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http://www.transnav.eu and Safety of Sea Transportation September 2014

DOI:10.12716/1001.08.03.08

Propulsion System of Inland Waterway Vessels with

Stern Tunnels

J.Kulczyk&T.Tabaczek

WrocawUniversityofTechnology,Wrocaw,Poland

ABSTRACT: Propellerhull interaction coefficients the wake fraction and the thrust deduction factor play

significant role in design of propulsion system of a ship. In the case of inland waterway vessels the reliable

methodofpredictingthesecoefficientsinearlydesignstageismissing.Basedontheoutcomesfrommodeltests

andfromnumericalcomputationsthepresentauthorsshowthatitisdifficulttodetermineuniquelythetrends

in change of wake fraction and thrust deduction factor resulting from the changes of hull form or operating

conditions.

Nowadaystheresistanceandpropulsionmodeltestsofinlandwaterwayvesselsarecarriedoutrarelybecause

of relatively high costs. On the other hand, the degree of development of computational methods enables to

estimatethereliablevaluesointeractioncoefficients. The computations referred to in the present paper were

carriedoutusingtheauthorsownsoftwareHPSDKSandthecommercialsoftwareAnsysFluent

1 INTRODUCTION coefficientthataccountsfortheinfluenceofpropeller

hull hydrodynamic interaction on the efficiency of

For correct design of propulsion system with screw propulsion system. Hull efficiency greater than 1.0

propeller for inland waterway vessel the precise means that there is the beneficial mutual fit of

determination of propellerhull interaction propellerandhull,andincreasestheoverallefficiency

coefficients is required. These coefficients are the ofpropulsionsystem.

wake fraction (denoted with w) and the thrust Errors in determination of values of interaction

deduction factor (denoted with t). The former coefficients in the course of ship design are bad for

coefficient describes the actual inflow velocity to operation of propulsion system in real operating

propeller, that is usually lower than ship speed conditions [8]. The error in determination of wake

becauseofwakebehindtheship.Thelatterdescribes fraction results in errors in advance speed VA and in

the increase in hull resistance due to the suction of open water efficiency of propeller 0. The difference

propeller, and is used to determine the thrust between assumed and actual value of efficiency is

requiredtoachievetheassumedshipspeed.Propeller determinedbythefollowingequation:

thrustatgivenshipspeedisusuallygreaterthanthe

resistanceoftowedshiphull.

do w dw 1 K Q 1 KT 1 (1)

The proportion (1t)/(1w) in naval architecture is J

o 1 w w K Q J KT J J

called the hull efficiency. Actually, it is not the

efficiency in meaning of technology. It is rather the

377

andaffectstheshipspeed: the reliable empirical formulae are missing due to

much less number of model tests carried out in the

dV w dw past..

(2)

V 1 w w Thedeterminationofthrustdeductionfactorbased

on data from model tests or results of numerical

where: computations of ship flow (with operating propeller

0 openwaterefficiencyofpropeller, and without propeller) is straightforward. Using

J advancecoefficientofpropeller, valuesofhullresistanceRandpropellerthrustTthe

w wakefraction, value of thrust deduction factor is calculated

KT thrustcoefficient, accordingtoitsdefinition:t=(TR)/T.

KQ torquecoefficient, Twowakecoefficientsareusedindesignofscrew

V shipspeed. propellers: the nominal wake fraction (in propeller

When w<0.5 the relative error in speed dV/V is disk behind the hull towed without propeller,

smallerthantheerrorinwakefractiondw/w.Positive denotedwithwn)andtheeffectivewakefraction(for

value of dw/w results in higher actual speed. In propeller operating in ship wake, denoted with we).

predictionofshipspeedtheunderestimatedvaluesof Thenominalwakefractionrepresentstheactualmean

wakefractionmaybecomebeneficial,especiallywhen velocity of wake flow in propeller disk Vn. It is

thehighestpossibleshipspeedisthegoalofpropeller defined as proportion wn=(VSVn)/VS, and is

design. determined based on direct measurements or

computations of flow velocity. The effective wake

For seagoing ships there is a number of reliable fraction represents the men inflow velocity to the

empiricalformulaeintheliteraturefordetermination propeller operating in ship wake or, otherwise the

of values of interaction coefficients. Those formulae advance speed of propeller VA. It is defined as

arebasedontheresultsofsystematicmodeltestswith proportion we=(VSVA)/VS, and accounts for the

varioushullforms.Forinlandwaterwayvesselssuch influence of the running propeller on flow in hull

formulae are missing because of lack of systematic boundary layer and wake. Effective wake fraction is

model tests. The effects of water depth, ship speed determined using the magnitudes measured in

