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Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

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Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

The local GDQ method applied to general higher-order theories


of doubly-curved laminated composite shells and panels: The free
vibration analysis
Francesco Tornabene , Nicholas Fantuzzi, Michele Bacciocchi
DICAM Department, School of Engineering and Architecture, University of Bologna, Italy

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper presents a general two-dimensional approach for solving doubly-curved laminated composite
Available online 20 May 2014 shells using different kinematic expansions along the three orthogonal directions of the curvilinear shell
model. The Carrera Unied Formulation (CUF) with different thickness functions along the three orthog-
Keywords: onal curvilinear directions is applied to completely doubly-curved shells and panels, different from
Doubly-curved shells and panels spherical and cylindrical shells and plates. Furthermore, the fundamental nuclei for doubly-curved struc-
Laminated composites tures are presented in their explicit form for the rst time by the authors. These fundamental nuclei also
Higher-order shear deformation theory
allow to consider doubly-curved structures with variable thickness. In addition, the theoretical model
Thickness functions
Local Generalized Differential Quadrature
includes the Murakamis function (also known as zig-zag effect). For some problems it is useful to have
method an in-plane kinematic expansion which is different from the normal one. The 2D free vibration problem is
numerically solved through the Local Generalized Differential Quadrature (LGDQ) method, which is an
advanced version of the well-known Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method. The main
advantage of the LGDQ method compared to the GDQ method is that the former can consider a large
number of grid points without losing accuracy and keeping the very good stability features of GDQ
method as already demonstrated in literature by the authors.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction growing need of curved components in civil, mechanical, aerospace


and naval engineering has pushed researchers even further. The rst
It is well-known that curved structures have a higher strength theoretical models were based on thin shells and shallow shells.
than at ones, due to the fact that membrane forces are coupled Nowadays, these models can be considered as very well-known
with bending ones. This aspect can be enforced by employing lam- because they were deeply investigated. On the contrary the same
inated composite structures. The rst coupling effect states at the cannot be said for thick shells, due to the fact that the mechanical
kinematic level, whereas the second one is at the constitutive behavior of these structures is more complex, especially when lam-
one. It becomes clear why several researchers in the last 70 years inated composite shells are taken into account. The simplication of
[155] have focused their efforts in the study of these models. a two-dimensional model is clearly justied by a thin shell theory.
In particular, the most relevant milestones on the study of plates The validity of thick shell theories is still an open topic, due to the
are the books by Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger [7], Lekhnit- increasing use of higher-order kinematic models [5666]. A good
skii et al. [14], Leissa [15], Szilard [19] and Reddy [34,39]. On the starting point for studying higher-order theories is given by the
other hand other important books about shells must be cited as works of Carrera [5658], where the basics of the Carrera Unied
well as Sanders [6], Flgge [8], Goldenveizer [9], Novozilov [10], Formulation (CUF) are given in detail. This formulation allows to
Ambartusumyan [11], Kraus [13], Leissa [17], Marku [25], Ventsel study and compare several higher-order displacement elds when
and Krauthammer [38], Reddy [40], Qatu [42], Carrera et al. [50], applied to beams, plates and shells. Furthermore, various shell
Tornabene [54] and Tornabene and Fantuzzi [55]. The recent geometries and mechanical shell complexities were conducted in
the review article by Qatu et al. [59], where the dynamic behavior
Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 0512093500; fax: +39 0512093496. of laminated composite shells for different geometries has been
E-mail address: francesco.tornabene@unibo.it (F. Tornabene). examined in the rst decade of the new millennium and a wide
URL: http://software.dicam.unibo.it/diqumaspab-project (F. Tornabene). and complete bibliography on the subject is presented.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2014.05.008
0263-8223/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
638 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

Historically speaking the most common tool for the solution of along the shell middle surface. In the present paper that nuclei
plate and shell structures is the Finite Element Method (FEM) are generalized considering each kinematic expansion separately.
[23,40,50,51,56,57]. However in the last 20 years, other techniques In other words, in the work [106] the thickness functions were
based on the strong formulation of the governing equations of the same for the generic kinematic order, whereas in the present
beams, plates and shells have been afrmed [54,55,67129]. paper each displacement parameter can have its own function.
Initially it was called Differential Quadrature Method (DQM), This is a very important aspect because most of the times it is bet-
which history is summarized in the good work by Bert and Malik ter to have an in-plane kinematic expansion different from the
[69]. Nevertheless, Shu [67] generalized the DQM concepts and thickness one. For instance the thickness stretching can be deeply
developed the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method, studied using the present formulation, because it is possible to
which leads to more stable, accurate and reliable results than the enrich the through-the-thickness behavior reducing the degrees
classic DQM. It is impossible to cite all the vast bibliography con- of freedom of the in-plane parameters, as it will be shown in the
cerning the applications of DQM and GDQ method in engineering. following sections. In conclusion the following manuscript is struc-
To the best of authors knowledge it is worth reading the following tured as follows. Firstly, the shell fundamental nuclei within a gen-
papers [70119]. Thus, it was proven that GDQ method yield good eralized application of the thickness functions are shown.
results not only for structural systems, but also when applied to Secondly, the discretization and solution of the present theoretical
uid-dynamics problems. The authors have focused their research model is described by means of LGDQ method. Thirdly, several
on plates and shells over the years [54,55,7278,8084,88,90 applications are shown and compared to the Finite Element
93,9599,101119]. They gave their personal contributions on Method (FEM).
the subject proposing among others a stress and strain recovery
procedure [55,95,104,105,117], a shell description using the differ- 2. Shell fundamental equations
ential geometry [54,55,9093,119] and a nite element methodol-
ogy using strong formulation based elements [99,109115]. The present work presents a 2D Equivalent Single Layer (ESL)
In the present manuscript, all the previous knowledge was model to analyze doubly-curved shells and panels. The position
employed for developing a new theoretical formulation applying vector R(a1, a2, f) of an arbitrary point within the shell medium is
an advanced form of GDQ method. Firstly it must be cited that a dened by orthogonal curvilinear principal co-ordinates
   
good reference for a survey of the advanced techniques which were a1 a01 6 a1 6 a11 , a2 a02 6 a2 6 a12 upon the middle surface or
developed from the GDQ method is given on the book by Zong and reference surface r(a1, a2). f is directed along the outward normal
Zhang [68]. One of these advanced numerical approaches is the so- n(a1, a2) to the reference surface r(a1, a2) and it is measured from
called Local Generalized Differential Quadrature (LGDQ) method the reference surface (  h/2 6 f 6 h/2). h(a1, a2) is the total thick-
[120128], which is employed in this manuscript for the solution ness of the shell (Fig. 1). The position vector, written in the global
of doubly-curved laminated composite shells. The GDQ method is reference system using the differential geometry [106], describes
able to discretized a derivative at a point as a linear weighted the shell structure:
sum of all the domain points. On the contrary LGDQ method
discretizes in the same way the derivatives but uses only the ha1 ; a2
Ra1 ; a2 ; f ra1 ; a2 zna1 ; a2 1
neighboring points of the current one. This approach is useful 2
especially when the unknown function has singularities such as where z = 2f/h(a1, a2) and z 2 [1, 1]. For a laminated composite
stress concentrations or abruptly curvature changes. doubly-curved shell structure made of l laminae or plies, the total
As far as the theoretical model is concerned, a general approach thickness h (Fig. 1) can be dened as:
based on CUF is presented. In the work [106] the authors presented
for the rst time the CUF fundamental nuclei for solving doubly- X
l
h hk 2
curved shells with variable thickness and mechanical properties k1

Fig. 1. Doubly-curved shell representation and description.


F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 639

where hk = fk+1  fk is the thickness of the kth lamina or ply. The allows to study moderately thick and thick shells, for which the fol-
position vector of the reference surface is dened through its three lowing relations are valid:
components along the three global axes Ox1x2x3 as:  
1 h h 1
ra1 ; a2 r 1 a1 ; a2 e1 r 2 a1 ; a2 e2 r 3 a1 ; a2 e3 3 6 max ; 6 7
100 Rmin Lmin 5
e1, e2, e3 represent the unit vectors of the global reference system The displacement eld considered in the present study assumes the
Ox1x2x3. The Lam parameters can be derived: following form, similar to that previously presented by the authors
p [106]:
A1 a1 ; a2 r;1  r;1
p 4
A2 a1 ; a2 r;2  r;2 X
N1
U Fs us Fs us 8
from the denition of the rst fundamental form [106] of the refer- s0
ence surface r(a1, a2). The symbol  represents the scalar product
U U 1 a1 ; a2 ; f; t U 2 a1 ; a2 ; f; t U 3 a1 ; a2 ; f; t T is the displace-
and the comma stands for the partial derivative with respect to
ment component vector for the three-dimensional shell and
a1, a2 co-ordinates. Furthermore, the normal vector n(a1, a2) can h iT
be expressed as: us u1s a1 ; a2 ; t u2s a1 ; a2 ; t u3s a1 ; a2 ; t is the sth order
r;1  r;2 generalized displacement component vector of points lying on the
na1 ; a2 5 middle surface (f = 0) of the shell, whereas t represents the time
A1 A2
variable. Fs is the thickness function matrix dened as follows:
The symbol  denotes the vector product. Finally, the principal radii 2 3
of curvature can be evaluated as: F as 1 0 0
6 7
r;1  r;1 Fs 4 0 F as 2 0 5 9
R1 a1 ; a2  a3
r;11  n 0 0 Fs
6
r;2  r;2
R2 a1 ; a2  It should be noted that the thickness function matrix Fs is different
r;22  n
from that previously presented in the work by the authors [106],
since an orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinate system O0 a1a2f has due to the fact that the thickness functions F as i f; ai a1 ; a2 ; a3 ,
been considered. The theoretical development under consideration are different for each direction.

Table 1
Several thickness functions F as i f for ai a1 ; a2 ; a3 proposed in literature [106].

