish buff clay; dull, light red glaze stackingin the kiln.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

(partial). Pot with almost flat bottom; wide mouth with


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

As G 185. small, everted lip. Body wheel-ridged.Apparently


without handles.
G 187. BAsIN. P1.7.
P 11475.H. 0.201; Max. dim. rim rest. 0.293; Min. G 193. COOKINGPOT. Pl. 7.
dim. rim rest. 0.285. Fragmentary;restored. P 11471. H. rest. 0.162; D. 0.212. Fragmentary,
Light reddishclay; dull, red wash, much worn, on base missing;partly restored.
interior;buff slip on exterior. Gritty, orange-buffclay, firedgray on exterior.
Basin, oval in plan, with flat bottom and almost Plump, wheel-ridgedbody with wide mouth and
vertical wall. Everted rim, flat on top. No handles. everted
lip; two vertical,flat handles;the bottomwas
presumably rounded.The lid G 196 fits this pot and
G 188. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 7.
to it. CompareJ 55.
P 11468. P.H. 0.188; D. 0.158. Lip, base, handle may belong
and part of body missing; partly restored. Storage, Layer III-fragments of at least one
similarpot.
Rather coarse,reddishclay, fired gray at surface.
Ovoid,wheel-ridgedbody; the base was probably G 194. COOKING POT. PI. 7.
moulded,as [M 101]. P 11474. H. rest. 0.12; D. 0.225. Fragmentary,
Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar bottom
missing;restored.
jugs.
Hard, reddish clay, fired gray on upper half of
exterior.
G 189. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. PI. 7.
P 11466.H. 0.194; D. 0.125. Fragmentary,handle Angularwall, evertedlip; two vertical,flathandles.
The bottom was presumablyroundedand has been
missing; restored.
Orange-redclay; self-slip,which has fired buff on
so restored. CompareJ 57.
one vertical half of the body. Storage, Layer III-fragments of at least three
Wheel-ridgedbody on small ring foot. Small, cooking pots similarto G 194 and to G 195; one has a
lip diameter of 0.14.
flaringlip and trefoilmouth. Ridgedhandle,attached
behind lip and rising above it. CompareJ 41, K 82,
L 9, M42. G 195. COOKINGPOT. P1. 7.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of three similar P 11482. H. rest. 0.088; D. 0.192. Fragmentary,
jugs. bottom missing;restored.
Hard, reddishclay. Exteriorblackenedby fire.
Storage, Layer III, coarse household wares-frag- As G 194. The lid G 196 fits this pot as it does
ments of two jugs as [G 103] and of two water jars as G 193.
F 685-66and G 107.
G 196. LmD. PI. 7.
P 11477. H. 0.048; D. rest. 0.173. Fragmentary;
COOKING
WARES restored.
Coarse, brownish red clay with grits.
G 190. CASSEROLE. Ple. 7, 72. As G 122. This lid fits both G 193 and G 195 and
P 11478. H. 0.08; D. 0.295. Almost complete; is shown with the latter in PI. 7.
restored.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of another similar
Coarse, orange-red clay. lid.
A flat-bottomed casserole; lip flanged for lid. Two
horizontal, twist handles, pressed up at center to Storage, Layer III, cooking wares-frying pan
touch the lip. Compare F 77,. handle as G 113-115; flat-bottomed pans exhibiting a
GROUP G 43

great variety of sizes (D. 0.24-0.44) and rim shapes The neck construction is similar to that of the
(obliquewall with plainor thickenedlip; roundedwall Coan type amphoraeas F 93; the horned handles
with thickenedor everted lip). are like those of amphorae such as [M 54].

LARGESTORAGE
VESSELS
G 199. STORAGE AMPHORA FRAGMENT. P1. 8.
P 11476.P.H. 0.133; D. lip 0.126. Shoulder,neck
G 197. STORAGEAMPHORA. P1. 8. and handles only.
P 11481. P.H. 0.60; D. 0.302. Fragmentary; Coarse,reddish clay; self-slip; traces of a white
bottom missing; restored. slip on exterior.
Rather fine, pink to buff clay. Wide, vertical neck with thickened lip; sloping
Wide, almost cylindrical body with rounded shoulderfrom which the vertical wall is set off at a
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

shoulderand very narrow,short neck; thickenedlip. sharp angle. Handles marked by deep, longitudinal
The bottom was presumablyrounded,with a slight groove;the clay on eitherside of the grooveis pinched
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

pointorprojectingknob at the center.Handlesarched, sharply together at the bend of the handle, creating
oval in section. CompareH 20, [K 112 M 102. an almost pointed termination. Horizontal grooves
This type of amphora, very common ], in the 1st on the shoulder.
and early 2nd centuries, occasionally bears a Parallels of later date may be seen in L 11 and
stamp on one handle (cf. G 218). M 239.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar
amphorae;the clay varies from buff to pinkish buff, Storage,Layer III, large storagevessels-fragments
yellowish buff and (in one instance) brick-red; of an amphoraof Coantype as F 93 (the body was
generallythe fabricis finerand thinnerthan in other probably more slender than in the specimen of the
storageamphorae. 1st century B.C.); fragments of amphoraeas F 94,
[K 1141,M 41 and M 47. Attention should be called
G 198. STORAGE AMPHORA FRAGMENT. Pls. 8, 42. also to one Thasian and three Knidian stamped
P 22064. P.H. 0.38; D. lip 0.163. Shoulder,neck amphora handles from Layer III (SS 7333, 7396,
and handles preserved;partly restored. 7397 and 7406); all of these are consideredby Miss
Gritty, buff to pinkish buff clay; self-slip. VirginiaGraceto be earlierin date than 86 B.C. and
Concave shoulder set off from the neck; double for that reasonare not includedin this catalogue.
rolled, hornedhandles; groove below lip.

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

G 200. LAMP. Rim: ovule pattern with side panels. Discus: man
L 4877b. P.L. 0.111; P.W. 0.081; H. 0.033. half r., wearingtunic and high boots, carryinganother
Fragmentary; nozzle and discus missing. person on his 1. shoulder (Aeneas and Anchises?).
Buff clay; brownish glaze, fired black on discus Perlzweig.
and part of rim.
From a lamp of Broneer'stype XXIV. Rim plain G 203. LAMP. P1. 44.
and narrow,set off from discus by grooves. Handle L 3203. P.L. 0.079. Nozzle,part of discusand most
mouldmade,pierced, grooved on top only. Trace of of bottom missing; partly restored.
a signature(2) on base. Perlzweig. Gray-buffclay.
Rim: small ovule pattern. Discus: rays. Handle
G 201. LAMP. P1. 44. pierced,grooved on top. Perlzweig.
L 4876. P.L. 0.07; P.W. 0.07; H. 0.03. Fragmen-
tary; nozzle and much of body and discus missing. G 204. LAMP. P1.44.
Buff clay; purplish brown glaze with metallic L 3202.L. 0.102;W. rest.0.076;H. 0.028.Fragmen-
luster. tary; base missing; restored.
Rim plain and narrow. Discus: wreath. Handle Buff clay.
on
mouldmade,pierced,grooved top only. Base plain. Rim: elongated ovules. Discus plain. Handle
Perlzweig. pierced, grooved on top. Perlzweig.
G 202.LAMP. P1.44. G 205. TERRACOTTA ANTEFIX. P1.49.
L 3201. Max. dim. 0.078. Two joining fragments A 805. P.H. 0.145; W. base 0.175. Brokenat top,
of rim and discus. bottom and back; trace of bottom surfacepreserved.
Pale, gray-buffclay. Coarse,red clay with grits; buff slip on front,
44 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

The lower portion only preserved,showing neat, G 209. BONEIMPLEMENT.


mouldmade pattern: volutes and the start of the BI 348. L. 0.082. Intact (larger end possibly
palmette, with diamond-shapedcenter. At bottom, reworked).
traces of a signature: Compare A pin-likeobject pointedat one end; the other end
G 206-207. A more complete specimenof the same is broadand bevelled.
'A.r[oX7covi]oy.
series (A 1312) is illustratedin Plate 49.
G 210. BONEIMPLEMENT.
G 206. TERRACOTTA ANTEFIX. P1. 49. BI 358. L. 0.071. Intact.
A 804. H. 0.242; P.W. 0.177. Broken at bottom Short, pin-like object, broad at one end and
and back; trace of bottom surface preserved. tapering to a small, bevelled tip at the other.
Coarse,reddishclay with grits; buff slip. G 211. BONEHANDLE. P1. 56.
As G 205, but apparently not signed. A dull
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

BI 346. P.L. 0.068; W. 0.019. Part of front (fish's


impression,but from the same series as G 205 and mouth) and of undersurfacebrokenaway.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

G 207. Handlefor an iron knife, shapedin the formof the


G 207. TERRACOTTA ANTEFIX. Pl. 49.
curved body of a fish. Incised lines indicate mouth,
eyes and dorsaland tail fins. The undersurface(along
A 803. P.H. 0.155; P.W. 0.125. Brokenat bottom the
and back. belly of the fish) is deeply groovedfor a distance
of 0.025 from the front (fish's mouth); part of the
Coarse,red clay with grits; buff slip. tang of the iron blade still remains in this groove.
As G 205-206.
G 212. IRONKNIFE. P1. 58.
G 208. BONE IMPLEMENT. P1. 56. IL 567. P.L. 0.228; Max. W. 0.03. Tip of tang and
BI 347. P.L. 0.102. Broken at both ends. handle missing.
A pin-like object with notched ornament at the Flat blade. The handle, presumablyof wood, was
head; the shaft narrowstowardthe other (pointed?) held in place by two rivets, of which one is still
end. preserved(L. 0.02; D. 0.005).

LAYERS II-III (1ST TO EARLY 2ND CENTURY)o1


MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES below the lip. CompareJ 38 and the liqueur cups
with low-set handles,K 75 and L 56.
G 213. SAMIAN A PLATE. P1. 61. This type of cup, very commonin deposits of the
P 9626. H. 0.031; D. 0.173. Fragmentary,center 1st to the 3rd century,has been called,in excavation
of floor missing; restored.Clay and glaze as G 19; parlance, "coffee cup," because of its similarity in
double-dippingstreak. shape and size to the cups currentlyused in Greek
Shape similarto M 32; comparealso G 168. kaffeneia. It seems not impossible that they were
employedin antiquityfor the aipatov and 8wv'rEpis
G 214. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 7. which were producedby boiling-downfrom the must
P 9629. H. rest. 0.08; D. 0.062. Lip and handle of the secondpressingand fromthe lees (Dioscurides,
missing;restored. Mat. Med.,V, 15-16; Galen,VI, 579-581[ed. Kiihn];
Rather coarse, buff clay; dull, red glaze (partial). Oribasius,I, 356, 359-360 [ed. Bussemaker-Darem-
Globular body with flat base; short neck with berg].;Pliny, Nat. Hist., XIV, 86); such liquorsmay
plain, flaringlip; vertical handle. have resembled in strength the ouzo and tsipouro
drunkby the Greekstoday."
G 215. LIQUEUR CUP. P1. 7.
P 11523. H. 0.084; D. 0.054. Fragmentary; G 216. SHALLOWBOWL. P1. 67.
restored. P 11524. H. 0.039; D. rest. 0.092. Fragmentary;
Rather coarse,dark buff clay. restored.
Small cup with flat bottom and rounded sides; Rather coarse,buff clay.
plain lip. Small handle, round in section, flattened Thisshapeshouldbe comparedwith F 53-54, G 60,
and piercedat outer end, risingat an angle fromjust [M 66].
10 See above, p. 23.
11 Dioscurides addsto his recipe for 8sUvrpiassome salt; the fact that the vina deuteria are working men's wines
he recommends that the wine be drawn off into jars only after (operaria); see also: Pollux, VI, 17-18 (qaTchos);Kallippos
the winter and that, since it quickly loses its strength, it be ap. Hesychius s.v. Ev-rrpfas(EirreA). Galen, however,
drunk after the lapse of one year; the wine is then considered makes it clear that the strength of the 6irrEptiaSdepends
suitable for patients for whom regular vintages are too strong on the quantity of water added to the lees and that when
and for those recuperating from long illnesses. Pliny stresses drunk straight the wine is conducive to cephalalgia.
GROUPG 45
G 217. MEDICINE (2) BOTTLE. P1. 7. SS 7263. P.H. 0.095. Fragment of neck and
P 22055. P.H. 0.055; D. 0.035. Neck missing. shoulderwith one handle.
Soft, buff clay; handmade. Pinkish buff clay, fired buff at surface.
Small jar with biconical body and flat base. The From an amphora as G 197. On the handle, a
interioris an irregularvertical cavity which does not potter's stamp: Errep.
follow the lines of the exteriorprofile. Two Hellenistic Kfiidian amphora handles from
Layers II-III (SS 7264 and 7265) are omitted from
G 218. AMPHORAFRAGMENT, STAMPED. P1. 36. the cataloguesincethey areclearlyoutof context here.

OBJECTSOTHERTHANPOTTERY
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

G 219. LAMP,SIGNED. P1.45. Buff clay; black to brownglazewith faint metallic


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

L 2868. L. rest. 0.125; W. 0.068; H. 0.036. Handle luster.


and tip of nozzle missing; restored. As G 145. Under the nozzle, three lines of raised
Buff clay; reddishbrownglaze. dots, radiatingfrom the base. On the base, in relief,
As F 99; the rim is furtheradornedwith a rosette the letter alpha. CompareH 22. Perlzweig.
on one side and a cornucopiaon the other. On the
concave base, letters in relief, Icorr. Howland G 225. LAMP,SIGNED. P1. 45.
no. 710, type 52 B. L 2871. L. rest. 0.087; W. 0.057; H. 0.032. Part of
nozzle missing; restored.
G 220. LAMP, SIGNED.
Reddish clay, fired black at core; dull,reddishto
L 2866. L. 0.114; W. 0.06; H. 0.035. Intact. black glaze.
Brownishclay; brownishto brownishblack glaze As G 224. On the base, in relief, the letter alpha
with slight metallic luster. surroundedby a circularridge. Perlzweig.
As G 140, but the handle is not grooved; on the
base, the letter alpha in relief. Howland no. 578, G 226. LAMP,SIGNED.
P1. 45.
type 44 D. L 2869. Max. dim. 0.063; H. 0.03. Fragment of
G 221. LAMP. Pl. 45. discus and body.
L 2867. L. rest. 0.132; W. 0.071; H. 0.038. Nozzle Reddish clay, firedgray at core; reddish,metallic
broken, handle missing; restored.Wheelmade. glaze.
Plain rim and discus, separated by a groove.
Light reddish buff clay; traces of brownishred
glaze. Bipartite lug at rim on left side. Tracesof vertical,
Flat base, vertical wall and convex top with four flat handle, not made in the mould. On base, trace of
air-holes near the edge; high, flaring rim. Vertical, incised alpha (?). Perlzweig.
flat handle. Howlandno. 517, type 39.
G 227. TERRACOTTA BUST. P1.48.
G 222. LAMP. P1. 45. T 1405. H. 0.053; W. 0.043. Intact except for
L 2963. P.L. 0.065. Fragment of rim and discus. chips.
Reddish buff clay; dull, brownishgray glaze. Pinkish buff clay; no traces of paint preserved.
Rounded rim: rosettes in relief. Plain discus, set Head and shoulders,roughly finished beneath. A
off from rim by a ridge. Attachments for a vertical fillet crossesthe foreheadand hangs down at sides of
handle. Howlandno. 812, type 58 B. face; hair indicated in large lumps in front and by
G223. LAMP, SIGNED. incision behind. Draperyover shoulders,formingV-
at the neck. Grandjouan.
L 2964. L. rest. 0.10; W. 0.065; H. 0.087. Handle shaped opening
and part of nozzle missing; restored.
G 228. TERRACOTTA MASK. P1.48.
Grayish clay; black to reddish brown glaze with
T 1406. P.H. 0.068; P.W. 0.051. Left half of face
slight metallic luster.
As G 145. On the base, in relief, the letter alpha from upperlip to crown.
surroundedby a circle of dots. Perlzweig. Fine, buff, micaceous clay; faint traces of white
and pink paint.
G 224. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.45. Mask representinga bald-headedman with fat,
L 2870. L. rest. 0.102; W. 0.066; H. 0.039. Handle puffed cheeks and protuberances(wens?) between
missing; restored. eyes and on forehead. Eyes pierced. Grandjouan.
GROUP H
FIRST HALF OF 2ND CENTURY
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Thisgrouprepresentsmaterialfromthe buildingfill (DepositP 8:1) of a circularstructure,


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

of whichthe foundationsalonearepreservedin situ.' Thebuildinglies west of the northernhalf


of the Stoa of Attalos. Adjacentto the foundationsof this monopteros,to the northeastand
east, was founda layerof earth,0.50-0.70m. deep,whichcontainednumerousworkingchipsof
green serpentine(such as that of fragmentary,unflutedcolumnshafts found near by, which
presumablybelongedto the structure),of PentelicandHymettianmarbleandof poros.Thereis
little doubt that this fill accumulatedduringthe periodwhen the stone masonswere putting
the finalsurfaceson the stoneworkof the building;fill andbuildingarethereforecontemporary.
It is regrettablethat the excavation of the Agora has so far yielded little evidence for
establishingan exact chronologyof the pottery of the late 1st and of the 2nd centuryafter
Christ.The pottery from GroupH shows greatersimilarityto that of the 1st and early 2nd
centuriesfromLayersII andIII of GroupG2 than to that of the secondhalf of the 2nd century
from GroupJ.3 It seems likely, therefore,that the buildingfill of the monopterosshouldbe
dated in the first half of the 2nd century.On architecturalgroundsthe monopteroshas been
datedin the Antonineperiod,to whichera the style of its curvedgeisonblocks(withdecorated
lowerfascia)seemsappropriate.4
GroupH is at best an unsatisfactoryfilling, since it offers us no certain landmarksfor
establishingchronology.It must for the present be considereda "floating"deposit, falling
betweenLayerII of GroupG and GroupJ.
Attentionshouldbe drawnto the fact that H 30-33 derivefroma layerimmediatelybeneath
the fill with workingchips; they may thereforerepresenta date slightly earlierthan that of
GroupH proper(note the similaritybetweenH 30-31 and vesselsfromLayerII of GroupG).

1
Hesperia, VI, 1937, pp. 354-356, figs. 18-19; Hesperia, XXI,1952, pp. 102-104,pl. 25,a. The fill was excavated between
May 29 and June 4, 1951, and again on May 8, 1952.
2 CompareH 4-6 and 16 with G 63, 68, 70, 71,
173; H 8-9 with G 179-180; H 11 with G 85-87; H 30 with G 19-20; H 31
with G 61.
3 CompareH 4-5 and 30 with J 28. It is worthy of note that the only lamps or lamp fragments which occur in Group H
are of Broneer's type XX-there are no traces of Broneer's type XXVII lamps such as occur in Layer III of Group G
(G 202-203) and in Group J (J 6, 65-66).
4 John Travlos suggests that the carving of the geison resembles that of Antonine structures at Eleusis, as the Great
Propylaea and the two adjacent monumental arches, constructed in the time of Antoninus Pius. Professor Homer Thompson
calls attention to the similarity between our geison and that of the monopteroi of the Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus at
Olympia, which is dated between 147 and 161 (OlympischeForschungen,I, Berlin, de Gruyter, 1944, pp. 72ff., pl. 30).
GROUP H 47

BUILDING FILL (FIRST HALF OF 2ND CENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUSGLAZED AND NON-GLAZEDWARES differentfabric (cf. also G 175). A circularband of
H 1. MOTTLEDPERGAMENE5BOWL,STAMPED. roulettingon the floor.
Storage-fragments of severalother plates similar
Pls. 8, 57, 60. to this and to H 5.
P 22461. P.H. 0.031; Max. P.D. est. 0.145. Three
joining fragments of wall and floor. H 5. PLATE.
Hard, pinkishbuff clay; mottled, orange-redglaze, P 21379. P.H. 0.029; D. lip est. 0.16. Fragmentof
much worn on interior. wall and rim; foot and floormissing.
At center of floor, surroundedby two circular
Shape, clay and glaze as H 4.
ridges, a device-stamp:leaf. The shape was that of a
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

shallow,almost hemisphericalbowl with plain lip. H 6. BELL-CUP, FLANGEDRIM.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 21385. P.H. 0.052; D. lip est. 0.12. Fragmentof


H 2. BRITTLEWAREBEAKER. P1, 8. rim and wall.
P 21388. H. 0.112; D. lip rest. 0.065. Half of body Clay and glaze as H 4.
missing; restored. Shape as G 28 (q.v.)and H 7.
Hard, buff clay; light brownishglaze, mottled in
part to brownish black, on exterior and most of H 7. BELL-CUP, FLANGEDRIM. Pls. 8, 68.
interior; glaze fired darkeron upper three-fourths of P 22460. H. 0.059; D. lip est. 0.115. Fragmentary;
exterior, probably as a result of stacking in the kiln. center of floor missing; partly restored.
Tall, slenderbody contractedbelow to a smallring Hard, gray clay with small, white grits; dull,
foot and above to a slightly thickened, vertical lip. black glaze.
Five deep, vertical indentations mark the wall. Shape as H 6 and G 28 (q.v.).
CompareG 42 and J 69 (glass).
H 8. HEMISPHERICALCUP, FLANGEDRIM. P1.8.
H 3. BRITTLEWAREBEAKERFRAGMENTS. P1.63. P 22459.H. 0.058; D. lip est. 0.112. Fragmentary;
P 22462. D. base 0.042. Two joining fragmentsof restored.
base and wall. Hard, reddishclay; thin fabric; reddishbrown to
Fine, yellow-buff clay; thin fabric. The exterior black glaze with faint metallic luster.
has the appearanceof having been burnished. Hemisphericalcup on ring foot; vertical, flanged
From a beaker (2) with flat base and oblique, rim terminatingin plain lip; two groovesaroundrim
offset wall. CompareG 94, M 4. below lip. Shape as G 74-75, G 180.
A similar fine, brittle, yellow-buffor white fabric Storage--fragmentsof several other cups as H 8
appears in a small number of early Roman vessels, and 9.
primarily beakers, from the Agora excavations (P 6589, 9.
14619 and 19854) and in a beaker (reputedly from H HEMISPHERICAL CUP,
FLANGED RIM.
P 21384. P.H. 0.045; D. lip est. 0.12. Fragmentof
Corinth)in the Museumof Fine Arts, Boston (P1.43).6
The fabric will be discussed in full in the second wall and rim.
volume of this work. Gritty, light reddishclay; dull, reddishglaze.
Shape as H 8.
H 4. PLATE. Pls. 8, 68. H 10.
CUP, TWO HANDLES. P1.8.
P 21383. H. 0.037; D. lip 0.15. Fragmentary;
P 21389. P.H. 0.039; D. lip est. 0.09. Fragments
center of floormissing; restored.
of rim and body.
Reddish clay with some grits; dull, reddish to
Hard, gray clay; dull, black glaze.
orange-redglaze. The same clay and glaze occur in Broad cup with roundedbody contractingat the
H 5-6, H 16 and in G
63, 68, 70, 71, 173.
As the Samian plates G 19-20, G 167, J 28, but of top toward the low, vertical rim; exterior face of rim
grooved; two horizontal grooves and a faint band of
rouletting at the point of maximum diameter. There
5 For mottled Pergamene ware, see Tarsus, 1, pp. 183
- 184, 250, figs. 145, 194, 195 (nos. 513-522). A discussion of is a trace, on the rim, of the upperattachmentfor a
the fabric will appear in the second volume of this study. vertical handle. For more complete specimens of this
6 Published with shape compare P 11259 (Deposit B 14: 3--P1. 68) and
permission of the Department of Greek
and Roman Antiquities, Museum of Fine Arts. Inv. 00.365. P 17049 (Deposit B 21 :1-Pl. 89); the latter has only
H. 0.097; D.0.083. Complete. Light, cream-colored clay,
one handle preserved but has been restored with two
extremely fine and thin; exterior surface smooth and almost
soap-like in texture. Cylindrical beaker with plain lip; base
handles by analogy with shallower cups as F 26.
marked by several fine ridges. Groove at base of wall, three H 10, though smaller than P 17049, may have had
grooves at mid-point of wall. two handles.
48 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

H 11. GLOBULAR JUG. P1.8. Reddish clay with some grits; dark, orange-red
P 21387.P.H. 0.067; D. lip est. 0.08. Twofragments glazewith faint luster,mottledblackin part (cf. H 4).
Domed lid with everted rim and plain lip; low,
preservehandle and part of rim and body.
Light reddishclay; reddishglaze. plain knob, flat on top and bevelledaroundthe edge.
Two concentricgrooves on the upper surfaceof the
Shapeas G 85-86.
rim and two below the knob.
Storage-fragments of two otherjugs as H 11.
Storage-fragments of anothersimilarlid.
H 12. BOWL. P1. 8.
P 21886. H. 0.064; D. est. 0.135. Fragmentary; [H 17]. JUG. Pi. 8.
restored. P 13597. Deposit N 19:2 (late 1st to early 2nd
Rather coarse,orange-redclay; dull, red glaze on century).
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

upperparts, inside and out. H. 0.249; D. 0.177. Almost complete.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Bowl with roundedwall on ring foot; at the top Brownish clay; dull, black to brownish glaze
the wall curvesinwardand terminatesin a plain lip. (partial).
Plump body on ring foot; high neck with everted
[11H13. BOWL. Pl. 8. lip, flat on top. Ridged handle with applied thumb-
rest at top (cf. H 11, G 85-86). The lip projectsout
P 8154. Deposit C 9 :1 (early 2nd century). in a small lug on either side of t. a. h. Two bands of
H. 0.121; D. 0.195. Almost complete;restored.
Reddish clay; dull, reddishglaze (partial). roulettingaroundthe body belowb. a. h.; three pairs
of groovesaroundthe neck.
Deep bowlwith angularwall on ring foot. Everted, Storage-fragments of neck and shoulderof a jug
horizontalrim with vertical lip. Bands of rouletting similar to P 13597.
at middle and bottom of the vertical wall surface;
a groovejust below the angle of the wall.
Storage-fragments of two bowlssimilarto P 8154. [H 18].
JUG FRAGMENT. P1.8.
P 11165. Deposit B 13 :2 (2nd century).
H 14. MINIATUREKANTHAROS. P1.8. P.H. 0.147; D. rest. 0.156. Fragmentary; the
lower body missing; partly restored.
P 22463. P.H. 0.064; D. 0.052. Lip, both handles
Pinkish clay, self-slip.
and part of body missing; partly restored.
From a jug with roundedshoulder,narrow,flaring
Brownishbuff clay; dull, brownishblack glaze.
neck and plain lip. Handle deeply grooved;the neck
An archaisticrevivalof the Hellenistickantharosas
Three bands of rouletting around the
seen in the West Slope specimenB 20. The body is wheel-ridged.
shoulder.
wheel-ridged.CompareK 52--53,M 162.
Miniaturevessels occur frequently in fillings of Storage--fragments of the necks of two jugs
similarto P 11165.
the late 2nd and the 3rd centuries:J 1-3, J 12, J 37,
K 69-72, L 5-7, M 73, M 116, M 160-161.
H 19. COOKINGPOT FRAGMENT. P1.8.
H 15. THYMIATERION. Pl. 8. P 22464. Max. dim. 0.096; D. loop handle 0.058.
P 21418. H. rest. 0.09; D. 0.085. Entire lip and Wall fragmentwith handle.
part of foot missing;restored.
Rather coarse,reddishclay; brownishslip.
Pinkishbuffclay with somemica; matt, white slip, From a vessel with vertical wall and sloping
muchworn.Tracesof burningon the floorof the cup. shoulder set off at a sharp angle. Vertical handle,
A flat-bottomed cup with flaring wall (and applied below the junction of wall and shoulder,with
a freely-moving ring handle attached to it.
presumably plain lip, as in the analogous piece from
Deposit B 21:1, P 17052) is supported on a hollow,
flaring stem foot; between cup and foot, a projecting, H 20. AMPHORA FRAGMENT, DIPINTO. Pls. 8, 59.
horizontal flange. P 21381. P.H. 0.115; D. lip 0.064. Neck, shoulder
For other thymiateria see G 159, M 74, M 224; the
and parts of both handles preserved.
shapeis not uncommonin the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Reddish buff clay, yellowish buff slip.
The lid J 53 may have served as cover for such an From an amphora as G 197 and M 102. On the
incense-burner. On thymiateria in general, see shoulder, inscription in black paint: of four lines
K. Wigand, Bonn. Jahrb., CXXII, 1912, pp. 1-97. partially preserved, only the second is legible, rrdrooov
(raisin wine).
H 16. LID. P1. 8.
P 21880. H. 0.044; D. 0.147. Fragmentary; Storage, pottery-several fragments of Samian A
restored. pottery and parts of jugs as [G 103] and M 80.
GROUP H 49

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY


H 21. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 45. which may not belong, is not illustrated.Pale green,
L 4796. P.L. 0.085; W. 0.061; H. 0.032. Intact transparentglass.
except for handle. The vertical handle is attached under the flaring,
Hard, dark gray clay; reddishto black glaze with evertedlip. The ridgingof the handleis extendedout
metallic luster. and above the lip in three separate loops (of which
As G 143-145, G 223-225; no raised dots under the centralone is brokenaway).
nozzle. On the base, in relief, the letter alpha, H 26. GLASSJUG FRAGMENT. P1. 54.
surrounded by two concentric ridges. Perlzweig. G 419. P.H. 0.049; D. lip 0.039. Neck, handle and
Storage--fragments of three other lamps of part of shoulderpreserved.Bluish green,transparent
Broneer'stype XX.
glass.
H 22. LAMP, Sloping shoulder; low neck with everted, rolled
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

SIGNED, BASKET HANDLE. P1. 45.


L 4795. L. 0.093; W. 0.07; H. 0.041. Intact except lip; flat handle.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

for handle. H 27. GLASS FRAGMENT. P1. 54.


Reddish clay; reddish to black glaze with faint G 418. P.L. 0.032; Th. 0.007.
metallic luster. Part of a spirally twisted handle or stem, broken
As H 21; underthe nozzle,threelines of raiseddots above and below. Light yellowish brown glass.
(as on G 224). On the base, in relief, the letter alpha. H 28. SCULPTURED RELIEF, UNFINISHED. Pl. 52.
Basket handle attached across discus as on G 128.
S 1519. P.H. 0.135; W. at base 0.066; Th. at base
Perlzweig. 0.059. Top of block broken away; surface chipped.
H 23. TERRACOTTA MASK FRAGMENT. P1.48. A narrow,tapering block of Pentelic marble, the
T 3071. P.H. 0.106; P.W. 0.069.A singlefragment; back rounded.On the front surface,carved in relief,
the original edge preserved at top, left, above the a male figurefacing,r. hand on hip, weight carriedon
horn. r. foot, 1. elbow resting on a pillar-like support,
Fine, buff clay; self-slip;no tracesof paint remain. drapery(?) over 1.forearm.The carvingis apparently
From the top of a satyr (?) mask, showing not finished;drill marksare found at many points on
forehead,a fillet, hair rising in vertical locks and (at the figureand the background.
left) a horn. Grandjouan. H 29. STONE BASIN (?). P1. 52.
H 24. TERRACOTTA ALTAR FRAGMENT. P1. 73. ST 505. P. H. 0.103; Max. W. on top 0.22.
A roughly triangularblock of hard, yellow poros.
T 3072. P.H. 0.041; Max. P.L. of side 0.125. A
On the base, two incised concentriccircles (D. 0.065
single fragment preservingone lower corner of the and 0.135). On the top, a circulardepression(D. ca.
altar.
Reddish buff clay, fired gray-buffat core; traces 0.115; Depth ca. 0.05); the top surface has been
of dull, reddishglaze. partly dressed,adjacentto the depression,along two
of the three edges. The function of this possibly
From a "stepped" altar of hollow construction.
unfinishedartifact is not clear.
The die of the altar properrests on two steps; die and
steps were built up in horizontal layers. There is a Two inventoried objects from Group H are not
groove along the outer edge of each step. included in the above catalogue because they are
obviously not related to the 2nd century filling:
H 25. GLASS JUG FRAGMENTS. P1. 54. P 21382, a fragmentof early Attic black-figureware;
G 420. D. lip 0.062. Mouth and part of handle SS 11154,a Thasian(?) stampedamphorahandle of
preserved; another non-joining handle fragment, the 5th or 4th century B.C.