(propeller loading) and height of stern tunnel(s) on propulsion test and the open water hydrodynamic

wake fraction and thrust deduction factor have not characteristics of propeller. Performance of propeller

been sufficiently investigated. The outcomes from operatinginshipwake(thrustortorque)iscompared

tests carried out with motor cargo vessel GUSTAW to the performance of the same propeller in open

KOENIGS[1]showthattheeffectofstreaminwater water, with assumption of thrust identity or torque

on wake fraction and thrust deduction factor is also identity, in order to determine advance speed VA.

significant. Thrust identity is usually applied in model tests.

Available outcomes from model tests and results Torqueidentityisappliedtofullscalemeasurements

ofnumericalcomputationsarenotnumerousenough when only torque is measured on propeller shaft.

topredictthevaluesofinteractioncoefficientsreliably Values determined with the assumption of torque

inthecaseofnewlydesignedvesselsorinthecaseof identity may differ considerably from values

variableoperatingconditions. determined with the assumption of thrust identity.

Recommended procedures prepared by the

International Towing Tank Conference [9]

standardize the methodology of determination of

2 DETERMINATIONOFINTERACTION propellerhullinteractioncoefficients.

COEFFICIENTS In the following sections the authors present the

analysis of the influence of operating conditions (i.e.

Wake fraction and thrust deduction factor for given shiploading,waterdepthandshipspeed)andheight

ship are determined using the results of resistance of stern tunnel on propellerhull interaction

and propulsion model tests, the results of numerical coefficientsforinlandwaterwayvessels.Theanalysis

computations,orempiricalformulae. isbasedonoutcomesfrommodeltestsandresultsof

numerical computations. It refers to conventional

Modeltestsaretimeconsumingandexpensive.In

inland waterway cargo ships with stern tunnels

thecaseofinlandwaterwayvesselthecostsofmodel

motorcargovesselsandpushedbargetrainsmadeup

tests are high in comparison to the costs of ship

ofdumbbargescoupledwithapushboat.

design and construction. Therefore they are carried

outrarely.

Numerical computations using the commercial

CFD software provide reliable results, but are also 3 INTERACTIONCOEFFICIENTSFORMOTOR

labourconsumingandrequiretheefficienthardware. CARGOVESSELS

Computationsarealsoexpensive.

Mainparticularsand hull forms of considered motor

Empirical formulae based on outcomes from

cargovesselsarepresentedinTable1andinFigures1

numerousmodeltestsandondatafromoperationof

and2.

real vessels, are commonly used in early design

stages, as well as in realtime control of propulsion ModeltestsofmotorcargovesselBMDUISBURG

system. The methods developed for seagoing ships [3] included the measurements of flow velocity in

are precise enough owing to numerous experimental propellerdiskwithoutpropeller(nominalwake)and

data from model tests. For inland waterway vessels themeasurementsofflowvelocityinplanelocatedin

378

distance 0.4 of propeller diameter in front of assumption of thrust identity as well as torque

operating propeller (Fig. 1). Effective wake fraction identity, in wide range of ship speed, for the vessel

was determined with assumption of thrust identity. sailingalone(solo)andcoupledwithasingledumb

Testswerecarriedoutatvariousoperatingconditions barge (kombi). Model tests of OBM in both

(shipdraught,waterdepthandshipspeedseeTable arrangements were also reproduced in numerical

1). computations [7]. Tests and computations were

carried out at two values of draught, in deep and in

Conventionalresistanceandpropulsiontestswere shallow (h/T=1,56) water. Results are presented in

carried out with motor cargo vessel OBM [2]. Table2.