C s  ATII    2 
F as i f fs for s 0; 1; . . . ; N    
F as i f f sec h p f
h
 f sec h p4 1  p2 tanh p4


CN1 Z E        
  F as i f ph sinh ph f  f = cosh p2  1
F aN1
i
f 1k 2
fk1 fk f  ffk1 fk
k1 fk
for sN1
Ls  Gm   
F as i f Ls for s 0; 1; . . . ; N F as i f m
h
arcsin h m
h
2f
f  p
2 m 4
L0 C 0 1; L1 
C1 f;   
L2 12 3f2  1 ; L3 12 f 5f2  3 ; L4 18 35f4  30f2 3

LSTF   PTd1 d2 d3 
F as i f ph sin ph f F as i f d1 f dh2 f2 d23 f3
h

KI    PA PT1=8;0;1=6 
F as i f ph cos ph f d1 18 ; d2 0; d3  16

MIm      PKR PT3=2;0;2 


F as i f mhp tan mhp f  mhp f d1 32 ; d2 0; d3 2

MIIm;k  for k 0; 1 PKPRS PT5=4;0;5=3 


     
F s f 1k mhp tan mhp f  mhp sec2 m2p f d1 54 ; d2 0; d3  53

MIIIm    PLMR PT1;0;4=3 


  p
F as i f ph sin ph f em cos h f mhp f d1 1; d2 0; d3  43

Xm;k  for k 0; 1 PSTh PT1=4;0;5=3 


2m1
F as i f 1k m
1
fm d1 14 ; d2 0; d3  53
h

KIIk  for k 0; 1 PRMTVSI  PT5=4;5;0 


f 2
k
F as i f fe1 2h d1 54 ; d2 5; d3 0

Am;k  for k 0; 1 PRMTVSII  PT5=4;0;5 


f 2
F as i f fm1
k 2

ln m h d1 54 ; d2 0; d3 5

MIVm;k  for k 0; 1 TI  p 
k f 2 F as i f 2h
p tan 2h f
F as i f fm1 2h
N   TII   
F as i f ph sinh ph f F as i f ph sinh ph f  f

Sk  for k 0; 1 TIII     
    
F as i f 1k ph sinh ph f  f cosh p2 F as i f ph cosh ph f  1

ATI  TIVk  for k 0; 1


  2 
F as i f 32p h tanh hf  32p f sec h 12
k2
F as i f fe1 hf
640 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

The kinematic model (8) can be put in expanded form, consid- the proposed General Higher-order Equivalent Single Layer Theory
ering s = N order of expansion: (GHESLT) (8) and (13). Moreover, it should be noted that the GHE-
SLT (8) and (13) is an extension of the CUF [50,5658]. In particular,
U 1 F a01 u1 F a11 u1 F a21 u1 F a31 u1    F aN1 u1 F aN1
0 1 2 3 N N1
1
u1
the aim of the present paper is to introduce the possibility of choos-
U 2 F a02 u2 F a12 u2 F a22 u2 F a32 u2    F aN2 u2 F aN1
0 1 2 3 N N1
2
u2 ing different thickness functions along the three co-ordinate lines
U 3 F a03 u3 F a13 u3 F a23 u3 F a33 u3    F aN3 u3 F aN1
0 1 2 3 3
u3
N N1 a1, a2, f of shell structure. This kind of choice could be useful due
to the fact that the mechanical behavior in the thickness direction
10
is different from the mechanical behavior in the other two direc-
The thickness functions F as i f;
ai a1 ; a2 ; a3 , can assume different tions. Thus, the possibility of choosing a different function in the
forms as reported in Table 1, which collects some of the thickness thickness direction allows to describe in a better way the deforma-
functions F as i f presented literature as reported in the previous tion process of the shell structure.
work by the authors [106]. These functions can be used to consider Using an orthogonal co-ordinate system [106], the 3D solid
various and general kinematic models such as: strains can be dened in the following manner for the kth lamina:

U 1 u1 fu1 f2 u1 f3 u1 f4 u1 1k zk u1
0 1 2 3 4 5 ek DU Df DX U 15

U 2 u2 fu2 f2 u2 f3 u2 f4 u2 1k zk u2
0 1 2 3 4 5
11 where:
0 1 2 3 4 k 5 2 3
U3 u3 fu3 f2 u3 f3 u3 f4 u3 1 zk u3 1
H1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 1 7
and: 60 H2
0 0 0 0 0 0 07
6 7
p  6 7
h h p   60 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 07
f  1 u1 1k zk u1
0 1 2 3 H1 H2
U 1 u1 f u1
sinh cosh Df 6
60
7 16
p h
p 
p h 6 0 0 0 1
0 @
0 07
7
h p   H1 @f
h 6 7
0
U 2 u2 sinh
1
f u2 cosh f  1 u2 1k zk u2
2 3 60 0 0 0 0 1
0 @
07
p h p h 4 H2 @f 5
@
U 3 u3 fu3 f2 u3 f3 u3 f4 u3 1k zk u3
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 @f

12 and:
2 3 2 3
As it can be seen form the two proposed kinematical models (11) 1 @
0 0 0 1 @A1
0
A @a A1 A2 @ a2
and (12), the main differences are in the choice of the thickness 6 11 @A1 2 7 6 7
6 A A @a 0 07 6 1 @
07
functions F as i f in each directions a1, a2, a3 = f and in the different 6 1 2 1 7 60 A2 @ a2 7
6 7 6 1 @ 7
number of degrees of freedom u(s) of the assumed displacement 6  A11A2 @A 1
@ a2
0 07 60 A1 @ a1
07
6 7 6 7
model (8). As a matter of fact, the rst model (11) has 18 indepen- 6 1 @ 0 07 6  A11A2 @A 07
6 A2 @ a2 7 60 2
@ a1 7
dent variables, whereas the second one (12) only has 14 indepen- DX DaX1 DaX2 DaX3 6
6 1
76 7
6 R1
0 07 6
7 60 0 077
dent variables. Furthermore, the second model presents a 6
6 0 7
0 07 660  R12 077
different choice regarding the thickness functions in each co-ordi- 6 7 6 7
nate directions. In fact it has the same thickness functions
6 1 0 07 60 0 07
6 7 6 7
4 0 0 05 40 1 05
F as 1 f; F as 2 f in the a1, a2 co-ordinate directions and a different
thickness function F as 3 f in the thickness directions a3 = f. As it 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1
3
has already done in the previous work by the authors [106], in order 0 0 R1
to simplify the notation, the following representation is introduced: 6 1 7
60 0 R2 7
6 7
a1 F 0 F 1 F 2 F 3     F N F N1  60 0 0 7
6 7
60 0 0 7
ED  a2 F 0 F 1 F 2 F 3     F N F N1  13 6 7
6 1 @ 7
60 0 A1 @ a 1 7
17
fF 0 F 1 F 2 F 3     F N F N1  6 7
60 0 A12 @@a2 7
6 7
where E indicates that an Equivalent Single Layer theory is consid- 6 7
60 0 0 7
ered; D species that the governing equations are only expressed in 6 7
40 0 0 5
terms of generalized displacements; a1, a2, a3 = f denote the princi-
pal directions of the variable expansion in the kinematical model, 0 0 1
h iT
respectively; [Fs] stands for the type of thickness function F as i f ek a1 ; a2 ; f; t ek ek k
c12 k
c13 k
c23 e3k is the strain com-
1 2
chosen for the sth order of expansion (see Table 1) in each principal
ponent vector and the quantities H1, H2 are equal to H1 = 1 + f/R1,
direction; nally, [FN+1] = [CN+1] = [Z] represents the zig-zag func-
H2 = 1 + f/R2. R1, R2 and A1, A2 represent the curvature radii and
tion or Murakami function. As shown in the previous work [106],
the Lam parameters of the a1, a2 co-ordinate curves at the generic
the symbology (13) can be further simplied when the same thick-
point of the middle surface of the shell.
ness functions F as i f are chosen for each displacement of the kine-
Using the displacement eld (8) and the straindisplacement
matical model assumed (8). The previous kinematical models (11)
relations (15) the generalized strains can be dened:
and (12) can be now represented as:
 
a1 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 Z
ek DU Df DX U Df DaX1 DaX2 DaX3 U
ED  a2 C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 Z EDZ4 X
N1
 
Df DaX1 DaX2 DaX3 Fs us
fC0 C1 C2 C3 C4 Z s0
14
a1 C0 NTIII Z X
N 1
 
ED  a2 C0 NTIII Z F as 1 Df DaX1 F as 2 Df DaX2 F as 3 Df DaX3 us
s0
fC0 C1 C2 C3 C4 Z
X
N 1 X
3
a
X
N1 X
3

As it has already been exposed in the previous work [106], most of Zsai DXi us Zsai esai 18
s0 i1 s0 i1
the theories presented in literature are included as special cases in
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 641

h iT
k
where esai a1 ; a2 ;t e1sai e2sai c1sai c2sai c13sai c23sai x13sai x23sai e3sai The material constants Enm are referred to the curvilinear reference
is the sth order generalized strain component vector and the matrix Zsai is system O0 a1a2f after the application of the proper equations of
k
dened as: transformation [40,55]. Furthermore, the elastic coefcients Enm
2 F ai 3 (22) could be the plane stress-reduced stiffnesses
k k
Enm Q nm
s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 H1 a 7 [40,50,55,90,100,101,107] or the non-reduced ones
k k
Enm C nm
6 Fsi 7
60 H2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 [40,50,55,106,116]. This distinction allows to consider those shear
6 7
6 a
Fsi
a
F si 7 deformation theories that neglect the stretching effect along the
sai ai 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
Z Df F s 6
6
H1 H2
a a
7
7 19 shell thickness, such as the First-order Shear Deformation Theory
F si @F s i
60 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 (FSDT or FSDTZ) [106] and the Third-order Shear Deformation The-
6 H1 @f 7
6 a
F si
a
@F s i 7 ory (TSDT or TSDTZ) [106]. In the present paper, the elastic con-
60 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
4 H2 @f 5 k
a
@F s i
stants Enm are equal to the plane stress-reduced stiffnesses
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 k k
@f Enm Q nm , when it is indicated the RS abbreviation. Otherwise,
k k k
The relationships between generalized strains esai and generalized Enm are equal to the non-reduced ones Enm C nm when it is not
displacements u(s) for a doubly-curved shell can be derived from indicated.
Eq. (18): The generalized internal actions, or resultants, of sth order can
be derived using the Hamiltons principle for the 3D doubly-curved
esai DaXi us for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 and ai a1 ; a2 ; a3
solid:
20
l Z
X fk1
The stressstrain relations for the kth lamina are the well-known T
Ssai Zsai rk H1 H2 df for
relations [106]: fk
k1

rk Ck ek 21 s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 and ai a1 ; a2 ; a3 23
h iT
where r a1 ; a2 ; f; t r
k k k
is the k k k k h iT
r s s s 1 r 2 12 13 23 3 where Ssai a1 ; a2 ;t N1sai N2sai N 12sai N 21sai T 1sai T 2sai P 1sai P 2sai S3sai
stress component vector and Ck is the constitutive matrix for the is the sth order resultant or internal action vector. Therefore, the sth order
k-th lamina: resultants in terms of the generalized sth order strains esaj a1 ; a2 ;t can be
2 k k k k 3 dened by using Eq. (23), (21), (20) and (18):
E11 E12 E16 0 0 E13
6 k k k k 7
6 E12 E22 E26 0 0 E23 7 X
N1 X
3
6 7
6 k k k k 7 Ssai Assai aj esaj for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 and
6 E16 E26 E66 0 0 E36 7
Ck 6
6 k k
7
7 22 s0 j1
6 0 0 0 E44 E45 0 7 ai ; aj a1 ; a2 ; a3 24
6 7
6 k k 7
4 0 0 0 E45 E55 0 5
k k k k where:
E13 E23 E36 0 0 E33

2 ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a


3
i j i j
A1120 A1211 A1620i j i j
A1611 0 0 0 0 A1310i j
6 ssa a 7
6A i j ssa a
A2202i j
ssa a
i j
A2611
ssa a
i j
A2602 0 0 0 0 A2301i j 7
s~sa a
6 1211 7
6 ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a
7
6A i j i j
A2611 A6620i j i j
A6611 0 0 0 0 A3610i j 7
6 1620 7
6 ssai aj ssa a ssai aj ssa a s~sa a
7
6A A2602i j A6611 i j
A6602 0 0 0 0 A3601i j 7
Xl Z fk1 6 1611 7
ssai aj sai T k saj
6 ssa a ssai aj s~sai aj s~sa a 7
A Z C Z H1 H2 df 6
6 0 0 0 0 A4420i j A4511 A4410 A4510i j 0 7 7 25
k1 fk 6 ssai aj ssa a s~sai aj s~sa a 7
6 0 0 0 0 A4511 A5502i j A4501 A5501i j 0 7
6 7
6 s
~sa a s
~sa a s
~~sa a s
~~sa a 7
6 0 0 0 0 A4410i j A4501i j A4400i j A4500i j 0 7
6 7
6 s
~sa a s
~sa a s
~~sa a s
~~sa a 7
6 0 0 0 0 A4510i j A5501i j A4500i j A5500i j 0 7
4 5
s
~sai aj s
~sa a s
~sa a s
~sai aj ssa a
~~
A1310 A2301i j A3610i j A3601 0 0 0 0 A3300i j