LAYER BELOW THE BUILDING FILL


H 30. SAMIANA PLATE. P 21392.P.H. 0.042; D. est. 0.16. Fragmentof wall
P 21391. H. 0.031; D. est. 0.13. Small fragmentof and rim.
wall, foot and rim; center of floormissing. Hard, reddishclay; dark, orange-redglaze.
Typical clay and G
glaze (as 19ff.). H 33. AMPHORA FRAGMENT, DIPINTO. P1. 59.
Shape as G 19-20.
P 21393. Max. dim. 0.074. Shoulderfragment.
H 31. BOWL.
Rather soft, gritty, buff clay.
P 21390. H. 0.033; D. est. 0.15. Fragmentof wall,
foot and rim; center of floormissing. Inscription in black paint, broken away at left:
IE\'pvpt[,"[agift] to Periphos,sonof Eurybi-"
Clay, glaze and shape as G 61. 'Eplppc
(2). The name Periphos is not elsewhererecorded,
H 32. BOWL. P1. 68. though Periphasis known.
4
GROUP J
MIDDLE OF 2ND TO EARLY 3RD CENTURY

Group J constitutes the lower (period of use) filling of a well (Deposit C 12:1) located on
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Kolonos Agoraios to the south of the Hephaisteion. Of the building with which the well was
associated nothing remains, for most of this area had been denuded long before the start of the
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

excavation. The well had a diameter of 1.07 m. and a total depth of 21.05 m. from the preserved
rock surface; it was cut through hard rock and no terracotta tiles were used for lining the shaft.'
The lower filling, from 16.00 m. to bottom, appears to have accumulated while the well was in
use and is characterizedby numerous water jars and amphorae re-used as water jars. The
terminuspost quemfor this group is indicated by the dipinto on J 5, which was found in Layer I;
this dipinto recordsas date the fourteenth year of the reign of the emperorHadrian (137/138).2
This storage amphora may have been kept in the wine cellar for several years before being
decanted," and after being emptied of its original contents it was put into use as a well jar. The
date at which it fell irretrievably into the well may perhaps be set between 138 and 150. All the
pottery found with or above J 5 must then be dated around the middle of the 2nd century
and later.
For the terminus ante quem of the lower filling of the well we must turn to the upper fill
(top to 16.00 m.), which seems to have been thrown in at one time to close the well shaft. This
filling contained relatively little pottery; but the presence in it of fragments of mosaic floor (at
depth ca. 10.00 m.) indicates that the filling derived from the destruction debris of some
neighboring building. Of the twenty-four bronze coins found in the well, eight certainly came
from the upper filling; the others, discovered in the sifting of the dried well-earth, after exca-
vation, probably came primarily from the upper levels of the shaft, since there are included.
among them at least two coins later in date than the pottery of the period-of-usefill.4It is likely
that the well went out of use at least no later than 267, when the Heruli sacked Athens. After
that disaster much of the area of the old Agora was abandoned by the citizens when they
retreated within the restricted area protected by the Late Roman Fortification;5 and the
1 The well was excavated between March 16 and
April 29, 1936.
2 The fourteenth year of Hadrian, if calculated by the Athenian "era" (i.e., from the date of Hadrian's first visit to the
city in 124/125), must be 137/138 (see P. Graindor, Athdnessous Hadrien, Cairo, 1934, pp. 2-8). Unfortunately, it is not
absolutely certain that the amphora J 5 is of Attic manufacture; its inscription might possibly, therefore, represent the era
of some other eastern city, though it will in any event be no earlier than 130/131.
3 We need not, I think, concern ourselves here with such unusually long cellarage as that of the Italian wines of the
Opimian vintage of 121 B.C., which were still being decanted two hundred years later (felix autumnusOpimi, Martial, XIII,
113, 1; Pliny, Nat. Hist., XIV, 55; see also Juvenal, Sat., V, 30-31). Twenty years seems to be the maximum cellarage
for even the better quality wines (Pliny, Nat. Hist., XIV, 57), although Horace records some wines thirty-five to sixty
years old (Carm., III, 8, 9-12; III, 21, 1-8; III, 14, 16-20). Four-year-old wine was regarded highly (Horace, Carm., I,
14, 7; Theocritus, XIV, 16; VII, 147) and certain wines were broached into amphorae only after four years of aging in the
dolium (C.I.L., XV, 2, 1, no. 4539; Palladius, XI, 14, 4). Dioscurides (Mat. Med., V, 12) makes the following recommendation
regarding the aging of wines: of aroa S6 Triv IAtK7iav cSbot wrr6Trr-&
&pio-ro wrrp6wrr6atv, f?rGv;while Pliny (Nat. Hist.,
XXIII, 1, 20) adds that Falernian wine is at its best when aged fifteen years.
* The significant coins are:
Constantine II, 337-340 (one specimen), as Thompson, Coins, no. 1025.
Gordianus III, 241-243 (one specimen), as Thompson, Coins, no. 282.
5 V. supra, p. 3.
GROUP J 51

debris-fillingmay have been dumped into the abandoned well-shaft after the departure of the
barbarianhordes.6
Thus the lowest five meters of fill may represent slightly more than a century of use of the
well, from the middle of the 2nd century to 267. However, the absence of fragments of late
Roman red ware and the rarity of painted-ware bowls such as occur commonly in the pre-
Herulian GroupK (K 19-28) suggest that Group J was probably closed considerablybefore 267,
perhaps by the end of the first quarter of the 3rd century.7
In the excavation of Group J (the period-of-use filling of the well) the possibility of strati-
fication was not immediately recognized and the depth at which the objects were found is not
recorded within narrow limits in all cases. Ir the following catalogue the objects are divided
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

arbitrarily into three layers (19.75-19.20 m.; 19.20-17.20 m.; and ca. 16.00 m.)8 numbered
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

successively in the order of their accumulation; objects whose exact location within the fill
is not recorded are listed subsequently under the rubric "Layers I-III." There seems to be no
possibility at the present time of fixing specifically the chronology of the individual layers.

LAYER I (AFTER 188)

JUG, ROUNDMOUTH.
J 1. MINIATURE P1. 9. glaze:stripesonlipandhandles;a straighthorizontal
P 7580. H. 0.065; D. 0.057. Lip chipped. band below the handles; a broad, wavy band on
Pinkish buff clay; dull, reddish to black glaze either side betweenthe handles.
(except on base). CompareG 101, J 40, M 39-40.
Squat, piriformbody with flat base; everted lip; J 5. STORAGE AMPHORA, DIPINTO. Pls. 11, 59.
no neck. Sliced handle; groove at b. a. h. For other
P 7583. P.H. 0.549; D. 0.295. Neck and handles
miniaturevesselssee H 14.
missing; filling hole. Publ. A.J.A., XL, 1936, p. 410
J 2. MINIATURE JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.9. (with incorrectreadingof secondline of inscription).
P 7578. H. 0.078; D. 0.056. Intact. Reddish clay with grits; thin, reddish wash over
Orange-buffclay, micaceousand gritty. upperpart of exterior.Mastic.
Ovoid body with flat base; high neck; grooved The body tapersslightly fromthe angularshoulder
handle. toward a high, flaring,ring foot; the base is convex.
The shoulderslopes upwardinto a narrow,tapering
J 3. MINIATURE JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.9. neck. On the shoulder,an inscriptionin black paint:
P 7579. H. 0.074; D. 0.052. Intact. "E-rouvSt 'AptavoG I vciavaotiov(the reading of
Gritty, gray-buffclay; slip, mottled greenish buff the final word is that of J. H. Oliver; cf. &irrroti
to purplishbuff. viauioraial, Geoponica, 111,2,1, in the sense of
As J 2. "year-oldvines"; the meaningmay be that the wine
had alreadyaged one year in the doliumbeforebeing
J 4. STAMNOS,PARTLYGLAZED. Pi. 10.
broachedinto the amphorain the fourteenthyear of
P 7581. H. 0.22; D. 0.20. Broken;one handle Hadrian'sreign). On the form instead of the more
8t
missing; restored. usual t8 for the ordinal numeral, see Tod, B.S.A.,
Soft, gritty, reddishbuff clay. XLV, 1950, p. 129.
Plump ovoid body on low ring foot; small, everted
lip. Two horizontalhandles, round in section, tilted J 6. LAMP. P1. 45.
upward.Three grooves aroundbody at level of L 2318. L. 0.08; W. 0.063; H. 0.026. Intact.
handle attachments.Decorationin dull reddish Soft,orange-buff
clay.
6 The coin of Constantine II found in the sifting of the well-earth may represent an intrusion into the topmost level of the
filling or may indicate a 4th century re-filling necessitated by the settling of the first post-Herulian deposit.
7 It is notable also that
Group K contained no lamps of the types represented by J 59-60, J 61-62 and J 63-64. Unfortu-
nately, however, there is no record of the depth within the bottom filling at which lamps J 59-64 were found; they may
merely represent the lowest filling, Layer I, which is certainly of the late 2nd century and therefore earlier in date than
Group K. On the other hand, Miss Judith Perlzweig informs me that lamp J 23 (found at the very top of Layer III, at the
point of change to the upper, dumped fill) is of the mid 3rd century and that J 65 (Layers I-III) and J 66 (from the well-
earth) are probably of the second half of the 3rd century, though both may be pre-Herulian.
8
Only one object, the lead pail J 9, was found between 19.75 m. and bottom at 21.05 m.
4*
52 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Rim: smallovules, set closeto discus.Discusplain. A pin-like object, pointed at one end and termi-
Handle pierced and grooved above and below. nating, at the other, in an open right hand; at the
Circulargroove on base; no signature. "wrist,"a braceletof rope pattern in relief.
J 7. TERRACOTTA
COLUMN
SECTION. P1.50. J 9. LEADBUCKET. P1.51.
A 652. D. 0.21-0.218; Th. 0.065. Intact. IL 369. P.H. 0.195; Max. W. at rim 0.225.
Coarse,reddish buff clay. Centralhole filled with Handle missing; body dented, especially at the
lime mortar. bottom, but complete.
As G161. Diameterof centralhole0.06.Depressions Round-bottomedbucket with plain lip, slightly
(marksof potter's fingers)on one surfaceonly. thickenedon exterior. At rim, on either side, a lead
lug for an attachment of iron-presumably a ring
J 8. BONE OBJECT. P1.56. through which passed an end of a movable bail
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

BI 232. P.L. 0.125; W. 0.008. At the broaderend handle.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

the tips of the first and little fingersof the hand are Found at the very bottom of the well deposit
brokenaway. (19.75 m.-21.05 m.).

LAYER II (LATE 2ND CENTURY?)

J 10. GLOBULARJUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.9. Figureof a young boy; the long hair terminatesin
P 7585. H. 0.071; D. 0.067. Intact. curls and there is a braided lock of hair extending
Yellowish buff clay; dull, brownish black to from front to back acrossthe crown;the eyeballsare
purplishbrownglaze (except base). piercedthrough.A long, hoodedcloak, sewntogether
Globular body on low, flat base; the base left in a vertical seam down the front of the body,
roughfrom the wheel. Low, obliquerim, set off from encloses the arms; the peaked hood is thrown back
body by an angularridge. Slicedhandle. and over the shoulders.At the middle of the back, a
small, vertical, pierced handle similar to those of
J 11. GLOBULAR JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.9. lamps such as J 6 and J 23. Perlzweig-Grandjouan.
P 7538. H. 0.067; D. 0.06. Intact. Another,morecompletefigureof this type (L 2508,
Pinkish buff clay; dull, red glaze (except base). from Deposit E 11:2) shows that the lamp proper
As J 10, but with finished base; rim is slightly projected horizontally from the groin; it was pre-
higher and is not offset from body by a ridge. Body sumably in the form of a phallus. The youthful
lightly wheel-ridged. figure may represent Telesphoros, although that
associateof Asklepiosis generallyportrayedwearing
J 12. MINIATURE CUP. P1.9. a cloakwith the peakedhood drawnup over the head
P 7536. H. 0.05; D. 0.047. Intact.
(cf. Hesperia, XIX, 1950, p. 333, pl. 106, a; also
Dark buff clay; brownish to dark brown glaze Agora lamp L 3104, from the 2nd century filling of
(exceptbase). DepositE 14:2). The worshipof Telesphorosappears
Small, flat-bottomed cup; the wall is slightly to have been introducedto Athens (fromPergamon)
constrictedbelow the plainlip and is deeplyindented in the late years of the 2nd century, possibly as a
at four points. No handle. For other miniature result of the great plague which was
brought back
vessels see underH 14. fromthe east in 166 by the soldiersof MarcusAurelius'
J 13. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pls. 10, 42. Parthian campaigns.9The religious significanceand
P 7537. H. 0.205; D. 0.125. Intact.
Buff to orange-buffclay, self-slip.
9 Amm. Marc., XXIII, 6, 24; Script. Hist. Aug., Marcus
Ovoid body on ring foot. Round mouth wiuh Aurelius, 13,3; 13,5; 17,2; 21,6. In 174/5, in the archonshipof
everted lip, grooved on top. Groovedhandle, rising M. Munatius Vopiscus, a ceremony was celebrated in Athens
in the name of Asklepios; on that occasion paeans were sung
slightly above and indenting the lip at point of to Asklepios and Koronis and the event was recordedca. 225
attachment. Body lightly wheel-ridged;horizontal in a monument honoring Sarapion of Chollidai (Hesperia, V,
groove at b. a. h. 1936, pp. 91-122; for the date, Hesperia, XVIII, 1949, p. 55).
A similar monument, not accurately dated but generally
J 14. PLASTIC LAMP. P1.47. assigned to the 3rd century (I.G., II, 4533), records three
L 2801. P.H. 0.131; W. at head 0.038. Base and other paeans written to Asklepios, Hygieia and Telesphoros,
lower part of body brokenaway. the last of whom is recordedas having relieved the land of the
Reddish clay; dull, dark reddishglaze. Madein a Kekropidai from a plague; Telesphoros is also mentioned in
ephebic inscriptions as early as 194/5 (j.G., II, 2127, lines 6,
two-part mould, the seams extending vertically up 10; I.G., II, 2227, line 3; for dating see Hesperia, XVIII,
the sides. 1949, pp. 53, 54). See also I.G., IIa, 4531 and 4541.
GROUP J 53

ritual characterof Telesphorosis far from clear,10but As J 15, but with the addition of a second and
he is certainlyassociatedwith the healingaspectsand smallereye, close to the blunt end.
incubation practices of the Asklepios cult. It is
J 17. BRONZE BELL. P1. 58.
perhapsnot surprisingthat the deity should appear
figuredin a plastic lamp, since he is connectedwith B 326. H. 0.051; D. 0.044. Part of handle and
the nocturnal rituals of the cult and is called, in a clappermissing. The piece has not been subjectedto
3rd century hymn, pacofivPpo-ros, while his appear- cleaning.
ance in a dreamto Aelius Aristideswas accompanied Conicalbell with loop handleabove for suspension.
by a brilliantflashof light.ll On the interior,obscuredby heavy corrosion,remains
of a clapper(?).
J 15. BONE NEEDLE. Pl. 56. J 18. LEADBUCKET.
BI 230. L. 0.136; W. 0.005. Intact.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

IL 368. P.H. 0.12; Max. W. at bottom 0.23. Bent


Pointed needle; the eye in the flattened end was
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

made by drillingtwo holes close to one anotheron the out of shape,especiallyat the bottom;handlemissing.
As J 9.
axis of the shaft and cutting away the bridgebetween
them. Attention should be called to a stamped amphora
handle (Knidian) of Hellenistic date from Layer II
J 16.BONENEEDLE. (S8 5922); it is not cataloguedhere since it has no
BI 231. L. 0.146; W. 0.007. Intact. relation to the materialof Roman date.

LAYER III (EARLY 3RD CENTURY)

J 19. GLOBULARJUG, PAINTED. P1.9. J 22.COOKING DISH. PI. 72,


P 7531. H. 0.124; D. 0.118. Intact. P 7532. H. 0.056-0.065; D. 0.805. Intact.
Dark buffclay; darkbrownto purplishbrownglaze Coarse,reddishclay with grits.
(except base). Deep, flat-bottomed dish; two small ribbon
Globularbody on flat base; a circulargrooveon the handlesappliedto the outer edge of the evertedrim.
resting surface(cf. K 59, M 145-149, M 190). Vertical J 58 might have served as the lid for this dish.
rim; sliced handle. Decorationin white paint in the CompareK 89.
handle zone: tangent spirals rotating clockwise
toward center. See note under K 19. J 23. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.45.
L 2300. L. 0.105; W. 0.076; H. 0.031. Intact.
J 20. GLOBULARJUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.9. Soft, gritty, yellow-buffclay. The nozzle is coated
P 753388.
H. 0.115; D. 0.098. Intact. with carbon.
Dark buff clay; dull, brownto black glaze (except Rim: vine with grapeclusters.Discus concaveand
base). markedwith close-setrays. Handle: pierced,grooved
Globular body on low ring foot; flaring rim; above and below. Base: signaturewithin two circular
juncture of rim and body markedby angularridges; grooves,TlhpdOolu.
sliced handle. Body wheel-ridged.CompareK 62-64.
J 24. PLASTIC LAMP. P1.47.
J 21. GLOBULAR JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.9. L 2299. H. 0.093; W. 0.046. Nozzle of lamp and
P 7534. H. 0.135; D. 0.115. Intact. part of right wing of figuremissing.Madein two-part
Buff clay; reddish brown to black glaze (except mould, the seams extending vertically up the sides
base). of the figure.
As J 20. Orange-redclay; dull, reddishglaze.
10
See Schwenn, s.v. in Pauly-Wissowa, R.E.; Schmidt, other pertinent passages are cited). If this be true, it is not
8.v. in Roscher, Myth. Lex. ; Schr6der,ArchivfitrReligionswiss. improbable that the special vessels used in the libation (as
XXV, 1938, pp. 218ff.; Egger, Jahresh., XXXVII, 1948, the olvio-rpia in the sacrifice to Herakles) were moulded
pp. 90-111; W. Deonna, De Tdlesphoreau "moine bourru": jugs in the form of a young boy's head such as Agora P 10004
Dieux, gdnies et ddmons encapuchonnds(CollectionLatomus, (Hesperia, VII, 1938, p. 349, fig. 33; Kiibler, Kerameikos,
vol. XXI, Brussels, 1955), pp. 38-58. p. 138, figs. 77-78). These head-jugs, which are known only
I1 I.G., II, 4533, line 33; Aelius Aristides, II, 419, 10-12 in Athens and during the middle years of the 3rd century,
[ed. Keil]. The presence of Telesphoros' name at the head of occur in both the Kerameikos and Agora excavations; one
two ephebic lists (note 9) suggests that he may have received (Agora P 10240) bears at the nape of the neck the mouldmade
from the ephebes libations such as those which they poured letters EYA.), presumably an abbreviation of the name
to Herakles when they sheared off their devotional lock of Eudoros, which occurs at the same period on many signed
hair (Eupolis, fr. 135, ed. Kock, C.A.F., I, p. 293, where
lamps.
54 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

The lamp properconsistsof a basis, roughlyovoid at bottom the break coincideswith the position of a
in plan and markedby three horizontalgrooves on joint in the branchfromwhich the piece was cut.
the side; the wick-holeis pierced in the top of the A small, flat piece of wood; on the upper surface
basistowardthe front. Onthe basisis seateda winged, are cut four shallow,oval depressions,at the center
male figure,nude except for boxing gloves (tp-dvT-s) of each of which is a very small hole which does not
which extend to above the elbows; the right knee is penetrateentirelythroughto the underside.The oval
drawnup, the right forearmresting on the knee, the depressionswere presumablydesigned for inlays of
chin supportedin the right hand. The pupils of the ivory, stone or glass.
eyes are representedby punch-marks.A vertical lug
handle, piercedhorizontally,projectsfrom the back J 27. STATUE OF MOTHER OF THE GODS, MARBLE.
of the figure. Perlzweig-Grandjouan.
S 731. H. 0.338; W. 0.213. Right forearmand part
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

J 25. BONE NEEDLE. of right braidof hair missing.


A statue of the Motherof the Gods, seated on a
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

BI 229. P.L. 0.129; W. 0.006. Point brokenoff.


Long needle, flattened at one end, where it is throne, the right-handsupportof which is carvedin
pierced'byan elongatedeye. CompareJ 15. the form of a lion protome.Publishedby T. L. Shear,
A.J.A., XL, 1936, pp. 409-410, fig. 6.
J 26. WOODFRAGMENT, WORKED. P1.50. It is quite likely that this figure,found at a depth
W 3. P.L. 0.061; P.W. 0.012. The workedsurface of 16.00m. in the well shaft, derivesfromthe dumped
is brokenat top, bottom and right (as seen in P1.50); fillingratherthan from the loweruse filling.

LAYERS I-III

MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES Buff clay; dull, orange-redglaze.


A mould-thrownbowl with figured,relief scene on
J 28. SAMIAN A PLATE. P1.61. exterior. This scene
representsa battle of warriors,
P 8321. H. 0.032; D. 0.15. About one-third some mounted and some on foot. The
background
preserved;center of floor missing. is markedby incised decorationaddedafter the bowl
Micaceous, soft, reddish cinnamon clay; dull, was removedfromthe mould: bladesof grassbeneath
orange-redglaze. the horses;at least seven crosses.
As G 19, G 20, G 167. For the most recentstudy of this categoryof vases,
J 29. SAMIAN A cur. Pls. 9, 62. see Spitzer, Hesperia,XI, 1942, pp. 162-192 (where
P 8320. H. 0.041; D. 0.088. Almost complete; P 8319 is mentioned in footnote 26, p. 176). The
restored. sequenceof the figureson J 31, followingthe identi-
fying letters used (p. 173, fig. 8) for the
Clay and glaze as J 28. Centerof floor worn; no bowls with battle by Spitzer is
trace of stamp. scenes, (P1.9, bottom, reading
from left to right): h2, b, -, -, b, g, e, f, k (right half).
This shape,very commonin Samianware,may be
These moulded bowls, manufacturedprimarily at
comparedwith the non-SamianpiecesG28, G70, G 71.
Corinth,have been dated by Mrs. Spitzer between
J 30. GLAZED PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 36, 68. the middleof the 2nd and the end of the 3rd century
P 8342. Est. D. base 0.105. About half of the (op.cit.,p. 192). Dr. Fritz Eichler(Vienna)is preparing
floorpreserved. a corpusof the known specimens.
Grayish buff clay; dull, black glaze on interior
J 32. PLATE. P1.68.
only. Base left rough from wheel.
From a plate as K 5. At center of floor a stamp, P 8826. H. 0.046; D. 0.221. Almost complete;
brokenaway at left: leopardto left (the same stamp restored.
occurson AgoraP 14855, P1. 36). Coarse,buff clay; dull, brownishred glaze.
This type of plate, made locally duringthe early The shape is similar to that of J 30 (see also
3rd century, occurs in large numbersin Deposit K K 5-12) but larger;the base is finished;no stamp on
(K 5-12); numerousother pieces appearin the Agora floor.CompareG 176-177, K 13-16.
inventoryand amongthe sherdsin the storeroomsof 4 33. PLATE. P1.68.
the KerameikosMuseum.
P 8322.H. 0.0388-0.041; D. 0.217.Almostcomplete;
J 31. MOULDED BOWL. Pls. 9, 68. restored.
P 8819. P.H. 0.068; D. 0.119-0.122; H. figured Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay; dull, dark reddish
scene 0.043. Base and about one-third of body glaze (excepton base).
missing; partly restored. Shape as K 36-40.
GROUP J 55

J 34. GLOBULARJUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.9. J 41. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 10.
P 8824. H. 0.07; D. 0.068. Part of body missing; P 8882. H. 0.252; D. 0.171. Almost complete;
restored. restored.
Dark buff clay; dull, black glaze (except base). Soft, gritty, buff clay; self-slip.
Shape as J 10. Ovoid body on ring foot; rather wide neck with
plain, slightly everted lip; trefoil mouth. Ridged
J 35. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 9. handle rising from lip, which is indented at point of
P 22546. H. 0.148; D. 0.113. Almost complete; handle attachment.
restored.
Gritty, yellowish buff clay; dull, brownishyellow [J 421. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 10.
glaze (except foot). P 15291. Deposit N 17:2 (1st and 2nd century
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Ovoid, wheel-ridged body on small ring foot; filling).


flaringneck with plain lip; groovedhandle. Compare H. 0.27; D. 0.21. Intact.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

K 65, M 155 and L 4. Gritty, buff to pinkish buff clay; self-slip.


Plump, ovoid body on ring foot; wide neck and
J 36. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pls. 9,68. everted lip with groove on top surface. Handle as
P 22547. P.H. 0.071; D. rest. 0.08. Fragmentary; J 41. Groovearoundbody at b. a. h.
bottom and most of handle missing; partly restored. Storage,Layers I-III-fragments of a jug similar
Reddish buff clay; dull, light red glaze. to P 15291; comparealso [G 105], which is similar
The wheel-ridged body, as far as preserved, except for an offset between body and neck ([G 105]
resemblesthat of handlelesspots such as K 97-105; and [J 42] are from the lower and upper levels,
there is no neck; the lip is everted and the mouth respectively,of the same well filling).
round. Single, vertical handle.
J43.JUG,ROUND
MOUTH. P1. 9.
J 37. MINIATUREJUG. P1. 9. P 8325. H. 0.112; D. 0.086. Fragmentary, handle
P 8323. H. 0.08; D. 0.058. Handle missing; missing; restored.
otherwiseintact. Reddish clay, thin fabric; self-slip, fired gray in
Soft, gritty, orange-buff clay; dull, red glaze, upperhalf as a result of stackingin the kiln.
almost completelyworn away. As [G 103].
Piriform body with flat base, narrow neck and
small, everted lip. Single, vertical handle from below J
44. WATER JAR, BASKETHANDLE. P1.10.
lip to just above point of maximumdiameter. P 8333. H. 0.271; D. 0.215. Fragmentary; restored.
Hard, gray-buff clay; self-slip.
J 38. LIQUEUR CUP. P1.9. Ovoid body on ring foot; low, flaring neck with
P 7673. H. 0.032; D. 0.054. Almost complete; tip everted, thickened lip. Ridged handle. Contrast
of handle missing; restored. [G 106], [J 45], M 44, M 88-89, M 198.
Gritty, orange-buffclay.
As G 215. [J 45]. WATER
JAR, BASKETHANDLE. Pi. 10.
P 2255. Deposit J 12:1 (early8rd centuryfilling).
H. 0.325; D. 0.211. Intact.
COARSEHOUSEHOLDWARES Buff to reddishclay, self-slip.
Slender, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot;
J 39. STAMNOS. Pl. 10.
high, straight neck with rolled lip. Groovedhandle.
P 8340.P.H. 0.811; D. 0.268. Base, resting-surface CompareJ 44.
of foot and part of body and lip missing; restored. Storage, Layers I-III--fragments of a jar similar
Coarse, gritty, reddish clay, fired gray at core. to P 2255.
Ovoid body on ring foot. Wide, round mouth with
thick, vertical rim, flat on top. Two wide strap hand- [J 46]. JAR, ONE HANDLE. Pls. 11, 41.
les, applied horizontally, project out from the shoulder. P 7671. Deposit B 12:1 (late 2nd to early 3rd
century filling).
J 40. STAMNOS. P1. 10. H. 0.405; D. 0.22. Intact; filling hole.
P 8336. H. 0.288; D. 0.217. Almost complete; both Brownish gray clay with much mica, smooth on
handles missing; restored. surface.
Hard, brick-red clay, fired brownish black in part Ovoid, wheel-ridged body tapering to a tubular
on exterior. The base is cracked, apparently as a foot with thickened collar; short, narrow neck with
result of the firing. thickened lip, flat on top. Splayed handle with single,
As G 101 and P 4508 (P1. 40; cited under G 101), broad groove. Lang, Dated Jars, no. 26. Compare
but the body is less plump; no decoration. F 65 and other jars there cited.
56 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Storage, Layers I-III-fragments of several jars Gritty, gray-buffclay.


apparently similar to P 7671 in the plumpness of On the exterior, a dipinto in four lines, executed
body; someareof red,othersof black, micaceousclay. in black paint: I I
['i]Epouv[i]pc of G. A.
J 47. JAR, ONE HANDLE. P1. 11. -rra]p& [d&]eAq)[6vI--]ANOC[ (reading
[x]p.lor@ds~.p[$
Stamires). It is uncertain whether this sherd re-
P 8887.H. 0.498;D. 0.17.Almostcomplete;restored. presentsan ostrakonor an
amphora-inscription.
Reddish brown, micaceous clay, smooth on sur-
face, firedgrayishblack on exterior. J 53. LID. P1. 11.
As [J 46], but the body is slender,almost cylindri- P 8327. H. 0.026; D. 0.078. Almost complete;
cal in the mid-section. restored.
The fragments in storage representedby [J 46] Dark buffclay; gray-buffslip; blackened(by fire?)
are probably contemporarywith the earliest filling on interior.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

of Group J; J 47 should be equated with Layer III Low, conicallid with plain lip; circularknob, flat
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

M
(cf. 126). on top and piercedvertically by a small hole.
The hole in the knob and the interior blackening
J 48. AMPHORA. P. 10.
suggest that this lid may have servedas cover for an
P 83880.H. 0.273; D. 0.175. Almost complete. incense-burner(thymiaterion)such as H 16 or M 74.
Soft, gritty, orange-buff clay; dull, red glaze
(except on foot and base). J 54. LID (2). P1. 11.
Ovoidbody on ringfoot; evertedlip; plainhandles. P 8329. D. 0.079; Th. 0.012. About half preserved;
Horizontal grooves at t. a. h. and b. a. h. and at restored.
juncture of neck with shoulder. Soft, yellow-buffclay.
Other examples of this shape are found in K 68 A small disc, stamped or mouldmade, with six
and L 3; comparealso p. 31. rays in relief on the top surface.Apparentlypierced
Storage, Layers I-III-fragments of at least two by a hole at the center (the clay is so soft and the
similaramphorae. surface here so worn that it is not possible to be
J 49. CYLINDRICALAMPHORA. Pl. 10.
certain on this point; there might have been a low
central knob, as on a somewhat similar piece, P
P 8331. P.H. 0.177; D. 0.111. Neck and both hand-
les missing. 16485).
Buff clay, firedred at core; self-slip. Storage,Layers I-III, coarsewares-fragments of a
Cylindricalbody, constricted at bottom to a false handleless pot as K 97-105, of a trefoil-mouthjug
ring foot; convex shoulder; two vertical handles. similar to G 188, of at least two one-handledjars
Entire body and shoulderwheel-ridged. similarto M 126 and of a jug as M 167.
For the shape of neck and handles,compareK 85.
See also L 52. COOKING WARES
J 50. AMPHORA. P1. 11. J 55. COOKINGPOT. Pls. 11, 72.
P 8334. P.H. 0.47; D. 0.315. Toe and most of lip P 8888. H. 0.24; D. 0.218; D. lip 0.205. Almost
missing;lip restored.Filling hole. complete;restored.
Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay; self-slip. Reddish clay, fired gray on exterior; thin fabric.
Plump, ovoid body, tapering to a narrow toe; Deep, wheel-ridgedbody, the base only slightly
narrowneck with high lip which curves slightly in- flattened. Two small, vertical handlesjust below the
ward at top. Handlesroundin section. evertedlip.
P1. 11.
CompareG 193.
J 51. AMPHORA.
P 8885. P.H.0.515; D. O.385.Lip, most of one handle 3 6., COOKINGPOT. P1.11.
and fragments of shoulder missing; filling hole ( ). P 8889. P.H. 0.178; D. 0.177. Base and fragments
Soft, very gritty, yellow-buff clay. of body missing; restored.
Ovoid body on spreading, tubular foot; base Clay as J 56. Shape as J 55, but smaller.
convex. Tall, narrow, tapering neck; heavy handles
with longitudinal groove along spine and another
J 57, COOKING POT. Pls. 11, 72.
along one edge. P 22548. P.H. 0.115; D. 0.21; D. lip 0.206. Bottom,
The shape is similar to that of J 5 (the Hadrian one handle and fragments of body missing; partly
restored.
amphora), but the fabric is entirely different.
Coarse, gritty, gray clay, fired red at core.
J 52. AMPHORA (2) FRAGMENT, DIPINTO. P1. 59. Lower half of body wheel-ridged; two small,
P 8841. Max. dim. 0.185. Two joining fragments vertical handles under the everted lip. The bottom
from the shoulder of a coarse, closed vessel. was presumably rounded. Compare G 194-196, K 93.
GROUP
J 57
J 58. LID. P1. 11. Conical lid with plain lip; handle in form of a
P 8328.H. 0.075; D. 0.255-0.261.Almostcomplete; circular knob, the top of which is concave.
restored. This lid fits well the cookingdish J 22.
Coarse,gritty, brownishclay.