Ni < Ni Cortical nodes Ni < Ni


Core nodes

x1 x2 xi xN 1 xN

Neighborhood points Neighborhood points Neighborhood points


of node 2 of node i of node N

Ni Ni Ni

Fig. 2. One-dimension problem representation and neighborhood of the generic point xi. Distinction between core and cortical points.
642 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

(a) Spherical Shell (b) Parabolic Cylindrical Panel (singly-curved panel)


(doubly-curved or constant curvature shell) (a parabolic curve slides on a inclined straight line)

(c) Elliptic Cylinder (d) Elliptic Cone


(singly-curved shell) (singly-curved shell)

(e) Shell of Translation (doubly-curved shell) (f) Panel of Translation (doubly-curved panel)
(an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve) (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve)

(h) Free-Form Cylinder with Variable Thickness


(g) Free-Form Cylinder (singly-curved panel)
(singly-curved panel)
(a Bzier curve slides on a straight line)
(a Bzier curve slides on a straight line)
Fig. 3. Eight shell and panel structures with LGDQ discretization and local co-ordinate system representation.
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 643

l Z
X
The elastic coefcients of the constitutive matrix (25) assume the s
~sa a
fk1
k a @F as i H1 H2 for s;s 0;1;2;...;N;N 1
following aspect:
i j
Anmpq jfEnm Fs j df
k1 fk @f Hp1 Hq2 for n;m 4;5
l Z
X fk1 l Z a
ssai aj k aj ai H1 H2 s~sai aj
X fk1
@F s j ai H1 H2 for p;q 0;1;2
Anmpq Enm Fs Fs df Anmpq k
jfEnm F df
k1 fk Hp1 Hq2 fk @f s Hp1 Hq2 for ai ; aj a1 ; a2 ; a3
k1
l Z
X @F as i H1 H2 l Z
fk1
s
~sai aj k aj for s; s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 s
X fk1 a
@F s j @F as i H1 H2
Anmpq Enm Fs df ~~sa a
i j
Anmpq k
jfEnm df
k1 fk @f Hp1 Hq2 for n; m 1; 2; 3; 6 @f @f Hp1 Hq2 26
k1 fk
l Z
X fk1 aj
s~sa a
i j k @F s ai H1 H2 for p; q 0; 1; 2
Anmpq Enm F df
k1 fk @f s Hp1 Hq2 for ai ; aj a1 ; a2 ; a3 where s, s, ai, aj indicate the corresponding thickness function
l Z
X fk1 j a
ai a
F as i ; F s j . The superscripts s
~; ~s denote the derivatives of the corre-
s
~~sai aj k @F s @F s H 1 H 2
Anmpq Enm df a
fk @f @f Hp1 Hq2 sponding thickness function F as i ; F s j with respect to f (@F as i =@f or
k1
a
l Z
X fk1 @F s j =@f). The subscripts p, q represent the exponents of the quanti-
ssa a a H1 H 2
i j
Anmpq k
jfEnm F s j F as i df ties H1, H2, whereas n, m are the indices of the material constants
k1 fk Hp1 Hq2 k k k k
Enm Q nm or Enm Enm for the kth lamina. Furthermore, the shear
function j(f) allows to consider the shear correction needed in

Table 2
Position vector of the reference surface of the eight structures shown in Fig. 2 and their geometric parameters.

ra1 ; a2 R sin a1 cos a2 e1  R sin a1 sin a2 e2 R cos a1 e3

(a) Spherical Shell (doubly-curved shell)



hp pi

R 2m; a1 a01 ; a11 ; ; a2 a02 ; a12 0; 2p; h 0:1mm


6 2
   
k tan a1 k tan2 a1
ra1 ; a2 a2 sin a sin a1 e1  a2 cos ae2  a2 sin a cos a1 e3
2 4

(b) Parabolic Cylindrical Panel (singly-curved panel) (a parabolic curve slides on a inclined straight line)


p
k 2; a1 a01 ; a11 1:107149; 1:107149; a2 a02 ; a12 0; L; L 20 m; a ; h 0:5 m
18

ra1 ; a2 a cos a1 a2 sin a sin ua1 e1  a2 cos ae2 b sin a1  a2 sin a cos ua1 e3
8  
>
> cos a1
> ua1 arctan  pb
< 2
for a1 0; p
a 1cos a1
 
>
> b cos a1
>
: ua1 p  arctan  p for a1 p; 2p
2
a 1cos a1

(c) Elliptic Cylinder (singly-curved shell)



a 3 m; b 2 m; a1 a01 ; a11 0; 2p; a2 a02 ; a12 0; L; L 10 m; a 0; h 0:5 m

(d) Elliptic Cone (singly-curved shell)




p
a 3 m; b 2 m; a1 a01 ; a11 0; 2p; a2 a02 ; a12 0; L; L 10 m; a ; h 1 m
9
  r   
2
a2 tan a1 2a b2 tan a2
2
 a 1  1  2b tan
ra1 ; a2 p 2
2
2a
sin a1 e1  p2
e2
2
b a tan a1 2 a b tan 2 2
a b tan a2 2

  q  r 
2 2a b2 tan2 a2
c b  1  b2aatan 1
2 tan2 a
a 1  1  a2 b2 tan2 a
cos a1 e3
1 2

(e) Shell of Translation (doubly-curved shell) (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve)

a 10 m; b 7 m; a1 a01 ; a11 0; 2p; a2 a02 ; a12  518p ; 518p; h 1 m;


p p
p

c 1 for a1  2 ; 2 ; c 1 for a1 2 ;  p2

(f) Panel of Translation (doubly-curved panel) (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve)


h p pi
5p 5p h p pi
a 10 m; b 7 m; a1 a01 ; a11  ; ; a2 a02 ; a12  ; ; h 1m; c 1 for a1  ;
2 2 18 18 2 2

ra1 ; a2 Ra01 a1 e1  x2 e2 xa31 a1 e3

(g) Free-Form Cylinder (singly-curved panel) (a Bzier curve slides on a straight line)

a2 a02 ; a12 0; L; L 5 m; h 0:5 m


Ra01 a1 ; xa31 a1 ! x 03 2 3:1 4 5 4 3:1 2; w 1 1 1 0:8 1 1 1 Bzier Curve Parameters [92]
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7; x

(h) Free-Form Cylinder with Variable Thickness (singly-curved panel) (a Bzier curve slides on a straight line)

a2 a02 ; a12 0; L; L 10 m; h0 0:3 m


Ra01 a1 ; xa31 a1 ! x 03 0 3 7 10; w 1 1 1 1 Bzier Curve Parameters [92]
1 7 2 7 2; x
 
a2  a02
ha1 ; a2 h0 1 d 1 with d 3
a2  a02
644 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

those shear deformation theories that consider a non-parabolic dis- tions can be derived. The three motion equations for each sth order
tribution of the shear stresses along the shell thickness, such as the of displacement expansion in terms of internal actions assumes the
First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT and FSDTZ) [106]. The following aspect for a doubly-curved shell structure:
shear function j(f) can be a constant function j(f) = 1/v = 5/6 with X
3 X
N 1
a
v = 1.2 (in that case it represents the well-known shear correction DX i Ssai Mss u
s for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 29
factor) or a parabolic function j(f) = 5/4  5f2/h2 (see [104,55]). In i1 s0

the present paper, the shear function j(f) is assumed to be constant. The motion or equilibrium operators DX i are:
a

In particular, j(f) assumes the value j(f) = 5/6, when it is indicated 21 3


v = 1.2. Otherwise, j(f) is equal to 1 (v = 1) when it is not indicated.
@
A1 @ a1
A11A2 @A 2
@ a1
 A11A2 @A 2
@ a1
1 @A1 1 @
A1 A2 @ a2 A2 @ a2
A11A2 @A 1 1
@ a 2 R1
0 1 0 0
a1 6 7
The relations of the elastic engineering stiffnesses DX 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 05
ssai aj s
~sai aj s~sai aj s
~~sai aj
Anmpq ; Anmpq ; Anmpq ; Anmpq are numerically evaluated using 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
the Generalized Integral Quadrature (GIQ) rule [67] in order to
avoid numerical instabilities: 2 3
Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
xj T 
X  6
f xdx 1Ijk  1Iik f xk ; k 1; 2; . . . ; T 27 DXa2 @A
4  A11A2 @a12 1 @
A2 @ a2
1 @A1
A1 A2 @ a2
1 @
A1 @ a1
1 @A2
A1 A2 @ a1
1 @A2
A1 A2 @ a 1
0 R12 0 1 0 7
5
xi k1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
where the coefcients 1Iik ; 1Ijk are explicitly dened in the book by 30
Shu [67]. Furthermore, the derivatives of the elastic engineering 2 3
ssai aj s
~sai aj s~sai aj s
~~sai aj
constants Anmpq ; Anmpq ; Anmpq ; Anmpq are numerically evaluated 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
using the Generalized Differential Quadrature rule [67]: a3 6 0 7
DX 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
XT  R11  R12 0 0 1 @
A11A2 @A 2 1 @
A11A2 @A 1
0 0 1
@ n f x A1 @ a1 @ a1 A2 @ a2 @ a2
1n
mk f xk ; k 1; 2; . . . ; T 28
@xn xxm k1
and the inertia matrix M(ss) has the form:
n 2 ssa 3
where 1 are the weighting coefcients exposed in the book by Shu
mk I 1
0 0
[67]. More details about GDQ applications and numerical stability ss
6 0 7
M 4 06 ssa2
0 7 s; s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1
and accuracy can be found in literature [70119]. I0 5 for
ssa3
Using the Hamiltons principle [4,5,713,3943,50,54,55] the 0 0 I0
governing equations of motion and the proper boundary condi- 31

Table 3
First ten frequencies for a (30/45) FC spherical shell of Fig. 2(a) and Table 2(a) using uniform grid distributions with IN = 30, IM = 60, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties of the two laminae: E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa, G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa, m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3,
h1 = h2 = 0.05 m
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 43.034 43.081 43.252 42.870 42.979 42.860


f2 43.034 43.081 43.252 42.870 42.979 42.860
f3 60.481 60.483 61.756 60.568 60.610 60.542
f4 60.481 60.483 61.756 60.568 60.610 60.542
f5 82.581 82.629 82.845 82.527 82.633 82.551
f6 82.581 82.629 82.845 82.527 82.633 82.551
f7 98.945 98.914 102.015 99.185 99.213 99.159
f8 98.945 98.914 102.015 99.185 99.213 99.159
f9 143.972 143.906 149.498 144.283 144.321 144.266
f10 143.972 143.906 149.498 144.283 144.321 144.266

FSDTZRS
v1:2 TSDTZRS EDZ1v=1.2 EDZ2v=1.2 EDZ3 EDZ4

f1 43.025 43.080 42.971 42.854 42.929 42.852


f2 43.025 43.080 42.971 42.854 42.929 42.852
f3 60.460 60.480 60.872 60.558 60.580 60.539
f4 60.460 60.480 60.872 60.558 60.580 60.539
f5 82.572 82.628 82.610 82.515 82.598 82.544
f6 82.572 82.628 82.610 82.515 82.598 82.544
f7 98.899 98.906 99.909 99.173 99.187 99.158
f8 98.899 98.906 99.909 99.173 99.187 99.158
f9 143.892 143.893 145.622 144.266 144.294 144.265
f10 143.892 143.893 145.622 144.266 144.294 144.265
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z 3D FEM Abaqus
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z
f1 42.990 42.947 42.927 42.979 42.929 42.922
f2 42.990 42.947 42.927 42.979 42.929 42.922
f3 60.639 60.594 60.581 60.610 60.580 60.564
f4 60.639 60.594 60.581 60.610 60.580 60.564
f5 82.648 82.619 82.594 82.633 82.598 82.584
f6 82.648 82.619 82.594 82.633 82.598 82.584
f7 99.271 99.204 99.188 99.213 99.187 99.168
f8 99.271 99.204 99.188 99.213 99.187 99.168
f9 144.420 144.317 144.296 144.321 144.294 144.280
f10 144.420 144.317 144.296 144.321 144.294 144.280
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 645

ssai 2 32 3
in which the mass inertia terms I0 are dened as: L00 L01 L02 L03 L04 L05 u0
l Z fk1
X 6 10 76 7
ssai
I0 qk F asi F as i H1 H2 df for 6L
6 L11 L12 L13 L14 L15 76 u1 7
76 7
6 20 21 22 23 76 7
k1 fk
6L L L L L24 L25 76 u2 7
6 76 7
s; s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 and ai a1 ; a2 ; a3 32 6 30
6L L31 L32 L33 L34
76 7
L35 76 u3 7
6 76 7
(k)
In expression (32) q represents the mass density of the material 6 40 76 7
4L L41 L42 L43 L44 L45 54 u4 5
per unit of volume of the kth ply. Finally, the kinematic (20), consti- 50 51 52 53
tutive (25) and motion (29) equations can be combined to give the L L L L L54 L55 u5
2 00 01 02 03 04 32 3
fundamental system of equations, also known as the governing sys- M M M M M M05 0
u
tem of equations: 6 10 76 1 7
6M
6 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 7
76
7
6u
7
X
N 1 X
N1 6 20 25 76 2 7
Lss us Mss u
s for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1 33 6M M21 M22 M23 M24 M 76 u 7
6
6 30 31 32 33
76 7
76 3 7 35
s0 s0 6M M M M M34 M35 76 u 7
6 76 7
where: 6 40 45 76 4 7
4M M41 M42 M43 M44 M 54 u 5
2 ssa a ssa a ssa a
3
L 1 1 L12 1 2 L13 1 3 M50 M51 M52 M53 M54 M55 5
u
ss
XX a ssa a aj 6 11
3 3 7
L DX A
i i j 6 ssa2 a1
DX 4 L21 ssa a
L22 2 2
ssa a
L23 2 3 7 34
5 In order to solve the differential system (35), the boundary condi-
i1 j1 ssa a ssa a ssa a
L31 3 1 L32 3 2 L33 3 3 tions have to be introduced. The fully clamped edge boundary con-
ssa a
dition (C) and the free edge boundary condition (F) are considered
The equilibrium operators Lfg i j , f, g = 1, 2, 3, s, s = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,N, N + 1, in the following. The equations describing the boundary conditions
ai, aj = a1, a2, a3 are derived for the rst time by the authors and are can be written as:
reported in Appendix A.
The total number of motion equations depends on the order of
Clamped edge boundary conditions (C)
expansion s = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N, N + 1. It can be obtained by using the
fundamental nuclei reported in Eq. (33) and is equal to s s s
u1 u2 u3 0 for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1; at
3  (N + 2). The complete system of equations for the fourth order 0 1
N = 4 of expansion (s, s = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 4 + 1) can be written in matrix
a1 a 1 or a1 a 1; a 6 a2 6 a12
0
2 36
form as follows:
Table 4
First ten frequencies for an isotropic FCFC parabolic cylindrical panel of Fig. 2(b) and Table 2(b) (a parabolic curve slides on a inclined straight line) using uniform grid
distributions with IN = 60, IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties: E = 210 GPa, m = 0.3, q = 7800 kg/m3


Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 41.408 41.414 44.566 41.519 41.550 41.546


f2 76.404 76.421 80.714 76.565 76.626 76.618
f3 76.499 76.509 81.067 76.579 76.672 76.665
f4 105.750 105.771 111.162 105.815 105.922 105.907
f5 113.424 113.454 120.660 113.500 113.676 113.662
f6 125.030 125.035 127.289 125.171 125.211 125.207
f7 130.139 130.174 136.721 130.242 130.410 130.390
f8 133.803 133.846 142.155 134.045 134.297 134.281
f9 149.485 149.534 157.418 149.561 149.846 149.824
f10 153.524 153.562 160.693 153.563 153.760 153.736
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 
f1 41.550 41.559 41.550 41.550 41.552 41.550
f2 76.629 76.644 76.628 76.628 76.630 76.626
f3 76.674 76.696 76.673 76.673 76.679 76.674
f4 105.929 105.954 105.928 105.928 105.930 105.923
f5 113.679 113.715 113.678 113.678 113.687 113.678
f6 125.224 125.231 125.224 125.224 125.213 125.212
f7 130.421 130.459 130.420 130.420 130.422 130.412
f8 134.300 134.354 134.299 134.299 134.314 134.302
f9 149.853 149.909 149.852 149.852 149.864 149.850
f10 153.778 153.821 153.777 153.777 153.773 153.762
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4  3D FEM Abaqus
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 
f1 41.551 41.549 41.677 41.550 41.546 41.580
f2 76.628 76.625 76.859 76.626 76.618 76.662
f3 76.675 76.672 77.017 76.672 76.665 76.725
f4 105.925 105.921 106.309 105.922 105.907 105.960
f5 113.680 113.675 114.241 113.676 113.662 113.730
f6 125.212 125.210 125.336 125.211 125.207 125.250
f7 130.415 130.409 130.989 130.410 130.390 130.460
f8 134.304 134.296 135.166 134.297 134.281 134.410
f9 149.853 149.845 150.727 149.846 149.824 149.910
f10 153.765 153.758 154.422 153.760 153.736 153.810
646 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

s s s sa sa
u1 u2 u3 0 for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1; at N21 1 a1 ; 0; t N21 1 a1 ; 2p; t
sa2 sa2
a2 a02 or a2 a2 ; a1 6 a1 6 a11
1 0
37 N2 a1 ; 0; t N2 a1 ; 2p; t
sa sa
Free edge boundary conditions (F) a
T 2 3 1 ; 0; t T2 3 1; 2 a p; t for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1;
sa
N1 1 0;
sa
N12 2 0;
sa
T 1 3 0 for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1; a01 6 a1 6 a11
0 1 0 1 41
at a1 a 1 or a1 a 1; a a
2 6 2 6 2 a 38
In order to consider a toroidal shell it is necessary to introduce the
sa1 sa2 sa3 kinematic and physical compatibility conditions between the two
N21 0; N2 0; T2 0 for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1;
computational parallels with a01 0 and with a11 2p:
at a2 a02 or a2 a12 ; a01 6 a1 6 a11 39
Kinematic compatibility conditions along the closing parallel
In addition to the external boundary conditions (36)(39), the (a1 = 0,2p)
kinematic and physical compatibility conditions have to be s s
u1 0; a2 ; t u1 2p; a2 ; t
satised at the common closing meridians dened by a2 = 0,2p,
s s
when a complete shell of revolution is considered: u2 0; a2 ; t u2 2p; a2 ; t
Kinematic compatibility conditions along the closing meridian s
u3 0; a2 ; t u3s 2p; a2 ; t for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1;
(a2 = 0,2p)
a02 6 a2 6 a12
s s
u1 a1 ;0; t u1 a1 ; 2p; t 42
s s
u2 a1 ;0; t u2 a1 ; 2p; t
Physical compatibility conditions along the closing parallel
s s
u3 a1 ;0; t u3 a1 ; 2p; t for s 0; 1; 2;. .. ;N; N 1; a01 6 a1 6 a11 (a1 = 0,2p)
40 sa sa
N12 1 0; a2 ; t N 12 1 2p; a2 ; t
Physical compatibility conditions along the closing meridian sa2 sa2
N1 0; a2 ; t N 1 2p; a2 ; t
(a2 = 0,2p) sa sa
T 1 3 0; a2 ; t T 1 3 2 p; a2 ; t for s 0; 1; 2; . . . ; N; N 1;
a02 6 a2 6 a12 43

Table 5
First ten frequencies for an orthotropic (30) FC elliptic cylinder of Fig. 2(c) and Table 2(c) using uniform grid distributions with IN = 60, IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties: E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa, G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa, m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 19.301 19.303 19.307 19.273 19.279 19.268


f2 25.640 25.643 25.614 25.572 25.578 25.569
f3 48.354 48.362 49.278 48.878 48.862 48.854
f4 54.984 54.999 56.063 55.047 54.970 54.957
f5 60.695 60.707 61.667 60.942 60.930 60.918
f6 75.655 75.682 75.399 75.185 75.220 75.212
f7 83.526 83.544 83.730 83.447 83.471 83.459
f8 91.281 91.333 91.266 90.340 90.329 90.318
f9 92.438 92.464 92.009 91.712 91.751 91.734
f10 93.971 94.018 93.995 93.220 93.226 93.214
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 
f1 22.260 19.294 19.293 19.293 19.279 19.279
f2 26.755 25.597 25.595 25.595 25.578 25.578
f3 57.069 48.885 48.874 48.874 48.865 48.863
f4 60.616 55.015 54.988 54.988 54.978 54.974
f5 64.090 60.965 60.950 60.950 60.934 60.932
f6 76.628 75.269 75.259 75.259 75.224 75.219
f7 81.830 83.499 83.486 83.486 83.475 83.470
f8 92.103 90.433 90.364 90.364 90.350 90.336
f9 94.290 91.813 91.801 91.801 91.755 91.750
f10 104.704 93.320 93.256 93.256 93.245 93.233
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4  3D FEM Abaqus
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 
f1 19.280 19.279 19.287 19.279 19.268 19.274
f2 25.579 25.577 25.591 25.578 25.569 25.574
f3 48.863 48.862 49.044 48.862 48.854 48.841
f4 54.972 54.971 55.432 54.970 54.957 54.922
f5 60.932 60.930 61.194 60.930 60.918 60.904
f6 75.223 75.219 75.331 75.220 75.212 75.208
f7 83.473 83.470 83.630 83.471 83.459 83.455
f8 90.339 90.327 91.451 90.329 90.318 90.264
f9 91.754 91.750 91.908 91.751 91.734 91.751
f10 93.235 93.224 94.291 93.226 93.214 93.169
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 647