OBJECTS
OTHER
THAN
POTTERY
J 59. LAMP. J 64. LAMP. P1.45.
L 2632. Max. dim. largest fragment 0.059. Three L 2361. L. 0.087; W. 0.066; H. 0.03. Intact ex-
non-joiningfragmentsof wall, base and discus. cept for chippingaroundthe filling hole.
Orange-buffclay; dull, dark reddish glaze. Reddish buff clay; dull, red to brownishred glaze.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

From a lamp as G 143-145, G 223-225, H 21-22; Rim plain. Discus: shell pattern. From the base
the relief dots are large; the center of the base and of the nozzle two volutes extend to the sides along
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

signature(if any) are missing. Perlzweig. the rim. Handle: pierced,grooved above and below.
Base: raised ring (resting surface), no signature.
3 60. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.45.
Perlzweig.
L 2365. L. 0.094; W. 0.064; H. 0.036. Intact ex- This lamp is from the well-earth(of. J 60).
cept for two small holes in body.
Orange-redclay, thin and brittle; dull, orange-red J 65. LAMP, SIGNED (?). Pl. 45.
glaze. L W. est. 0.08. Threenon-joiningfragments
263388.
As G 143-145, G 223-225, H 21-22; the relief dots preservepart of rim, nozzleand body, includingsome
on body are smallandclose-set.Handlegroovedlongi- of the base.
tudinally, not made in the mould. Base: the letter Soft, gritty, yellow-buffclay.
alpha in relief. Perlzweig. Rim: raised dots and raised panel at side. Discus
This lamp, as also J 62, J 64 and J 66, was found plain. Nozzle raised above the level of the adjacent
in the course of sifting the dried well-earth, after rim. Base: traceof a signature( ?) in relief.Perlzweig.
complete excavation of the shaft; it is not certain,
therefore, that these pieces belong to Layers I-III J 66. LAMP. P1. 45.
rather than to the upper, dumpedfilling. L 2364. P.L. 0.096; W. 0.077; H. 0.033. Complete
except for tip of nozzle.
J 61. LAMP. P1. 45. Pinkish buff clay, self-slip.
L 2634. L. rest. 0.122; W. rest. 0.077; H. rest. 0.03. Rim: bandof raiseddots. Discus: crescent.Handle:
Base and much of nozzle missing; the preserved pierced, grooved above and below. Base: concentric
nozzle fragmentdoes not join. Restored. ridges. Perlzweig.
Pinkish buff clay; orange-redglaze. This lamp is from the well-earth(cf. J 60).
Rim plain. Discus: bear to right. Volutes at base
of nozzle.Handle: pierced,groovedabove. Perlzweig. J 67. TERRACOTTA FIGURINE FRAGMENT. P1. 48.
T 1270. P.H. 0.097; Max. P.W. 0.043. Single frag-
J 62. LAMP, SIGNED. Pl. 45. ment
preservesfront of body from neck to knees.
L 2383. P.L. 0.084; W. 0.077; H. 0.03. Handle, Rather soft, reddish clay; traces of white paint
part of discus and nozzle missing. on drapery.
Hard, reddishclay; dull, reddishglaze. An elderlymale figurestandingwith kneesslightly
Rim plain. Discus plain and surroundedby two bent. A garment,fastenedat the left shoulder,covers
grooveswhich flareout at base of nozzle into volutes. the chest and lower body. A phallus (now missing)
Tripartitelug at rim on either side. Base: the letter was made separately and inserted in a hole in the
alpha, incised in the clay before firing. Perlzweig. front of the body. Grandjouan.
This lamp is from the well-earth(of. J 60).
J 68. BONE SPOON FRAGMENT. P1.56.
J 63. LAMP, SIGNED. Pl. 45. BI 318. P.L. 0.065; W. 0.034. Thehandleis missing.
L 2631. L. 0.102; W. 0.072; H. 0.035. Fragments The shallow, ovoid bowl of a spoon, similar to
of base and body missing. M 111.
Light reddish clay; white slip, over which an
orange glaze, much worn. 3 69. GLASSVESSELFRAGMENT. P1. 54.
Rim and discus plain and separated by two circular G 78. P.H. 0.026; D. base 0.051. A single fragment
grooves. Top surface of nozzle recessed below rim preserves the base and part of the wall. Translucent,
level; two small, circular punch-marks on rim at base green glass.
of nozzle. Handle: pierced, grooved above. Base: From a cup (2) with flat base; oblique wall marked
trace of an incuse signature. Perlzweig. by four vertical indentationsas in G 42 and H 2.
GROUP K
MIDDLE OF 8RD CENTURY

GroupK constitutesthe fillingof DepositQ 15:1, a collectingbasinanddrainin the southeast


American School of Classical Studies at Athens

cornerof the Agora.'The positionof the basinand drainin relationto the Late RomanForti-
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ficationand the Churchof the Holy Apostlesis indicatedon Plate 76 (the east end of the basin
touchesthe east edge of grid-squareQ 15). The basinwas constructedat the west edge of the
PanathenaicWay. It was designedto collect surfacewaterwhichfloweddownfromthe south
on the stone pavement;fromthe basinthe waterwas conductedby meansof a shorttributary
draininto the East Branchof the GreatDrainof the Agora.
Lyingundera coveringof slabs of marbleand conglomerate,whichpresumablyformedpart
of the roadpavingabove,the collectingbasinconstitutesa rectangularpit, measuringapproxi-
mately 1.60 m. deep, 1.50 m. wide and 3.50 m. long (P1.74). The walls of the pit at north,east
and south werelined with largeblocksof porosand conglomerate,whilethe floorwas covered
with eight re-usedmarbleroof tiles.2Fromthe westernend of the pit opensout the tributary
drain,its walls, floor and cover-slabsbuilt of re-usedporosblocks; width and height of the
channelare, respectively,0.85-0.90m. and 1.00-1.30m. Westwardof the pit the roofand floor
of the draindrop,step-fashion,about0.35 m.; 2.80 m. west of the pit thereis an abruptdrop
of 0.80 m. to what may representan earlierdrainchannel.Froma point 5.00 m. west of the pit
the drainchannelwas tunneledthroughsoft bedrock;its width and height at this point are
ca. 0.60-0.80m. and 1.70-1.80m.3 Inasmuchas the investigationsof the GreatDrainalongthe
southernlimit of the Agorahave not been completed,it is impossibleto enterinto a discussion
of the drainagesystem and the historyof its construction.For the purposesof this study the
only importantaspect of the problemis the date at whichthe easternend of the system went
out of use and was filledwith debris.
In the excavationof basin and drainseverallayers of fillingwere noted: at the bottom of
both, a thick layer of coarse,water-washedgravel; above this, in the basin only, 0.50 m. of
sandandgravelwhichcontainedvery little pottery;at a higherlevelin basinand drain,a thick
layer of sand containinglarge quantitiesof brokenpottery (the objects cataloguedhere as
GroupK); at the top, a layer of gravelin the basin and of mud and sand in the drain.The
presenceof brokenbedrockin the drainchannelover the lowestgravellayer suggeststhat the
naturalroofof the drain,between5.60 m. and 9.00 m. west of the basin,collapsedand put the
moreeasterlysectionof the system permanentlyout of use. Subsequentlythe basinand drain
werefilledwith debrisconsistingof householdrubbish;over this, sand and gravelwashedin,
fillingthe system to the top.
1 The basin was excavated between June 8 and 17, 1933; the drain leading westward from the basin was excavated May 20
to June 3, 1936.
s Hesperia, IV, 1935, p. 337, fig. 24. Five of the tiles were subsequently removed and inventoried: A 1123-1124, A 1917-1919.
3 It is possible that the tunnel
originally was triangular in its vertical cross-section.
* The predominance of table ware over kitchen ware and the infrequence of water jars (such as characterize well and
cistern deposits) are noticeable.
GROUP K 59

The date at which the debriswas throwninto the system can, fortunately,be fixed within
relativelycloselimits. In the basin,belowthe layer of sandand pottery,werefoundsomeforty
bronzecoins;5these indicate as a terminuspost quemfor the layer above a date in the 3rd
century,and presumably(becauseof the upperlimit) in the first quarterof that century.6For
the terminusantequemwe must turn to K 144, a marbleportraithead of which one part, the
bust proper,was foundin the collectingbasin,in the debrisfilling.'Thejoininghead fragment
was foundnear by, built into the Late RomanFortification.This wall was constructedin the
late 3rd century,after the Heruliansack of 267;8 it is apparent,however,fromthe damageto
the surfaceand the wear of the brokenedges of the head of K 144, that this fragmentof the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

portraitmust have been exposedto wearfor sometime beforeit was incorporatedinto the wall.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

On the otherhand, the brokenedges of the bust fragmentare cleanand sharp,indicatingthat


it foundits way into the collectingbasinnot long after the portraitwas fractured.Thesefacts
suggestthat the debrisfillingof the collectingbasinand drain(includingthe bust fragmentof
K 144) was depositedeitherat the time of the Heruliansackor priorto it; but sincemuchof the
pottery of GroupK is good quality householdware such as was probablyused with care for
many years beforediscard,we may perhapssuggestthat the materialin GroupK represents
typical householdequipmentof ca. 250.
An examinationof the pottery from the collectingbasin and the drain reveals complete
homogeneitybetweenthe two fills, althoughactualjoins betweenfragmentsfromthe basinand
othersfrom the drainhave not been observed.In the followingcatalogue,those pieceswhich
derivefrom the collectingbasin are indicatedby the letter B addedin parenthesesafter the
cataloguenumber;those fromthe drainare indicatedby the letter D.
Of these, twenty are of the Imperial period, as follows:
5
Athenian Imperial, 3rd cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 86, no. 8; for obv., Hesperia, II, 1933, pp. 273-274, class Va).
Athenian Imperial, 3rd cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 83, no. 14; for obv., Hesperia, loc. cit., class VI).
Athenian Imperial, second half of 2nd cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 85, no. 13; for obv., Hesperia,
loc. cit., class Ia).
Athenian Imperial, second half of 2nd cent. (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 90, no. 17).
Athenian Imperial, second half of 2nd cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 82, no. 38).
Athenian Imperial, second half of 2nd cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 99, no. 27; for obv., Hesperia, loc. cit., class Va).
Athenian Imperial, Hadrianic (? cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 90, no. 13; for obv., Hesperia, loc. cit., class IVa).
Athenian Imperial, Hadrianic (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 83, no. 5; for obv., Hesperia, loc. cit., class Va).
Athenian Imperial, Hadrianic (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 90, no. 9).
Athenian Imperial, first half of 1st cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 93, no. 45).
Athenian Imperial, first half of 1st cent. (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 88, no. 8; for obv., Hesperia, loo. cit., class Ia).
Athenian Imperial, first half of 1st cent. (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 87, no. 40).
Athenian Imperial (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 88, no. 23).
Athenian Imperial (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 89, no. 21).
Athenian Imperial (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 97, no. 40).
Athenian Imperial (fractional issue) (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 93, no. 30).
Athenian Imperial (fractional issue) (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 97, no. 42).
Athenian Imperial (fractional issue) (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 97, no. 41).
Athenian Imperial (fractional issue) (of. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 88, no. 51).
Athenian Imperial (fractional issue) (cf. Svoronos, Ath., pl. 93, no. 23).
6
Eight coins were found in the basin and drain at levels above the pottery deposit; of these, only three are significant
for purposes of chronology:
Vandal (not otherwise identifiable).
Arcadius, 383-408, as Thompson, Coins, no. 1553.
Roman, 4th century (not otherwise identifiable).
SHarrison, Sculpture, no. 7.
8 See above, p. 3.
60 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

FINE (IMPORTED)
WARES9 Similar shapes are well known in metal and in
Late Roman Red Ware. The rim of the silver Cor-
K 1 (B). RED WARE PLATE. Pls. 12, 64. bridgeLanx in the British Museumis rather similar
P 3059.H. 0.047; D. 0.355. Fragmentary;restored. to K 4 (J.R.S., IV, 1914,
frontisp.;dated in the late
Fine, hard, brick-red clay; thin, brittle fabric; 4th century by Dohrn, Mitt. des deut.arch.Inst., II,
dull, brick-redglaze (partial). 1949, pp. 116-117); see also the silver Risley Lanx,
Dohrn, op. cit., pp. 117-118. Red Ware platters:
K 2 (B). RED WARE PLATE. P1. 64.
Wace, Bull. de la soc. roy. d'archiol.d'Alexandrie,
P 2273. H. 0.043; D. est. 0.245. Fragmentary. no. 37, 1948, pp. 47-57; Cat. du MusdeAlaoui, 2e
Fine, hard, orange-redclay; thin, brittle fabric; suppl., p. 806, no. 1131, pl. XX,3.
dull, orange-redglaze (partial).
Shapeas K 1, but smaller. Storage, Drain, fine wares-worn fragments of two
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Storage,Basin--fragments of two similar plates SamianA vessels; these are not sufficientlylarge or
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(H. 0.034, D. est. 0.19; H. 0.041, D. est. 0.26). numerous to be consideredas an indication that
Samianware continuedin use to so late a date as the
K 3 (B)..RED WAREBOWL. Pls. 12, 64. 3rd century.
P 3060. H. 0.052; D. rest. 0.33886. Fragmentary,
center of floormissing;restored.
MIsCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES
Fine, hard, orange-redclay; fabric less thin than
in K 1-2. Dull, red glaze. K 5 (D). PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 36, 68.
On the broad, horizontalrim, a circularband of P 8499. H. 0.04; D. 0.138. Almost complete.
rouletting enclosed by grooves; another band of Rathersoft, yellowishbuffclay; dull,reddishglaze,
roulettingon the floor. much worn (partial).Base left rough from wheel (as
Storage,Basin-fragments of anothersimilarbowl. also on K 6-12).
Plate with flat floorand low, obliquewall; heavy,
K 4 (B). MOULDEDPLATTERFRAGMENT.,Pls. 12, 63. vertical rim with
pronouncedoverhang.At center of
P 20654. Max. dim. 0.058; Th. 0.009. Small rim floor a device-stamp:eight-petalledrosette (similar
fragmentwith trace of the wall. to that on K 6, but not from the identicaldie).
Hard,gray-buffclay with somegrits; dull, blackish This plate, together with K 6-12, represents a
brownglaze. group of stamped plates, apparentlyof local fabric,
The corner of the everted, horizontal rim of a which occur commonlyin 3rd century pre-Herulian
squareor rectangularplatter; the wall, probablylow, fills. J 30 is anotherrepresentativeof the group.
slopes away from the rim toward the interior. The Storage,Basin and Drain--fragmentsof numerous
rim decoratedwith a relief pattern of tendrils and similarplates, includingone identicalwith K 9.
rosettes enclosed by rectilinear ridges. The under-
surfaceof the rim slightly rough. K 6 (D). PLATE, STAMPED. P1.36.
P 8500. H. 0.037; D. est. 0.135. Fragmentary.
9 The RomanRed
Ware,whichoccursin K 1-3, has often Clay, glaze and shape as K 5. Stamp similar to
been referred to as "Late Roman A" (Waag6, Agora, that on K 5 but not from the identical die.
pp. 294-296; more recently, Jones, Tarsus, 1, pp. 203-206,
with bibliography in note 160) and has so been brought into K 7 (D). PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 12, 36.
associationwith fabricstermed"Late RomanB, C and D"
(Waag6,Agora,pp. 296-308). It is apparent,however,from P 8501. H. 0.032; D. 0.129. Almost complete.
the geographicdistributionof these alphabeticfabricsthat Hard, reddish clay; dull, blackish glaze (partial).
only "A" and "B" have common parentage, while "C" and Shape as K 5. Stamp: eight-petalledrosette with
"D" are quite distinct. The former, moreover, are imported
dots between the tips of the petals.
into Athens,perhapsfrom Egypt or North Africa,and "C"
ware may be imported from the eastern Mediterraneanarea,
while "D" ware is a local Attic product.For more ready K 8 (B). PLATE STAMPED. P1. 36.
identificationof the severalwares,thefollowingnomenclature P 22878. H. 0.03388;D. 0.125. Fragmentary.
has been adopted in the study of the Agora material: Soft, orange-buffclay; dull, reddishglaze (partial).
Shape as K 5. Stamp: eight-petalledrosette.
"LateRomanB" (LateRoman)RedWare(asK 1-3)
"Late Roman C" = (Late Roman) Stamped Ware (as K 9 (B). PLATE, STAMPED. Pls1.12, 836.
M350) P 3063. H. 0.038; D. 0.142. Almost complete;
(LocalLateRoman)PaintedWare restored.
(as K 17, 19-28, 33, 58-61)
(Local Late Roman) Stamped Coarse, rather soft, orange clay; dull, red glaze
Ware (as L 59-61, M 289) (partial).
Separate studies of these late Roman wares will appear in the Shape as K 5. Stamp: cross with dots between the
secondvolumeof this work. arms.
GROUP K 61

K 10 (D). PLATE, STAMPED. P1. 86. the medallion, an inscriptionin white paint: [-]!
P 22881. Max. dim. 0.081. Fragment of floor and CompareL 63.
lifqca[i].
wall. The medallion is closely paralleledin the discus
Rather soft, yellow-buffclay; dull, brownishblack ornament of contemporarylamps, as Agora L 1015
glaze (partial). (P1.86; see also Broneer,Lamps,nos. 1216-1288 and
From a plate as K 5. Stamp (incomplete): a pl. XVIII). For other convivialinscriptionssee K 19,
crescent-shapedobject with incurving tips and a K 33, K 58(?), M 145-148, M 190 (P1.57).
diamond-shapedpoint between the tips (the same K 18 (B). BOWL. P1. 12.
stamp on K 11; cf. the rim ornament on the lamp P 8067.H. 0.058; D. 0.227. Fragmentary;restored.
[K 132]). Gritty, orange-redclay; dull, dark reddish glaze
K 11 (D). PLATE, STAMPED. P1. 36. (partial). Fabric and glaze very similar to those of
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 22388. Max. dim. 0.053. Floor fragment. K 36.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Buff clay; dull, black glaze. Shape as K 17, but without appliquemedallionor
Shape as K 5. Stamp (incomplete):as K 10. interior grooves. No inscription. A groove outlines
the small, flat base.
K 12 (D). PLATE.
P 8502. H. 0.037; D. 0.1835.Intact. K 19 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL, INSCRIPTION.
Soft, pinkishbuff clay, much worn; traces of dull, Pls. 57, 69.
red glaze (partial). P 3097. H. 0.11; D. ca. 0.286. Fragmentary;re-
Shape as K 5. Stamp (if any) worn away. stored.
Rather coarse, orange-buffclay with grits; dull,
K 13 (B). PLATE. P1. 68. dark reddish glaze (partial),fired black in part.
P 3065. H. 0.058; D. 0.28. Almost complete; Deep bowl with oblique wall on ring foot; high,
restored. vertical rim. Two horizontal, ribbon handles, with
Rather soft, gritty, pinkish buff clay; dull, dark double longitudinal grooving, applied to the rim.
red glaze (partial). Groovesat top and bottom of rim on exterior; two
Shape as K 5 but larger; the base is finished;no concentricgrooves at center of floor. On the rim, an
stamp on floor. CompareG 176-177, J 32, L 1. inscriptionin white paint: [8]iyai c-0, l y p Ei.
K 14 (D). PLATE. The inscriptionwas apparentlyexecutedK. by the same
hand as that on K 33. On the handles,verticalstripes
P 8503. H. 0.043; D. 0.205. Intact. of white paint. Compare the phrase p G Siya in a
Rather coarse,soft, orange-buffclay; dull, reddish
graffito on a Boeotian jug in Berlin (Furtwiingler,
glaze (partial). Beschreibungder Vasensammlungim Antiquarium,
As K 13 but smaller.
Berlin, 1886, no. 4087).
K 15 (B). PLATE. Bowls such as K 19-25, 26-27 and 28, partly
P 8066.H. 0.045; D. 0.211. Fragmentary;restored. glazed and with decoration in white paint on the
Rather soft, buff clay; dull, dark reddish glaze rims, are commonin 3rd century, pre-Herulianfills.
Similar decoration(either as inscriptionsor as dec-
(partial).
orative patterns) occurson other shapes of pottery,
Shape as K 13 but smaller.
both open and closed vessels, in the 3rd and the 4th
K 16 (B). PLATE. centuries (cf. J 19, K 17, K 33, K 58-61, L 24-25,
P 3064. H. 0.08; D. 0.85. Fragmentary;restored. M 145-149,M158,M190-191,M209-211,M 213-215).
Rather soft, buff clay; dull, brownishblack glaze The local Attic origin of Late Roman Painted Ware
(partial). is indicated by the discovery in the AgoraExcava-
Shape as K 13, but larger. There was probably no tions of kiln wasters of this fabric. A separate study
stamp on the floor, unless it was impressed off-center.of the Painted Wares of the Agora will appear in the
second volume of this work.
K 17 (B). MEDALLIONBOWL,PAINTEDINBSCRIPTION.
Storage, Basin and Drain--numerous fragments
Pls. 86, 57, 68. of bowls similar to K 19-27.
P 2425. H. 0.049; D. 0.247. Fragmentary; half of
medallion missing. K 20 (B). PAINTED WARE BOWL. Pls. 12, 87, 42.
Gritty, yellow-buff clay; dull, reddish glaze P 8099. H. 0.108; D. 0.282. Almost complete;
(partial). restored.
Deep bowl with small, flat base and oblique wall; Buff clay; dull, dark reddish to brownish glaze
the lip curves inward. At the center of the floor, sur- (partial).
rounded by two concentric grooves, an appliqu6 Shape as K 19. On the rim, a horizontal floral
medallion: lion crouching to r. On the floor, around pattern in white paint.
62 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

K 21 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1. 37. K 27 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1. 12.
P 2274.H. ca. 0.114; D. 0.239. Almostcomplete. P 3108. H. 0.114; D. 0.241. Almost complete;
Rather coarse, buff clay with grits; dull, purplish center of floormissing;restored.
brownto reddishglaze (partial). Coarse, gritty, buff clay; dull, reddish glaze
Shape as K 19; three deep concentric grooves at (partial),almost completelyworn away.
center of floor. On the rim, horizontalfloral pattern Shapeas K 26. The handlesaffixedas on K 22. On
in white paint; dots of white paint along top of rim. the rim, faint traces of decoration in white paint
(patternuncertain).
K 22 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1.12.
P 3102. H. ca. 0.109; D. 0.258. Almost complete. K 28 (D). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1. 12.
Buff to pinkish buff clay with grits; dull, reddish P 8496. H. rest. 0.182; D. rest. 0.396. Parts of
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

glaze (partial),fired black in part on exteriorof rim. wall and rim, including one handle, preserved;
Shape as K 19; grooves on floor as K 21. The restoredwith ring foot on the basis of smallerbowls
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horizontalhandlesare affixed to the rim at the ends with similarrims such as K 19-27.
and center only; between these points the handle Rather soft, orange-buff clay; dull, red glaze
stands away from the rim in two loops. On the rim, (partial),much worn.
decorationin white paint consistingof vertical floral Shape as K 26, but much larger; grooves on rim
patternsalternating and linked with spirals(rotating and handles as K 19. The handles are affixed as on
clockwise toward center). A similar pattern occurs K 22, with the addition, at the central point, of a
on AgoraP 4592, a deep bowl with free-movingring wide verticalloop handle,markedlongitudinallywith
handlelooped throughvertical handle (P1.37). five grooves.Onthe rim, tracesof decorationin white
K 23 PAINTED WAREBOWL. paint (spirals?).
(B).
P 3100. H. 0.124; D. 0.273. Almost complete; K 29 (B). BOWL. P1. 12.
restored. P 3096. H. 0.095; D. 0.22. Almostcomplete.
Buff clay with grits; dull, reddish glaze (partial), Orange-buffclay; dull, red glaze (partial).
fired black in part on exterior. Bowl similarto K 19-28, but with a pronounced,
Shape as K 19; two deep, concetric grooves at sharp flange at the base of the rim; on its outer
centerof floor. On the rim, in white paint, a band of surface the rim is convex and markedby a groove
"reversedS" pattern (cf. K 25). near top. No handles. No certain traces of painted
K 24 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1. 37.
decoration.
P 3098. H. ca. 0.135; D. 0.28. Almost complete. K 30
(B). BOWL.
Clay and glaze as K 23. P 3094.H. 0.102; D. 0.255.Fragmentary;restored.
Shape as K 19; grooves on floor as K 23. On the Gray-buffclay mottled gray-buffto purplishgray
rim, in white paint, a horizontal floral pattern; on interior; brownish black
verticalstripesof white on the handles. glaze (partial), much
worn.
K 25 (B). PAINTED WAREBOWL. P1. 37. As K 29. Probably had no handles. No traces of
P 8101. H. est. 0.135; D. 0.307. Fragmentary, painted decoration.
center of floor missing; foot fragmentdoes not join K 31
(B). BOWL. P1. 12.
body. P 3095. H. D. 0.322. restored.
0.135; Fragmentary;
Clay and glaze as K 23. Rather coarse, dark buff clay with grits; dull,
Shape as K 19; traces of one circulargroove at to black glaze (partial).
brown
center of floor. On the rim, in white paint, a band of
"reversed S" pattern (as on K 23). As K 29. No certain traces of painted decoration.

K 26 (D). PAINTED WAREBOWL. K 32 (B). BOWL, GOUGEDDECORATION. P1. 69.


P 8495. H. 0.116; D. 0.267. Almost complete; P 22372. P.H. 0.065; D. lip est. 0.82. Fragments
restored. of rim and wall only.
Pinkish buff clay with grits; dull, reddish glaze Orange-red clay with grits; dull, orange-red glaze,
(partial), fired brownish black in part on exterior of much worn.
rim. Shape, as far as preserved, as K 19. Grooves on
Shape as K 19, but there is a slight horizontal rim and on horizontal ribbon handle. On the rim,
flange at the base of the rim; grooves on floor as decoration in the form of a band of diagonal gouge
K 21. On the rim, in white paint, horizontal floral marks.
pattern, much worn, probably similar to that on Storage, Basin and Drain-fragments of two similar
K 21. bowls with gouged decoration; also fragments of a
GROUP K 68

large jug with high narrow neck and gouged de- Clayand glaze as K 36; the glaze firedbrownishon
coration(groupsof wavy diagonallines) on the body. upperpartof exterioras a resultof stackingin the kiln.
Comparenote to M 115. Shape as K 36.
K 33 (D). PAINTED WARE BOWL,INSCRIPTION.P1.57. K 38 (B). PLATE.
P 22383. P.H. 0.052; D. lip est. 0.125. Fragment P 22369. H. 0.046; D. 0.291. Almost complete;
of rim and wall only. restored.
Gray-buffclay with grits; brownishblack glaze, Gritty, buff clay; dull, purplish red glaze, fired
much worn. black on base and lower part of exterior.
From a smallbowl similarin profileto K 19; three Shapeas K 36.
groovesat top and one wide grooveat bottom of rim.
Probably had one vertical loop handle, grooved K 39 (B). PLATE.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

longitudinally (as do similar pieces from other con- P 2279.H. 0.045; D. 0.215. Fragmentary;restored.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

texts). On the rim, an inscription in white paint: Orange-buffclay; dull, reddishglaze.


[--L~o]ais f~i[--]; white dots on top of rim. The Shape as K 36.
inscription apparently executed by the same hand K 40 (D). PLATE.
as that on K 19. For the shape comparealso M 211.
P 22380. H. 0.027; D. rest. 0.16. Fragmentary;
Storage, Basin and Drain - fragments of several
similarbowls with paintedornamenton the rim. restored.
Soft, yellow-buff clay; dull, brownish red glaze
[K 34]. DEEP BOWL, RING HANDLES. P1.12. (partial).
P 13607.Deposit P 19:1 (firsthalf of 3rd century). Shape as K 36.
H. 0.166; D. 0.274. Almost complete. K 41 (B). PLATE. P1.69.
Reddishbuffclay; dull,redglaze,unevenlyapplied.
P 22375. H. 0.037; D. est. 0.295. Two non-joining
Plump-bodiedbowl with flat floor and false ring of floor and wall; center of floor missing.
foot; the wall, roundedin the lower half, contracts fragments
at the top to an everted, horizontallip. Grooveson Orange-buff clay with grits; dull, orange-redglaze
the top of the lip and at intervals aroundthe body. (partial).
Threevertical band handles,each markedby a single K 42 (B). BOWL. P1.69.
longitudinalgroove; througheach handle is attached P 3093. H. 0.052; D. 0.12. Almost complete;
a free-moving ring handle (D. 0.057), similarly restored.
grooved. Rather soft, yellow-buffclay; dull, reddishbrown
Storage, Drain--a ring handle from a bowl such glaze (partial).
as P 18607. Bowl similarto K 19-26, but smaller;no handles.
K 35 (D). PLATE. P1.69. Groove at top of rim.
P 8506. H. 0.045; D. 0.224. Almost complete. Storage, Basin and Drain - fragments of three
bowls similar to K 42-45.
Coarse,rathersoft, buff clay; dull, black to reddish
brownglaze (partial). K 43 (D). BOWL. P1. 12.
A plate with flat floorreminiscentof the Pergamene P 8497. H. 0.046; D. 0.119. Almost complete;
plate F 3. restored.
Storage, Basin and Drain-fragments of at least Clay, glaze and shape as K 42.
six plates of similarshape but of smallersize.
K 44 (D). BOWL. P1. 12.
K 36 (B). PLATE. P1.69. P 8498. H. 0.055; D. 0.118. Intact.
P 8062. H. 0.049; D. 0.279. Fragmentary; restored. Clay, glaze and shape as K 42.
Rather soft, gritty, orange-red clay; dull, reddish
to reddish orange glaze. Fabric and glaze very similar K 45 (D). BOWL.
to those of K 18. P 8504. H. rest. 0.05; D. 0.11. Foot missing;
Shape as J 33. restored.
Storage, Basin and Drain-fragments of many Hard, brownish buff clay; dull, dark brown glaze
plates similar to K 36-40, ranging in diameter (partial).
between 0.29 and 0.16. The plates are generally Shape as K 42, but the rim tilts inward.
warped in firing so that dimensions vary at different
points of the circumference. K 46 (D). BOWL. P1. 12.
P 8494. H. 0.052; D. 0.108. Fragmentary; restored.
K 37 (B). PLATE.
Gray-buff clay; dull, black glaze (partial).
P 8061. H. 0.046; D. 0.285. Fragmentary; restored. Shape as K 29-31, but much smaller.
64 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

K 47 (D). BOWL. Pl. 12. K 54 (D). CuP. P1. 13.


P 8493. H. 0.041; D. 0.084. Intact. P 8491. H. 0.052; D. 0.076. Complete.
Rather coarse,buff clay; dull, reddishglaze. Base Rather soft, buff clay; dull, brownishbuff glaze
left roughfrom the wheel. (partial).
Smallbowlwith flaringwall and flat base; vertical, Cup with flat base, roundedwall and evertedlip.
flangedrim. Two grooves around body at point of maximum
diameter.CompareM 143-144.
K 48 (B). BOWL. P1. 69.
Storage, Basin and Drain--fragments of three
P 3068.H. 0.055; D. 0.225. Fragmentary;restored. similar
cups, two of which are larger than K 54
Buff clay with grits; dull, dark reddish glaze
(D. 0.12 and 0.14).
(partial).Carelesslymade and irregular.
Shallow bowl on ring foot; everted lip. Two K 55
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

concentricgroovesat center of floor. (B). Cup. P1. 13.


P 2275. H. 0.043; D. 0.079. Almost complete;
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

A smaller version of this shape occurs in other


restored.
contemporarycontexts, as [L 2]. Reddish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze. Base left
K 49 (D). BOWL. rough from the wheel.
P 8505.H. 0.058; D. 0.213.Fragmentary;restored. Shape as K 54, but body is angular rather than
Hard, rather coarse, gray-buff clay, mottled to rounded.
purplish gray on interior; dull, black to purplish
black glaze (partial). K 56 (B). CuP. P1.13.
Shape as K 48. P 22378. H. 0.039; D. est. 0.08. Fragmentary.
Buff clay; dull, black glaze. Base left rough from
K 50 (D). BOWL. P1. 69. the wheel.
P 22382. H. 0.043; D. est. 0.26. Two non-joining
Cupwith oblique wall and flat base; high vertical
fragments preserve the complete profile except for rim. Grooveon exteriorbelow lip.
center of floor.
Reddish buff clay; dull, dark red glaze, fired
K 57 (D). Cup. P1. 13.
brownishred on exterior.
P 22390. H. 0.04; D. est. 0.11. Fragmentary.
K 51 (B). BOWL. P1. 13. Soft, yellowishbuff clay. Base left roughfrom the
P 3069. H. 0.05; D. 0.086. Fragmentary;restored. wheel.
Buff clay, thin fabric; dull, reddish glaze, fired Cup with flaring wall and flat base; vertical lip.
black on exterior of rim.
Round-bodiedbowl on ring foot; plain lip. K 58 (B). Juo, PAINTED INSCRIPTION (2) P1. 13.
K 52 (D). Cup. P H. D.
22377. 0.104; 0.092. Fragmentary,handle
P1. 13.
P 8492. H. 0.069; D. 0.072. Intact except for small missing; restored.
Buff to reddish buff clay; dull, brown to reddish
hole in wall.
brownglaze (partial).
Rather soft, buff clay; dull, purplish to black Globularjug on small ring foot; the rim flaresout
glaze. to a plain lip. Body lightly wheel-ridged. There
Ovoid body on small, conical foot with flat base. to be traces of a painted inscriptionaround
One groove at lip and two at point of maximum appear the body: [-
diameter.No handles. [- -].
For other-]1p"
"niotto jugs" see M 145-148, M 190.
This shape is apparentlya revival of a Hellenistic
Suchjugs normallyhave a smoothbody and a groove
skyphos shape as seen in P 18707 (P1. 39 - Deposit on the
M 21:1- late 3rd to early 2nd century B.C.). Compare
resting surfaceof the foot (suchas occursalso
on K 59).
H 14, K M 162.
53,
K 53 (D). CuP. P1. 13. K 59 (B).
PAINTED WAREJUG. P1. 13.
P 22389. H. 0.075; D. rest. 0.18. Fragmentary; P 8071. H. 0.143; D. 0.126. Fragmentary, handle
restored. missing; restored.
Rather coarse, gray-buff clay with streaks of Rather coarse, buff clay; dull, purplish black glaze
purplish gray; dull, brownish black glaze, much worn. (partial).
Cup on high ring foot; floor slightly concave; wall Globularjug on flat base, groove on resting surface.
rounded and terminates in high, flaring rim; two Vertical rim marked by two grooves at juncture with
grooves at base of rim on exterior. body. On the body, spirals executed in white paint,
This shape is apparentlya revival of a Hellenistic apparently rotating alternately clockwise and coun-
Compare H 14, K 52, M 162. terclockwise toward center.
cup as D 5 and E 3388.
GROUP K 65

K 60 (D). PAINTED WAREJUG. P1. 87. [K 67]. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 18.
P 22391. P.H. 0.082; D. est. 0.145. Fragmentary; P 9402. Deposit J 18:2 (firsthalf of 3rd century).
foot and lower body missing. H. 0.162; D. 0.118. Intact except for front of lip;
Pinkish buff clay; dull, reddishglaze. restored.
Shape as K 59 as far as preserved;sliced handle. Soft, yellow-buffclay; dull, brownishglaze (par-
Decorationin white paint: on the body, horizontal tial), much worn.
floralpattern; on the handle, horizontalstripes. Globularbody on small, high ring foot; broad,
grooved handle. Three grooves at juncture of neck
K 61 (D). PAINTED WAREJUG. P1.37. and body, anotherat b.a.h.
P 8490. H. 0.073; D. 0.065. Intact except for Storage,Basin and Drain--fragmentsof two jugs
handle, which is restored. apparentlysimilarto P 9402.
Buff clay; dull, purplishglaze (partial); base left
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rough from the wheel. K 68 (B). AMPHORA. P1. 13.


Globularbody on low, flat base; vertical rim set
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 3072.H. 0.255;D. 0.17. Fragmentary,one handle


off from body by a ridge. Decorationin white paint restored.
on the body: linked spirals rotating alternately missing; dark buff
clockwise and counterclockwise toward center. Hard, clay; reddish brown glaze (par-
tial).
Comparethe shape of J 10. Ovoidbody on ring foot; everted,rolledlip; ridged
K 62 (D). JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 13. handles. Two grooves at t.a.h., three at juncture of
P 8507. H. 0.118; D. 0.102. Almost complete; neck and body, one at b.a.h. CompareJ 48, L 3.
restored.
Buff clay, self-slip; dull, black glaze (partial). K 69 (D). MINIATUREJUG, TREFOILMOUTH P1.13.
Globular,wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot. Flaring P 8488. H. rest. 0.08; D. 0.062. Handle and part
rim set off from body by heavy ridges. Sliced handle. of lip missing; restored.
CompareJ 20-21. Rather soft, yellow-buff clay with grits; dull,
Storage,Basin and Drain-fragments of numerous brown glaze. The base left roughfrom the wheel.
similarjugs. Plump, piriform,wheel-ridgedbody with flat base;
trefoil mouth.
K 63 (D). JuG, ROUND MOUTH. For other miniaturevases see H 14.
P 8508. H. 0.14; D. 0.121. Almost complete; Storage, Basin and Drain--fragments of six or
restored. more other miniature vessels: a trefoil mouth jug,
Rather soft, coarse, buff clay; dull, reddish glaze jars as K 71, etc.
(partial).
As K 62; groove on resting surfaceof foot. K 70 (D). MINIATUREJUG, TREFOILMOUTH P1. 13.
P 8489. H. rest. 0.069; D. 0.07. Part of lip missing;
K 64 (D). JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.13. restored.
P 8510. H. 0.125; D. 0.099. Fragmentary,handle Rather soft, gritty, pinkishbuff clay; dull, brown-
missing; restored. ish black glaze, much worn. The base left rough
Rathercoarse,soft, pinkish-buffclay; dull, reddish from the wheel.
brownglaze (partial),much worn. As K 69, but the point of maximum diameteris
As K 62-63, but the body is ovoid and the ridges much
higheron the body.
at the base of the rim are more pronounced.
K 65 (D). JUG, ROUND MOUTH. K 71 (D). MINIATURE JAR. P1. 13.
P1.13.
P 8509. H. rest. 0.14; D. 0.11. Fragmentary, handle P 8517. H. 0.093; D. 0.054. The lip is chipped.
and lip missing; restored. Rather soft, gritty, pinkish buff clay; partly
Rather soft, buff clay with grits; dull, brownish blackened by fire. The base left roughfromthe wheel.
glaze (partial). Ovoid, wheel-ridged body taperingto a small, flat
J
Shape as 35 and M 165; compareL 4. base; plain lip. No handles. CompareM 116.