3. Discretization and numerical solution j indicates the neighboring points of xi. The denition (44) intro-
duces the notion that the derivative of a smooth function does
The differential quadrature law (28) allows to approximate the not linearly depend on the function values of all the domain points,
derivatives of a smooth function [67]. This method evaluates a deriv- but only on the neighboring points of the point itself. The weighting
n
ative of a generic order at a point as a linear combination of the func- coefcients 1ij are evaluated inside the local interval in the same
tion values in all the domain points [67]. However, for a few manner used in the GDQ method (see [71] for a brief review). To
functions this method could need a discretization made of a lot of nd the neighboring points xl of the point of interest xi the dimen-
nodal points and so the computation cost could be very high. The sionless distance between xi and any other point xl is considered:
LGDQ method [68,120128] has to be introduced for these cases.
jxi  xl j Ni  1
Consider a one-dimensional problem where a sufciently smooth ril 6 i 1; 2; . . . ; N for Ni odd 45
function f(x) is dened in a closed interval [a, b] and suppose that jxN  x1 j 2N  1
the domain is discretized into N equally spaced points of co-ordi-
Since the grid collocation is equally spaced, Ni should be odd in order
nates a = x1, x2, . . . , xN1, xN = b as depicted in Fig. 2. According to the
to have the same number of points on the left and right sides of the
differential quadrature law (28), the derivative at a generic point xi
current point xi. Moreover, the present LGDQ implementation is
can be evaluated using differential quadrature method, but in a dif-
explained with reference to Fig. 2. In a LGDQ implementation there
ferent way without considering all the domain points N. Only the Ni
two sets of points: the core nodes (inside the domain) and the cortical
points, that belong to the neighborhood of the point, xi are used. The
nodes (near the boundaries). The rst group of nodes, from the index
nth order derivative of the function f(x), with respect to x at the gen-
i = (Ni + 1)/2 to the index i = N  (Ni  1)/2, is indicated by a
eric nodal point xi, is approximated through a weighted linear sum of
rectangle with a dashed line, whereas the second group of nodes,
the function values at the neighboring points of the point xi itself:
from the index i = 1 to the index i = (Ni  1)/2 and from the index
Ni i = N  (Ni  3)/2 to the index i = N, is indicated by a rectangle with
n
d f x X
1n a solid line. For example if Ni = 5, as in Fig. 2, it is obvious that the
n ij f xj i 1; 2; . . . ; Ni 44
dx xxi j1 core nodes are the points xi with the index i = 3(=(Ni + 1)/
2),4, . . . , N  3,N  2(=N  (Ni  1)/2) and the cortical nodes are the
n
where the constants 1ij are the weighting coefcients of the sum, points xi with the index i = 1, 2(=(Ni  1)/2) and i = N  1(=N 
f(xj) represent the function values at the points xj that are the neigh- (Ni  3)/2),N. Thus, there are two group of cortical nodes: one on
n
boring points of the point xi. The coefcients 1ij have two sub- the left boundary and one on the right boundary. By denition the
scripts i and j. The global subscript i indicates the domain point in cortical nodes have Ni < Ni points in their neighborhood, but the
which the generic derivative is evaluated, where the local subscript implemented algorithm considers Ni neighborhood points for all
Table 6
First ten frequencies for an orthotropic (30) FC elliptic cone of Fig. 2(d) and Table 2(d) using uniform grid distributions with IN = 60, IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties: E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa, G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa, m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 45.495 45.505 45.451 45.339 45.351 45.342


f2 49.717 49.729 49.656 49.485 49.502 49.491
f3 66.060 66.084 67.301 66.932 66.940 66.919
f4 72.417 72.497 73.300 72.355 72.403 72.353
f5 74.458 74.519 75.514 74.704 74.766 74.730
f6 98.657 98.718 98.533 97.995 98.101 98.078
f7 104.622 104.692 104.672 104.035 104.165 104.139
f8 104.831 104.920 105.358 104.688 104.823 104.789
f9 110.578 110.753 111.366 110.255 110.525 110.473
f10 112.652 112.817 113.535 112.419 112.648 112.596
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 
f1 46.565 45.401 45.396 45.396 45.353 45.351
f2 54.511 49.558 49.551 49.551 49.504 49.501
f3 65.472 67.009 66.985 66.985 66.948 66.941
f4 74.295 72.538 72.460 72.460 72.427 72.406
f5 84.227 74.881 74.824 74.824 74.783 74.769
f6 99.477 98.188 98.152 98.152 98.113 98.099
f7 109.434 104.254 104.215 104.215 104.178 104.163
f8 109.434 104.922 104.855 104.855 104.845 104.820
f9 114.750 110.719 110.590 110.590 110.567 110.521
f10 119.122 112.827 112.713 112.713 112.686 112.644
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4  3D FEM Abaqus
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 
f1 45.354 45.350 45.409 45.351 45.342 45.345
f2 49.505 49.500 49.579 49.502 49.491 49.493
f3 66.944 66.939 67.255 66.940 66.919 66.917
f4 72.412 72.401 73.528 72.403 72.353 72.330
f5 74.773 74.764 75.623 74.766 74.730 74.721
f6 98.108 98.098 98.548 98.101 98.078 98.080
f7 104.173 104.162 104.640 104.165 104.139 104.140
f8 104.833 104.818 105.603 104.823 104.789 104.780
f9 110.543 110.517 112.192 110.525 110.473 110.460
f10 112.664 112.642 114.129 112.648 112.596 112.580
648 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

the points on the grid. Thus, extra points are taken from the core Using the method of separation of variables, the generalized dis-
nodes for the cortical node neighborhood as represented in Fig. 2. placements can be written in the following form:
In this way a better approximation is found at the boundaries. There
are several ways of considering the cortical nodes in LGDQ rule, for
us a1 ; a2 ; t Us a1 ; a2 eixt 47
s
example using more than Ni points or others that can be found in where the vibration spatial amplitude values U U 1s 1 ;
a
[120128]. In conclusion, it is obvious that for Ni = N, LGDQ method a2 U 2s a1 ; a2 U 3s a1 ; a2 T full the fundamental differential system
becomes equal to GDQ method and it is not possible to have Ni > N. It (33). Each approximate equation is valid in a single sampling point.
is well-known that GDQ method has full stiffness matrices when the Thus, the whole system of differential equations can be discretized
fundamental system of equations is discretized, whereas with LGDQ and the global assembling leads to a set of linear eigenvalue prob-
method the same matrices are banded. Thus, it is a main advantage lem. The numerical problem is partitioned, dividing the boundary
for the current implementation in terms of numerical solution cost. algebraic equations b and the domain equations d. In this way it
The derivatives in the governing equations in terms of general- is possible to avoid numerical instabilities and ill-conditioned
ized displacements (33), as well as boundary conditions (36)(43) matrices. When the kinematic condensation of non-domain degrees
can be discretized transforming each space derivatives into a of freedom is performed, it is possible to write:
weighted sum of node values of independent variables using the
Local Generalized Differential Quadrature rule (44). Kdd  Kdb Kbb 1 Kbd dd x2 Mdd dd 48
The uniform grid distribution is assumed. Thus, the co-ordi-
The natural frequencies of the structure fr = xr/2p can be deter-
nates of grid points (a1i, a2j) along the reference surface are in the
mined by solving the standard eigenvalue problem (48). Further-
discrete form:
more, the eigs function, embedded in MATLAB software, is used to
i1  1 
obtain the results in terms of natural frequencies of the structures
a1i a1  a01 a01 ; i 1; 2; . . . ; IN ; for a1 2 a01 ; a11 under consideration.
IN  1
j1  1 
4. Numerical results
a2j a  a02 a02 ; j 1; 2; . . . ; IM ; for a2 2 a02 ; a12
IM  1 2
46 In the present section, the free vibration problem of laminated
composite doubly-curved shells and panels are considered and
where IN, IM are the total number of sampling points used to discret- some results and considerations will be presented. The following
ize the domain of the doubly-curved shell in a1 and a2 directions. convention is used to identify the geometrical boundary conditions

Table 7
First ten frequencies for a (30/45) FC shell of translation of Fig. 2(e) and Table 2(e) (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve) using uniform grid distributions with IN = 60,
IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties of the two laminae: E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa, G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa, m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3,
h1 = h2 = 0.5 m
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 21.799 21.814 22.133 21.796 21.827 21.816


f2 22.322 22.346 22.388 22.186 22.214 22.203
f3 22.566 22.581 22.882 22.555 22.586 22.574
f4 33.059 33.093 33.014 32.826 32.867 32.855
f5 43.252 43.284 43.622 43.057 43.106 43.099
f6 44.873 44.878 45.932 44.958 45.024 45.010
f7 45.617 45.618 46.761 45.739 45.816 45.798
f8 52.459 52.486 52.836 52.253 52.301 52.293
f9 54.176 54.187 54.694 54.570 54.573 54.562
f10 64.230 64.250 64.289 64.002 64.035 64.027

FSDTZRS
v1:2 TSDTZRS EDZ1v=1.2 EDZ2v=1.2 EDZ3 EDZ4

f1 21.785 21.812 21.884 21.793 21.822 21.815


f2 22.319 22.345 22.237 22.183 22.210 22.202
f3 22.553 22.579 22.640 22.553 22.580 22.574
f4 33.056 33.093 32.874 32.822 32.862 32.854
f5 43.245 43.283 43.192 43.053 43.103 43.099
f6 44.835 44.871 45.214 44.953 45.016 45.010
f7 45.571 45.611 46.010 45.734 45.806 45.797
f8 52.444 52.483 52.394 52.250 52.297 52.293
f9 54.174 54.187 54.602 54.567 54.568 54.561
f10 64.226 64.249 64.069 63.998 64.031 64.027
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z 3D FEM Abaqus
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z
f1 21.847 21.824 21.821 21.827 21.822 21.811
f2 22.233 22.215 22.209 22.214 22.210 22.205
f3 22.607 22.583 22.580 22.586 22.580 22.566
f4 32.895 32.870 32.860 32.867 32.862 32.854
f5 43.131 43.108 43.101 43.106 43.103 43.085
f6 45.080 45.022 45.016 45.024 45.016 44.986
f7 45.880 45.812 45.805 45.816 45.806 45.783
f8 52.333 52.302 52.296 52.301 52.297 52.263
f9 54.615 54.583 54.566 54.573 54.568 54.561
f10 64.066 64.040 64.030 64.035 64.031 64.006
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 649

for a panel, as already introduce in the previous work by the tures: a spherical panel, a parabolic cylindrical panel, an elliptic
authors [106]. Having in mind Fig. 1, the relations cylinder, an elliptic cone, a shell of translation, a panel of transla-
a2 a02 ; a01 6 a1 6 a11 identify the West edge (W), whereas the tion a free-form cylinder and a free-form cylinder with variable
relations a2 a12 ; a01 6 a1 6 a11 characterize its opposite, the East thickness. The spherical shell of Fig. 3(a) is termed doubly-curved
edge (E). Likewise, the relations a1 a01 ; a02 6 a2 6 a12 dene the even though it has two equal radii of curvature. Thus, it should
North edge (N), whereas the relations a1 a11 ; a02 6 a2 6 a12 indi- be dened as shell with two constant curvatures. Each point on a
cate its opposite, the South edge (S). Thus, the following symbology sphere have two curvatures which are equal and that do not
WSEN represents the boundary condition sequence for a panel change point by point. The parabolic cylindrical panel (Fig. 3(b))
structure. In this way, the West edge is the rst side, the South is a singly-curved panel, made of a parabolic curve (curve with var-
edge is the second one, the East edge is the third one and nally, iable curvature) which slides on an inclined straight line (zero cur-
the North edge is the last one. The symbolism CFCF illustrates that vature). The elliptic cylinder of Fig. 3(c) is a singly-curved shell,
the West and East edges are clamped, whereas the South and North because only the elliptic section has a variable curvature, whereas
edges are free. Differently, the CF symbolism indicates that the the straight line has zero curvature. It should be noted the differ-
West and East edges are clamped and free for a toroidal shell, ence with the circular cylinder, where the curvature is constant
whereas the South and North edges are clamped and free for a rev- on the cross section. The elliptic cone in Fig. 3(d) is another sin-
olution shell. In this case, the other two boundary conditions are gly-curved shell, because it has a variable curvature in the cross
the kinematical and physical compatibility conditions. They are section and a zero curvature on the other co-ordinate. In Fig. 3(e)
applied at the West and East edges, the same closing meridians, a completely doubly-curved shell is shown. It is obtained by an
for a revolution shell and at the South and North edges, the same elliptic curve that slides on another elliptic curve. Thus, the curva-
closing parallels, for a toroidal shell. ture is variable on both directions and point by point. An analogous
The solution procedure, exposed in the third section and based structure is proposed in Fig. 3(f), where the same structure of
on the theoretical formulation proposed in the second section, has Fig. 3(e) is taken as a panel. Finally, the last two structures are
been implemented in a MATLAB code [129] in order to verify its obtained by Bzier curves which slide on straight lines. Thus, they
accuracy. The differential geometry [103,106108] is used in the are singly-curved shells. For the use of Bzier curves in differential
present work to evaluate the geometric parameters of the consid- geometry the interested reader can refer to the works [92,93]. Care
ered structures. Fig. 3 shows the eight investigated shell struc- must be taken for Fig. 3(h), because the drawn panel has a single