K 66 (B). JuG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 18. K 72 (B). MINIATURE JAR. PI. 18.
P 22371. P.H. 0.082; D. lip 0.055. Fragmentary, P 2424. P.H. 0.059; D. 0.059. Top of neck missing.
foot and most of body missing; partly restored. Rather soft, yellowish buff clay; dull, brown to
Fine, soft, pinkish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze. black glaze inside and out, much worn.
From a jug with sloping shoulder; high neck, Round, wheel-ridged body on flat base; the body
swelling toward the lip. Small everted lip, undercut indented at four points (cf. G 42, H 2, J 69). Wide
on exterior. Ridged handle. neck, with two horizontal grooves. No handles.
6
66 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

[K 73]. MINIATURE POT, BASKET HANDLE. P1.18. ment of the jug handle (apparentlyunpublished;the
P 14920. Deposit N 17:1 (middleof 3rd century). number169 is written on the fragment;P.H. 0.095).
H. 0.058; Max. W. at lip 0.087. Complete.
Gritty, buff clay; self-slip. COARSE. HOUSEHOLD WARES
Smallpot with flat bottom, roundedwall and plain
K 78 (B). BASIN. P1.13.
lip. The lip and body indented at two points by the
attachments of a basket handle (the lip as a result P 3108. H. ca. 0.255; D. ca. 0.284. Fragmentary;
is oval in plan). The handle grooved longitudinally; restored.
pairs of horizontalgrooveson body below lip and at Gritty, micaceous, reddish buff clay; thin, dull,
mid-point. reddishglaze on interior.Thin fabric.
Storage, Drain-fragments of a pot similar to Flat base; high, oblique wall; plain, everted rim,
P 14920. Glazedas well as non-glazedspecimensof flat on top. Body wheel-ridged.It is unlikely that
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

this shape occur in other 3rd century contexts (as this basin or K 79-80 had handles. CompareG 187.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

AgoraP 13369, 13370,from Deposit S 19 :1). Storage,Drain-fragments of many basins similar


to K 78-80.
K 74 (D). SMALL POT. P1.18.
P 8518. H. 0.11; D. 0.069. Fragmentary;restored. K 79 (B). BASIN. P1. 13.
Rather soft, orange-buffclay. P 3107. H. ca. 0.255; Max. W. at lip rest. 0.325;
Piriform body on flat base; the neck terminates Min.W. at lip rest. 0.28. Half of rim and part of body
in a slightly flaring,thickenedlip. No handles. missing; restored.
Slightly micaceous,reddish clay with grits; thin,
K 75 (B). LIQUEUR CUP. P1. 13. dull, reddishglaze on interior.
P 2423. H. 0.04; D. 0.047. Tip of handle missing; As K 78 but less carefully made and so warped
restored. that the lip is oval in plan.
Rather coarse,buff clay. Base left roughfrom the
wheel. K 80 (B). BASIN. P1. 14.
Cup with flat base, concavewall profileand plain P 3109. H. ca. 0.106; D. 0.355. Fragmentary;
lip. Small, pierced lug handle projects horizontally restored.
near the base. CompareL 56, M 117 and the liqueur Light reddishclay with grits.
cups with high-set handle as G 215 and J 38. Flat base; low, oblique wall; everted lip, flat on
Storage, Basin-fragments of at least three more top and slopingdown to exterior.Body wheel-ridged.
similarcups.
K 81 (B). BASIN. P1. 13.
K 76 (D). CLAY STAND (?). P1. 50. P 2422. H. 0.245; D. 0.265. Complete.
MC905. H. 0.065; W. rest. 0.052. Incomplete;full Rather gritty, reddish clay, fired yellow-buff at
height preserved;restored. surfaceon exterior.
Buff to reddishbuff clay; dull, brownishred glaze. Similar to K 78-79, but the wall is constricted
A stand (?) of semicircularplan with three small belowthe mid-point;the rim, curvedon top, projects
knobs projecting from the lip. On the exterior, both to interior and to exterior.Body wheel-ridged.
groovesat top and bottom of the wall. Therestoration Two horizontal ribbon handles applied below the
is based upon MC 603, a complete specimenfrom a rim and pressed up at center so as to touch under-
late 2nd centurylevel in Deposit 8 21:3. surfaceof rim.
K 77 (B). PLASTIC VASEFRAGMENT. P1. 13. K 82 (B). JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 14.
P 22874. P.H. 0.06; W. at mouth 0.044. Mouthof P 2278. H. 0.20; D. 0.129. Almost complete;
vase and part of left side of head preserved. restored.
Brownish buff clay; thin, brownish black glaze Yellowish buff clay with grits, self-slip.
with faint metallic luster. Made in a two-part mould, Ovoid body on ring foot; neck set off from shoulder
the seams extending vertically through the face and at an angle. Everted lip with groove on inner edge.
the back of the skull.
Handle, grooved longitudinally, rises above lip and
Possibly from a small jug in the form of a negroid is attached behind lip, indenting the latter slightly.
(?) head with curly hair. The round mouth and lip One groove at b.a.h., two at mid-point of neck and
of the vase project from the top of the skull. It is three at juncture of neck and shoulder. Body lightly
equally possible that the piece comes from the plastic wheel-ridged. Compare G 189.
neck of a large wheelmade jug; in the British Mu-
seum there is a neck fragment of such a jug, moulded K 83 (B). JuG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 14.
into the form of a male head very similar to K 77-at P 2420. H. 0.188; D. 0.186. Fragmentary; restored.
the back of the head are traces of the upper attach- Buff clay with grits, self-slip.
GROUP K 67

As K 82, but the body is plumper and the neck K 91 (B). COOKINGDISH.
shorter. P 22379. H. ca. 0.055; D. rest. 0.27. Fragmentary;
Storage, Basin-fragments of anotherjug similar restored.
to K 83 but with less angularity in the juncture of Coarse,reddishbrown clay with grits.
neck and shoulder(cf. M 168). Flat-bottomeddish as K 89-90.
Storage,Drain-fragments of severaldishessimilar
K 84 (D). AMPHORA. P1. 14. to K 89-91.
P 8511. P.H. 0.125; D. 0.186. Neck and handles
missing. K 92 (B). COOKINGPOT. P1. 14.
Soft, gray-buffclay with grits. P 2421. H. 0.142; D. 0.143. Almost complete; re-
Globularbody on ring foot; two vertical handles stored.
fromthe shoulder.Threegroovesaroundthe shoulder.
Coarse,gritty, dark reddish clay, fired gray-black
Body wheel-ridged.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

at surface.
K 85 (D). CYLINDRICAL AMPHORA. Pl. 14. Deep, round-bottomedpot with evertedrim which
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 8519. H. rest. 0.247; D. 0.122. Lip missing; a slopes up to the exterior. Below lip, two small,
hole in the shoulder;restored. vertical handles.Body wheel-ridged.
Buff clay, fired red on interior surface; self-slip.
Almost cylindricalbody, constrictedat bottom to K 93 (D). COOKINGPOT. P1. 14.
a false ring foot; narrow,flaringneck; sliced handles. P 22385.H. rest. 0.10; D. rest. 0.187.Fragmentary,
center of base and one handle missing; restored.
Body and shoulderwheel-ridged.CompareJ 49, L 52.
Storage, Drain-fragments of another similar Coarse, brownishclay with white grits.
amphora. Shape J 57; flattenedbase; evertedrim, sloping
as
up to exterior and designed for a lid. Two small,
K 86 (D). LID. Pl. 14. vertical handles
applied under lip. K 107 may rep-
P 22392. H. 0.043; D. 0.129. Fragmentary; re- resent a lid for this pot.
stored. Storage,Drain-fragments of severalsimilarpots.
Buff to pinkishbuff clay, self-slip.
Conicallid with plain lip and round knob, flat on K 94 (D). COOKING POT. P1. 14.
top. Top of knob left rough from the wheel. P 22387. P.H. 0.184; D. 0.239. Fragmentary,base
K 87 (D). LID. P1. 14.
missing; partly restored.
Coarse,gritty, brownishred clay, firedgray at core.
P 22393. H. 0.024; D. 0.059. Intact.
Rounded, apparentlyovoid body; wide, low neck
Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay. with slightly everted rim; ledge for lid on interiorof
As K 86 but smaller. rim. No handles.
K 88 (D). LID. P1. 14.
K 95 (D). COOKINGPOT. P1. 14.
P 22394. H. 0.035; D. 0.067. Fragmentary; re-
stored. P 8515. H. 0.08; D. 0.132. Intact.
Orange-buffclay. Coarse,gritty, reddish brown clay, blackenedby
fire on base.
Dome-shapedlid with plain lip and round knob,
flat on top. Round-bottomed pot with small, everted rim,
sloping up to exterior.No handles.
Storage, Drain, coarse wares-fragments of an Storage,Drain-fragments of anothersimilarpot.
amphorasimilarto M 174 and of severalone-handled
jars of red or black micaceous ware as [J 46] and K 96 (D). COOKING POT. P1. 14.
J 47. P 8516. H. 0.08; D. rest. 0.143. Fragmentary;
restored.
COOKING WARES
Coarse, gritty, dark reddish clay, fired gray-black
K 89 (B). COOKINaDISH. P1. 72. at the surface.
P 8110. H. 0.068; D. 0.81. Fragmentary; restored. Shape as K 95.
Very coarse, gritty, brownish gray clay; thick
fabric.
K 97 (B). COOKINGPOT. P1. 14.
Plat-bottomed dish with everted rim; no handles. P 3113. H. 0.069; D. 0.068. Almost complete; re-
stored.
Compare J 22.
Hard, gritty, dark reddish brown clay, fired gray-
K 90 (B). COOKING DISH. P1. 14. brown at surface.
P 8111. H. 0.055; D. 0.248. Fragmentary; restored. Deep, round-bottomed pot with small, everted rim;
Clay and shape as K 89. body wheel-ridged. No handles.
5*
68 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

K98(D).COOKING
POT. LARGE STORAGEVESSELS, ETC.
P 8514. H. 0.073; D. rest. 0.075. Fragmentary; K 108 (B). AMPHORA.
restored. P1. 15.
P 8106.H. 0.475; D. 0.368.Fragmentary;restored.
Gritty, reddishclay.
Shape as K 97. Gritty, orange-redclay; buff slip.
Plump,round-bottomedamphora(thebaseslightly
K 99 (B). COOKINGPOT. P1. 14. flattenedso that the vesselwill stand erect); point of
P 2276. H. 0.074; D. 0.07. Almost complete; re- maximum diameter below middle. Low neck with
stored. rounded lip; small, crudely made ring handles at
lower part of shoulder. Shoulder and body wheel-
Hard, gritty, reddishbrownclay; self-slip.
Shape as K 97. ridged. No painted decoration.
CompareM 104 and M 273; also the much later
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

K 100 (B). COOKINGPOT. amphoraeM 329331, which are of the same shape
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 3112.H. 0.074; D. 0.076. Fragmentary;restored. and fabric as K 108 but are of less careful workman-
Clayand shape as K 97. ship and have decorationin white paint on the body.

K 101 COOKINGPOT.
(B). P1. 14. K 109 (B). AMPHORA. P1. 15.
P 22870. H. 0.086; D. 0.09. Intact. P 8104. H. 0.613; D. 0.275. Almost complete;
restored.
Clayas K 99; shape as K 97.
Reddish clay with white grits, white slip.
K 102 (B). COOKINGPOT. Tall, funnel-shapedbody with almost horizontal
P 2277. H. 0.089; D. 0.104. Almost complete;re- shoulder and narrow neck; heavy, thickened lip.
stored. Heavy handles, each with a single, broad, longitudi-
Clayand shape as K 97. nal groove.The bottom of the toe is slightly concave;
the fabric in the toe is no thicker than in any other
K 103 (B). COOKING POT. P1. 14. part of the vessel.
P 8114. H. 0.094; D. 0.108. Intact.
K 110 (B). AMPHORA.
Clayand shape as K 97.
P 8105. H. 0.613; D. 0.268. Almost complete;
K 104 (D). COOKINGPOT. restored.
P 8513. H. 0.095; D. 0.106. Intact. Clay,slip and shape as K 109.
Gritty, brownishclay; shape as K 97.
[K 111. AMPHORA. P1. 15.
K 105 (D). COOKINGPOT. P 14078.Deposit P 18 :2 (firsthalf of 3rd century).
P 8512. H. 0.096; D. 0.104. Intact. P.H. 0.635; D. 0.345. Fragmentary,toe and one
Clay and shape as K 97.
handle missing; partly restored.
Coarse, dark reddish clay with grits; brownish
K 106 (B). JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1. 14. red slip.
P 3070.H.0.14; D. 0.11.Almostcomplete;restored. Ovoid body tapering to a pointed toe. Narrow
Rather coarse, reddish clay with grits. Base neck with thickened lip; heavy handles, each with
blackenedby fire. single, broad,longitudinalgroove (as in K 109-110).
Globular,wheel-ridgedbody with flattened base; Storage,Drain-fragments of threeor fourampho-
evertedlip; sliced handle, appliedunderlip. rae similarto P 14078.
Storage, Drain-fragments of seven similarjugs, [K 112]. AMPHORA, DIPINTO. P1. 15.
size.
several of slightly larger
P 14115. Deposit 0 19:1 (early 4th century).
K 107 (D). LID. P1. 14. H. 0.583; D. 0.285. Fragmentary; restored.
P 22886. H. 0.065; D. rest. 0.16. Fragmentary; Buff to gray-buff clay, self-slip.
restored. Cylindrical body with rounded bottom and shoul-
der. Narrow neck with flaring, rounded lip. Body,
Coarse, gritty, brownish clay.
Conical lid with plain lip and round knob, flattened base and lower part of shoulder wheel-ridged. Faint
traces of an illegible inscription in black paint were
on top. Possibly used as lid for K 93.
visible on the shoulder at the time of discovery.
Storage, Drain-fragments of numerous similar
lids. Storage, Drain-fragments of some nine amphorae
similar to P 14115. The shape is probably a 3rd
Storage, Drain, cooking ware--fragments of several century descendant of the common 1st and 2nd
cooking pots similar to J 55, in both small and large century type illustrated in G 197 and H 20; compare
sizes. also M 53 and Ml102.
GROUP K 69

[K 113]. AMPHORA. P1. 15. contexts) bearing graffito dates equated with years
P 12882.DepositP 18 :2 (firsthalf of 3rd century). between A.D. 98 and 137 (ibid.,nos. 27-85).
P.H. 0.575; D. 0.234. Toe missing;otherwiseintact. K 116 (B). AMPHORAFRAGMENT,STAMPED. P1. 86.
Coarse, gritty, orange-buff to brick-red clay;
mastic. SS 1865.P.H. 0.215; D. lip 0.118. Neck, one handle
Pointed body (originally with tubular toe) and and part of shoulderpreserved.
high, wheel-ridgedneck. Thickenedlip; sharp, hori- Gritty, reddishclay; yellow-buffslip.
zontal flange just below lip. Heavy, ridged handles. From an amphorawith wide neck, taperingto a
thickened lip, flat on top. Heavy handles, oval in
CompareL 33, M 237, M 274, M 303 and a smaller section. Below the lip, a stamp, incuse: CTCAT.
example from Deposit I 16:1, P 822 (P1.73, profile Mrs. Elizabeth Lyding Will, who is preparinga
of toe).
study of the wine jars bearingLatin stamps found in
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Storage, Drain-fragments of four amphorae the Agora excavations, considersthis and K 117 to
similar to P 12882, but slightly larger.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

be from amphoraeof the same shape, a type of the


late 2nd and early3rdcenturyfoundin largenumbers
[K 114]. AMPHORA. P1. 15.
P 7668. Deposit B 12:1 (firsthalf of 3rd century). at Ostia and in Franceand Spain. They are probably
H. 0.66; D. 0.828. Intact except for small hole of Spanishmanufacture.
near base. K 117 (D). AMPHORAFRAGMENT,STAMPED. P1. 36.
Coarse,gray to greenishbuff clay with grits; self- SS 6817. Max. dim. 0.096. Fragmentof neck (?).
slip. Gritty, orange-redclay; buff slip.
Elongated, ovoid body on small ring foot with Rectangularstamp, incuse: DO (leaf) N IAS (leaf-
conicallyhollowbase. Tall,narrowneck with rounded stem) VL. CompareC.I.L., XV, 2, 1, 3390, g (also
lip. Wide strap handles,longitudinallygrooved. incuse, on neck).Apparentlya productof the Figlinae
Storage, Drain-fragments of at least three Asuleianenses.See note to K 116.
amphoraesimilar to P 7668, all of gritty clay.
K 118 (D). AMPHORAHANDLE,STAMPED. P1. 36.
K 115 (D). AMPHORATOE. P1. 14. SS 6614. Max. dim. 0.122. Handle only preserved.
P 22384. P.H. 0.10; Max. dim. 0.185. Toe and part Reddish buff clay, buff slip.
of body preservedin single fragment. The handle is round in section; near the top, a
Coarse,orange-redclay with grits. stamp: EYC.
A short, pointed toe projecting from a rounded
bottom. Six heavy ridges around the upper part of K 119 (B). LID. P1. 14.
the toe. P 22376. H. 0.032; D. 0.091. Intact.
Storage, Drain-fragments of neck and handles Coarse,greenishgray clay with grits.
which may belong to K 115. Several similar neck Small lid (for amphora?) consisting of a circular
fragmentsfromother depositshave been inventoried, disc of clay; at the centerof the top surfacethe clay
but in no case is the body preserved below the has been pinched up to form a crude handle.
shoulder; one such fragment is P 21330 (P1. 40), Storage,Basin--fragments of two similarlids.
which comes from a filling of the early 3rd century: K 120
(D). STOPPER(?). P1. 14.
P.H. 0.310; D. lip 0.175. Coarse,orange-redclay
P 22395. H. 0.041; D. 0.057. Intact.
with grits.
Rather soft, orange-buffclay.
Wide, heavy neck, taperingto the top; thickened A short, cylindrical shaft, partly hollow, termina-
lip, flat on top. Handlesroundin section and grooved
on the outer surface. Two
ting in a small, flat, round disc. Perhaps used as a
longitudinally deep grooves
below the lip; the body below the handles wheel- stopper in the neck of an amphora.
ridged. Below one handle, a graffito, PAE, i.e. 186 Storage, Drain, large storage vessels--neck of an
(= A.D. 106). This fragment has been published by amphora similar to G 199 and fragments of the wall
Miss Mabel Lang (Dated Jars, no. 29) along with a and floor (?) of a brazier similar to P 14122 (cited
series of similar necks (many found in 3rd century under G 123; see P1. 88).

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

K 121 (D). LAMP. P1. 45. Rim: raised dots and side panels. Discus: Eros,
L 4954. Max. dim. 0.094. Fragmentof discus and winged, facing, holding torch turned down by his
rim. right side. CompareBroneer,Lamps,nos. 1115, 1120,
Soft, gray-buffclay. pl. XV. Perlzweig.
70 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

K 122 (D). LAMP, SIGNED. P1.45. K 129 (B). LAMP. P1.45.


L 2651. L. 0.091; W. 0.076; H. 0.029. Intact. L 1105. L. 0.099; W. 0.078; H. 0.037. Intact.
Soft, pinkish buff clay. Buff clay.
Rim: vine leaves and grape clusters. Discus: fine Rim: ovules and side panels (in outlined relief).
rays. Handle: pierced, grooved above and below. Discus:rosette.Handle:pierced,groovedaboveonly.
Base: ridge surroundingsignature in relief, TlI[--] Base: two concentricridges.Perlzweig.
(? retrograde).CompareBroneer, Lamps, no. 570, K 130 (B). LAMP.
pl. XI. Perlzweig.
L 1257. Max. dim. 0.053. Fragmentof discus.
K 123 (D). LAMP. Buff clay.
L 2652. L. 0.105; W. 0.077; H. 0.034. Base and Discus: crescent(cf. J 66) surroundedby rosettes,
of which two are partially preserved.Traces of five
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

part of body missing.


Very soft, yellow-buffclay. small fillingholes. Perlzweig.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

As K 122. Perlzweig.
Storage, Basin and Drain- fragments of some [K 131].LAMP. P1. 45.
fifteen similar lamps, on one of which the handle L 4217. From a fill of the first half of the 3rd
is not completelypierced. century.
L. rest. 0.154; W. 0.082; H. 0.04. One nozzle
K 124 (B). LAMP. P1. 45. missing; restored.
L 1245. P.L. 0.109; P.W. 0.096. Nozzle, base and Soft, pale buff clay.
much of body missing; partly restored. Rim markedby groovesand by two raised knobs
Pale buff clay. at base of each nozzle. Two nozzles. Verticalhandle
Rim: vine leaves and grape clusters. Discus: fine (piercedand grooved) rises from the discus. Base:
rays. Handle: pierced, grooved above and below. circularridges.Perlzweig.
Perlzweig. Storage, Basin and Drain-fragments of three
similarlamps.
K 125 (B). LAMP, SIGNED.
L 1104. P.L. 0.083; W. 0.066;H. 0.032. Nozzle and [K 132]. LAMP,SIGNED. P1. 45.
of
part body missing. L 338846. Deposit N 20:3 (middle of 3rd century).
Softandfriablebuffclay.Froma muchwornmould. L. rest. 0.139; W. 0.082; H. 0.035. Half of rim and
As K 122, but the rim is slightly convex. Base: part of one nozzle missing; restored.
circulargroove, effaced signature, Tp J6pov Rather soft, buff clay.
(readingof MissJudith Perlzweig).Perlzweig.
'E.!rrq Rim: small ovules close to discus and volute
ornaments (cf. stamp on K 10) at sides; a volute
K 126 (B). LAMP, SIGNED. Pl. 45. ornament flanked
by rosettes at the base of each
L 1106.L. 0.108;W. 0.083;H. 0.032.Intact. nozzle. Two nozzles. Vertical handle (pierced and
Rather soft, yellow-buffclay. grooved) rises from the discus. Base: oval; two
Rim: rosettes and flowers(2) separatedby raised grooves and faint traces of an incised signature.
dots. Discus: fine rays. Handle: pierced, grooved Perlzweig.
above and below. Base: relief signaturewithin three Storage,Drain-fragments of a similarlamp.
circulargrooves,cDihopIofaov (retrograde).Perlzweig.
Storage, Basin and Drain, lamps-fragments of:
K 127 (D). LAMP. P1.45. lamps of Broneer'stypes XXVII and XXVIII, in-
L 4955. Max. dim. 0.069. Two non-joiningfrag- cluding some similar to Broneer, Lamps, nos. 800,
ments preservehandle and part of rim and discus. 908, 911 (pl. XIII); plastic lamp as J 24. No frag-
Soft, yellow-buff clay. ments of lamps of Broneer's types XX, XXIV or
Rim: rosettes interlaced by double wave lines. XXV occur in Group K; only one of the type
Discus: fine rays. Handle: pierced, grooved above XXVII-XXVIII handles is not completely pierced
and below. Perlzweig. (see under K 123).
K 128 (B). LAMP. P1. 45. K 133 (B). TERRACOTTA FIGURINE. P1. 48.
L 1246. L. rest. 0.189; W. rest. 0.115; H. 0.044. T 3020. P.H. 0.072; P.W. 0.042. Head, both arms
Nozzle and parts of body missing; partly restored. and right leg missing.
Rather soft, gray-buff clay. From a worn mould. Hard, dark buff clay; dull, brownish black glaze,
Rim: small ovules and side panels. Discus: large much worn. Made in two-part mould, the vertical
rosette. Handle: pierced, grooved above and below; seams extending up the sides.
small leaf at base of handle. Base: two concentric Small boy with plump body, nude. Arms extended,
ridges. Perlzweig. Grandjousn.
GROUP K 71

K 134 (B). TERRACOTTA


FIGURINE. in severalanimalfigurineswhichhave been preserved
P1. 48.
T 485. P.H. 0.08; P.W. 0.064. Single fragment, intact in other contemporarydeposits). Grandjouan.
brokenall around. Storage, Basin - two joining fragments of a
Slightly gritty, buff clay; traces of white paint on figurinecast
from the same mould as T 1510.
drapery.
A draped female figure, of which the left breast K 139 (D). TERRACOTTABRACKET. P1. 49.
and shoulder are preserved. The drapery is parted A 678. H. rest. 0.208; W. at top rest. 0.182; W. at
over the breast; the right hand holds the teat out bottom 0.125. Top and part of both sides missing;
to a small child, held in the woman's UIt arm. restored.Enough preservedto assurethe restoration
Grandjouan. almost to the top; original height cannot be ascer-
tained accurately, and nothing has been added to
K 135 (D). TERRACOTTAFIGURINE. P1.48. the height in the restoration.Muchof the back edge
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

T 1277. P.H. 0.059; P.W. 0.042. Head and neck is preservedboth at top and bottom.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

only preserved. Rather soft, yellowishbuff clay, firedpink in part.


Rather soft, buff clay; traces of red paint on the Probably once painted, as was a fragmentary
face and of black (2) on the hair. bracket of similar type, T 442, which shows traces
Female head crowned by a tightly rolled braid of red and white paint on the hair.
(or wreath?); in front the locks of hair are combed A console-typebracket, made from a mould. On
to the sides from a central part; on the back of the the front, beardless face of Dionysos with fillet
head, a seriesof punchmarksin a spiralline, perhaps around forehead,bunches of berriesat the temples,
indicating some form of hair-net; the punch marks clusters of grapes before each ear and a heavy
were added after the head was removed from the necklace about the neck; the face is supported on
mould. Grandjouan. three inverted leaves and is framed between two
projecting consoles (grooved on face but plain on
K 136 (B). TERRACOTTA MASK. sides); a simple, cornice-like moulding projects above
T 478. H. 0.27; W. 0.207; Th. (front to back) and formsthe transitionto the flat top of the bracket.
0.108. Part of mouth and hair missing; restored. This probablyformeda pair with K 140.
Fine, hard, pinkish buff clay, the exterior surface
burnished;a finished edge is preserved around the K 140(D). TERRACOTTA BRACKET.
back. Tracesof white paint. A 679. Max. dim. 0.084. Fragmentfrom the leaf-
Male mask of comic type. The eyes and mouth terminationof the bracket.
are pierced. Two small holes at the nostrils; a small Rather soft, pinkish buff clay.
hole just above and in front of each ear; a similar From a bracketas K 139, with which it probably
hole at top of head. Grandjouan. formeda pair.
Published: Hesperia, IV, 1935, p. 337, fig. 25; Among the inventoried objects in the Agora
A.J.A., XXXVII, 1933, p. 548, fig. 8. collectionare seven other similarbrackets,in some of
which the top surface is much better preserved.In
K 137 (B). TERRACOTTA MASK. P1.48. none is there any trace of holes to aid in the attach-
T 484. Max. dim. 0.112; P.H. 0.092. Single ment of the bracketto the wall; they werepresumably
fragmentfrom upperright side of mask; the original imbeddedin the wall plasterand served a decorative
edge is preservedin part at the back. purposeonly.
Soft, slightly gritty, yellow-buff clay, fired pink
at the core where the fabric is thickest. Traces of K 141 (D). TERRACOTTA ANTEFIX. P1.49.
red
purplish paint on the hair. A 680. P.H. 0.11; W. 0.165; P.L. 0.195. The top
From a satyr mask; a horn is visible above the of the antefix proper and most of the attached cover
right temple, with a vine leaf beside it. Grandjouan. tile element behind are broken away.
Very coarse, brick-red clay with large grits.
[K 138]. TERRACOTTA FIGURINE. P1. 48. Below the volutes at the base of the palmette
T 1510. Deposit B 14:1 (Srd century). appears the signature, in relief letters: 'AOlvatlov.For
H. 0.10; L. 0.12; W. 0.081. Intact. a better preserved specimen of this antefix see A 630
Buff to pinkish buff clay; white paint on body, red (P1. 49): P.H. 0.235; W. 0.175; chipped at top, all
on face, dark blue (?) on eyebrows and lids. A loose of cover tile element broken away.
pebble inside. Made in a two-part mould, the seams
running lengthwise along back and belly. K 142 (D). GLASS BOWLFRAGMENT. P1. 78.
Crouching dog with head tilted up; shaggy coat; G 80. P.H. 0.018; D. foot 0.12. Two joining
collar around neck. Perhaps designed as a child's toy fragments preserve half of foot and part of floor.
or rattle (the loose pebble inside the figure is paralleled Clear glass.
72 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

From a bowl or plate with rather high, vertical ably broken away. Made in one piece; the back
ring foot and flat floor. smooth up to the neck.
The head is markedby a roll of hair at the nape of
K 143 (D). GLASSVESSELFRAGMENT. P1.73. the neck. The
phallus projects horizontally.
G 79. P.H. 0.018; D. foot 0.055. Foot only pre-
served. Clear,bluish green glass. K 149 (B). BRONZE WING. P1. 53.
The flaring ring foot of a blown glass vessel; B 609. Max. dim. 0.081. The wing is apparently
conical base.
complete, the base or point of juncture with the
K144(B). PORTRAIT HEAD. shoulderpresentinga smooth, curved surface.Front
and back surface are similarly decorated with.
S 856. H. 0.48; W. bust 0.39. Pentelic marble.
Only the bust fragmentfound in the collectingbasin feathering.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

(see above, p. 59). Apparentlythe properleft wing.


A Julio-Claudianportrait publishedby Harrison,
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

K 150 (B).BRONZE PIN. P1.53.


Sculpture,no. 7.
B 611. P.L. 0.033; D. head 0.009. Point and
K 145 (B). MARBLEALTAR. P1.52. probablymuch of the shaft brokenaway.
S 391. H. 0.086; W. 0.077; Th. 0.075. Intact The shaft of the pin is rectangularin section; the
except for chipping around the edges. head is spherical.
Pentelic marble,carelessly worked.
Cubicalaltar with shallowdepression(0.017 deep) K 151 (B). BRONZESTYLUS (?). P1. 53.
on top. Slight projectionsat the four cornersof the B 610.P.L. 0.055; W. 0.013.Brokenat the narrow
base provide crude feet. A rounded moulding with end.
cablepatternat top and bottom all around.The back A flat instrument,narrow(pointed?) at one end,
panel is plain; the front and sides are each decorated broad and blunt at the other.
with a relief groupof a dolphincrossedby a trident.
K 146(D). MARBLEBOWLFRAGMENT. Pls. 54, 73. OTHER INVENTORIED OBJECTS - the following in-
ventoried objects from GroupK (Basin and Drain)
ST 152. Max. dim. 0.088; D. foot est. 0.25; Th.
have been omitted from the above cataloguebecause
through floor and foot 0.01. Small fragmentof foot
and floor. they are not pertinentto the Groupproper:
White marble,with purplishblack veins. A 681 - terracottawater pipe fragment,probably
an intrusioninto the upper filling of the
K147(D). MARBLEBOWLFRAGMENT. P1.73. basin.
ST 158. P.H. 0.025; D. base est. 0.09. About half I 4221- an inscription of the 3rd century B.C.
of base and part of wall preserved.
(publ. Hesperia, IX, 1940, pp. 77-78,
Pentelic marble. no. 11).
On the exterior (possibly marking the base of a
88 1832- Knidian stampedamphorahandle of the
spout), an incisedpalmette (?). late 2nd centuryB.C.
K 148 (B). BRONZEHERM. P1.53. SS 1885- Knidian stamped amphora handle of
B 132. P.H. 0.052; W. 0.017. The lower tip prob- about 100 B.C.
GROUP L
8RD TO EARLY 5TH CENTURY

GroupL constitutesthe fillingof Deposit F 19:1, a well located on the north slope of the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Areopagus.Excavationfor modemhouse-cellarsin this areahad cut downthe bedrockand had


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

removedall tracesof the ancientconstructionswith whichthis and severalotheradjacentwells


might have been associated.1The well was cut throughsoft bedrockuntil the diggerscame in
contactwith a layer of hardrockat a depthof 15.95m. belowthe preservedtop. For most of its
depth the well is lined with tiles which are separatedfrom the rock-cutshaft by a packingof
smallstones."The top of the firstpreservedringof tiles is locatedat 2.22 m. belowthe preserved
mouthof the shaft; the firstsixteenseriesof tiles (to depth12.22m.) areellipticalin plan (inner
diameters0.70 m. and 0.85 m.) and vary in height between0.60 m. and 0.63 m. Each ring of
tiles is made up of three segments,each segmentprovidedwith a single hand-hole;the three
verticaljoints of each ring are made firmby lead clamps(threeper joint, set obliquely).Part
of the ninth series is brokenaway and the gap in the tiling is filled with a packingof small
stones. The seventeenthseries of tiles is missingand its place is taken by a lining of stones,
above which rest two (originallythree?) woodenbeams supportingthe sixteenth series.3The
tiles fromthe eighteenthserieson (beginningat depth12.90m.) aremorenearlycircularin plan
(innerdiameterof eachringca. 0.80 m.) andareset withoutthe use of leadclamps.Thetwentieth
seriesis missingand the exposedbedrockwallsof the shaft arefilledin partlyby seven ringsof
brick.The last (twenty-first)seriesrests on hardrockat 15.95m.
The potteryfromthe well has been dividedinto fourlayers,accordingto the depthat which
it wasfound.LayerI (13.90m. to bottom),L 1-21, containssomepieceswhichfindcloseparallels
in GroupK (L 1-7); other pieces,however,as the lamp L 14 and uninventoriedfragmentsof
jugs as L 26 (LayerII), reflecta date later than that of GroupK. It seemslikely that LayerI
representsan accumulationfrom the use of the well duringthe last half of the 3rd century.4
Layer II (11.90-13.90m.), L 22-36, presentsalmostno parallelsto the pottery of GroupK
and does contain shapes,such as L 26 and L 31, which are similarto post-Herulianmaterial
from GroupM (as M 220-221 and M 230-234). The date for this layer is probablyaroundthe
beginningof the fourth century,perhapsextendingthroughthe first quarterof that century.
The upperlimit of Layer II, however,can only be arbitraryin view of the absenceof reliable
confirmatoryevidence.
Layer III (10.00-11.90m.), L 37-58a, introducesnew formsof decoration,such as gouging
(L 38, 40, 44) and late stampedpatterns(uninventoriedfragments);and since the quantityof
pottery recoveredfromthis layer surpassesslightly that fromLayersI and II together,one is
justifiedin supposinga fairlylongperiodof accumulation.As the latest possibledateof LayerIII
we can only point to the terminuspost quemof Layer IV, the last quarterof the 4th century
1 The well was excavated between May 28 and June 10, 1939.
SThe uppermost ring of tiles has been removed and inventoried as A 1074.
8 The dimensions of the one beam which appeared to be complete were: 1.05 m. x 0.14 m. x 0.11 m.
* No coins useful for chronological purposes were found in Layers I, II or III.
74 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

(see below). Layer IV, however, represents a dumped filling, thrown in to fill up the shaft after
the well had gone out of use; considerabletime may have elapsed between the abandonment
of the well as a source of water and the filling of the top ten meters of the shaft with debris.
Layer III may be said roughly to represent the last three quarters of the 4th century. Among
the latest objects in Layer III are L 50-51 (depth 10.00-10.90 m.).
Layer IV (top to 10.00 m.), L 59-62, producedonly one-tenth as much pottery, proportionately,
as Layer III, and it contained also some fragments of marble revetment and of mosaic flooring.
The occurrenceof joins between fragments from all depths within the Layer indicates that this
is a dumped filling. The terminuspost quemfor Layer IV is given by the coins as the last quarter
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

of the 4th century.5 It frequently happens that much of the pottery of a dumped filling is of
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

earlier date than the time at which the filling was thrown in; in this instance many pieces of
coarse ware of much earlier date found their way into the debris; but the presence of numerous
fragments of late stamped ware, such as occur only rarely in Layer III, indicates that Layer III
is appreciablyearlierthan IV. It seems reasonable,in view of the coins in Layer IV, to attribute
that Layer to the early 5th century, roughly contemporary with Layer X of Group M.

LAYER I (SECOND HALF OF 3RDCENTURY)

ANDNON-GLAZED
GLAZED
MISCELLANEOUS WARES L 4.
JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 16.
P 16333. H. 0.087; D. 0.071. Fragmentary;
L 1. PLATE. P1.70.
restored.
P 15571.H. 0.067; D. 0.308. Complete. Rathersoft, pinkishbuffclay; dull, purplishbrown
Soft, rather gritty, orange-buffclay; dull, black glaze (partial).Base left rough from the wheel.
to reddishglaze (partial).
Ovoid,wheel-ridgedbody; flat base; high, slightly
Shapeas K 13-16. flaringrim. Comparethe largerspecimensJ 35, K 65,
[L 21. BOWL. Pl. 70. M 155.
P 11137.DepositB 14:2 (late 1st to late 2nd L 5. MINIATURE JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 16.
century). P 15405.H. 0.062;D. 0.062.Intact.
H. 0.089;D. 0.142.Almostcomplete;restored. Soft, rathergritty, buff clay; dull, brownishto
Soft,orange-buffclay;dull,redglaze(partial). brownishred glaze. Base left rough from the wheel.
Shapeas 48-49, but smaller.
K Shape as K 59-60, M 145-148, M 190. Flat base;
Storage, Layer I-fragments of several bowls ridgeat baseof rim.Onbody,just belowrim,a row
similar to P 11137. of punch marks; pendant to this, opposite the
handle, a cross-patternmade up of similar punch
L 3. AMPHORA. P1.16. marks. No painted ornament. For the punched
P 16334. H. rest. 0.223; D. 0.154. Lip and frag- decoration compare[M157].
ments of body missing; restored(the lip based on an
uninventoriedfragmentfrom GroupL). L 6. MINIATURE JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1.16.
Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay; dull, reddish glaze P 15408.H. 0.084;D. 0.061.Intact.
(partial). Rather soft, reddish clay; dull, purplish black
Plump, ovoid amphorasimilar to J 48 and K 68 glaze. The base left rough from the wheel.
(J 48 is the most slender). Grooves on shoulder, Piriform, wheel-ridged body; flat base; flaring
neck and handles,as on K 68. lip; the indentationsof the lip behind the front lobe
Storage,LayerI--fragmentsof anothersimilar touch across the mouth and create a kind of spout.
amphora. Sliced handle. CompareK 69-70.

5 The significant coins, recovered between 0.90 m. and 1.40 m., both of bronze, are:
Constantius II, 337-361 (as H. Cohen, Descr. hist. des monnaies frappkes sous l'empire romain, 2e ed., VII, Paris,
1888, p. 468, no. 188; Thompson, Coins, no. 1052).
Valentinian II, 375-392 (as J. W. E. Pearce, The Roman Coinagefrom A.D. 364 to 432, London, 1933, p. 96, no. 58;
of. Thompson, Coins, no. 1405). Abronze coin of the House of Valentinian, found in the well-earth after complete clear-
ance of the shaft, presumably represents Layer IV,
GROUP L 75

L 7. MINIATURE WATER JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.16. L 10. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 16.
P 15404. H. 0.069; D. 0.06. Intact. P 22561. H. rest. 0.148; D. rest. 0.111. Fragmen-
Rather gritty, buff clay; self-slip. Base left rough tary;the neckdoesnot join the bodydirectly;restored.
from the wheel. Rather soft, gritty, reddish brown clay.
Plump, wheel-ridgedbody; flat base; grooves at Footless, ovoid body with conical indentation of
base of neck, below lip and on outer edge of the base. Plain, everted lip.
everted lip. Basket handle.
L 11. STORAGEAMPHORA. P1. 16.
L8.SMALL JUG,TREFOIL MOUTH. P 16886.P.H. 0.875; D. 0.18. Mouth,handles, toe
P 15406. H. 0.107; D. 0.062. Part of neck and lip and
fragmentsof body missing.
missing;restored. Rather soft, reddish clay with grits; white slip,
Soft, yellow-buff clay; self-slip. Base left rough much worn; mastic.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

from the wheel.


Cylindricalbody, horizontally ribbed, narrowing
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Slender,ovoid body,wheel-ridged;flat base; ridged sharply at bottom to a pointed toe. Horizontal


handle. Two grooves around neck at t.a.h., one on shoulder with wide, low mouth and two small,
shoulderat b.a.h. Similar to, but smaller than L 9. vertical handles.For the
completeshape, see M 239;
Storage, Layer I-fragments of several similar, an earlierversionof this type of amphorais found in
smalljugs. G 199.
L 9. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1.16. Storage, Layer I-fragments of several other
P 16335. H. 0.216; D. 0.122. Handle and part of amphoraesimilar to L 11.
neck and lip missing; restored.
Very soft, gritty, yellow-buffclay; self-slip,which Storage, Layer I-fragments of the following:
has peeled off over most of the body. miniature,basket-handledpot as [K 73]; bowls as
Similarto L 8 but larger;wheel-ridged;ring foot. K 19-27 (the painted decoration, if any, is worn
Two grooves about neck. away); decanteras L 24-25; three jugs as L 26; am-
Storage, Layer I-an almost complete jug of phorae as L 30 and L 33; red and black micaceous
reddish clay, similar in shape to L 9. ware jars as M 240-242.

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

L 12. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.45. Lowerbody markedwith raiseddots as rim. Compare


L 8880. L. 0.113; W. 0.088; H. 0.037. Intact. G 147. Perlzweig.
Soft, orange-buffto yellow-buffclay. Storage,Layer I-fragments of a plastic lamp which
Rim: reel and trefoil pattern, side panels. Discus: is possibly similarto AgoraL 2893 (see A.J.A., XLI,
erotic symplegma on couch. Handle: incompletely
1937, p. 188, fig. 20).
pierced, grooved above and below; leaf at base of
handle. Base: surroundedby two concentricgrooves, L 15.TERRACOTTADUCK'S HEAD. P1.48.
a relief signature, lhpEieou.Perlzweig. T 2187. P.H. 0.032; Th. 0.011. Right side of head
preserved.
L 13. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 45. Soft, yellow-buffclay. Madein a two-partmould,
the seams extending vertically through the figure
L 8881. L. 0.094; W. 0.077; H. 0.027. Intact. from beak towardtail.
Soft, yellow-buffclay. The right side of the head of a hollow figure of a
Rim: leaves and tendrils, side panels. Discus: duck. No traces of incision or other reworkingafter
rosette of eleven pointed petals. Handle: pierced, removalfrom the mould.
Grandjouan.
groovedabove and below. Base: incuse, mouldmade
signature surroundedby two grooves,TTpfilov.Perl- L 16. BONE NEEDLE.
zweig. BI 521. L. 0.156; W. 0.006. Intact.
As J 15.
L 14. LAMP. L 17. MARBLE BOWL.
P1. 45. P1.52.
L 3923. L. 0.095; W 0.07; H. 0.03. Intact. ST 326. P.H. 0.128; D. est. 0.40; Th. at rim 0.035.
Soft, yellowish buff clay. Base and much of body missing.
Rim: raised dots with volutes at base of nozzle. Pentelic marble.
Discus: small, concave and plain. Handle: pierced, From a deep bowl with rounded wall and plain
grooved above and below. Base: five encircled dots lip, rounded on top. Exterior roughly worked; interior
in relief, surroundedby concentricgroove and ridge. surfacesmooth and worn by use.
76 THE ATHENIAN AGORY: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

L 18. STONEIMPLEMENT. L20. BRONZEHANDLE-LUGFORBUCKET. Pl. 53.


ST 320. D. 0.055; Th. 0.03. Intact, but chippedon B 724. H. 0.105; W. 0.057. Intact.
strikingsurfaceall around. Leaf-shaped attachment from a bronze bucket
Grayish blue, crystalline stone, probably a poor (as L 19); the two lower holes mark the position of
gradeof marble. the rivets which fastened the lug to the bucket; the
Thick, disc-like implement for pounding. Slight bail handlemoved throughthe upperhole.
depressionson eithersideprovidea gripforthe fingers. L 21. BRONZEMIRROR(?).
L 19. BRONZE BUCKET. P1.51. B 742. D. 0.094; Th. 0.008.
B 716. H. 0.217; D. 0.26. Handle and one handle- Plain, flat disc of bronze, seriously corroded.On
one side there are traces at the edge of a vertical rim
lug missing.
extending around at least one-sixth of the circum-
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Round-bottomed bucket with plain, thickened


ference,while on the edge adjacentto this rim appear
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(folded)lip. Movablebail handle of iron (of which a to be tracesof contactwith wood (a woodenhandle?).
fragment still adhered to the lip before cleaning)
attached to broad, leaf-shapedhandle-lugsof iron; One inventoriedstamped amphorahandle (SS 9399)
the lugs, of which one is preserved(similarto L 20, from Layer I is assigned by Miss Virginia Grace to
but broaderand shorter),were each held in place by the 2nd century B.C. and is thereforenot included
two bronzerivets. CompareL 20, M 28. in the above list.

LAYER II (EARLY 4TH CENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUSGLAZED AND NON-GLAZEDWARES grooved longitudinally; two horizontal grooves at
L 22. BowL. juncture of shoulderand neck. Brownglaze applied:
P1. 16. on top of flange and adjacent neck surface; on lip;
P 1633887.H. 0.059; D. 0.127. Almost complete; in two broad bands below the lower handle attach-
restored. ments. Decorationin white paint: on top of flange,
Orange-buff clay; dull, reddish glaze (partial). dots; on upper glazed band, spirals (rotating clock-
Bowl similar in shape to K 29-31, but smaller; wise toward center and linked below); on lower
flangedrim; a grooveat the top of the rim. glazed band, diagonal stripes. The reserved zone
Storage, Layer II-fragments of several similar between the two glazed bands markedwith diagonal
bowlsand of a bowl of largersize (similarto K 19-27)
stripes of brownglaze.
decoratedwith spiralsin white paint on the rim.
L 25. DECANTER,PAINTEDDECORATION. P1. 87.
L 23. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.16. P 16339. P.H. 0.165; D. 0.19. Neck, handles,
P 15400. H. 0.12; D. 0.091. Intact. shoulder,foot and fragmentsof body missing.
Rather soft, gritty, orange clay; dull orange-red Soft, orange-buffclay with grits.
glaze (partial). As L 24. Aroundthe body a broad band of dull,
As K 64. red glaze with narrowerstripes above and below.
Storage, Layer II-fragments of another similarjug. Decorationin addedwhite: on the broadglazedband,
L 24. DECANTER, PAINTEDDECORATION. alternatingtall-stemmedplant clusters and stylized
P1. 16. tendril
sprays;on the upper,narrowband,wave line.
P 16338.P.H. 0.20; D. 0.19. Neck, handles,shoul- The charming and distinctive treatment of the
der and fragmentsof body missing.
tips of the plant clusters(someroundedand some in
Soft, pinkishbuff clay with grits. a form resemblinga pomegranatefruit) can be par-
Plump, ovoid body on ring foot. Aroundthe body, alleled in other specimensof local paintedware from
a broad band of brown glaze with narrowerstripes the
Agora (P 4624, P 6451), all of which may be
above and below. Decorationin white paint: on the
assignedto a single hand, that of an artist who may
broadglazedband, spirals(rotatingclockwisetoward be called the Trefoil
Painter; Agora P 4592 87)
centerand linkedbelow);on the upper,narrowband, is in the manner of the TrefoilPainter, but (P1. its less
white dots. CompareM 158 and 215. suredraftsmanshipand morehasty executioncaution
The full shape of this type of vessel is shown in
against an attributionto the masterhimself.
P 10005 (Pi. 39).
Deposit A 14:1 (4th century). L 26. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.16.
H 0.242; D. 0.144. Complete.Buff clay, self-slip. P 16342. H. 0.308; D. 0.193. Almost complete;
Ovoid body on ring foot; narrowneck. At mid- restored.
point of neck, a broad,horizontalflange;neck tapers Reddishto orange-redclay with grits; dull,orange-
above flangeand is wheel-ridged;two strap handles, red glaze (partial).
GROUPL 77
Ovoidbody on low ring foot. High neck, widening LARGE
STORAGE
VESSELS
toward the plain, everted lip; lip slopes down to
exterior. Broad strap handle marked by three
L 30. AMPHORA. P1. 16.
P 16844. H. 0.385; D. 0.285. One handle missing;
longitudinal grooves. Groove around neck at mid-
restored.
point and anotheraroundshoulderat b.a.h.
This type of jug characterizesthe late 3rd century Very soft, orange-buffclay with grits; self-slip.
and the 4th: compareM 220-222, L 41. It should be Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on low ring foot. Plain,
noted, however, that a similarjug, P 8762, appears flaring lip; ridged handles. Two grooves at base of
in the early 3rd century filling of Deposit D 12:1. lip. CompareL 54 and M 229.
Storage,LayerII-fragments of othersimilarjugs. Storage, Layer II-fragments of at least four
similaramphorae.
L 27. JuG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 16.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 16341.P.H. 0.208; D. 0.147. Intact except forlip. L 31. AMPHORA. Pl. 16.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Gritty, greenishgray clay; buff slip; dull, purplish P 16843. H. 0.45; D. 0.265. Almost complete;
brownglaze (partial),much worn. restored.
Ovoid body on ring foot; flaring,funnel-likeneck,
Coarse, greenish gray clay with grits; mastic
probablyterminatingin round mouth and plain lip. (inside and in lip groove).
Ridged handle. Two horizontal grooves at b.a.h.; Slender, ovoid body on low ring foot; moulded
ridge aroundbase of neck. CompareM 223. base. The neck flarestoward a slightly thickenedlip
L 28. AMPHORA. P1.16. markedby a deep grooveon its upper surface. Han-
P 16340. H. 0.171; D. 0.112. Intact. dlesroundin section. Twogroovesaroundthe neck at
Dark buff clay with grits; dull, dark reddishglaze t. a. h. CompareM 230-234.
The lip-groove,with its fillingof mastic, may have
(partial).
Similar to L 3, but smaller; the handles are pro- served in the sealingof the jar.
portionately higher in L 28 and the body is wheel-
ridged. L 32. AMPHORA, DIPINTO. Pls. 16, 59.
Storage, Layer II-fragments of at least two P 16360. P.H. 0.41; D. 0.304. Neck, one handle
similaramphorae. and fragmentsof body missing; partly restored.
L 29. CLAY SAVINGS BANK. P1. 16. Very gritty, gray-buffclay with a rough, "sandy"
P 15399. H. 0.115; D. 0.09. Intact except for chips surface;soft fabric.
aroundthe slot. Slender, ovoid body on low ring foot. May have
resembled L 31, but the base is flat. On the shoulder,
Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay. Base left roughfrom
wheel. a in
dipinto black paint, readinguncertain:possibly
Piriform body on flat base. Flaringlip; the mouth a proper name in - aaonfi7s.
closed over but piercedby a narrowslot (0.078 long) Storage, Layer II-fragments of anotheramphora
for the insertionof coins. Two concentricgrooves on of similar fabric.
the top and two about the shoulder;the body wheel-
ridged. No handle. L 33. AMPHORA. Pl. 16.
Another fragmentarybank (P 11158), similar to P 16345. P.H. 0.515; D. 0.2883.Resting surfaceof
L 29, comes from the 4th century filling of Deposit foot and upperpart of neck and handlesmissing.
C 10:3. A specimenfrom Puteoli in the British Mu- Coarse,brick-redclay with grits.
seum (86/5-25/1)is of moreslendershape and has the The body tapers to a hollow, tubular toe. Heavy
coin-slot in the side of the neck. On Oeilaapof in handles, roughly oval in section. Broad wheel-ridg-
antiquity see: Graeven,Jahrb.,XVI, 1901, pp. 160- ing on the neck. For the full shape see [K
113],
189; D. M. Robinson, A.J.A., XXVIII, 1924, pp. M 237, M 274, M 303.
289-250; Breitenstein, Danish National Museum,
Catalogueof Terracottas,Cypriote, Greek,Etrusco- of the following:
Storage, Layer II-fragments
Italian and Roman,Copenhagen,1944, no. 956.
amphora as L 55; amphora toes of a soft, gritty,
Storage, Layer II--fragments of the following: flat- orange fabric such as occurs in M 103, M 176 and
bottomedjug as L 48; jug as L 47. M 334.

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY


L 34. LAMP. P1.45. Rim: raised dots. Discus: boukranion.Handle:
L 3879. L. 0.102; W. 0.071; H. 0.088. Intact. incompletelypierced,groovedabove and below.Base:
Fine, hard, pinkish buff clay. Made from a worn concentricridges. Perlzweig.
mould.
78 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

L 35. BONE NEEDLE. forehead,back of head chipped.Publ.: Hesperia,IX,


BI 520. L. 0.144; W. 0.006. Intact. 1940, p. 273, fig. 8.
As L 16 and J 15. Coarse-grained, white marble.
Head of Seilenos; pointed ears, garland of ivy
L 36. SCULPTURED HEAD. leaves and berries;full beard, parted at center. No
8 1180. P.H. 0.187; W. 0.093. Broken at bottom indicationof hair on top of head, above the garland.
from nape of neck to base of beard; end of nose,

LAYER III (LATER 4TH CENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUS ANDNON-GLAZED
GLAZED WARES diameter; above, gouged decorationin alternating
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

panels of diagonal and of horizontallines. Compare


Storage,Layer III-fragments of severalplates with
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

also [M312].
stamped decorationas L 59-61 and of bowls with
painted decorationas M 290. It is noteworthy that L 41. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.17.
none of the stamped bowls of thin fabric, such as P 22564. H. 0.30; D. 0.166. About half missing;
occur commonlyin 5th and 6th century fillings (cf. restored.
M 350), are representedin Layer III or in Layer IV. Dark buff clay with grits; dull, purplish brown
L 37. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.16. glaze (partial).
P 15402.H. 0.167; D. 0.092. Complete. As L 26, but more slender;two grooveson top of
as is customary on jugs of this type. Compare
Soft, rathergritty, orange-buffclay; dull, orange- lip,
red glaze (partial). M 220-222 and fragmentsfromLayerIX of GroupM
Ovoid body on ring foot; high, flaring neck and (p. 110).
plain lip. Body and part of neck wheel-ridged.Sliced Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar
handle. jugs.
This shape is a developmentout of plumperjugs L 42.
such as K 64, in which the sharp ridges of the neck Juo, ROUND MOUTH. P1.16.
P 16354. H. rest. 0.198; D. 0.116. Lip missing;
anticipate the wheel-ridgingwhich appearsin L 37. restored.
CompareM 219, M 266-267, M 291. Rather soft, buff clay with grits; dull, reddish
Storage,Layer III--one similarjug, almost com-
glaze (partial).
plete, and fragmentsof others.
Piriform, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot; high
L 38. JUG, ROUND MOUTH, GOUGED DECORATION neck, wideningtoward the plain lip. Ridged handle.
M 295-296.
P1. 16. Compare 268, NM
P 16853. H. ca. 0.158; D. 0.127. Complete. Storage, Layer III--fragments of at least four
Light reddish buff clay with grits; dull, reddish similar jugs.
glaze (partial). L 43. JUG, GOUGED DECORATION.
Almost globular body on ring foot; roundedlip. P1.17.
P 16356. H. 0.85; D. 0.186. Fragmentary; restored.
Ridgedhandle.Mid-partof body wheel-ridged;upper
marked vertical Hard, pinkish buff clay with grits.
part by gouging.
Ovoid body on ring foot; high, slenderneck with
Storage,Layer III-three similarjugs, all nearly
evertedrim and upturned,verticallip; broadridged
complete.
handle. The neck marked by spiral grooving; the
L 39. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.17. upper part of the body decorated with diagonal
P 16852. H. 0.28; D. 0.165. Intact. gouged lines. CompareMI297-298.
Rather soft and gritty, reddishclay; dull, reddish
glaze (partial).
L 44. JUG, GOUGED DECORATION. P1. 17.
Ovoid body on ring foot; rounded lip. Ridged P 16355. H. 0.275; D. 0.152. Fragmentary;
handle. restored.
Soft, orange-buffclay with grits; mastic.
L 40. JUG, GOUGEDDECORATION. P1.17. Ovoid body on spreadingring foot; high neck,
P 22565. P.H. 0.262; D. 0.22. Upper part of jug wideningtowardthe plainlip;ridgedhandle. Grooves
missing; partly restored. at top of neck; spiral grooving at base of neck and
Hard, reddish buff clay with grits; dull, reddish on shoulder.Upperpartof bodymarkedwith diagonal
glaze (partial). gougedlines. CompareM 299.
Shape as M 294 (cf. also the smaller jug L 39). Storage, Layer III-fragments of several similar
Three horizontal grooves at point of maximum jugs, some of larger size.
GROUP L 79

COARSE HOUSEHOLD WARES L 51. JAR, [TWO HANDLES], GRAFFITO. Pls. 17,58.
L 45. JUG, FLAT BASE. P1. 17. P 16361. P.H. 0.445; D. 0.204. Neck, handlesand
of toe missing;body fragmentary;partlyrestored.
P 16357. H. 0.185; D. 0.167. Fragmentary; tip
restored. Clay and shape as L 50. The tubular toe tapers
towardthe bottom. On the shouldera graffito:
Rather soft, light orange-buffclay.
Almost globularbody with flat base; narrowneck ]ep.[.
L 52. CYLINDRICAL AMPHORA. P1. 17.
and small, evertedlip; ridgedhandle. Groovesat top
and bottom of neck and just above and below b. a. h. P 16859. P.H. 0.22; D. 0.138. Handles, neck and
part of body missing.
L 46. Juo, FLAT BASE. P1.17. Very soft, gritty, yellowishbuffclay; thin fabric.
P 22563. P.H. 0.152; D. 0.146. Neck and handle Shape as J 49 and K 85, but the fabricis different
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

fromand poorerthanthat of the two earlierspecimens.


missing.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Orange-buffclay with grits.


Shape somewhat similar to L 45; false ring foot. L 53. AMPHORA. P1.17.
Attachment for single, vertical handle. Grooving as P 16358. H. 0.24; D. 0.163. Intact.
on L 45. Hard, gritty, micaceous,orange clay; at the sur-
face the clay is mottled in horizontal striations of
L 47. JUG, FLAT BASE. P1. 17. light and darkerorangecolor.
P 22562. P.H. 0.197; D. 0.168. Neck, handle and Crudelymade amphorawith ovoid body on false
part of body missing; partly restored. ring foot; thickenedlip. Handles roundin section.
Soft, gritty, orange-buffclay. Storage, Layer III-another similar amphora,
Similar to L 46, but the body is less plump. almost complete.

L48. JUG, FLAT BASE. P1.17. L 54. AMPHORA. P1. 17.


P 16351. H. rest. 0.206; D. 0.193. Lip missing; P 16349. H. 0.403; D. 0.197. Almost complete;
restored. restored.
Soft, coarse,yellowishgray clay with grits. Rather soft, reddishbuff clay with grits.
Plump body with flat base; everted lip and trefoil Shape as L 30, but more slender; the handles
mouth (restoredon basis of similarjugs from other marked by a single, longitudinalgroove; horizontal
grooves at b.a.h. CompareM 229.
Deposits). Handle lightly grooved. Body markedby
deep horizontalgrooving.
Storage, Layer III--one similar jug, almost L 55. STORAGE AMPHORA. P1. 17.
complete, and fragmentsof several others. P 16350. H. 0.467; D. 0.235. Almost complete;
restored.
L49. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.17. Pinkish buff clay, self-slip.
P 16348. H. 0.385; D. 0.265. Almost complete; Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody, the point of greatest
restored. diameterbelow the middle; the body separatedfrom
Hard, buff to reddishbuff clay; self-slip. the small toe by a disc-like memberreminiscentof
Ovoidbody on false ring foot; mouldedbase. Wide the toes of Knidian amphorae of the Hellenistic
neck with small everted lip, flat on top. Handle oval period (see Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, 1949, pl. 19,7, 9).
in section. Faint wheel-ridgingon shoulderand lower The narrowneck, set off from the body at an angle
part of body. CompareM 226 and 371. and bulbous at the point of the handle attachment,
terminates in a small, everted, rounded lip. Strap
L 50. JAR, TWO HANDLES. P1. 17. handles. Compare M 238, M 305-306.
P 15398. P.H. 0.585; D. 0.212. Lip and toe missing; Storage, Layer III-another similar amphora,
filling hole. almost complete, and fragments of a third.
Soft, reddishbrownclay with high mica content.
Fusiform, wheel-ridged body. Short strap handles. L 56. LIQUEUR CUP. P1. 16.
The toe was doubtless of the tapering, tubular variety P 16347.H. 0.049; D. 0.054. Part of body and tip
seen in L 51 and in all two-handled micaceous jars. of handle missing; restored.
Compare F 65 and the other jars cited there. Dark, orange-buffclay.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of two jars similar Cupwith flat base, roundedwall, slightly everted
to L 50-i51 and of a one-handled jar of the same lip. The body wheel-ridged; lug-handle projects
brownish red micaceous fabric; also fragments of four horizontally from near the base. Compare K 75,
one-handled jars of black, gritty fabric similar to M 117 and the cups with high-set handles as G 215,
M 282. S38.
80 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

L 57. PLASTICVASEFRAGMENT. Pl. 16. be part of a vase in the form of a human head, the
P 16346. P.H. 0.047. Single fragment,brokenall crescent-shapedpunch marks designed to indicate
around. tightly-curledlocks of hair (cf. K 77). The neck of
Rather coarse,gray-buffclay with grits, firedbuff the vase was large enough to permit the potter's
on exterior surface. Made in a two-part mould, the fingersto be inserted for smoothingout the interior
seams vertical. seams after the vase came from the mould.
A fragmentfrom the wall of a mug (2); the start Storage, Layer III--an amphora, almost com-
of the plain, vertical (?) neck is preserved.Exterior plete, identical with L 31 and fragmentsof several
surfacemarkedby close-set rows of crescent-shaped similar amphorae; numerous fragments of vessels
depressions,probably made with a punch after the of a fabricsimilarto that of L 32 and possiblyof simi-
vase had been removed from the mould. This may lar shape; fragmentsof an amphorasimilarto M 325.
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OTHER
OBJECTS THANPOTTERY
L 58. LAMP. P1.45. Weight in form of a truncated pyramid. Pierced
L 3992. P.L. 0.071. Fragment of discus and rim. by a single suspension hole near top. The Attic
Coarse,orange-redclay with grits; dull, reddish pyramidalloomweightprobablywent out of use by
glaze. the end of the 4th centuryB.C. (Pnyx, I, pp. 73-76);
Rim: herringbonepattern. Discus: plain. Perl- but such weights might have been re-usedin Roman
zweig. timesfor purposesotherthan that for whichoriginally
designed.
L 58a. PYRAMIDALLOOMWEIGHT. P1.50.
MC625. H. 0.052; dim. base 0.032x 0.033. Intact Storage, Layer III-small fragments of lamps of
except for chips. Broneer'stype XXVIII and two water buckets, one
Soft, pinkishbuff clay with grits. of lead and one of bronze.