Table 8
First ten frequencies for a (30/45) FFCC panel of translation of Fig. 2(f) and Table 2(f) (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve) using uniform grid distributions with IN = 60,
IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties of the two laminae: E1 = 137.9 GPa, E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa, G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa, m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3,
h1 = h2 = 0.5 m
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 18.104 18.220 18.266 18.041 18.254 18.635


f2 21.019 21.110 21.359 20.900 21.171 20.982
f3 35.481 35.683 36.037 35.200 35.627 35.181
f4 45.072 45.095 45.872 45.054 45.353 44.935
f5 53.491 53.610 54.138 53.566 53.690 53.611
f6 60.728 60.841 61.640 60.686 61.074 60.714
f7 71.685 71.869 73.366 71.423 71.916 71.826
f8 79.979 80.143 82.353 79.656 80.050 79.871
f9 84.980 85.211 85.478 84.686 84.942 84.663
f10 94.862 95.183 97.699 94.679 95.032 95.130

FSDTZRS
v1:2 TSDTZRS EDZ1v=1.2 EDZ2v=1.2 EDZ3 EDZ4

f1 18.080 18.199 18.099 18.039 18.425 18.552


f2 21.019 21.159 21.016 20.896 21.102 21.048
f3 35.474 35.685 35.413 35.195 35.371 35.273
f4 45.047 45.137 45.277 45.048 45.150 45.043
f5 53.482 53.603 53.711 53.563 53.630 53.615
f6 60.687 60.820 60.944 60.681 60.869 60.783
f7 71.640 71.900 71.926 71.408 71.882 71.866
f8 79.921 80.137 80.358 79.643 79.943 79.916
f9 84.947 85.194 84.887 84.678 84.767 84.702
f10 94.823 95.167 95.443 94.664 95.061 95.106
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z 3D FEM Abaqus
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z
f1 18.293 18.117 18.488 18.253 18.425 18.041
f2 21.250 21.676 21.082 21.171 21.103 20.929
f3 35.696 35.813 35.310 35.627 35.371 35.255
f4 45.506 45.550 45.098 45.353 45.150 45.076
f5 53.781 53.913 53.600 53.690 53.630 53.605
f6 61.151 61.106 60.822 61.074 60.869 60.765
f7 72.202 73.109 71.858 71.916 71.882 71.568
f8 80.224 80.088 79.913 80.050 79.943 79.778
f9 85.062 85.181 84.704 84.942 84.767 84.799
f10 95.162 95.074 95.038 95.032 95.061 94.978
650 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

curvature which changes its sign on the same co-ordinates. Hence, the parallel one. It is obvious that more points are needed in the
there is a geometric point with zero curvature. This can be an issue parallel direction, because it is longer than the meridian one.
from the computational point of view. However, LGDQ method Table 3 reports in the rst two parts the classic higher-order theo-
helps in this kind of structural problems, because it is possible to ries, also used in the work [106], whereas in the last part new dis-
geometrically avoid the point with zero curvature. In addition, placement elds are presented. It is noted that for the theories,
the same structure of Fig. 3(h) has a linear variable thickness along such as FSDT, TSDT, FSDTZ and TSDTZ [106], the reduced elastic
the second co-ordinate curve a2. constants are used and the shear correction factor is taken equal
In Table 2, for the sake of completeness, the reader can nd all to j = 1/v = 1/1.2 = 5/6 until the in-plane expansion is of the sec-
the position vectors and geometric parameters which were used ond order (such as for FSDT, ED1, ED2, FSDTZ, EDZ1, EDZ2 formu-
for the denition of the shell structures of Fig. 3. lations [106]). It should be noted that the symbolism adopted in
Tables 310 present the rst ten natural frequencies obtained the present paper has been already introduced in the paper
by considering various ESL higher-order theories proposed in the [106]. In detail two aspects occur: rstly the in-plane expansion
present work. Numerical comparisons with 3D FEM results for dif- order is different from the out-of-plane ones, which was consid-
ferent lamination schemes and boundary condition combinations ered as classic with the power functions of fs. The meaning of
are also shown. Moreover, Figs. 411 illustrate the rst mode the symbols for the considered theories can be found in Table 1
shapes of the structures proposed in Fig. 3. For all the following where all the thickness functions implemented by the authors in
computations the same number of neighborhood points for the their code [129] are shown. In addition the rst mode shapes of
LGDQ method were taken as Ni = Mj = 11 along the two curvilinear the spherical shell under study are shown in Fig. 4.
directions, in order to have the same polynomial approximation. The results related to the second structure, a FCFC parabolic
The rst structure is a FC spherical shell made of a lamination cylindrical panel (Fig. 3(b)), are reported in Table 4. In this case a
scheme (30/45) of Graphite Epoxy. The mechanical properties of single isotropic ply made of Steel is considered and its geometric
Graphite-Epoxy are included in Table 3, where the natural frequen- properties are exhibited in Table 2(b). The mechanical properties
cies of several higher-order theories are reported and compared of the Steel are included in Table 4. The same number of grid points
with 3D FEM. The geometric properties are reported in of the previous case are considered 30  60. In this case the classic
Table 2(a). The structure has two laminae of equal thickness higher-order theories [106] are reported in the rst part of Table 4
h1 = h2 = 0.05 m for a total shell thickness h = 0.1 m. The collocation only without Murakamis function, because the panel has a single
points are taken as 30  60, 30 on the meridian direction and 60 on lamina. The same use of the reduced constants and shear correc-

Table 9
First ten frequencies for a (30/45/  30/  45/90/0/  45/  30/45/30) CCCC free-form cylinder of Fig. 2(g) and Table 2(g) (a Bzier curve slides on a straight line) using uniform
grid distributions with IN = 30, IM = 30, Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties of the ten laminae: E1 = 137.9 GPa,E2 = E3 = 8.96 GPa,G12 = G13 = 7.1 GPa, G23 = 6.21 GPa,m12 = m13 = 0.3, m23 = 0.49, q = 1450 kg/m3,
h1 = h2 = h3 = h4 = h5 = h6 = h7 = h8 = h9 = h10 = 0.05 m
Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1RS
v1:2 ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 205.731 205.417 204.615 207.601 205.216 205.382 205.211


f2 268.325 267.812 267.481 271.164 268.199 268.483 268.232
f3 319.381 317.267 316.419 322.391 318.483 317.372 317.016
f4 338.502 338.327 335.065 339.998 337.634 338.235 337.941
f5 343.070 339.520 342.275 347.761 342.562 340.660 340.116
f6 392.128 392.706 391.346 395.179 391.556 393.523 393.041
f7 431.559 427.007 429.125 435.644 429.751 427.347 426.537
f8 455.770 447.157 454.581 463.214 454.666 449.328 448.325
f9 469.314 466.489 467.622 474.838 468.297 467.964 467.088
f10 485.328 481.723 483.954 490.077 484.104 483.166 482.217

FSDTZRS
v1:2 TSDTZRS EDZ1RS
v1:2 EDZ1v=1.2 EDZ2v=1.2 EDZ3 EDZ4

f1 205.728 205.407 204.541 207.531 205.209 205.313 205.200


f2 268.319 267.799 267.388 271.077 268.192 268.387 268.210
f3 319.378 317.255 316.309 322.291 318.471 317.125 316.995
f4 338.499 338.313 334.980 339.917 337.622 338.040 337.925
f5 343.064 339.501 342.113 347.612 342.546 340.294 340.082
f6 392.116 392.684 391.234 395.073 391.543 393.242 393.005
f7 431.555 426.983 428.955 435.500 429.729 426.675 426.500
f8 455.762 447.127 454.308 462.969 454.642 448.557 448.272
f9 469.306 466.458 467.400 474.628 468.274 467.304 467.038
f10 485.316 481.687 483.772 489.908 484.078 482.445 482.166
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z 3D FEM Abaqus
C0 NTIII  C0 NTIII Z C0 C1 TII TIII Z L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 Z
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3 Z C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 Z
f1 205.517 205.463 205.395 205.382 205.363 204.280
f2 268.714 268.616 268.541 268.483 268.458 266.570
f3 317.811 317.748 317.489 317.372 317.345 315.270
f4 338.435 338.390 338.222 338.235 338.207 336.530
f5 341.252 341.192 340.869 340.660 340.616 337.560
f6 393.857 393.722 393.553 393.523 393.479 390.620
f7 428.333 428.231 427.634 427.347 427.297 423.520
f8 450.412 450.322 449.794 449.328 449.247 443.750
f9 468.417 468.363 468.017 467.964 467.884 463.810
f10 484.022 483.898 483.367 483.166 483.086 478.390
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 651

Table 10
First ten frequencies for an isotropic CFFF free-form cylinder of Fig. 2h and Table 2h with a linear variable thickness (a Bzier curve slides on a straight line) using uniform grid
distributions with IN = 60,IM = 30,Ni = Mj = 11.

Mechanical properties: E = 210 GPa, m = 0.3,q = 7800 kg/m3


Mode [Hz] FSDTRS
v1:2 TSDTRS ED1v=1.2 ED2v=1.2 ED3 ED4

f1 19.534 19.593 20.171 19.604 19.690 19.680


f2 26.929 27.050 27.290 27.005 27.275 27.272
f3 35.242 35.596 36.028 35.358 36.155 36.274
f4 62.123 62.533 64.883 62.323 63.256 63.487
f5 68.289 68.486 70.364 68.485 68.662 68.697
f6 73.538 73.811 75.301 73.812 74.103 74.208
f7 76.959 77.301 78.751 77.137 77.647 77.840
f8 79.991 80.101 82.311 80.202 80.367 80.452
f9 104.459 105.201 109.397 104.845 106.362 106.886
f10 124.916 125.417 129.936 125.108 125.852 126.196
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 PKPRS C0 C1 G3  C0 C1 S0  C0 NTIII  C0 C1 C2 KII1  C0 C1 C2 TI 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 
f1 19.608 19.609 19.608 19.608 19.654 19.654
f2 27.039 27.042 27.039 27.039 27.092 27.089
f3 35.749 35.743 35.747 35.747 35.765 35.758
f4 62.710 62.710 62.709 62.709 62.711 62.704
f5 68.559 68.584 68.559 68.559 68.468 68.466
f6 73.949 73.978 73.949 73.949 73.849 73.846
f7 77.348 77.364 77.348 77.348 77.361 77.359
f8 80.339 80.348 80.339 80.339 80.268 80.268
f9 105.364 105.376 105.362 105.362 105.398 105.391
f10 125.457 125.494 125.456 125.456 125.415 125.407
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4  3D FEM Abaqus
C0 C1 LSTFKI  C0 C1 TII TIII  L0 L1 L2  L0 L1 L2 L3  L0 L1 L2 L3 L4 
C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3  C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 
f1 19.617 19.723 19.673 19.690 19.680 19.305
f2 27.077 27.159 27.106 27.275 27.272 26.757
f3 35.757 35.800 35.645 36.155 36.274 34.465
f4 62.672 62.772 62.722 63.256 63.487 61.204
f5 68.507 68.596 68.842 68.662 68.697 68.128
f6 73.906 73.922 74.293 74.103 74.208 73.290
f7 77.364 77.495 77.633 77.647 77.840 76.245
f8 80.265 80.306 80.435 80.367 80.452 79.842
f9 105.336 105.549 105.700 106.362 106.886 102.570
f10 125.388 125.571 126.037 125.852 126.196 123.880

1st - 2nd modes 3rd - 4th modes 5th - 6th modes

7th - 8th modes 9th - 10th mode 11th mode


Fig. 4. First mode shapes for a (30/45) FC spherical shell of Fig. 2(a) and Table 2(a).

tion factor of the previous case is considered in the current exam- part of the same table. The through-the-thickness behavior was
ple. All the other new theories are reported in the second and third kept with the power functions of f and the in-plane behavior
652 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 5. First mode shapes for an isotropic FCFC parabolic cylindrical panel of Fig. 2(b) and Table 2(b).