LAYER IV (EARLY 5TH CENTURY)


L 59. PLATE, STAMPED. Pls. 36, 70. of plate, as P 11186 and P 12009, P1. 70). On the
P 16363. H. 0.048; D. est. 0.31. Two non-joining floor, surrounded by three concentric grooves, a
sections preservepart of lip, wall and floor. series of stamped devices (concentric squares)
Hard, coarse clay with grits, fired gray-blackat apparentlyarrangedin a circularband.
core, gray-brown at surface; dull, purplish black Storage, Layer IV-numerous fragments of plates
glaze (partial). Although apparently subjected to with stamped decorationas L 59-61 and of painted
excessiveheat in the kiln and so technicallya "Fehl- bowls similar to M 290. It is noteworthy that none
brand," the piece was presumablyserviceable (cf. of the stamped bowls of thin fabric, such as occur
L62). commonlyin 5th and 6th centuryfillings (cf. M 350),
On the floor, a pattern of stamped palmettes (of are representedin Layer IV or in Layer III.
which only one is preserved),surroundedby four
concentricgrooves. L 62. LAMP. P1. 45.
L 3993.L. 0.094; W. 0.069;H. 0.035.Fragmentary.
L 60. PLATE,[STAMPED]. Hard, coarse, grayish black clay with grits; the
P 16362. H. 0.055; D. est. 0.45. Two non-joining fabric has apparentlybeensubjectedto excessiveheat
sections preservepart of lip, wall and floor. in firing, but though technicallya "Fehlbrand,"the
Hard, coarse,reddishclay with grits; dull, reddish lamp was not warped and was perhaps considered
glaze (partial). adequatefor sale as a "factorysecond."
Rim: plain, with incised side panels. Discus: rays.
Shapeas L 59; no trace of the stampeddecoration
is preserved. Handle: solid, grooved above. On base: concentric
ridges.Perlzweig.
L 61. PLATE, STAMPED. P1.36. Four inventoried objects from Layer IV are not
P 16364. Max. dim. 0.123. Small section of floor includedin the above list becausethey are of earlier
preserved. date than the bulk of the material in this fill: two
Hard, coarse,reddishbrownclay with grits; dull, terracotta figurinefragments (T 2066 and T 2069),
black glaze (partial). a terracotta mould fragment (T 2070), a Thasian
From a flat-flooredplate possibly similar to L 59 stamped amphorahandle (SS 9079) of the late 5th
(but two other rim profilesare found with this type or 4th century B.C.
GROUP L 81

LAYERS I--IV
The following objects (L63-78) were found in sifting Yellowishbuff to pinkishbuff clay; dull, darkred
the driedwell-earth,afterexcavation;it is not possible glaze (partial).
to assign these pieces to specificlayerswithin the well From a bowl similar in shape to K 17. At center
filling, but it is likely that L 63 belongs to Layer I. of floor, appliqu6 medallion: bust of Athena, to
left, wearing crested Corinthianhelmet; over her
right shoulder,a spear, the point of which appears
FINEWARE behind the helmet crest.
L63.BOWLFRAGMENT,MEDALLIONAPPLIQUt. P1.86. canThe subject of this medallion,as of that of K 17,
be paralleledin contemporarylamps of Broneer's
P 16365.Max. dim. 0.05. Singlefragmentpreserves type XXVII, as Agora L 2043 (P1. 86; see also
center of floor and base. Broneer,Lamps,no. 582, pl. XII).
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OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

L 64. LAMP. Pi. 45. The values arrangedas on L 68. Each pip consists
L 3953. L. 0.09; W. 0.067; H. 0.034. Intact. of two circulargrooveswith dot at center.
Reddish buff clay.
Rim: debasedherringbonepattern.Discus:rosette. L 71. BONE DIE. P1.56.
Handle: solid, grooved above and below. Base: two BI 542b. Dim. approx. 0.012 at each edge. Intact.
concentric grooves. Perlzweig. As L 70.
L 65. GLASSBOWL. P1. 55. L 72. BONE DIE. P1. 56.
G 228. P.H. 0.058; D. est 0.12. Base and two-thirds BI 543. Dim. 0.016-0.017 at edge. Completebut
of body and rim missing. Colorlessglass. split at three points.
A bowlof hemisphericalshapewith contractedneck As L 70.
and plainlip. A groovebelowlip on exterior;just below
point of maximum diameter, a horizontal band of L 73. BONE PIN. Pl. 56.
short, vertical, wheel-cut grooves, widely spaced. BI 544. L. 0.087; W. knob 0.005. Originalpoint
L 66. GLASS CUP FRAGMENT. P1. 55. broken and the shaft resharpenedin antiquity.
G 227. P.H. 0.034. Fragment of foot and base of The shaft is round in section; the knob is crudely
cut in imitationof a cone-likefinialsuch as that ofL74.
cup; resting surfaceof foot missing. Colorlessglass.
The stemmed foot of a heavy cup or bowl. L 74. BONE PIN. P1. 56.
L 67. QUARTZCRYSTAL. P1. 54. BI 540. L. 0.066; W. knob 0.009. Originalpoint
G 226. P.L. 0.04; Max. Th. 0.021. broken and the shaft resharpened in antiquity.
A natural quartz crystal consistingof a hexagonal The shaft is round in section; the knob is cone-
prism with a hexagonal pyramid at one end; the shaped.Incisedgroovesaroundstem just belowknob.
opposite end (presumablya correspondingpyramid)
is brokenaway. L 75. BONE PIN.
L 68. BONE DIE. Pl. 56. BI 541. L. 0.073; W. 0.007. Intact.
BI 539a.Dim. approx.0.012 at each edge. Intact. Roughly cut pin; the shaft terminates in a flat
The values are arrangedas on modern dice (1-6, top without finial.
2-5, 3-4), but the numberedfaces do not succeedone L 76. BRONZE BOWL FRAGMENT. P1.73.
anotherin exactly the same manner:when the die is B 735. H. 0.01; D. foot 0.045. Foot and part of
held between thumb and forefingerwith the "1" floorpreserved.
uppermost and is revolved toward the left, the From a bowl with high ring foot.
sequence of faces is 2-4-5-3 (rather than 2-3-5-4).
Eachpipconsistsof a circulargroovewith dot at center. L 77. BRONZEKEY. P1. 53.
CompareL 69-72, M 109, M 251. B 736. L. 0.031; D. ring 0.022; Th. 0.013. Intact.
L 69. BONE DIE. P1. 56. The bit is an oblong plate (groovedlongitudinally
BI 539b. Dim. approx.0.012 at each edge. Intact. on both surfaces but without teeth) attached by a
The values are arrangedand the numberedfaces short stem to a plain ring. CompareM 189, M 319.
succeed one another just as on modern dice. Each L 78. PAIR OF IRON KEYS. P1.53.
pip consists of a circulargroove with dot at center. IL 777. Average L. 0.035; averageD. ring 0.023.
L 70. BONE DIE. P1. 56. Both keys apparentlycomplete but extensively cor-
BI 542a. Dim. approx. 0.014 at each edge. Intact; roded; details of surfacecannot be determined.
edges worn. Similarto L 77.
6
GROUP M
1ST TO 6TH CENTURY
This group constitutes the filling of Deposit M 17:1 (see P1. 76 for grid plan of the excavated
area), a well which in its penultimate phases served a building lying to the south of the east-west
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road which borderedthe Agora on the south.' This building is characterizedat its southern end
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by an apse of heavy construction with three niches in its rear wall. The well lies approximately
21.50 m. due north of the rear wall of the apse, within the southern of a pair of rooms whose
western walls have been destroyed. The well was lined with terracotta tiles from top to bottom
and reached a depth of 35.30 m.2 The location of the mean water level of ancient times, which
of course varied with the season and the annual rainfall, can be estimated to have been at least
above the 21.00 m. line, since the well was still in use in the late 6th century, when the shaft
had already been filled up to that level with pottery and other household debris.3
This well produced a total of 342 complete or nearly complete pots,4 plus a large number of
lamps and objects of clay, metal, bone, stone, wood and glass. This material had accumulated
in the shaft over a period of at least five centuries during which the well was in normal use as
a water-source. With the exception of one or two brief interruptions, this period of use seems
to have been continuous from the middle of the 1st century of our era to the end of the 6th,
a range also embraced by an equally productive well excavated in the summer of 1955 in the
area lying further east along the south side of the road.5The abundance of pottery from both
these wells rendersthem of primaryimportance as a tool for typological study; the presence at
certain levels in Deposit M 17:1 of coins and of other objects which can be dated on intrinsic
evidence helps to establish the chronology of the filling. It must be observed, however, that the
mobility of pottery in the moist silt of the well filling is very great (especially so when the
vessels are already in fragments at the time of their entry into the well) and that the depth at
which an object is found in the shaft cannot be an absolute indication of its chronological
association with other objects found at the same level. There can be no real "stratification"in
a period-of-usefilling from a well, but only a gradual accretion of material, of which that at the
lower level will be presumably earlier in date than that found above.6
The pottery in the lowest 14.30 m. of well fill (the period-of-use fill proper) was initially
stored in 107 containers. After the mending and inventorying of the finds, the sherds and other
objects which were considered worthy of saving were stored in 38 five-gallon tins and in 12
wooden trays. A complete analysis of this inventoried and uninventoried pottery has resulted
in the division of the well filling into thirteen layers (plusa fourteenthfor the upper, dumped fill;
see below). These layers and the evidence on which they are dated are summarizedbriefly below.
I The well, located in excavation section 0, was dug between March 13 and April 15,1937. See Hesperia, VII, 1938, p. 325.
2 From
depth 8.00 m. the shaft was cut through bedrock, which, however, was here so soft that the tile lining was still re-
quired. Each ring of tiles was 0.70 m. in diameter and consisted, as usual, of three segments (see above, p. 73).
3 After the emptying of the shaft in 1937, water rose to the 25.00 m. line
(10.00 m. above bottom) within thirty-five days;
further observations were impossible because of the necessity of refilling the shaft.
4 Of these, 91 duplicates were not inventoried; they are referred to in the catalogue, passim, under the heading "Storage."
1 Deposit Q 17:4. See
Hesperia, XXV, 1956, pp. 53-57.
8 It should be noted especially in regard to coins that they may easily filter down in the well silt; the numismatic evidence
must for that reason be used with caution.
GROUP M 88

Layer I (34.20 m.-bottom), M 1-30. Middle of the 1st century after Christ. The date is based
upon: the presence of one coin of the first half of the 1st century;7 similarities between
pottery of this layer and pieces of Layer II of Group G; the absence of fragments of
western sigillata fabrics such as do occur in G II.
Layer II (33.50 m.-34.20 m.), M 31-60. Late 1st and first half of 2nd century. The date is
based upon: the graffiti of M 45 and 46 (bearing the dates 112 and 131 respectively);
similarities between vessels of this layer and others of Group G, Layer III, Group H and
Group J, Layer I (cf. M 39 and [54]).
Layer III (32.00 m.-33.50 m.), M 61-112. Second half of 2nd century. The date is based upon:
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similarities between vessels of this layer and others of Group J, Layers I-III, and GroupK
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(cf. M 80, 88, [69 1);the absence of the painted and stamped wares and the late Roman red
wares which are abundant in Group K of the middle of the 3rd century.
Layer IV (31.50 m.-32.00 m.), M [113 -138. Early 3rd century. There are similarities between
some vessels of this layer and others of GroupK (cf. M [1131, 116-117, 132); but the absence
of the painted and stamped wares and the late Roman red wares, which are abundant in
Layer V and in GroupK, indicates a date in the first half, perhaps first third, of the century.
M 125, dated by its graffito to the year 145, was found in the lower levels of this layer and
may belong stratigraphically with Layer III.
Layer V (30.30 m.-31.50 m.), M 139-189. Middle of the 3rd century to 267. The pottery of this
fill is very like that of Group K, which has been assigned with some certainty to a period
just prior to the Herulian sack of Athens.8 Above Layer V there appeared considerable
metal waste (foundry slag ?) and for a depth of about 0.50 m. whole or nearly whole vessels,
such as occurred at both lower and higher depths, were absent. These facts suggest a
period of disuse during which the shaft served occasionally as a dump but was not used as
a source of water. The disruption of civic life caused by the inroads of the Heruli might well
explain such an interruption in the active life of the well.
Layer VI (29.50 m.-30.30 m.), M 190-208. Late 3rd century, after 267. In the upper level of
this layer appeared an Antoninianus of Probus (276-282).9 Relatively little pottery was
found in this layer; pieces from the lowest level, as M 190-196, have close parallels in
Layer V, while others from the upper level, as M 194, resemble material from Layer VII.
Layer VII (27.50 m.-29.50 m.), M 209-252. Early 4th century. Numerous parallels can be
observed to vessels of Group L, Layer II (cf. M 215, 223, 237).
Layer VIII (26.50 m.-27.50 m.), M 253-264. Middle of 4th century. Similarities can be observed
between vessels of this layer and others of Group L, Layer III (cf. p. 108).
Layer IX (25.00 m.-26.50 m.), M 265-288. Late 4th century. There is no internal evidence
for chronology, but Layer X, more precisely datable, provides a terminus ante quem.
Layer X (24.00 m.-25.00 m.), M 289-309. Early 5th century. Much of the late Roman stamped
ware (such as M 289, q.v.) found in the Agora has occurredin conjunction with coins of the
late 4th and the 5th centuries. There appears to be a sharp break between the pottery
types of Layer IX and those of Layer X; in the latter, gouged jugs (as M 292-293, 297-299)
SAthenian Imperial bronze, as Svoronos, Ath., pl. 95, no. 13.
8 Above, 59.
p.
9 Thompson, Coins, no. 686.

6*
84 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

and late stamped ware (M289) make their first appearancein GroupM. Layer X is apparent-
ly contemporary with Layer IV of Group L, which, however, is a dumped filling rather
than a use filling.
Layer XI (23.20 m.-24.00 m.), M 310-319. Late 5th century. There is no intrinsic evidence for
the dating of either this layer or the following (XII). The dates here assigned are taken
arbitrarily as intermediate points between the end of Layer X and the probable beginning
of XIII.
Layer XII (22.40 m.-23.20 m.), M 320-348. Early 6th century. See note to Layer XI above.
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Layer XIII (21.00 m.-22.40 m.), M 349-384. Late 6th century. The vessels of this layer appear
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to be slightly earlierin date than a group of 35 early 7th century vases found in an osteotheke
discovered in Athens in 1947;1o the date of the osteotheke is given by two gold coins, of
Tiberius II (578-582) and Mauricius Tiberius (582-602). M 367 is similar to a number of
miniature lekythoi from the osteotheke, but it has an elaborate foot, whereas almost all the
vases from the osteotheke are without foot. M 364 and 366 have some similaritiesto pottery
from the osteotheke, but in general the vessels of GroupM, Layer XIII, are more carefully
made and more decorative (gouged and painted ornament)than those from the 7th century
group. It is tempting to suggest that the terminus ante quem for Layer XIII is the last
quarter of the 6th century, when Slavic hordes invaded Athens and caused the retreat of
the population back within the line of the old Late Roman Fortification of the late 3rd
century." For three centuries thereafter the well shaft remained open but was not used
as a source of water.
Layer XIV (top to 21.00 m.), M 385-391. 9th and 10th centuries. There is a considerableperiod
of disuse between Layers XIII and XIV. The depth of XIV and the paucity of objects
found indicate that this is a dumpedfilling, thrown in to close the shaft. The date is indicated
by the appearance of Byzantine glazed pottery (Miss Alison Frantz has kindly examined
the inconsiderableceramic remains of this level and has suggested the dating noted above).

Throughoutthe depth of the well there appeared,at differentlevels, considerablequantities of


sea shells, nutshells, fruit pits, pine cones and knucklebones, a selection of which is illustrated
on Plate 56.

LAYER I (MIDDLE OF 1STCENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES i 3. CUP, TWO HANDLES. Pls. 18, 70.
P 11654.H. 0.043; D. 0.064.Fragmentary;restored.
M 1. BOWL, FLANGED RIM, GRAFFITO Pis. 18, 58, 70.
Reddish,micaceousclay;brownslip; thin,brittle
P 10059.H. 0.041; D. 0.08. Fragmentary;restored. fabric.
Pinkish buff clay; orange-redglaze. Cupwith very low ring foot and plain lip; two
Similarto G 68. Onbase,a graffito:X. delicatehandlesriseto a pointabovetherim.Grooves
on exteriorbelowlip andnearfoot.
M 2. CurP,TWO HANDLES. Pls. 18, 70.
P 10058.H. 0.072; D. 0.095.Fragmentary;restored. M 4. BEAKERFOOT.
Soft, buffclay; dull, brownto blackglaze (partial). P 22014. P.H. 0.023; D. foot est. 0.085. Small
As G 80. fragmentof foot with part of wall.
to whomI am indebtedfor an opportunityto-examine
Street;excavatedby John Threpsiades,
lo Locatedon Sophroniskos
the potteryand to referto it here.
11 Thompson,Coins,p.
3.
GROUP M 85

Reddish clay, fired gray at core. M 10. MORTAR.


The foot of a beaker (?) as G 94 and H 3. This P 11652. H. 0.082; D. inner edge of rim est. 0.84;
fragmenthas been used in reconstructingthe profile D. foot est. 0.30. A single fragment preserves the
of a brittle ware beakerfrom a contemporaryfilling: completeprofileexcept for the lip.
P 762 (Pl. 63). Pinkish to buff clay, fired gray at core; tiny bits
P.H. 0.072; P.D. est. 0.085. Part of body preserved, of black stone set into the surface on the interior
with a trace of the foot. providean abradingsurface.
Light red, micaceousclay; thin fabric. Open basin with flat base; wide, everted, hori-
A beakerwith roulettingand grooving,as F 20-22, zontal rim. Concentricgrooveson base.
but on a ring foot. This form of mortar, quite different from the
[M 5]. GLOBULARJUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1.18. Hellenistic type with sloping rim seen in E 124, is
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P 7307. Deposit D 11:1 (late 1st century before found also, in more nearly completeform in P 14889
and early 1st century after Christ). (Pls. 38, 72; found with other fragmentsof 1st cen-
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H. 0.15; D. 0.115. Part of lip missing; restored. tury pottery):


Hard, reddishbuff clay; dull, red glaze (partial). H. 0.073; D. inner edge of rim est. 0.31; D. foot
Almost globularbody on ring foot; bulbousneck est. 0.22. Three non-joiningpieces preservethe full
and trefoil mouth. Handle placed at a 900 angle to profileand a trace of the spout; restored.
the left from the pouringspout ratherthan diametri- Pinkish buff clay with grits; tiny bits of black
cally opposite it. stone on interior surface.
Storage, Layer I-fragment of the neck of a Shape as M 10. Narrowspout; at least two round
similar jug. A similar, but better glazed specimen, discs appliedto rim surfaceat either side.
P 21740, has been found in the Augustan filling of
Deposit R 10:1. Storage,Layer I, coarse householdware-fragments
of a micaceousone-handledjar similarto M 45.
M 6. BULBOUS UNGUENTARIUM. Pl. 18.
P 10060. H. 0.178; D. 0.066. Intact except for
M11. FRYING PAN HANDLE.
chip from lip.
P 11658. P.L. 0.108. Handle preserved,with part
Hard, buff clay with grits; dull, brown glaze
aroundmouth only. of rim.
As G 98, but more slender. See note on F 50. Gritty, brownishclay.
As G 114, but larger.
Storage, Layer I-fragments of the bases of two
other similarunguentariaand of one similarto G 97. Storage, Layer I, cooking ware-fragments of:
M7. BULBOUS UNGUENTARIUM. P1. 18. cookingpot as G 195; trefoil-mouthjug as G 120.
P 10061. H. 0.15; D. 0.062. Intact.
Hard, reddishbuff clay with grits; apparentlynot LARGESTORAGE
VESSELS
glazed.
As M 6. [M 12]. AMPHORA. P1. 18.
[M 81. BULBOUSUNGUENTARIUM. P1. 18. P 16191. DepositN 20:1 (firsthalf of 1st century).
P 10351. Found in close connection with graves H. 0.40; D. 0.830.Intact.
of the early 1st century after Christ. Gritty, gray-buffclay; buff slip; mastic.
H. 0.069; D. 0.042. Intact. Plump, ovoid body tapering to a small, flat base.
Hard, pinkishbuff clay. Wide neck, thickened lip. Broad, ridged handles.
As M 6-7, but smallerand plumper. Ridge aroundneck at t.a.h.; groovesaroundshoulder.
Storage,Layer I-several joining fragmentsof an Compare F 73.
unguentariumalmost identical with P 10351. Storage, Layer I--fragments of an amphora
Storage,Layer I, miscellaneouswares-fragments of: identical with P 16191 (mastic).
plate with reddish brown glaze, possibly as G049;
non-glazedplate of coarse,pinkishgray clay, similar [M13]. AMPHORA. P1. 19.
to G 82-84. P 4201. Used as packing, along with two other
amphorae,in a cistern channel through which the
COARSE HOUSEHOLD AND COOKING WARES well E 15:1 was dug; similar amphorae occur in
M 9. FUNNEL. P1. 18. fillings of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries.
P 11651. H. 0.23388;
D. 0.30. Fragmentary; restored. H. 1.11; D. 0.278. Almost complete; restored.
Hard, buff clay with grits. Hard, pinkish buff clay with grits; light buff slip.
As F 63, but larger; probably had one horizontal Cylindrical body tapering to a blunt toe; shoulder
strap handle. The body encircled by three horizontal set off at angle from both wall and neck; thickened
bands of dull, brownish glaze. Compare also M 119. lip; double rolled handles.
86 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Storage, Layer I-fragments of an amphora Fat-belliedbody, the point of maximumdiameter


similarin shape to P 4201 (hard,reddishclay, fired near the bottom. Narrow toe, blunt at end. Long,
gray on exterior;buff slip). narrow neck with heavy, collar-like lip; heavy
handles, round in section. On the lip, traces of a
[M14]. AMPHORA, STAMPED. P1. 19. narrow rectangular stamp, worn and illegible.
SS 5945. R
Deposit 13:1 (early 1st century). Funnels as F 64 may have been designedfor filling
H. 1.055; D. 0.41. One handle and part of other such amphorae (P1. 19 shows F 64 in the neck of
missing. [M 14 ).
Fine, buff, micaceousclay; thick and rather soft Storage, Layer I-foot and fragments of handle
fabric. of an amphorasimilar to SS 5945.
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OBJECTSOTHERTHANPOTTERY
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M 15. LAMP NOZZLE. P1. 46. Narrow,plain rim, set off from the deep, concave
L 3001. P.L. 0.062. Only the nozzle is preserved. discusby a singlegroove;tripartitelug at eitherside
Pinkish buff clay; black to brown glaze. of rim. Handle, groovedlongitudinally,not made in
Long nozzle with rounded tip, flanked by small the mould. On base, in relief, the letter alpha. Perl-
lugs. Howland type 35 B. zweig.
Storage, Layer I-lamp handle similar to that
M 16. LAMP. P1. 46. of M 20.
L 2998. L. 0.103; W. 0.063; H. 0.032. Intact. Storage, Layer I, lamps-fragments similar to
Buff clay; dull, black glaze (partial). G 130-131.
Rim: largeleaves in relief. Nozzle triangular.Base
flat and offset from body. Howland type 54 B. M21. PYRAMIDALLOOMWEIGHT. P1. 50.
MC362. H. 0.12; base dim. 0.072x 0.066. Intact.
M 17. LAMP. P1. 46. Coarse,buff clay with grits.
L 2999. P.L. 0.081; W. 0.065; H. 0.0338.Handle See L 58a. Also Pnyx, I, pp. 73-76; Davidson,
and nozzle brokenaway. Minor Objects,pp. 161-162.
Pinkish buff clay; dull, black glaze. M 22. CONICALLOOMWEIGHT. Pl. 50.
Rim: smallleaves and tendrils.Base flat. Howland MC363. H. 0.09; D. 0.054. Intact.
type 54 C (see underHowland,Lamps,no. 779). Hard, reddishclay.
M 18. LAMP HANDLE. P1. 46. See Pnyx, I, pp. 76-79. The conical loomweight
continuedin use into the 1st centuryafter Christ;the
L 3213. P.H. 0.037; P.L. 0.043. Upper part of
handle only. shape of M 22, however,with the angle of the profile
near the base, seems closer to Hellenistic than to
Buff clay; slight traces of white paint (?).
Roman examples (see also Davidson, Minor Objects,
The tip of a large handle with handle-guard.The
vertical, pierced handle proper is protected in pp. 148-161). CompareM 204, M 318.
front by a flat plate divided into two discs, each M23. GLASSBOWLFRAGMENT. P1. 54.
markedwith a circulargroove.Perlzweig. G 164. Max. dim. 0.036. Single fragmentof wall
and floor.
M 19. LAMP. Pl. 46. Dark yellow to brown glass with white veins;
L 3000. D. rim est. 0.08. Numerousjoining and mould-pressed.
non-joining fragments preserve nozzle and part of Froman openbowl; on the interior,two concentric
discus and body (only the nozzle fragment is illus- grooves; on the exterior, vertical ribs which grow
trated). wider towardthe top.
Soft, pale buff clay; thin fabric; dull, brownglaze, Comparesimilarspecimensof the 1st centuryfrom
muchworn. Corinth:Davidson, Minor Objects,p. 95, nos. 595ff.
Broad, concave discus marked by one broad and
two narrow concentricridges and set off from the M24. GLASSBOWLFRAGMENTS. Pl. 54.
plain, narrow rim by a single groove. Volutes at G 163.Max.dim.0.03. Threenon-joiningfragments
either side of nozzle, against rim. CompareF 104. of lip and wall.
The nozzle of M 19 is roundedand the volutes are Apparentlymade arounda sand core: at the lip,
set ratherclose together.Perlzweig. a narrow green band; the wall made up of a series
of transparent glass rods (about each of which were
M 20. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.46. woven two fine, spiral threads of yellow glass),
L 2997. L. 0.099; W. 0.082; H. 0.026. Intact. disposedhorizontallyaround the core.
Buff clay; dull, red to black glaze, much worn. From an open bowl with plain lip.
GROUP M 87

M 25. GLASS BEAD. Pl. 54. M28. BRONZEBUCKET. Pl. 51.


G 162. D. 0.021; Th. 0.017. Intact. B 435. P.H. 0.15; D. 0.218. Fragmentary; the
Globular,piercedbead of opaque, dark blue glass bottom piece does not join; handle missing.
with light blue spots marvered in flush with the Round-bottomed bucket with plain, thickened
surface. lip; two heavy lugs riveted to the sides provideloops
CompareDavidson, Minor Objects,nos. 2429ff. above the lip for attachingthe bail handle. Compare
L 19-20.
Storage, Layer I, glass--numerous small frag-
ments of colored,mouldmadeglass and of transpar. M29. BASE OF BRONZEVESSEL. P1.58.
ent, blown glass. B 436. D. 0.101; Th. 0.01. Base only preserved.
M26. BONE IMPLEMENT. A solid disc of bronze, presumablybroken from
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

BI 371. L. 0.103; W. 0.005. Tip brokenaway. the bottom of a jug or other closed vessel. On the
A pin-shapedimplement with a small spoon-like undersurface,a broadouter ridge (the ring foot) and
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

two narrowconcentricridges.
depressionat wider end. As G 163.
M27. BONE COUNTER, GRAFFITO. M 30. LEAD WHEEL.
Pls. 56, 58. P1. 53.
BI 428. D. 0.024; Th. 0.003. Intact. IL 638. D. est. 0.052. Half the rim and three of the
Circulardisc; on the obverse, a central boss and four spokes are preserved.
two concentric ridges; on the smooth reverse, a A wheel of four spokeswith a knob at the hub on
graffito: IA (i.e., [row] six, [seat] eleven ?). one side; attached to the rim a strand of lead so
Probably a theater ticket or gaming piece; see twisted that its original shape and purpose cannot
Davidson, Minor Objects,pp. 217-222, especiallyno. be determined.
1679. ComparePnyx, I, p. 108, no. 1.

LAYER II (LATE IST AND FIRST HALF OF 2ND CENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES M 34. BOWL. Pls. 18, 70.
M 31. SAMIAN A BOWL. Pls. 18, 61. P 10056. H. 0.031; D. 0.155. Intact.
P 10054.H. 0.039; D. 0.14. Fragmentary,centerof Soft, micaceous,buff clay; orange-redglaze, thin
and dull on exterior.
floor missing; restored.
Shape as G59. On the floor,five rings of rouletting
Micaceous,cinnamon-redclay; orange-redglaze. executed as a continous
There was apparentlyno potter's stamp on such spiral.
bowls (cf. AgoraP 15425 and P 15872),but applique M135. FAIENCE PLATE. Pls. 18, 62.
medallionsmay occasionallyhave been set into the P 10051. P.H. 0.025; D. foot est. 0.125. Fragment
depressed center of the floor. CompareHolwerda, of floor, foot and rim; lip not preserved.
Leiden, no. 396. In the L. A. Benachi collection, Friable, gritty, coarse, white fabric; no trace of
Alexandria, there is a Samian B bowl of shape glaze preserved (probably was covered with a
similarto M 31, though lacking the floor-depressions vitreous
glaze).
(H. 0.047; D. 0.175); it has an appliqu6gorgoneion, Plate with vertical, flangedrim. CompareG 160.
struck from a very worn mould, set at the center of
the floor and surroundedby a band of rouletting M 36. BICONICAL JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 18.
(P1.43). P 10057. H. 0.108; D. 0.10. Intact except for
handle; restored.
M 32. SAMIAN A BOWL. P1.62. Orange-buffclay; dull, red glaze (partial).
P 11642. H. 0.035; D. est. 0.11. Two joining Biconical body on ring foot; everted lip. Two
fragmentspreserveprofileexcept for center of floor. horizontal bands of rouletting at b.a.h. Compare
Clay and glaze as M 31. F 44.
Similar to G 213 (and G 168).
[M37j. GLOBULAR JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.18.
M 33. SAMIAN A CUP. Pls. 18, 57, 62. P 21150.Deposit N 19:2 (firsthalf of 2nd century).
P 10055. H. 0.062; D. 0.115. Intact. H. 0.17; D. rest. 0.155. Fragmentary, handle
Micaceous,light cinnamon-redclay; soft fabric; missing; restored.
dull, orange-redglaze, much worn. Reddish clay; thin red to black glaze (partial).
Shape as G 28. On the rim, two applique spiral Globularjug on ring foot; verticalrim markedby
ornaments; on the floor, device-stamp: cross in horizontalgrooves;three horizontalbands of roulet-
square. ting aroundshoulder.CompareG 87, M 67.
88 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Storage,Layer II-fragments of at least fourjugs Ovoid body on ring foot; the ridged handle is
similar to P 21150; of these one is considerably attached behindthe lip; a horizontalgrooveat b.a.h.
smallerin size, one may have been larger. The body is not wheel-ridged.CompareG 189.
Storage, Layer II-three similar jugs, all of
M 38. JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1.20. slightly smallersize.
P 11648. H. 0.35; D. 0.21. Almost complete;
restored. M 43. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.20.
Reddish buff clay, buff slip. P 11650. H. 0.227; D. 0.148. Most of lip missing,
Piriform body on ring foot; bulbous neck and body almost complete;restored.
trefoil mouth (cf. [M 5]). Groovedhandle. The jug Soft, orange-brown claywithgrits;buffslip; mastic.
is decoratedwith white paint (addedafter firing)on Ovoid body on ring foot; almost horizontal
the handle, around the mouth and in six vertical shoulder;high, cylindricalneck with evertedlip, flat
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

stripeson the body; betweeneach two stripes,at the on top. A ridge aroundneck at level of t.a.h.; ridged
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

mid-point of the body, a round spot of white paint. handle. Thereis a slight wideningof the neck at its
Storage, Layer II, glazed ware--fragments of: a mid-point.
bulbous-neckedjug similar to [M 5] (buff clay, M 44. WATER JAR, BASKET HANDLE.
P1.20.
brownish black glaze); a cup with flanged rim
P 11645. H. 0.26; D. 0.212. Almost complete;
similarto G 74-75 (reddishbuff clay, reddishbrown
restored.
glaze).
Hard, pinkishbuff clay; self-slip.
Ovoid body on heavy ring foot; short neck;
COARSE HOUSEHOLD AND COOKING WARE
everted,roundedlip; ridgedhandle.Contrast[G 1061,
M39. STAMNOS,PARTLYGLAZED. P1. 18. J 44, [J 45], M 88-89, M 198.
P 10049. H. 0.19; D. 0.172. Intact. Storage, Layer II-foot and body fragments of
Micaceous, reddish clay with grits; buff slip. several vessels probablysimilarto M 44.
As G 101, J 4, M 40. Horizontalgroovesabove and
below the handles; an incised wave line between the M
45. JAR, ONE HANDLE, GRAFFITO. Pls. 20, 58.
P 11644.H. rest. 0.45; D. 0.22. Mouthand part of
grooves. Decoration in dull red glaze: broad hori-
at
zontal bands mouth, below handlesand below the body missing; restored.
Fine, brownto grayclay withmuchmica;blackslip.
point of maximum diameter; stripe on top of each
handle. Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody, tapering to a neatly-
turned,tubular foot. Splayed handle, markedlongi-
M40. STAMNOS,PARTLYGLAZED. P1. 18. tudinally by a single, very broad groove. At the
P 11640. H. 0.235; D. 0.22. Almost complete; base of the handle, a graffito: PMB.This is read by
restored. Miss Mabel Lang as the year 142 of the Actian era
Coarse,reddish to brownishclay with grits; self- = A.D. 112 (Lang,DatedJars, no. 8).
slip. CompareF 65 and other jars cited there.
As M 39, but the body is moreplump and the lip Storage, Layer II-fragments of at least six
is everted. Horizontal grooves above and below the similarjars, some of which have brown,others black
handles. Decoration in dull black glaze applied as slip.
on M 39.
M 46. JAR, ONE HANDLE, GRAFFITO. P1. 58.
M41. AMPHORA,WIDE MOUTH. PI. 18. P 11643. P. H. 0.17. Neck, handle and part of
P 10052. H. 0.215; D. 0.175. Almost complete. shoulderpreserved.
Orange-buff clay with grits, buff slip; mastic. Fine, brownclay with much mica; brownto black
Ovoid body on ring foot; low neck with wide slip.
mouth and offset lip apparently designed to receive From a jar as M 45. At the base of the handle, a
a lid; two grooves around vertical edge of lip. Ridged rous] PEA. The readingis by Miss
graffito: Nfi[Kns
handles. Horizontal groove on neck and on shoulder MabelLang, who interpretsthe text as representing
at b.a.h. the year 161 of the Actian era = A.D. 131 (Lang,
Storage, Layer II-fragments of another similar DatedJars, no. 14).
amphora of slightly smaller size (reddish clay, gray M 47. AMPHORA. P1. 20.
slip; mastic).
P 10050. H. 0.30; D. 0.188. Almost complete;
M 42. JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. PI. 20. restored.
P 11647. H. 0.223; D. 0.155. Almost complete; Pinkish buff clay, buff slip.
restored. Ovoid body on ring foot; everted, overhanging lip;
Soft, reddish clay with grits. handles marked by a single groove. Compare M 90.
GROUP M 89

M 48. AMPHORA. Pls. 20, 78. LARGE STORAGE VESSELS


P 11649. H. 0.405; D. 0.26. Almost complete.
Orange-buffclay with grits, self-slip; mastic. [M531.STORAGE AMPHORA. P1.19.
Ovoid body; grooved base. Rolled lip with pro- P 11696. Deposit M 18:1 (2nd century).
jecting flange below. Ridged handles, oval in section. H. rest. 0.655; D. 0.257. Fragmentary;upper and
Storage,LayerII-fragments of a similaramphora lower body sections do not join directly; restored.
of gray-buffclay (mastic). Fine, reddish brown clay; thin fabric; traces of
white slip.
[M491. AMPHORA. P1. 20. Cylindrical, wheel-ridged body with rounded
P 12463. Deposit N 20:5 (late 1st to early 2nd bottom. Heavy, rolled lip. Handles oval in section.
century). This shape is related to that of G 197, H 20 and
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

H. 0.415; D. 0.25. Almost complete;restored. M 102.


Pinkish buff clay with grits, fired gray in part; Storage, Layer II-neck and handles of an
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

mastic. amphoraprobablysimilarto P 11696: brownishclay


Ovoidbody on ring foot; mouldedbase. Rolled lip with tracesof white slip; the handlesarenearlyround
with flangebelow, as in M 48. Wide handles. in section.
Storage, Layer II-three similar bases (mastic).
M 50. AMPHORA. P1.20. [M 54].
STORAGE AMPHORA, DIPINTI. P1. 19.
P 10053. H. 0.32; D. 0.205. Complete;filling hole. P 12861. Deposit N 20:2 (second half of 1st
Micaceous,gray clay with white grits, firedbrown century).
on exterior. H. 0.775; D. 0.305. Intact except for the tips of
Ovoid body on flat base. Everted, rolled lip. Flat the handles and a small hole in the body.
handles. CompareM 98. Gritty, dark buff clay; self-slip.
Storage, Layer II-fragments of two similar Large, heavy body built up in two sections and
amphorae(mastic). terminatingbelow in a short, blunt toe. The upper
section tapers towarda roundmouth with rolledlip;
M 51. COOKING POT. Pl. 20. there is no neck. Double rolled, hornedhandles. On
P 11646. H. 0.25; D. 0.238. Almost complete; the body, decorationand inscriptionsin red paint:
restored. a broadhorizontalband at the mid-pointof the body
Coarse,red to brownishclay. and another between this and the lip; above the
Biconical body on moulded base; narrow flange upperband, a large letter zetaon one side, epsilonon
below lip; body wheel-ridged. the other; beneath each handle an elaboratesymbol
ormonogram.Ofthe monograms,that shownat the left
M 52. COOKING POT. Pl. 20. onPlate 19mayrepresentthe numeral146 or 546 (pip<,
P 11641. H. 0.225; D. 0.191. Fragmentary; 4qp). That at the right may be: Xup(a in ligature
restored. or the symbol for Eo0-ratcombinedwith M (= 40);
Rather coarse,reddishbuff clay with grits. Miss Lang states that although the capacity of the
Round-bottomedpot with low, flaring lip. Flat, vessel has not been verified,its size seemsappropriate
grooved handles. Horizontal groove around body at to a capacity of 40 Eo-rat.A closeparallelto the latter
b.a.h. dipinto appears on an amphora from Nubia dated
A.D. 50-75 (recordedin the register book of the
Storage, Layer II, coarse household wares--frag- Egyptian Department,Museumof Fine Arts,Boston:
ments of: an amphora probably similar to M 103; HU-MFA-21-8-378,from Begarawiyah,tomb N 17,
a round-mouthed jug probably similar to [J 42]; chamber A). Compare G 126.
three round-mouthed jugs similar to [G 103], J 43 Storage, Layer II-fragments of the handles of an
and M 80; a jug as G 188 and [M 101]. amphora similar to P 12361.