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 6. First mode shapes for an orthotropic (30) FC elliptic cylinder of Fig. 2(c) and Table 2(c).

was changes using different approaches. Very good agreement is The elliptic cone takes the same single orthotropic lamina and
observed for all the presented results. The rst mode shapes are the same boundary conditions of the elliptic cylinder. For all the
represented in Fig. 5 for the structure under study. geometric and mechanical properties the reader should refer to
The third example is related to a FC elliptic cylinder made of a Table 6 and Table 2(d). The rst mode shapes of the present struc-
single orthotropic lamina (30) of Graphite-Epoxy. The mechanical ture (Fig. 7) are similar to the ones given by the elliptic cylinder.
properties are included in Table 5 and the geometric properties The comparison in terms of natural frequencies can be found in
are written in Table 2(c). The classic higher-order theories are Table 6, where the 3D FEM solution is also reported.
placed in the rst part of Table 5 and the new approaches are The shell and panel of translation, where an elliptic curve trans-
placed below, where the same theories of the previous case have lates along another elliptic curve, are studied in the following. Both
been considered. For the present case the grid distribution is taken are made of a (30/45) lamination scheme of Graphite-Epoxy. The
as 60  30 since the elliptic description requires more points than mechanical properties of the material and the lamination scheme
the straight line. Finally, the rst mode shapes are depicted in thicknesses are reported in Tables 7 and 8, whereas the geometric
Fig. 6, where it is clear that the cylinder is clamped on an edge properties of both structures are indicated in Table 2(e) and (f).
and free on the other one. Classic higher-order theories also within Murakamis function are
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 653

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 7. First mode shapes for an orthotropic (30) FC elliptic cone of Fig. 2(d) and Table 2(d).

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 8. First mode shapes for a (30/45) FC shell of translation of Fig. 2(e) and Table 2(e).

used in the rst and second parts of Tables 7 and 8, while new mode shapes of the free-form panel are shown in Fig. 10. In conclu-
higher-order theories are proposed in the third part of the same sion, a free-form panel with variable thickness and variable curva-
tables. The same theories of the last part of Table 3 have been con- ture (from positive to negative) is investigated in the following.
sidered and very good agreement is observed. Moreover, the rst The control points of the Bzier curve denition are in Table 2h
mode shapes of both structures are illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9. within its geometrical properties. It is noted that the panel thick-
Finally, the free-form singly-curved panels generated by using ness on one hand is four times the one on the other and changes
rational Bzier curves are commented in the following. The control linearly. The panel at hand is isotropic made of Steel and the grid
points of both structures are reported in Table 2(g) and (h). The points are 60  30, since the Bzier curve needs more points than
rst panel is made of ten plies of Graphite-Epoxy and it is clamped the straight line to be described. Although the structure has a
on all its edges. Its natural frequencies, compared to 3D FEM, are change in the sign of the curvature, the results are in very good
reported in Table 9 as well as the ply thicknesses, the grid points agreement with the 3D FEM as reported by Table 10, using both
and the neighboring points are indicated. The LGDQ solution is in classic and new higher-order theories. The rst mode shapes of
very good agreement with the 3D FEM one using both classical the present structure are depicted in Fig. 11, where it is clear that
and higher-order theories with different thickness functions in the panel is clamped at the edge with larger thickness and free on
the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement parameters. The rst all the other edges.
654 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 9. First mode shapes for a (30/45) FFCC panel of translation of Fig. 2(f) and Table 2(f).

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 10. First mode shapes for a (30/45/  30/  45/90/0/  45/  30/45/30) CCCC free-form cylinder of Fig. 2(g) and Table 2(g).

In order to show the LGDQ convergence, accuracy and stability points IN = IM and neighborhood points Ni = Mj and it has very good
characteristics, the rst ten frequencies of the panel of translation convergence and accuracy characteristics.
of Fig. 2f and Table 2f with FCFC boundary conditions and a (30/45)
lamination scheme of Graphite-Epoxy is investigated by varying 5. Conclusions and remarks
the number of grid points IN = IM and neighborhood points Ni = Mj.
These results are presented in Table 11. The number of grid point In conclusion the present paper brought the following main
IN = IM varies from IN = IM = 16 to IN = IM = 46 maintaining the num- novelties. First of all the fundamental nuclei of CUF have been writ-
ber of neighborhood points Ni = Mj equal to Ni = Mj = 11, as it can be ten for doubly-curved shells with variable thickness and mechan-
seen from the rst two rows of Table 11. Otherwise, the last row of ical properties along the two curvilinear co-ordinates using
Table 11 shows the results obtained considering IN = IM = 32 and different thickness functions for the three displacement parame-
varying neighborhood points Ni = Mj from Ni = Mj = 5 to Ni = - ters of the CUF expansion. Second of all the LGDQ method has been
Mj = 19. From Table 11 it can be seen that the proposed numerical introduced for the study of doubly-curved shell structures and it
LGDQ procedure is stable while increasing the number of grid has been demonstrated to be a very good candidate for future
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 655

1st mode 2nd mode 3rd mode

4th mode 5th mode 6th mode


Fig. 11. First mode shapes for an isotropic CFFF free-form cylinder of Fig. 2(h) and Table 2(h) with a linear variable thickness.

Table 11
First ten frequencies for a (30/45) FCFC panel of translation of Fig. 2f and Table 2f (an elliptic curve slides on an elliptic curve) using uniform grid distributions varying the number
of grid points IN = IM and neighborhood points Ni = Mj.

Mode [Hz] IN IM 16 IN IM 18 IN IM 20 IN IM 22 IN IM 24 IN IM 26 IN IM 28 IN IM 30
N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i Mj 11 N i Mj 11 N i Mj 11 N i M j 11

f1 20.761 26.277 26.711 26.845 26.982 27.074 27.130 27.166


f2 29.224 31.153 31.306 31.434 31.562 31.659 31.726 31.775
f3 40.271 38.019 38.157 37.832 37.786 37.784 37.776 37.765
f4 40.271 47.655 47.090 46.716 46.548 46.449 46.379 46.326
f5 59.921 51.582 53.347 53.149 53.050 53.056 53.066 53.070
f6 59.921 60.187 60.415 60.626 60.755 60.856 60.936 60.997
f7 78.535 65.038 70.483 70.630 70.511 70.420 70.415 70.410
f8 87.987 70.501 71.185 71.083 70.756 70.823 70.868 70.900
f9 87.987 75.923 81.181 81.540 80.984 80.848 80.815 80.790
f10 94.155 80.055 83.520 84.506 84.115 83.959 83.912 83.883
IN IM 32 IN IM 34 IN IM 36 IN IM 38 IN IM 40 IN IM 42 IN IM 44 IN IM 46
N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i M j 11 N i Mj 11 N i Mj 11 N i Mj 11 N i M j 11

f1 27.191 27.208 27.221 27.232 27.241 27.249 27.257 27.264


f2 31.811 31.838 31.860 31.878 31.893 31.905 31.916 31.926
f3 37.756 37.747 37.741 37.736 37.733 37.731 37.730 37.730
f4 46.287 46.256 46.232 46.213 46.197 46.184 46.172 46.162
f5 53.073 53.075 53.077 53.079 53.082 53.085 53.089 53.094
f6 61.043 61.078 61.105 61.125 61.140 61.151 61.159 61.165
f7 70.402 70.396 70.390 70.386 70.383 70.382 70.381 70.381
f8 70.922 70.938 70.950 70.958 70.964 70.968 70.970 70.972
f9 80.770 80.753 80.740 80.730 80.723 80.717 80.713 80.711
f10 83.860 83.840 83.824 83.811 83.801 83.793 83.786 83.781
IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32 IN IM 32
Ni Mj 5 Ni Mj 7 Ni Mj 9 N i M j 11 N i Mj 13 N i Mj 15 N i Mj 17 N i M j 19

f1 26.915 27.112 27.168 27.191 27.197 27.197 27.173 27.184


f2 31.523 31.697 31.766 31.811 31.836 31.849 31.854 31.860
f3 38.175 37.835 37.787 37.756 37.732 37.710 37.688 37.643
f4 46.863 46.378 46.323 46.287 46.260 46.236 46.218 46.191
f5 53.745 53.119 53.084 53.073 53.059 53.047 53.041 52.949
f6 59.886 60.602 60.901 61.043 61.115 61.157 61.187 61.193
f7 70.464 70.545 70.432 70.402 70.384 70.346 70.417 69.676
f8 71.549 70.769 70.868 70.922 70.954 70.961 70.975 70.964
f9 82.129 80.931 80.807 80.770 80.744 80.710 80.768 80.133
f10 85.151 83.947 83.877 83.860 83.839 83.804 83.854 83.438
656 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a


developments on the subject, because it lead to very good, accurate ssa1 a2
A1620
1 2
@2 A1620
1 2
@A1 A1120 A6620 @A1
1 2 1 2

and stable results using banded stiffness matrices instead of full L12 
A21 @ a21 A31 @ a1 A21 A2 @ a2
matrices employed by GDQ method. It is remarked that using in-
plane thickness functions different from the out-of-plane ones ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a
A16201 2  A1611
1 2
 A2611
1 2 1 2
@A2 1 @A1620
the degrees of freedom can be reduced and the kinematic model 2
can be enriched, only if it is needed by the problem under consid-
2
A1 A2 @ a1 A1 @ a1
eration. In general it is more convenient to unlock the thickness !
ssa a ssa a ssa a
A1211 A6611 @2
1 2 1 2 1 2
function choice at the displacement eld level, because the stretch- 1 @A6611 @
ing effect usually behaves differently from the in-plane one, espe-
A1 A2 @ a 2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2
cially when laminated composite materials are taken into account.
All the carried out computations were in very good agreement with ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a
A26021 2 @ 2 A26021 2 @A2 A22021 2 A66021 2 @A2
the 3D FEM solutions obtained using a commercial FEM code  
(Abaqus). It is recalled that all the present solutions are A2 @ a2
2 2
A32 @ a2 A1 A22 @ a1
two-dimensional solutions, where the FEM is modeled using
ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a
three-dimensional elements. A direct future development of the A26021 2 A1611
1 2
A2611
1 2 1 2
@A1 1 @A2602
present formulation will be the study of the static analysis of
2
A1 A22 @ a2 A2 @ a2
doubly-curved structures including the stress and strain recovery
procedure, in order to see what happens when different thickness ssa a
!
@ 2 A1
1 2
1 @A1211 @ ssa a 1
functions are considered for the in-plane and out-of-plane A11201 2 2
A1 A2 @ a 1 @ a2 A1 A2 @ a 1 @ a2
displacement parameters.
!
Acknowledgments 1 @A1 @A1 ssa a 1 @ 2 A1 1 @A1 @A2
 3 A1611
1 2