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

M 55. LAMP. P1. 46. M56. GLASSBOTTLEFRAGMENT. P1.55.


L 2996. L. 0.11; W. rest. 0.068; H. 0.035. Frag- G 111.P.H. 0.095; D. lip 0.038.Lip andneck,with
mentary; restored. part of the shoulder,preserved.Greenish,translucent
Fine, hard, buff clay. glass.
Oval body. Rim plain; discus plain. Base marked Probablyfroma bulbousperfumeflasksuch as the
by oval groove. Handle mouldmade, pierced and clay unguentariaM 6-7. Everted lip, flat on top.
grooved above. Perlzweig. CompareM 106.
90 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

M 57. BONE MOULDING. Pl. 56. M59. SCULPTUREDHEAD, UNFINISHED. Pl. 52.
BI 678. L. 0.104; H. 0.021; Th. 0.01. Singlepiece, S 904. P.H. 0.042; W. 0.032. Broken below the
theoriginalsurfacesapparentlypreservedeverywhere. neck. Pentelic marble.
A moulding,perhapsfrom a bone box or casket; A roughly blocked-out female head, inclined
the back and bottom surfacesare plain; on the top, slightly to the left; the hair is gathered in a roll
two grooves;on face, a broad,concave channelwith aroundthe face and in a knot at the nape of the neck.
a deep groove above and below; the two ends are M60. MARBLEOBJECT. P1.52.
bevelled for close fitting with the adjoiningsections A 1910. H. 0.20; W. 0.098; Th. 0.048. Intact.
of the moulding. Pentelic marble.
A slab of marble, apparentlyintended to be set
M 58. WOODEN CUP. P1. 73. up vertically on one of the narrow ends, in which
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

can be noted the lead-filledcutting for a two-pronged


W 8. P.H. 0.037; D. est. 0.05. Two joining frag-
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

metal dowel. All surfacesare smoothed;the top and


ments preservebase and part of wall and rim. The one vertical edge are slightly rounded and marked
cup has shrunk considerablysince 1987, and is now
by a singlelongitudinalgroove.The use to which this
preservedin formaldehyde;the profile drawing on
object was put is not clear.
P1. 73 is a reconstitution based on the original
preserved dimensions and the present appearance. Storage, Layer II, objects other than pottery-two
Cupwith thick, flat base and almost vertical wall. bronze handle-lugs for a bail-handledbucket such
Possibletracesof a projectinghandleat the rim. as M 28.

LAYER III (SECOND HALF OF 2ND CENTURY)


MISCELLANEOUSGLAZED AND NON-GLAZEDWARES M 64. BOWL. P1.70.
P 11681.H. 0.028; D. lip 0.067. Fragmentary,one
M61. HEMISPHERICALBOWL,FLANGEDRIM. handlemissing; restored.
P 11632. P.H. 0.045; D. lip est. 0.21. Small frag- Yellow-buffclay; dull, red glaze, much worn.
ment of rim and wall. Angularbody; small, solid handles,crudelymade,
Reddish clay; red glaze. affixedbelow lip.
From a bowl similarin shape to G 14.
656. PLATE. Pl. 70.
Storage, Layer III-fragment of a bowl of similar [M
P 11733.DepositM 19:1 (firsthalf of 2nd century).
shape (orangeclay; dull, red glaze).
H. 0.058; D. 0.203. Almost complete.
M 62. BOWL FRAGMENT. Coarse,reddishbuff clay with grits.
P 11633. P.H. 0.025; D. est. 0.20. Small fragment Storage, Layer III-fragment of a similar plate
of orange-buffclay.
of rim and wall.
Reddish clay; dull, red glaze. [M 66]. SHALLOWBOWL. P1. 70.
From a bowl similarto G 184; there is no trace of P 11708. Deposit M 18:1 (2nd century).
handleson the preservedfragment. H. 0.028; D. 0.095. 1Halfpreserved.
Coarse,reddishbrownclay with grits.
M 63. BOWL. P1. 21. This shape should be compared with F 53-54,
P 11619. P.H. 0.142; D. 0.17. Lowerpart of body G 60, G 216.
and ring foot preserved. Storage, Layer III--part of a bowl similar to
Reddishbuff clay; reddishbrownglaze (partial). P 11708.
Deep bowl on ring foot; the wall slopes inward, M 67. GLOBULARJUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 21.
but at the preservedtop there is a slight trace of an
P 11623. H. 0.197; D. rest. 0.174. Fragmentary;
eversion toward a lip (?). This bowl may have had
restored.
a basket handle,as in the case of a bowlwith stamped
decoration: Rather soft, orange-buff clay; dull, red glaze
P 11138(Pls. 40, 86). (partial).
A debasedexampleof the shape seen in G 87 and
Deposit B 14:2 (2nd century).
H. rest. 0.117; D. rest. 0.124. [M 37].
Pinkish buff red Storage, Layer III-one complete jug and frag-
clay; dull, glaze (partial). ments of some six others similarto M 67.
Bowl on low ring foot; everted lip; heavy, twisted
basket handle. On the upper half of the body, im- M 68. GLOBULARJUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1.21.
so
pressionsof a diamond-shapedstamp, arranged as P 11627. H. 0.195; D. 0.183. Fragmentary; re-
to form a pattern of eleven inverted triangles. stored.
GROUP M 91

Apparentlya misfiredpiece. The clay is hard and cup. For other thymiateria,see G 159, H 15, M 224.
gray; the originalslip, togetherwith the glaze which A lid such as J 53 might have been used with this
presumably covered the jug partially, has peeled thymiaterion.
away; the body is seriouslywarped.
As M 67. Storage, Layer III--fragments of two closedvessels,
each with neatly turned ring foot (D. 0.065 and
[M69]. GLOBULARJUG. P1.21. 0.078); the wall, in its lower portion, as far as
P 17871. Deposit C 20:1 (late 2nd to early 3rd preserved,is oblique;reddish,micaceousclay with a
century). thin red wash on the exterior; the exteriorsurface
H. 0.071; D. 0.064. Intact. burnished.
Orange-buffclay with some mica; dull, red glaze.
As K 61; no painted decoration. COARSE HOUSEHOLD WARES
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Storage, Layer III-fragments of a similar jug M 75. STAMNOS, PARTLY GLAZED. P1.21.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

(orange-buffclay; the glaze has peeled completely P 9923. H. 0.18; D. 0.184. Cracked,but intact.
from the surface). Pinkish buff clay, buff slip.
[M701.GLOBULAR JUG. P1. 21. As M 39-40, but less globular.Decorationin dull,
P 11946. Deposit B 14:1 (middle of 1st to early red glaze: stripeon lip and on handles;a heavy wave
3rd century). line on eitherside betweenthe handles;broadvertical
H. 0.072; D. 0.083. Almost complete. stripe below each wave line and below each handle.
Buff clay; dull, black glaze (partial). Storage, Layer III-fragments of another vessel
Globular body on small ring foot; flaring lip. decorated with bandsof red-brownglaze and possibly
Groovedhandle. of the stamnos-typeillustratedin M 39-40 and M 75.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of a jug almost These fragments,however, show a deposit of black
identical in shape, clay and glaze to P 11946. mastic on the interior; such deposit has not been
noted in other stamnoi, but it is presentin the wide-
M 71. SMALL POT. P1. 21. mouthed amphoraeM 41 and M 77.
P 9920. H. 0.072; D. 0.064. Fragmentary;restored.
Buff clay, white slip. M 76. STAMNOS. P1.21.
P 10043.H. 0.135; D. 0.154. Intact.
Wheel-ridgedbody on flat base; everted lip. Two
vertical, groovedhandles.A horizontalgroove in the Orange-brownclay with white grits; dull, orange-
handle zone and anotherjust above the base. red glaze (partial).
Globularjar on ring foot; wide mouthwith everted
M 72. SMALL POT. lip. Horizontal handles, round in section, applied
P 9924. H. 0.078; D. 0.079. Almost complete. below lip and bent upwardat center to touch under-
Buff to pinkishbuff clay. surfaceof lip.
As M 71, but the body is not wheel-ridged;hori-
zontal groove in the handle zone. M77. AMPHORA, WIDE MOUTH. P1.21.
P 10038. H. 0.275; D. 0.192. Almost complete;
M73. MINIATUREAMPHORA. P1.21. restored.
P 10044. H. 0.102; D. 0.059. Intact. Buff to pinkishbuff clay, self-slip;mastic.
Coarse,sandy, gray clay; buff slip. Crudelymade; Slender,ovoid body on small ring foot. Neck set
heavy fabric. off from shoulderby a ridge; threehorizontalgrooves
The body tapersto a flat base; the lip is thickened. around the vertical edge of the everted lip. Ridged
For other miniaturevessels see H 14. handles.Horizontalgroove at b.a.h.
M74. THYMIATERION. P1. 21. Compare M 41.
Storage, Layer III--a complete amphora and
P 10045. P.H. 0.08; D. flange 0.076. Lip and foot fragments of another similar to M 77 but smaller
broken away.
(mastic).
Reddish clay, matt white slip overall (except for
interior of foot). Traces of burning on floor of cup. M 78. JAR, WIDE MOUTH. P1. 21.
Hollow stem surmounted by a cup with oblique P 11680. H. 0.282; D. 0.191. Fragmentary; re-
wall; cup set off from stem by a pronounced flange. stored.
The original shape is suggested by two thymiateria Brown, micaceous clay.
from the 3rd century filling of Deposit J 18:1 - P Plump, wheel-ridged body on high, flaring ring
17529, which lacks the flange (publ. Hesperia, XVII, foot; wide mouth and flaring lip with groove on outer
1948, p. 191, pl. LXIX, 8), and P 17580 (P1. 89; the edge. Ridged handles.
foot is broken away); both are covered with white Storage, Layer III-fragments of another jar,
paint and show traces of burning on the floor of the probably similar to M 78 (mastic).
92 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

M 79. JAR, WIDE MOUTH. P1. 22. Ovoid body on ring foot; everted lip. Ridged
P 11637.H. 0.825; D. 0.176.Fragmentary;restored. handle, attached behind lip. Horizontal groove at
Yellowishgray clay with grits; the exteriorsurface b.a.h.
much worn; mastic. Storage, Layer III----onejug, almost complete,
Tall, slender body, narrowing below to a high and fragments of at least eight others similar to
ring foot and above to a wide mouth with everted M 85-86.
lip, flat on top. Ridged handles. M 86. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH.
CompareM 118. P 11635. P.H. 0.14. Neck and part of handle and
M 80. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 21. shoulderpreserved.
P 10047.H. 0.116; D. 0.09. Intact. Micaceous,buff clay with satiny texture; self-slip.
brownish buff fired on As M 85 but somewhatlarger.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Gritty, clay, gray upper


half of exterior.
M 87. JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Similarto [G 1031, but of more slender propor- P1.22.


tions; compareJ 43. P 11625. P.H. 0.207; D. 0.140. Fragmentary;
Storage,LayerIII-fragments of about six similar lower part of body missing; partly restored.
Micaceous, buff clay; dull, red glaze, much worn
jugs.
(partial).
[M 81]. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 21. Piriform body; probably had ring foot; everted
P 11704. Deposit M 18:1 (2nd century). lip with groove on upper surface. Ridged handle,
H. 0.15; D. 0.121. Almost complete;restored. attached above lip. Two horizontal grooves just
Reddish, micaceous clay; dull, red glaze (except belowlip.
on base).
M 88. WATER JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.22.
Ring foot; evertedlip, flat on top. Ridged handle.
Horizontalgroove at b.a.h. and two others lower on P 11621. H. 0.35; D. 0.243. Almost complete;
the body. restored.
Storage, Layer III-fragment of a jug probably Buff to pinkishbuff clay, self-slip.
similar to P 11704: orange, micaceous clay; dull, As [J 45]; rolledlip; ridged handle; body lightly
red glaze. wheel-ridged.
Storage,Layer III-one jar, almost complete,and
[M 82]. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.21. fragments of at least a dozen others similar to M
P 20549.Deposit D 17:1 (firsthalf of 2nd century). 88-89.
H. 0.24; D. 0.184. Almost complete;restored.
Buff clay; dull, black to red glaze (partial). M 89. WATER JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.22.
Globularbody on ring foot; broad, everted lip, P 11622. H. 0.286; D. 0.197. Fragmentary; re-
flat on top. Ridged handle. stored.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of a jug presum- Buff to pinkishbuff clay, self-slip.
ably similarto P 20549: buff clay; dull, black to red As M 88.
glaze (partial). M 90. AMPHORA, GRAFFITO. Pls. 22, 58.
M 83. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 21. P 11634.H. 0.36; D. 0.254. Fragmentary;restored.
P 11626. H. 0.276; D. rest. 0.194. Fragmentary; Buff to pinkishbuff clay with grits, self-slip.
restored. As M 47, but the body is plumper;handlesround
Rather soft, micaceous,buff clay. in section. Graffitoon shoulder(P1.58).
Almost cylindrical, wheel-ridgedbody with flat Storage, Layer III--one amphora, almost com-
base. Everted lip, flat on top. Handle deeply grooved. plete, and fragments of three others similar to M 90.
M 84. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 21. M 91. AMPHORA. P1. 22.
P 11624. H. 0.313; D. 0.217. Fragmentary; re- P 11629. H. 0.292; D. 0.215. Fragmentary; re-
stored. stored.
Reddish brown, micaceous clay. Reddish clay with white grits, buff slip.
Piriform body on ring foot; everted lip, flat on Plump body on low ring foot; moulded base. Wide
top; ridged handle. neck with everted lip, sloping down to exterior and
undercut. Ridged handle. Horizontal groove at t.a.h.
M 85. JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1. 22.
P 11636. H. 0.23; D. 0.148. Fragmentary, most of M 92. AMPHORA, PARTLY GLAZED. P1. 22.
mouth missing; restored. P 10046. H. 0.28; D. 0.195. Almost complete;
Pinkish buff clay, buff slip. Exterior surface has filling hole; restored.
appearance of being burnished in part. Pinkish buff clay with white grits, self-slip.
GROUP M 98

Plump body on ring foot; heavy, everted,rounded straight rather than convex profile and the handles
lip; a horizontal ridge about neck at t.a.h. Flat are grooved: rather fine, pinkish buff clay; self-slip;
handles. Decorationin dull red glaze: stripe on lip mastic.
and on handles; three wide horizontalbands around
the body. M 98. AMPHORA. P1. 22.
P 11628. H. 0.845; D. 0.196. Almost complete;
M 93. AMPHORA. P1. 22.
restored.
P 11620.H. 0.30; D. 0.194. Fragmentary;restored. Reddish buff, micaceousclay; buff slip.
Pinkish buff clay, self-slip. Ovoidbody on false ring foot. Narrowneck, rolled
Ovoid body on ring foot; horizontalridge at the lip. Ridged handles.
base of the high, flaringlip. Ridged handles. CompareM 50.
Storage, Layer III-fragments of an amphora
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

probably similar to M 93: soft, brownishbuff clay. M 99. AMPHORA(?) BASE. P1.35.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 10037. P.H. 0.15; D. base 0.103. Only the lower


M 94. AMPHORA, DIPINTO. Pls. 22, 58, 73. half preserved.
P 10040. P.H. 0.369; D. 0.2138.Neck, handles and Reddish buff clay, buff slip; mastic.
part of shouldermissing; partly restored. Shape as M 98, as far as preserved.
Micaceous,buff clay.
Tall, slender body tapering to a flaring ring foot Storage, Layer III, coarse household pottery--
with moulded base. On the shoulder,an inscription fragments of: jug, probably as G 93; two vessels,
in red paint: Xa[--] ITrOv8ES. probably as the amphora[M 12]; four vessels, pro-
The shape'of neck and handlesis indicated in an bably as M 50; over half a dozen water jars of mica-
amphorafrom the 2nd centurywell filling of Deposit ceous, reddishbrownor black clay, as M 45-46.
M 18:1-P 11692: micaceous,orange-buffclay, self-
slip; high neck with thickenedlip (P1.40). COOKING WARE AND LARGE STORAGE VESSELS
Storage, Layer III--fragments of an amphora
similar to M 94 and to P 11692: micaceous,orange- M 100. COOKING PAN. P1.72.
buff clay; self-slip. P 10041. H. 0.044; D. 0.246. Almost complete.
Coarse,brown to red-brownclay; firm, red glaze
M95. AMPHORA. Pls. 22, 73. on interior; exterior blackenedby fire.
P 116839.H. rest. 0.44; D. 0.20. All of neck and Flat-bottomedpan; compareG 191.
of one handle missing; fragmentsof lip, other handle
and body also missing; restored. It is probable,but [M 101]. Juo, TREFOILMOUTH. Pls. 23, 73.
not certain, that there were two handles. P 11315.Deposit G 11:2 (early3rd century).
Rather coarse, reddish clay, with some mica; H. 0.212; D. 0.166. Fragmentary;restored.
buff slip. Rather coarse,brownto orange-brownclay.
Slender body tapering to a high, flaring, tubular Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody; mouldedbase; flaring,
foot. Small, everted, rolled lip. Handles oval in plain lip; sliced handle. CompareG 188.
section and markedby a single, deep groove. Storage, Layer III-fragment of the neck and lip
CompareJ 5. of a jug apparentlysimilarto P 11315.
M 96. AMPHORA. P1. 22. M 102. STORAGE AMPHORA FRAGMENT, DIPINTO.
P 10042. H. 0.32; D. 0.22. Intact; fillinghole. Pls. 23, 58.
Gritty, reddishclay with some mica; mastic. P 10048. P.H. 0.254; max. pres. D. 0.263. Neck,
Ovoid body on low ring foot with moulded base. handles and shoulder preserved.
Thickened lip with groove on vertical edge. Ridged Pinkishbuff clay with white grits, self-slip;mastic.
handles. There is a swelling of the neck just below From an amphorasimilarto G 197, H 20. On the
the handle attachment. shoulder,an inscriptionin black paint, of which only
Storage, Layer III-three base fragments which the numeral phe (139) is intelligible.
may be from amphorae of the shape of M 96 or M 91. Storage, Layer III-fragments of three other
amphorae of apparently similar shape but of varying
Ml97. AMPHORA. P1. 22.
fabrics (hard reddish clay; gray-buff clay with grits;
P 10039. H. 0.298; D. 0.184. Intact; filling hole. brownish clay with some mica).
Coarse, buff clay; self-slip.
Ovoid body on narrow ring foot; conical base. M 103. STORAGEAMPHORA. P1. 22.
Small, everted lip. Handles round in section. P 11688. H. 0.42; D. 0.198. Fragmentary; restored.
Storage, Layer III-an amphora, almost complete, Coarse, gritty, orange to brownish orange clay,
similar to M 97 except that the lower body has a fired gray in part.
94 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Elongated, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody terminating Almost cylindrical body; rounded bottom with
in small ridged knob. Wide neck and mouth with small projectingknob at center. Wide mouth with
heavy, thickenedlip. Handlesmarkedby singleridge. plain, vertical lip. Handles round in section. On the
The fabric is similarto that of M 176 and M 334. wall, two inscriptionsin black paint: the upper, in
two lines, is illegible;the lower,in threelines, is faded
M 104. STORAGE AMPHORA, DIPINTI. PIs. 22, 59. and difficult to read; Miss Lang suggests a-rapvov
P 9922. H. 0.32; D. 0.173. Fragmentary;restored. &rr68sos~ThmTrrcp olDhi7nMrrrSEhq~j (reading later
Gritty, reddishclay; mastic. than drawingon P1. 59).
OBJECTS
OTHER
THANPOTTERY

Storage, Layer III, lamp fragments-fragments of M 108. GLASSBOTTLE FRAGMENT. P1.54.


American School of Classical Studies at Athens

lamp similarto Broneer,Lamps,no. 551 (with punch G 159. P.H. 0.032; D. lip 0.03. Neck and mouth
marks on rim as no. 679) and of another similar to preserved.Opaquewhite glass.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Broneer,Lamps,no. 570 (cf. also M 132). From a bottle with bulbousneck and plain, flaring
lip.
M 105. GLASSBEAKER. P1. 55.
M 109. BONEDICE. P1. 56.
G 161. H. est. 0.10; D. est. 0.066. Twojoining and BI 362 and 426. Dim. approx.0.009 at each edge.
two non-joiningfragmentsseem to preservethe full Intact.
profile.Blue-greenglass. Apparently a matched pair. The values are ar-
Heavy, disc-like base; almost cylindrical body, ranged as on L 69. Each pip consists of two concentric
tapering slightly toward the plain lip. At the center grooves with a dot at the center.
of the floor a hollow, round knob, of extremely thin
CompareL 68-72, M 251.
fabric; a hole through the base connects with the
interior of the knob. A groove around exteriorjust M110. BONE PIN. P1.56.
below lip. BI P.L.
8370. 0.114; D. 0.004. Point broken.
The blunt end is adornedwith two groovesand a
M 106. GLASSBOTTLE FRAGMENTS. P1. 73. small round knob.
G 160. D. base 0.087; D. neck 0.027. Several M111. BONESPOONFRAGMENT. P1. 56.
joining and non-joining fragments preserved; in- BI 369. P.L. 0.075; W. 0.033. Handle missing.
complete. Clear glass with white decomposition A long, narrow,deep bowl. CompareJ 68.
deposit on exterior.
A bottle with broad,flat base and tall,narrowneck, M112. UNFINISHED STATUETTE. Pl. 52.
similar in shape to the bulbous unguentariain clay S 903. H. 0.17; W. 0.089; Th. 0.045. Apparently
intact. Pentelic marble.
(as M 6-7); compareM 56.
A roughly blocked-out figure, probably female,
M107. GLASSBOTTLEFRAGMENTS. P1.55. seated (2), facing.
G 158. P.H. D.
0.055; lip 0.051. Mouth and neck Storage,Layer III-a bone needle; a bone pin with
preserved.Pale, yellowishgreenglass. round head; numerouspine cones, peach pits, nut-
From a bottle with flaringneck and plain lip. shells, knucklebonesand sea shells (cf. P1. 56).

LAYER IV (EARLY 3RD CENTURY)


GLAZEDAND NON-GLAZED
MISCELLANEOUS WARES Reddish buff clay; dull, reddishglaze.
From a globular jug; compare [M 69] and [M 701.
[M 113]. BOWL,FLANGED
RIM. P1. 23.
P 18415. Deposit C 18:2 (early3rd century).
H. 0.10; D. 0.198. Intact.
M 115. GLOBULARJUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1. 23.
Rather soft, orange-buff clay with grits. Wheel- P 9921. H. 0.186; D. 0.166. Intact.
Buff to pinkish buff clay; dull, black to brown
ridgesvisible on the interior.
Shape as K 29-31. glaze (partial).
of the foot and As M 67-68.
Storage,LayerIV--fragment body
of a bowl probablysimilar to P 18415: rather soft, Storage, Layer IV--fragments of eight or ten jugs
similar to M 115; three of these, of coarser manu-
yellow-buff clay with grits; wheel-ridges visible on the
interior. facture, have light wheel-ridgingon the body and
lack the horizontal bands of rouletting at the shoul-
M 114. GLOBULAR JUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1.23. der. Attention should also be called to an uninven-
P 11615. P.H. 0.03388;
D. lip 0.054. Half of mouth toried fragmentof a small globularjug (D. ca. 0.08)
and upper body preserved; handle missing. with flat base; above a horizontal groove, in the
GROUP M 95

handle zone, decoration in the form of diagonal behind the lip. Horizontal grooves at mid-point of
gouging. For another unusually early specimen of neck and anotherat b.a.h.
gouged ornament,which is most common after 267, Storage, Layer IV-fragments of a similar but
see K 32. slightly largerjug of orange-buffclay.
M 116. MINIATUREJAR. Pl. 23. M 122. JUG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1.28.
P 9917. H. 0.108; D. 0.064. Intact. P 9915.H. 0.242; D. 0.158. Complete.
Buff to pinkish buff clay, self-slip; thin brown Pinkish buff clay, buff slip.
glaze on the exterior of the lip only. Ovoid body on ring foot; trefoil mouth; everted
Slender, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on flat base; lip, groovedon top surface. Ridged handle attached
low, flaring lip. No handles. Compare K 71. behind lip. Horizontalgroove at b.a.h.
Storage, Layer IV--fragments of at least eight
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

M 117. LIQUEUR CUP. P1.23. similarjugs; one of these is of largersize than M 122.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 9916. H. 0.042; D. 0.053. Almost complete;


restored. M 123. AMPHORA, DIPINTO. Pl. 28.
P 9919. H. 0.336; D. 0.187. Intact; filling hole.
Orange clay with faint traces of a thin, reddish
Hard, reddish buff clay; buff slip, most of which
glaze on the exterior; the interior is blackened.
Small cup with piercedlug handle set low on the has peeled from the surface.
Almost cylindrical body contracted below to a
body. CompareK 75 and L 56.
wide, heavy ring foot. Narrow neck with plain,
MISCELLANEOUS COARSE AND STORAGE VESSELS flaring lip. Handles marked by single ridge. Miss
MabelLang reportsthe presenceon the neck of this
M118. JAR, WIDE MOUTH, DIPINTO. Pls. 28, 59. amphora of a faint dipinto: s- (= 6 [a-'rat]); the
H. D.
P 9918. 0.217; 0.165. Intact. capacity of the jar is 6 ao"ral.
Micaceous, gritty, buff clay; dull, white paint,
much worn, on exterior (partial)and interior. [M1241. AMPHORA. P1.23.
P 15279. Deposit N 17:2 (late 2nd century).
Deep body constricted below to a narrow ring
foot; a broadgroove at top of wall sets off the small, H. 0.295; D. 0.198. Fragmentary; filling hole.
everted lip. Handles marked by single ridge. Near Restored.
top of wall, an inscriptionin black paint; MissMabel Gritty, reddish to reddish buff clay with some
Lang suggests the reading Trwaiyvia,"tid-bits," mica; self-slipwhichin some areashas firedbrownish
"dainties"(cf. Ephippos,frag. 24, ed. Kock, C.A.F., buff and has acquireda soapy texture; mastic.
II, p. 263). Ovoid body on low ring foot; moulded base.
Narrow neck with thickened lip; ridged handles.
Compare1 79.
Rather coarselymade.
M 119. FUNNEL. P1. 18. Storage,Layer IV-numerous joining fragmentsof
P 11618.P.H. 0.182; D. 0.284. Fragmentary,spout a vessel similarin fabric and apparentlyin shape to
missing; partly restored. P 15279.
Reddish clay.
As F 63 and M 9, but the bowltapersmore gradu- M125. JAR, ONE HANDLE, GRAFFITO. Pls. 23, 58.
ally from lip to spout and the incurved, grooved lip P 11616. H. 0.496; D. rest. 0.208. Fragmentary;
is less pronounced. restored.
Hard, brittle, micaceous,gray to black clay; black
M 120. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 28. slip.
P 21995. H. 0.364; D. 0.24. Fragmentary; re- CompareF 65. The tubular foot is neatly turned;
stored. handle marked by two grooves. Under the handle a
Buff to pinkish buff clay, self-slip. graffito, p; on the neck, os (P1. 58). The two are in-
Ovoid, wheel-ridged body on ring foot; wide neck terpreted by Miss Mabel Lang as representing the
and round mouth with everted lip, sloping downward year 175 of the Actian era = A.D. 145 (Lang, Dated
to the exterior. The ridged handle merges into the Jars, no. 17).
top of the lip at the upper attachment. Storage, Layer IV--fragments of at least three
similar jars, two of red, micaceous fabric.
M 121. JuG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 28.
P 21994. H. 0.21; D. 0.132. Almost complete; M126. JAR, ONE HANDLE. P1.238.
restored. P 11617. H. rest. 0.495; D. 0.242. Mouth, neck and
Buff to pinkish buff clay, self-slip. handle missing; restored.
Similar to M 120, but the neck is higher; everted Pinkish buff to gray-buff clay, self-slip; dull,
lip, grooved on top. The ridged handle is attached purplish brown to gray-brown glaze (partial).
96 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Plump, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody taperingto long but is of micaceousfabric;anotheris of fabricsimilar


toe with tubular foot and conical base. Handle to that of M 126 but comes from a jar with much
markedby single broadgroove. The shape is related shortertoe; both have traces of mastic deposit.
to that of the early micaceousware, one-handledjars Storage, Layer IV-fragments of: a basket-handled
as [J 46], but the fabricis quite different. water jar similar to M 89; an amphora similar to
Storage, Layer IV-fragments of two other jars M 95; a storage amphora as G 197 and M 102, of
with tubular foot: one is similar to M 126 in shape rather soft yellowish buff clay (mastic).

OBJECTS OTHER THAN POTTERY

M 127. LAMP, SIGNED. M 132. LAMP.


American School of Classical Studies at Athens

L 2958. Max. dim. 0.055. Part of base and lower L 3211. D. est. 0.075. Small part of rim, discus
body. and body preserved.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Brownishclay; dull, brownglaze. Soft, micaceous,gray-buffclay.


From a lamp as G143-145, et al.; largereliefdots; As K 122, but the details of the relief are finer.
on the base, in relief, the letter alpha. Perlzweig. Perlzweig.
The quality and design of the rim pattern render
M 128. LAMP,SIGNED. P1. 46. this lamp very similar to a more completespecimen
L 2957. D. rim est. 0.095. About half of discusand from anothersource, signed ITpesfIov (L 4144).
non-joiningnozzle fragmentpartly restored;part of M 133.
base also preserved. PLASTICLAMP(2). P1. 47.
Brittle, brownishbuff clay; dull, brownishglaze. T 1448. H. 0.155; W. at shoulders0.082. Head,
Rim: wide and flat, markedby a concavechannel arms, legs from above knees, and the separately
and by raised panels at either side. Discus: two attached penis are missing.
branchesof oak leaves and acornsjoined in a knot Fine, reddish clay; dark red glaze. The fabric
(only one of the branches is preservedhere). Base: resembles that of J 14. Mouldmade,but of thick
circulargroove and an incuse signature, divided in fabric.
the center by a small circle and dot, ['E-rrcy]&dou. Torso of standing male figure, nude except for
Perlzweig. chlamys fastened over right shoulder; left leg ad-
vanced and crossedover in front of right leg, which
the weight. Such figures occur not infre-
M 129. LAMP, SIGNED. P1.46. supports
quently with a lamp projectingfrom the groin; this
L 2956. L. 0.114; W. 0.09; H. 0.024. Mostof discus
figure might have held a lamp in the outstretched
missing; hole in base. hands. Perlzweig-Grandjouan.
Soft, orange-buffclay.
Rim: small ovules, set close to discus; raised side M 134. PLASTIC LAMP
(?).
panels. Discus: traces (2) of a figuredrelief. Handle: T 1597. Max. P.H. 0.065. Five fragments,of which
pierced,grooved above and below; ivy leaf at base.
Base: two concentric grooves and faint traces of two join.
incusesignature,TTp[Ei]ipIov. Rather soft, fine, reddish clay; dark red glaze,
Perlzweig. much worn.
M 130. LAMP. P1.46. Fragmentsof a nude male torso, apparentlyfrom
a plastic lamp in which the lamp proper projected
L 2955. L. 0.101; W. 0.087; H. 0.038. Intact. from the groin (see M 133).
Yellow-buffclay.
Rim: small impressed dots, set close to discus; M135. TERRACOTTAFIGURINEFRAGMENT. P1. 48.
raisedside panels.Discus: fine rays. Handle: pierced, T 1598. P.H. 0.07. Three joining fragments
grooved above and below; ivy leaf at base. Base: preservepart of the back of the head.
two concentricgrooves,rosette at center.Perlzweig. Rather soft, fine, reddishclay.
From a head on which the hair is indicated by
M 131. LAMP, SIGNED. P1. 46. shallowgrooves;a braidat the crown,similarto that
L 2954. L. 0.094; W. 0.076; H. 0.027. Intact. on J 14. Grandjouan.
Rather soft, yellow-buffclay.
Rim: conventionalizedvine pattern (wave line M 136. WOODEN COMB. Pl. 50.
andgroupsof dots),raisedsidepanels.Discus:rosette. W 7. L. ca. 0.11; W. ca. 0.055. Broken in two
Handle: pierced, grooved above and below. Base: pieces, which probably join; the teeth badly bent.
two concentricgrooves,signaturein relief, Flat, double comb with rounded ends; teeth coarse
lpsflllou. at one
Perlzweig. edge, fine at the other.
GROUP M 97

M137.LEAD BUCKET. IL 572.P.L. 0.18; W.0.034.Endofhaft brokenaway.


IL 571. H. as preserved0.13; D. rim ca. 0.205. The Blade long and narrow;the haft is rectangularin
bottom crushedand piercedby severalholes; handle section.
and both handle lugs missing.
As J 9 and J 18. Traces of corrosionat the lip Storage, Layer IV-parts of at least three glass
vessels (a bottle as M 56 and two vessels with ring
suggest that the handle and handle lugs were of iron.
feet); several knucklebones,one piercedby a drilled
M 138. IRON SPEAR HEAD. P1. 58. hole; numeroussmall sea shells.

LAYER V (MIDDLE OF 3RD CENTURY TO 267)


MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES Buff clay; dull glaze (partial), fired purplish on
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

interiorand brownishblack on exterior.


M 139. RED WARE PLATE. P1.64. As K 54 and M 143, but smaller than either and
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 9891. H. 0.043; D. 0.284. Fragmentary;restored. with less


Fabric and glaze as K 1. pronouncedflare to the lip.
Shape as K 1; a groovemarksthe outeredge of the M145. Juo, PAINTED INSCRIPTION. Pls. 24, 57, 73.
base. P 9903. H. 0.183; D. 0.165. Fragmentary,handle
missing; restored.
M 140. PAINTED WARE BOWL FRAGMENT. Buff to brownishbuff clay; dull, brownto reddish
P 11607. P.H. 0.067; D. rim est. 0.40. Small brown glaze, fired red on lower part and foot as a
section of rim with part of one horizontal handle result of stackingin the kiln.
(and trace of vertical loop handle) preserved. Globularbody on ring foot; grooved base. Low,
Buff clay; dull, red glaze. vertical rim, set off frombody by two grooves. Sliced
From a bowl as K 28. Decorationin added white handle. Inscriptionaroundthe body in white
paint:
paint: dots on top of lip and on rim, above handles. lpagtypaTa. Theinscription(asalwayson thesejugs)
begins to the right of the handle; in the drawingon
[M141]. BOWL, FLANGED RIM. P1.24. Plate 57 the extremitiesof the dottedline indicate the
P 18416. Deposit C 18:2 (early 3rd century; of.
position of the handle in relation to the inscription.
[M113]). A horizontalrow of white dots above and another
H. 0.064; D. 0.12. Intact. below the legend. Comparenote on K 19.
Rather soft, orange-buffclay; dull, reddish glaze The word Ipaitypoda, known only on this vase
(partial). and on M 190, has been interpretedby T. L. Shear
Shape as K 46, but without grooveson rim. (Hesperia,VII, 1938, p. 348) as "the old womanwho
Storage,Layer V-fragments of a bowl similar to slaughtered";another possible interpretationwould
P 18416,of orangeclay with dull, red glaze; a groove associate the initial element
marks the rim just below the lip. accat- with the form
ap,
apd), ay6s in the meaning of "throat"or "gullet."
M142.BowL, FLANGEDRIM. Eugene Vanderpool calls attention to the use of
in sens. obsc.
P 11611. P.H. 0.038; D. lip est. 0.11. Part of rim 6iaoad&
and body preserved. M146. JUG, PAINTEDINSCRIPTION. P1.57.
Dark buff to reddish clay; purplish red glaze P 9911. P.H. 0.09; D. ca. 0.125. Fragmentary;
(partial),firedgray on exteriorof rim. handle and rim missing.
Similarto [M 141] and K 46, but the rim profileis Gray-buffclay; dull, black glaze.
convex on the exterior; a groove on the rim below As M 145. Inscription around the body in white
the lip. paint: [---K]toc[--]X[--]. There is no trace of the
handle attachment to show where the inscription
M 143. CuP.
begins.
P 11609.P.H. 0.05; D. lip est. 0.11. Five fragments
(two non-joining) preserve part of rim and body; M147. Juo, PAINTEDINSCRIPTION. Pls. 24, 57.
base missing. P 9890. H. 0.142; D. 0.122. Fragmentary.
Reddish clay; dull, reddishbrown glaze. Orange-buffclay; reddishbrownglaze (partial).
Shape as K 54; horizontalgroove at base of lip As M 145-146. Inscriptionaround body in white
and anotherat point of maximum diameter. paint: E0pp6Cv (EugeneVanderpooland Mabel
Lang read -ljaes in the drawingon Plate 57
M 144. Cup. Pls. 24, 70. the extremities LaLiee);
Ei.n)rv of the dotted line indicate the
P 11613. H. 0.037; D. lip 0.08. A single fragment position of the handle. A horizontal row of white dots
preserves complete profile; restored. above and another below the inscription.
7
98 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

M 148. JUG, PAINTEDINSCRIPTION. P1. 57. Globular, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot; high
P 9905. P.H. 0.115; D. 0.121. Fragmentary;base rim set off from body by ridges,plain lip; the mouth
missing. diameteris small in proportionto the body, in com-
Brownishorange clay; brownishto brownishred parisonwith K 63-64 and M 151-152. Ridgedhandle.
glaze.
As M 145--147.Inscriptionaroundbody in white M 155. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 24.
paint: AfKa 7 depaia;in the drawing on Plate 57 the P 11602.H. 0.146;D. 0.124.Fragmentary;restored.
extremitiesof the dotted line indicate the positionof Hard, buff clay; dull, red-brownglaze (partial).
the handle. A horizontalband of white dots above As J 35, K 65; compareL 4 and the more slender
and anotherbelow the inscription. version,M 218.
Storage,Layer V-a jug of similarshapebut more
M 149. PAINTED WAREJUG. P1.24. slenderproportions.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 9904.H. 0.188; D. 0.162.Fragmentary;restored.


For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

M 156. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. Pls. 24, 73.


Buff clay; dull, reddishbrownglaze (partial).
As M 145-148. Decorationin white paint around P 9910. H. 0.244; D. 0.181. Almost complete;
the body: a band of "reversedS" pattern (cf. K 23) restored.
with intermediate dots; horizontal bands of dots Rather coarse, reddish buff clay; dull, red glaze;
above and below. mastic.
Ovoid body; flat base, offset and flaring slightly
M150. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1.24. from the body. Neckterminatesin a flaring,thickened
P 22000. H. 0.141; D. 0.127. Handle and part of lip, flat on top. Ridged handle. Body lightly wheel-
lip missing;restored. ridged.
Brownish buff clay; dull, reddish brown glaze
[M1571.JUG, GOUGEDDECORATION. P1.24.
(partial). P 15543. Deposit R 21:1 (late 2nd to middle of
Plump, wheel-ridged body on small ring foot; 3rd
century).
flaringrim, set off from the body by a groove; plain H. 0.218; D. 0.13. Almost complete;restored.
lip. Soft, orange-buffclay; dull, red glaze (except on
M 151. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.24. base).
P 22002. H. 0.137; D. 0.123. Fragmentary; Piriformjug on ring foot; the high neck terminates
restored. in a flaring rim with everted lip, grooved on the
vertical surface. A horizontalridge marks juncture
Orange-buffclay with some mica; dull, orange-red
of neck and rim; groovesmark the juncture of body
glaze (partial).
As K 63-64; the ridgesbetweenbody and rim are and neck. The ridged handle terminatesbelow in a
sharplycut; sliced handle. CompareM 192. spreadingivy-leaf pattern and above flares out to
either side at its attachmentwith the lip. The body
Storage,LayerV-fragments of eight similarjugs;
the clay and glaze vary in color but are of the same decorated with obliquegougedlines; below the ridge
between neck and rim, decoration consisting of a
quality as in M 151.
horizontalline and a series of seven diamond-shaped
M152. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1.24. patternsrenderedin small punchmarks.
P 11614. H. 0.19; D. 0.151. Almost complete; The shape and decoration are presumably an
restored. imitation of metal ware. For the punchedornamen-
Gray-buffclay; dull,purplishbrownglaze (partial). tation, compareL 5.
As M 151, but the ridgesat the base of the rim are Storage,Layer V-a rim and lip fragmentsimilar
morewidely spaced,and the body is moreovoid than to P 15543 (yellow-buff clay covered with brownish
globular. glaze).

M 153. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 24. M 158. DECANTER, PAINTED DECORATION. P1. 24.
P 22001. H. 0.137; D. 0.122. Intact. P 11604. P.H. 0.168; D. 0.182. Neck, handles and
Orange-buff clay; dull, orange-brown glaze (par- part of body missing; partly restored.
tial). Buff clay, self-slip.
Globular, wheel-ridged body on ring foot; high rim, As L 24-25; compare M 215. Decoration in brown
tapering toward a small, everted lip. Sliced handle. and buff paint: a horizontal band of irregular, small
circles (brown) with a dot (buff) at the center of each;
M 164. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 24. above, a crudely executed wreath in brown with
P 9912. H. 0.284; D. 0.20. Fragmentary; restored. details added in buff. An uninventoried, fragmentary
Rather soft, orange-buff clay; dull, orange-red decanter-neck in storage (Layer V) may belong to
glaze (partial). M 158.
GROUP M 99

M 159. DECANTER (2) NECK. P1.24. Buff to reddishclay, hard fabric; self-slip.
P 11608. P.H. 0.059; D. 0.059. The neck is in- Similar to L 9. Handle attached behind lip. A
complete. groove at b.a.h.; no grooveson neck.
Buff clay; dull, reddish brown glaze. Storage, Layer V-six similarjugs, markedby a
A slender neck, narrowingtoward the top; near concave shoulder;no grooves on the neck; the clay
the bottom of the preservedfragmentappearsa sharp rangesfrom buff throughreddishto gray-buff.
angle, below which the neck is constrictedand starts M165. JUG,
to curve downward.Two horizontalgrooves around TREFOILMOUTH. P1.25.
upper part. Perhaps from a decanterwithout flange P 21996. H. 0.31; D. 0.173. Intact.
at the neck; it is possiblethat two handlesjoined the Hard, reddishbuff clay.
neck above the angle. Similarto M 164 but of more slenderproportions.
Single groove at b.a.h.; two grooves aroundneck.
M 160. MINIATURE JAR, BASKET HANDLE. P1.24. Storage, Layer V-eleven jugs, nearly complete,
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

P 9909. H. 0.091; D. 0.058. Almost complete; and fragmentsof eleven others, all similarto M 165;
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

restored. the fabric is in general hard, ranging from yellow-


Pinkish buff clay, buff slip. buff to red in color; there is no clear indicationof a
Slender, wheel-ridgedbody on flat base; ridged slip. It is noteworthy that M 165 and most of the
handle. twenty-two similar jugs in storage are from higher
CompareJ 2-3. It is noteworthythat there are no (and chronologicallylater) levels of Layer V than
certainly identified fragments of large basket- are M 164 and its six parallels.
handled water jars among the catalogued or stored
M 166. Juo, TREFOILMOUTH. P1.25.
pottery from Layer V (but cf. M 198, Layer VI). For
other miniature vessels see H 14. P 21998. H. 0.258; D. 0.169. Intact.
Dark buff clay, firedred in part; self-slip.
M 161. MINIATUREJUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1.24. Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot; convex
P 9913. H. 0.102; D. 0.063. Intact. shoulderset off from neck by two grooves; everted
Dark buff clay, self-slip. lip with groove on upper surface; trefoil mouth.
Wheel-ridgedbody on flat base; trefoil mouth; Ridged handle attached behind lip; handle does not
groovedhandle attached behindlip; groove at b.a.h. rise above lip nor does it indent the lip, as in M 164
M162. MINIATUREKANTHAROS. P1.24. and M 165. Groove at b.a.h.; two grooves around
below upperhandle attachment.
P 9914. H. 0.088; D. lip 0.061. Onehandleand part neck,
of base missing; restored. Storage, Layer V-considerable fragments of at
least seventeen jugs similar to M 166 and 167; the
Buff clay, self-slip; dull, thick, red glaze.
Miniatureversion of a Hellenistic kantharostype red clay is hard, buff to yellow-buffin color, often fired
in part; self-slip is present. M 166, M 167 and
(cf. H 14). Solid, flaringfoot and flat base. Plain lip; the
handle markedby a single groove. majority of the seventeen stored jugs are from
In the 3rd century there occur a numberof glazed higher (and chronologicallylater) levels of Layer V
than areM 165 and its twenty-twoparallels.Compare
vessels, both miniature and of normal size, which also M 195.
reflect shapes current in the Hellenistic period;
compareK 52-53 (also P 2266, 13071, 20022). M167. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1.42.
P 11606. H. 0.26; D. 0.168. Much of body and lip
Storage,Layer V-fragments of two plates similarto restored.
K 37 and of a jug as M 115; also a small lip fragment missing;
possibly from a jug as L 26, L 41 andM 220 (thistype Gray-buff clay, rathercoarse; self-slip.
As M 166.
of jug, however, is predominantly post-Herulian).
M 168. Juo, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1. 25.
MISCELLANEOUS COARSE AND STORAGE VESSELS
P 21999. H. 0.232; D. 0.167. Intact.
M 163. BASIN FRAGMENT. Buff clay, self-slip.
P 11612. P.H. 0.045; D. est. 0.40. A small section As M 167, except that the handle rises above the
of rim and wall, with part of one handle. lip and by its upperattachmentcausesan indentation
Buff clay, self-slip. of the lip. CompareM 196.
From a basin, probably similar to K 81; the sloping
M 169. Juo, ROUND MOUTH, DIPINTI. Pls. 25, 58.
rim is flat on top.
P 9902. H. 0.256; D. 0.171. Fragmentary; restored.
M 164. JuG, TREFOIL MOUTH. P1. 25. Buff to pinkish buff clay of thinner fabric than
P 21997. H. 0.253; D. 0.164. Handle missing; that in M 164-168; self-slip.
restored. Ovoid, wheel-ridged body on ring foot; wide neck,
7*
100 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

everted lip, the top surface of which slopes to the M 174. AMPHORA.
exterior and is providedwith a small vertical flange P 11605. P.H. 0.14; D. est. 0.165. Neck, handles,
at inner edge. Groovedhandle, rising above lip and shoulderand part of body preserved;lip missing.
attached to the top of the lip. Grooveat b.a.h. The Buff to orange-buffclay, self-slip.
shapeis similarto that of M 120. Inscriptionin black Ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot; shoulder
paint on shoulder(P1.58), read by MissMabelLang profileconcave; flaringlip. Heavy handleswith deep
as: 7M(-rpai)q; a similar inscription on the base central groove. Grooves around neck at t.a.h. and
employs a cursive eta (as also in M 170). Miss Lang at b.a.h.
informs me that the capacity of the repairedjug is For a morecompletespecimensee P 21818 (P1.40),
2J liters and that the vessel would hold eight Roman fromthe late 3rdor early4th centuryfillingof Deposit
poundsof any liquid having the same specificweight C 18:1. A related shape, but with convex shoulder,
as water or wine.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

is foundin J 48, K 68, L 3 and L 28.


Storage,Layer V-fragments of two similarjugs, Storage,LayerV-fragments of a similaramphora
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

one of which has two groovesaroundthe neck. of soft, gray clay.


M 170. JUG, DIPINTO. P1. 58.
M 175. AMPHORA. Pl. 25.
P 9907. P.H. 0.159; D. 0.167. Neck, handle and
some of body missing; partly restored. P 9900. H. 0.39; D. 0.255. Complete.
Buff clay, firedred in part. Buff clay, firedpink at core; self-slip.
Similar,as far as preserved,to M 169. Inscription Plump, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on neatly turned
in black paint on the base, identicalwith that on the ring foot. The high neck is constrictedat the middle
base of M 169: Ai(-rpai)r1. and terminatesin a plain lip. Heavy, broadhandles.

M 171. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1. 25. M 176. AMPHORA. Pls. 25, 73.
P 9899. H. 0.264; D. 0.164. Intact. P 11603. H. 0.227; D. 0.149. Almost complete;
Hard, gray-buffclay; self-slip. restored.
As M 169, but lip is level on top and there are two Rather gritty, buff to pinkishbuff clay; self-slip.
groovesaroundthe neck. Plump, wheel-ridgedbody on false ring foot; base
Storage, Layer V-two similarjugs, almost com- markedby concentricridges. Wide neck with thick-
plete, and fragmentsof three others. M 171 and its ened, flaringlip. Handles marked by a single ridge.
two well-preservedparallels are from higher (and The fabric similarto that of M 103 and I 334.
chronologicallylater) levels of Layer V than M 169
and its parallels;the three fragmentaryparallelsto
M 171, however,are from the same level as M 169. M 177. AMPHORA. Pl. 25.
P 9908. P.H. 0.377; H. rest. 0.408; D. 0.172. Lip
M 172. JuG, ROUND MOUTH. Pl. 25. missing, base fragmentary;restored.
P 9906. H. 0.297; D. 0.155. Almost complete; Gray-buffclay, fired pink at core; self-slip.
restored. Slender, wheel-ridgedbody with heavy, flaring
Hard, reddishclay; self-slip. ring foot and mouldedbase. Wideneck, flaringat top
toward a thickened lip (restoredon the basis of a
As M 165, except that the mouth is round.
similaramphorafroma 2nd centurydeposit,M 18:1).
Storage,Layer V-parts of two similarjugs; both
are of somewhatplumperproportions,lack the neck
M 178. AMPHORA. P1.25.
grooves and are from lower (and chronologically
earlier)levels of Layer V than M 172. P 9901. H. 0.32; D. 0.139. Almost complete; re-
stored (was intact when found).
M 173. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH. P1. 25. Brownish buff clay, with some mica; self-slip.
P 11610. H. 0.249; D. 0.179. Fragmentary; re- Slender body, lightly wheel-ridged in upper part,
stored. on small ring foot. Wide neck, terminating in a
Orange-buff clay, fired red in part; self-slip. thickened lip, flat on top. Plain, narrow handles.
Almost globular, wheel-ridged body on ring foot;
the neck widens toward the small, everted lip, which Storage, Layer V, storage vessels-parts of two
is level on top. Handle, marked by a single groove, glazed amphorae similar to J 48, K 68 and L 28;
rises above lip and is attached behind lip. Groove fragments of an amphora similar to J 49 and K 85
at b.a.h., four grooves at base of neck and two around but of larger size; handle fragment of an amphora as
neck at t.a.h. K 115 and P 21330 (P1. 40); fragment of handle and
Storage, Layer V-fragments of six similar jugs. shoulder of an amphora possibly similar to [K 112j;
M 173 and its parallels are for the most part from the fragments of one or more one-handled jars as M 125
lower (and chronologically earlier) levels of Layer V. and of one jar as M 126.
GROUP M 101

OBJECTS
OTHERTHANPOTTERY
M 179. LAMP. Pl. 46. Rim: set off from discus by two ridges and marked
L 3212. Max. dim. 0.064. Part of rim and discus by pairs of dots in relief. Discus: plain. Handle:
preserved. pierced and grooved above and below. Base plain.
Soft, buff clay. Perlzweig.
Rim: rosettes of raised dots. Discus: there are M 184. TERRACOTTA FIGURINEFRAGMENT. P1.48.
visible on the preservedpart a wing and part of the
T 1447.P.H. 0.032. Eyes, nose and browpreserved.
draperyof Eros (?) moving to left. Perlzweig.
Buff clay, self-slip; no traces of coloringremain.
M 180. LAMP. Pl. 46. Fragment of a grotesque, male face; the nostrils
L 2951. L. 0.08; W. 0.069; H. 0.024. Top of handle are widely dilated and the eyebrows slope upward
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

toward the sides of the face. Grandjouan.


missing.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

Pinkish buff clay, self-slip. M185. GLASSVESSELFRAGMENT. P1.55.


Rim: broad and plain, set off from discus by two G 155. P.H. 0.017; D. base 0.049. Base and part
grooves. Discus: small, decorated with fine rays. of wall preserved.Clearglass.
Handle: pierced and grooved above. Base: two The base of a cup.
concentricgroovesnear edge, a small circulargroove Storage, Layer V-four glass bases similar to
and dot at center. Perlzweig. M 185 and one similarto K 143.
M 181. LAMP. M 186. GLASSVESSELFRAGMENT. P1.55.
P1.46.
L 2950. L. 0.102; W. 0.079; H. 0.029. Intact. G 157. P.H. 0.026; D. lip 0.072. Part of rim and
Hard, buff wall preserved.Clearglass.
clay.
Rim: set off fromdiscusbytwo groovesand marked From a vessel possibly similar in shape to the
by six groups of dots in relief. Discus: fine rays. pottery jug M 114.
Handle: piercedand groovedabove and below. Base: M 187. GLASSVESSELFRAGMENT. P1. 54.
as on M 180.
G 156. Max. dim. 0.055. Base fragment. Clear
In the nozzle and filling hole there is a substance
glass.
composed of lime deposit and carbonized fiber, The base of a vessel, convex on the interior and
presumably part of the original wick. Perlzweig. decorated on the flat undersurfacewith an
applied
thread of glass in a spiralpattern.
M 182. LAMP,SIGNED. Pi. 46.
L 2953. W. ca. 0.078; H. 0.081. Small part of base, M 188. IRON NAIL. Pl. 53.
body and discus preserved. IL 636. P.L. 0.089 (P.L. when found 0.105);
Gray-buffclay. dimensions of head 0.03 x 0.038.
Rim: set off from discus by two grooves and A heavily oxidized stud (nail).
markedby groupsof dots in relief. Discus: fine rays.
Handle: piercedand groovedabove and below. Base: M 189.IRON KEY. P1.53.
three concentricgrooves near edge and relief signa- IL 637. L. 0.12; dimensions of bit 0.038 x 0.038.
ture, lhp[EfOou]. Perlzweig. Apparently complete, but heavily oxidized. The
stem ends in a ring; the bit consists of five teeth set
M 183. LAMP. P1. 46. at right angles to the stem. CompareL 77-78, M 319.
L 2952. L. 0.097; W. 0.064; H. 0.031. Intact. Storage, Layer V-fragments of a lead bucket;
Hard, reddishto orange-buffclay. bronzebucket handle.

LAYER VI (LATE 3RD CENTURY, AFTER 267)


MISCELLANEOUS GLAZED AND NON-GLAZED WARES (as M 145). In the drawing on Plate 57 the extremities
M 190. JUG, PAINTED INSCRIPTION. Pls. 26, 57.
of the dotted line indicate the position of the handle.
A row of white dots above and another below the
P 9892. H. 0.139; D. 0.127. Intact.
legend; white dots on the handle.
Pinkish buff clay; reddish to reddish brown glaze Publ. Hesperia,VII, 1938, p. 348, fig. 32.
(partial).
Shape as M 145, but the body is more nearly M 191. JUG, PAINTEDDECORATION. P1. 26.
globular and terminates below in a high foot; flat P 9893. H. 0.136; D. 0.12. Almost complete; re-
base with groove on resting surface; sliced handle. stored (was intact when
found).
Inscriptionaroundbody in white paint: I~cpcypa-ta Buff clay; dull, reddish brown glaze (partial).
102 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

Shape as M 190. Decorationaround the body in Yellowishbuff to reddishbuff clay, self-slip.


white paint (much worn): horizontal floral pattern As M 168, but less plump.
(cf. K 21 and K 26) borderedabove and below by a Storage,Layer VI-fragments of a similarjug.
horizontalline; dots on handle.
M197. CYLINDRICALJUG. P1.26.
M 192. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH. Pi. 26. P 9898. H. 0.198; D. 0.081. Almost complete;
P 9894. H. 0.143; D. 0.122. Intact. restored.
Buff clay; dull, purplish brown to black glaze Brownishbuff clay with grits.
(partial). Cylindricalbody, constricted below to a small
As M 151. ring foot. Angular shoulder and flaring lip; round
Storage, Layer VI-fragments of at least six mouth. Singleridgedhandle.
similarjugs.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

M 198. WATER JAR, BASKETHANDLE. P1.26.


M193. JUG, ROUNDMOUTH.
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

P 22004. H. 0.189; D. 0.123. Almost complete;


P 11601. H. 0.14; D. 0.122. Almost complete. restored.
Dark buff clay; reddishbrownglaze (partial). Reddish buff clay, self-slip.
As M 192. Plump, ovoid, wheel-ridgedbody on ring foot.
High neck and small,evertedlip. Ridgedhandle. Two
M194. JUG, ROUND MOUTH. P1. 26. horizontalgrooveson shoulderand two aroundneck.
P 22003. H. 0.148; D. 0.107. Fragmentary,handle Contrast[G 1061,J 44, [J 45], M 44, M 88-89. This
missing; restored. is the latest example of a water jar with basket
Buff clay, light buff slip; dull, brown to reddish handle; the shape appearsto have been uncommon
glaze (partial). in the 3rd centuryand to have disappearedfromuse
As M 192 and 193, but the body is ovoid rather beforethe beginningof the 4th.
than globular.
Storage, Layer VI-fragments of a similar jug. M 199. AMPHORA,DIPINTO. Pls. 26, 59.
M 194 was found in the upper levels of Layer VI; P 9897. H. 0.295; D. 0.188. Almost complete;
the ovoid shapeshowsa greaterresemblanceto M 219 restored.
in Layer VII than to the globular jugs of Layers Rather soft, gritty, buff to pinkish buff clay;
V and VI. self-slip;mastic.
Ovoidbody on ring foot; mouldedbase. The plain,
Storage, Layer VI-fragments of two jugs as L 41 everted lip rises directly from the shoulder. Plain
and M 220-222 and of one jug as L 26 (without handles. Horizontal
groove at t.a.h. Inscription in
grooves on lip) may have filtered down in the well black paint on shoulder between handles, read by
fillingand on typologicalgroundsare to be associated Miss Mabel Lang as:
more closely with Layer VII than with V. aOTKcb,.(aToS)M(Tpat) y o(O)-
y(ylp(o0)r KaOp(o) Ai(-pct)1 (i.e. "[weight]of vessel
3 [Roman]pounds,8 ounces;net [weight]10 [Roman]
MISCELLANEOUS COARSEAND STORAGEVESSELS pounds"). These figures correspondaccuratelywith
the weight and capacity of the amphora;its capacity
M 195. JUG, TREFOILMOUTH. P1. 26. of 3.3 liters is consistentwith the bulk of 10 Roman
P 9896. H. 0.177; D. 0.123. Almost complete;
pounds of a liquid having the same specificweight
restored. as water or wine.
Reddish clay, self-slip.
As M 166 and 167. Storage, Layer VI-fragments of two amphorae as
Storage,Layer VI-another jug similarto M 195 L 31 and M 230; handle fragmentof an amphoraas
but with slightly more globular body. K 115 and P 21880 (P1.40); fragmentof an amphora
as M 237; fragments of at least four jars of the type
M196. JuG, TREFOILMOUTH. of M 125. Also, from the upper levels of Layer VI:
P 9895. H. 0.265; D. 0.172. Almost complete; fragments of an amphora as H 239 and of another
restored (was intact when found). as M 236.

OBJECTSOTHERTHANPOTTERY

M 200. LAMP. Pl. 46. right, standing gladiator, similarly armed). Handle:
L 2949. L. 0.106; W. 0.081; H. 0.035. Intact. pierced,grooved above and below. Base plain. Perl-
Hard, somewhatbrittle, reddishclay. zweig.
Rim: plain except for side panels, set off from
discus by two grooves. Discus: gladiatorialscene (at N 201. LAMP. P1.46.
left, kneeling gladiator with sword and shield; at L 3210. L. rest. 0.10; W. rest. 0.088. Four joining
GROUP M 103

and one non-joining fragments of rim, discus and ment, broken all around, from the rim of a large
body; partly restored. bowl (?). Clearglass.
Dark buff to gray-buffclay. The fragment consists of two distinct layers of
Rim: plain, set off from discus by two grooves. glass.
Discus: Eros, winged, 3/4 right, lookingback toward
M 206. FRAGMENT OF BRONZESTATUE. Pl. 538.
a torch (?) held downwardin right hand. Perlzweig.
B 510. P.L. 0.075; W. 0.036.
M 202. LAMP. Pl. 46. The big toe of the left foot of a bronze statue of
heroic size.
L 2948. Max. dim. 0.05. Discus alone preserved.
Reddish clay. M 207. IRONBAIL HANDLEFOR BUCKET. Pl. 58.
Discus: ram to left. Perlzweig. IL 635. P.L. 0.14; D. largerring 0.06.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

Fragment of bail handle, to the top of which is


M 203. PLASTICLAMPFRAGMENT. fixed a small ring, through which moves a larger
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

L 3005. P.H. 0.05; Max. dim. 0.072. Two joining ring which served as a means of suspensionof the
fragmentspreservemost of lower part of lamp. bucket from the well-rope. Much oxidized; neither
Hard, dark buff clay; dull, red glaze on exterior. end of the handle is preserved. Might have served
Two grooves set off the flat base from the body as handle for a lead bucket such as M 208 or for a
of the lamp, of which there is preservedonly a trace bronze bucket as the uninventoriedexample noted
of a left humanear and of the back of a bald cranium. below.
The lamp may have resembledL 2409, which comes Storage,Layer VI-fragments of two similariron
from a filling of the first half of the 3rd century in bail-handles.
Deposit D 12:1 (A.J.A., XL, 1936, p. 411, fig. 8, M 208. LEAD BUCKET.
middle row, right); compare also L 2207, from
IL 570. Dimensions,as H. D.
dumped fill of same Deposit (A.J.A., XL, 1936, p. 0.235. Handle and about preserved:of 0.172;
200,fig.21; Howland,no. 616).Perlzweig-Grandjouan. one-quarter body miss-
ing; bent out of shape.
Lead bucket, apparentlywith round bottom and
M 204. CONICAL LOOMWEIGHT. straight sides; plain lip, slightly thickened toward
MC358. H. 0.064; D. 0.048. Intact. Hard,red clay. interior.Handle held in
place by two thick lead lugs
As M 22, M 318. which one is
(of missing)appliedagainst the outside,
This object is probably not contemporarywith just below the
lip; rust marks and traces of iron
Layer VI, as loomweightswere not employed after on top of the preserved lug show that the rings
the 1st century (Davidson, Minor Objects,pp. 147-
throughwhich the bail handle pivoted were of iron.
161); but in the 3rd centuryit may have found a use CompareJ 9, J 18, M 137, M 207, M 263 and
other than its originalone. note on p. 101, at end of catalogueof Layer V.
Storage, Layer VI-fragments of another lead
M 205. GLASS FRAGMENT. P1. 73. bucket and of one of bronze
(with which compare
G 154. P.H. 0.03; Max. P. D. 0.35. Single frag- M 28).

LAYER VII (EARLY 4TH CENTURY)

GLAZED WARES with great frequencyin clay bowls of the shape of


M 209. BOWL, ANIMALHANDLE. M 209 at Athens (Agora and Kerameikosexcava-
Pls. 26, 37, 71.
P 9803. H. 0.07; D. 0.22. Almost complete. tions) in the 4th century. Numerousparallelsare to
Reddish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze (partial). be foundin Egypt, Syria and Palestine. Considerable
Shallow bowl on ring foot; everted lip and pro- variety is to be noted in the animal-headtermination
of the handles of the clay bowls; the most common
jecting horizontal handle. The handle is mouldmade animals are ram, panther, lion, lioness; of greater
in two parts, with vertical seam; its outer end termi-
nates in a panther's head; the cylindrical shaft of rarity are boar, dog, horse, crocodile,bird (accipiter).
the handle is grooved longitudinally. Decorationin The animal-handlebowls of the Agorawill be treated
white paint: on the interior, spirals rotating clock- fully in the secondvolume of this work.
wise toward center and linked above; on the top of
the handle shaft and of the panther's head, short, M 210. BOWL, ANIMALHANDLE. P1. 26.
transversestrokes. P 9802. Max. dim. 0.127. The handle and a small
Zoomorphic handles occur commonly in metal part of rim preserved.
vessels from the 1st century after Christand appear Reddish clay; dull, red glaze.
104 THE ATHENIAN AGORA: POTTERY OF THE ROMAN PERIOD

As M 209; the handle terminatesin a ram'shead; Shape as L 24-25, M 158 and P 10005 (P1. 39,
the shaft of the handleis groovedspirally.Decoration cited under L 24). Decoration in white paint: on
in white paint: traces of spirals on the interior; upperglazed band, spiralsrotating clockwisetoward
transversestrokeson top of handle. the center and linked below; on centralband, spirals
as above, with the addition of S-shaped lines be-
M211. BOWL,PAINTEDDECORATION. P1. 26. tween; on lower band, short obliquelines.
P 11593.H. rest. 0.082; D. rest. 0.138. One-quarter Storage, Layer VII-a fragmentary decanter
of rim and part of wall preserved;restored. mouth which may belong to M 215.
Reddish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze (partial),
firedblack on exteriorof rim. M 216. DECANTER. P1. 27.
As K 33. Decorationin white paint on rim: spirals P 11587. P.H. 0.215; D. rest. 0.143. of
Top neck,
rotating clockwise toward center and linked above base and much of body missing; partly restored.
American School of Classical Studies at Athens

(cf. M 209). This bowl may have had a singlevertical Extremely fine, thin and brittle clay which one
For personal use only. License: CC-BY-NC-ND.

handle at the rim. might almost term eggshellfabric, reddishbrownto


gray in color; no glaze or other decoration.
M 212. BOWL. P1. 26.
Plump, ovoid body narrowingsharply to a small
P 9804. H. 0.07; D. 0.15. Almost complete; re- flat base (the base so narrow that the vessel could
stored. not have been set erect without a support); tall,
Reddish buff clay; dull, red glaze (partial). narrow neck, interrupted at mid-point of its pre-
Bowl as M 211, but the transition from wall to servedheightby a projecting,horizontalflange;neck,
rim is curved rather than angularand is markedby above flange,wheel-ridged.Smallridgedhandles.
a horizontalgroove. No painted decoration. Storage, Layer VII-fragments of two other de-
canters of the same shape and fabric,includingbase
M 213. JUG, PAINTEDDECORATION. P1. 27. and
lip fragments;both show traces of a horizontal
P 11595. H. rest. 0.232; D. 0.124. Foot and part band of buff glaze on shoulderat b.a.h.
of body missing; restored. The quality of clay of these decanters is much
Orange-buffclay; dull, red glaze (partial). finer than that of any contemporarylocal ware and
Slender, ovoid body [on ring foot]; concave probablyindicates an importedfabric. The western
shoulder, bulbous neck and trefoil mouth. Wide origin of the similar fine, brittle fabrics of the 1st
ridged handle. Horizontal grooves at b.a.h. and at centuriesbefore and after Christsuggests that these
base of neck. Decorationin white paint: aroundthe decantersmay have been imported from the west;
body, spirals rotating counterclockwise toward I am not, however, familiar with parallels from
center and linked above; at b.a.h., a horizontalband Italy or elsewhere.For earlierwestern brittle ware
of vertical strokes; transverse strokes across the vessels, compareF 18-24, G 2, G 39-44, H 2-3, M 3.
handle. CompareM 265.
[M 2171. SPRINKLER JUG. P1.27.
M 214. AMPHORA, PAINTED DECORATION. P1. 27. P 7864. Deposit D 12:1 (middleof 3rd century).
P 9886. P.H. 0.205; D. 0.125. Neck and handles H. 0.209; D. 0.113. Part of body missing;restored.
missing. Rather soft, orange-buffclay; dull, reddishbrown
Darkbuffclay with grits; dull,blackglaze(partial). glaze (partial).
Almost cylindrical body on ring foot; nearly Piriform body on ring foot; the narrow neck
horizontalshoulder;narrowneck. Tw