A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A1 A22 @ a22 A1 A32 @ a2 @ a2
The research topic is one of the subjects of the Centre of Study
!
and Research for the Identication of Materials and Structures 1 @A1 @A2 1 @ 2 A2 1 @A2 @A2
ssa a
(CIMEST)-M. Capurso of the University of Bologna (Italy). 3  2 A66021 2
A1 A2 @ a1 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a21 A1 A32 @ a1 @ a2

Appendix A ! ssa a ssa a


!
@ 2 A2 @A11201 2 1 2
1 1 1 @A1611 @A1
 2 @a @a

The equilibrium operators
ssa a
Lfg i j ,
f, g = 1, 2, 3, s, s = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N, A1 A2 1 2 A21 A2 @ a1 A1 A22 @ a2 @ a2
N + 1, ai, aj = a1, a2, a3, of the fundamental nuclei (34) for a general !
ssa a
1 2 ssa a
doubly-curved shell, described in orthogonal curvilinear co-ordi- 1 @A1611 1 @A66021 2 @A2

nates (a1, a2), are derived and presented in their explicit form for A21 A2 @ a1 A1 A22 @ a2 @ a1
the rst time:
ssa a ssa a ssa a  2
ssa a
A11201 1 @ 2 A1211
1 2
A6611
1 2
@A1 @A2 A2602
1 2
@A2
ssa1 a1
L11  2 2
A21 @ a21
2 2
A1 A2 @ a2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a1
ssa a ssa a ssa1 a1 ssa1 a1
!
A1120
1 1
@A1 A1120
1 1
@A2 1 @A1120 1 @A1611 @  2
 ssa a ssa1 a2 s~sa a s
~sa a
@ a1 @ a1 A16201 2 @A1 A4511 A45101 2 A45011 2
A1 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a2 @ a1
3 2 2 s
~~sa a
A1 A1 A2   A45001 2
ssa a ssa1 a1 A21 A22 @ a2 R1 R2 R1 R2
2A1611 @2 A6602 @ 2
1 1


A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A22 @ a22 ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a s
~sa a !
! ssa1 a3
A1120
1 3
A44201 3 A1211
1 3
A13101 3  A4410
1 3
@
ssa a ssa a ssa1 a1 ssa1 a1 L13
A6602
1 1
@A2 A6602
1 1
1 @A6602
@A1 1 @A1611 @ A1 R1 A1 R 2 A1 @ a1

A2 @ a2 A1 A2 @ a2 A2 @ a2 A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2
3 2 2

! ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a s


~sa a !
ssa1 a1 1 @ 2 A2 1 @A1 @A2 A1611
1 3
A4511
1 3
A26021 3 A3601
1 3
 A4501
1 3
@
A1211 
A21 A2 @ a21 A31 A2 @ a1 @ a1 A2 R1 A2 R2 A2 @ a2
!
ssa1 a1 1 @A1 @A1 1 @ 2 A1 ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa1 a3 s~sa1 a3
!
A1620  2 A11201 3  A1211
1 3
A1211
1 3
 A2202
1 3
A1310  A2301 @A2
A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2
3

! A1 A2 R1 A1 A2 R2 A1 A2 @ a1
ssa1 a1 1 @A1 @A2 1 @ 2 A1
A6611  s~sa1 a3 !
A1 A2 @ a2 @ a2 A1 A2 @ a2
3 2 2 ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3 s~sa1 a3
A1611 A1620 A2602 A2611 A3601 A3610 @A1
!
ssa a 1 @ A2 2
1 @A2 @A2 A1 A2 R1 A1 A2 R2 A1 A2 @ a2
A26021 1 
A1 A22 @ a1 @ a2 A1 A32 @ a1 @ a2
ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3 ssa1 a3
ssa1 a1 ssa1 a1
! 1 @A1120 1 @A1211 1 @A1611 1 @A2602
1 @A1211 1 @A2602 @A2
2 A1 R1 @ a1 A1 R2 @ a1 A2 R 1 @ a 2 A2 R2 @ a2
A1 A2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a2 @ a1
2

ssa1 a1 ssa1 a1
! ssa1 a1 s~sa a s~sa a ssa a ssa a
1 @A1620 1 @A6611 @A1 2A2611 @A1 @A2
1 3
1 @A1310
1 3
1 @A3601 A1120
1 3
@R1 A1211 @R2
1 3

 2  
A1 @ a1 A2 @ a2 2 @a
A1 R 1 A1 R22 @ a1
A1 A2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a2
2 @ a2 A21 A22 @ a2 @ a1 1

ssa a   ssa a   ssa a


A22021 1 @A2 2 A66201 1 @A1 2 A44201 1 ssa a
A1611
ssa a
@R1 A2602 @R2
1 3 1 3
 2 2  2 2   
A1 A2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a2 R21 A2 R12 @a
2 A2 R22 @ a2
s~sa a s
~sa a
A4410
1 1
A44101 1 s
~~sa a
 A44001 1
R1
F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660 657

ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a ~sa2 a3 !


s
ssa2 a1
A16202 1 @ 2 A16202 1 @A1 A11202 1 A66202 1 @A1 ssa2 a3
A1620
2 3
A2611
2 3 2 3
A4511 A36102 3 A4510
@
L21   L23
A21 @ a21 A31 @ a1 A21 A2 @ a2 A1 R 1 A1 R 2 @ a1 A1
ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa2 a3 ssa a ssa a s~sa a ~sa a !
s
A16202 1 A1611 2 1
A2611
2 1
@A2 1 @A1620
2 1
A1211 A22022 3 A55022 3 A23012 3 A55012 3 @

A21 A2 @ a1 A21 @ a1 A2 R 1 A2 R 2 A2 @ a2
ssa2 a1
! ssa2 a1 ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a ssa a s~sa a s~sa a
!
1 @A1211 @ A1211 A66112 1 @ 2 A16202 3 A1611
2 3
A2611
2 3
A26022 3 A36102 3 A36012 3

A 1 A 2 @ a2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A1 A2 R1 A1 A2 R2 A1 A2
ssa2 a3 ssa a ssa a ssa2 a3
ssa a
A26022 1 @ 2 ssa a ssa a ssa a
A26022 1 @A2 A22022 1 A66022 1 @A2 @A2 A1211 A11022 3 A22022 3 A1211

A22 @ 22
a A32 @ 2 a A1 A22 @ a1 @ a1 A1 A2 R1 A1 A2 R2
s~sa a s~sa a
! ssa a ssa a
ssa2 a1
A2602
ssa2 a1 ssa2 a1
 A1611  A2611 @A1 1 @A26022 1
ssa a A23012 3 A13102 3 @A1 1 @A1620
2 3
1 @A2611
2 3


a a A1 A2 @ a2 A1 R1 @ a1 A1 R2 @ a1
A1 A22 @ 2 A22 @ 2
! ! ssa a
2 3 2 3 ssa a
2 3 s~sa a
ssa2 a1
1 @A6611 @ 1 @ 2 A1 1 @A1 @A1 1 @A1211 1 @A2202 1 @A3610

ssa2 a1
 A6620 
A 1 A 2 @ a1 @ a2 A2 R 1 @ a 2 A2 R2 @ a2 A1 @ a1
A21 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A31 A2 @ a1 @ a2 s~sa2 a3 ssa2 a3 ssa2 a3
1 @A2301 A1620 @R1 A2611 @R2
ssa a 1 @ 2 A1 1 @A1 @A2 1 @A1 @A2  
 A26112 1  A2 @ a2 A1 R21 @ a1 A1 R22 @ a1
A1 A22 @ a22 A1 A32 @ a2 @ a2 A31 A2 @ a1 @ a1 ssa2 a3 ssa2 a3
! ! A1211 @R1 A2202 @R2
1 @ 2 A2 1 @A2 @A2 1 @ 2 A2  
 2  A
ssa2 a1
2202  A2 R21 @ a2 A2 R22 @ a2
A1 A2 @ a21 A1 A32 @ a1 @ a2 A1 A22 @ a1 @ a2 !
! ssa a ssa a ssa a s
~sa a s~sa a
ssa2 a1 ssa2 a1 ssa3 a1
A11203 1 A44203 1 A1211
3 1
A13103 1  A44103 1
@
1 @A6620 1 @A2611 @A1 L31 
 A1 R 1 A1 R2 @ a1
A1
A21 A2 @ a1 A1 A22 @ a2 @ a2
!
ssa2 a1 ssa2 a1
! ssa3 a1
A1611
ssa3 a1
A4511
ssa a s
~sa a s~sa a
A26023 1 A36013 1  A45013 1
1 @A2611 1 @A2202 @A2 @

A21 A2 @ a1 A1 A22 @ a2 @ a1 A2 R 1 A2 R 2 A2 @ a2
ssa2 a1 ssa2 a1 ssa2 a1   ssa a ssa3 a1 ssa a s~sa a ~sa a !
s
A1211 A6611 @A1 @A2 A2602 @A2 2 A44203 1 A1211 A22023 1 A44103 1  A23013 1 @A2
 2 2  
2 2
A1 A2 @ a2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a1 A1 A2 R 1 A1 A2 R2 A1 A2 @ a1
ssa2 a1  2 ssa2 a1 s
~sa a s~sa a ssa3 a1 ssa3 a1 ssa3 a1 s~sa3 a1 ~sa3 a1 !
s
A1620 @A1 A4511 A45102 1 A45012 1 s
~~sa a A1620  A4511 A2611 A4501 A3610 @A1
2 2   A45002 1
A1 A2 @ a2 R1 R2 R1 R2 A1 A2 R 1 A1 A2 R2 A1 A2 @ a2
ssa3 a1 s~sa3 a1 ssa3 a1
ssa a
A66202 2 @ 2
ssa a ssa a
A66202 2 @A1 A66202 2 @A2 1 @A6620 2 2 ssa a 1 @A4420 1 @A4410 1 @A4511 1
ssa a
L22 2 2  2 2  
A1 R1 @ a1 A1 @ a1 A2 R1 @ a2 A2
2
A1 @ a 1 2
A1 @ a1
3
A1 A2 @ a1 A1 @ a1 s~sa a ssa a ssa a
ssa2 a2
! ssa2 a2 ssa a @A45013 1 A44203 1 @R1 A4511
3 1
@R1
1 @A2611 @ 2A2611 @2 A22022 2 @ 2 
@ a2 2 @a
A1 R 1 1 A2 R21 @ a2
A1 A2 @ a2 @ a1 A1 A2 @ a1 @ a2 A22 @ a22
ssa a ssa a ssa a s
~sa a s~sa a
!
ssa a ssa a
A22022 2 @A2 A22022 2 @A1 1 @A22022 2
ssa a
ssa a
A16203 2 A2611
3 2
A4511
3 2
A36103 2  A45103 2 @
 L32 3 2 
A1 R1 A1 R 2 A1 @ a1
A32 @ a2 A1 A22 @ a2 A22 @ a2 ssa a ssa a ssa a s
~sa a s~sa a
!
ssa2 a2
! A12203 2 A2202
3 2
A55023 2 A23013 2  A5501
3 2
@
1 @A2611 @ 
A2 R 1 A2 R2 A2 @ a2
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658 F. Tornabene et al. / Composite Structures 116 (2014) 637660

Finally, the explicit form of the sth order resultants Ssai a1 ; a2 ; t [23] Gould PL. Finite element analysis of shells of revolution. Pitman Publishing;
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A 3300

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