Effective wake fraction was determined with the

Figue1.HullformofmotorcargovesselBMDUISBURG

Figue2.HullformofmotorcargovesselOBM

Table1.Mainparticularsandoperatingconditionsofmodelships,[3],[2]

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Vessel BMDUISBURG OBM

Scale 1:12.5 1:16

LWL[m] 6.604 6.760 6.768 6.604 4.239 4.329

B[m] 0.757 0.757 0.757 0.757 0.558 0.558

T[m] 0.200 0.224 0.256 0.200 0.100 0.148

CB[] 0.874 0.875 0.876 0.874 0.876 0.899

h[m] 0.40 0.28 0.156 0.156

V[m/s] 1.336 1.267 1.171 1.100 0.417 0.417

Propellers

type screwpropeller ductedpropellerKa455

D[m] 0.120 0.0813

P/D[] 0.65 0.90

A E/AO[] 0.56 0.55

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

379

Table2.Resultsofmodeltestsandnumericalcomputations

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Vessel BMDUISBURG OBM

Scale 1:12.5 1:16

T[m] 0.200 0.224 0.256 0.200 0.100

h[m] 0.40 0.28 0.156

h/T 2.00 1.79 1.56 1.40 1.56

V[m/s] 1.336 1.267 1.171 1.100 0.417 0.556 0.695

Fnh 0.67 0.64 0.59 0.66 0.34 0.45 0.56

n[rps] 26.22 26.10 26.00 25.80

Coefficientsofpropellerhullinteraction

Test wn 0.276 0.245 0.232 0.438

weT 0.27 0.23 0.20 0.26 0.143 0.054 0.020

weQ 0.685 0.2462 0.1565

wzp 0.09 0.06 0.01 0.11

t 0.245 0.270 0.270 0.292 0.320 0.274 0.244

Comput.wn 0.223 0.220 0.217 0.234 0.335 0.332 0.312

Fluent we

wzp 0.383 0.309 0.260 0.276 0.304 0.382 0.391

t 0.267 0.243 0.262 0.288 0.345 0.326 0.353

Comput.wn 0.234 0.240 0.300 0.322 0.275 0.270 0.270

HPSDKwe 0.172 0.200 0.258 0.213

wzp 0.126 0.161 0.211 0.148

t

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

weT - effective wake fraction based on thrust identity

weQ - effective wake fraction based on torque identity

wzp = (VS-Vzp)/VS where Vzp denotes the mean velocity in front of operating propeller, and VS is the corresponding ship speed

wzp = (VS-Vzp)/VS where Vzp denotes the mean velocity in front of operating propeller, and VS is the corresponding ship speed

0,2 0,2

0,15 0,15

T=2.36m, deep w.

'kombi'

we

0,05

we

0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

-0,05 -0,05

-0,1 -0,1

VS [km/h] VS [km/h]

0,6 0,6

0,5 0,5

0,4 0,4

T=1.60m, deep w. 'solo'

0,3 0,3

T=2.36m, deep w. 'kombi'

0,2 T=1.60m, h=2.5m 0,2

t

t

0,1 0,1

0 0

-0,1 0 5 10 15 20 -0,1 0 5 10 15 20

-0,2 -0,2

VS [km/h] VS [km/h]

OBM : T=2.36m, deep water

Figure3.Wakefraction(weweT)andthrustdeductionfactor

(t)formotorcargovesselOBM(inmodelscale) 0,2

0,15

0,1 'solo'

'kombi'

we

0,05

0

0 5 10 15 20

-0,05

-0,1

VS [km/h]

380

OBM : T=2.36m, deep water

vesselOBMsailingalone(solo)andcoupledwithasingle

dumbbarge(kombi)

0,6

0,5

0,4 BM-DUISBURG

0,3 'solo'

'kombi' 0,3

0,2

t

0,1 0,25

0 0,2

-0,1 0 5 10 15 20

we

0,15

-0,2

0,1

VS [km/h]

0,05

OBM : T=1.60m, h=2.5m 0

2 2,5 3 3,5

0,2

T [m]

0,15

BM-DUISBURG

0,1 'solo'

'kombi' 0,3

we

0,05

0,25

0

0 5 10 15 20 0,2

-0,05

0,15

t

-0,1

0,1

VS [km/h]

0,05

2 2,5 3 3,5

0,6

T [m]

0,5

0,4

Figure6.Theeffectofshiploading(shipdraught)onwake

0,3 'solo'

'kombi'

fraction(we)andthrustdeductionfactor(t)formotorcargo

0,2 vesselBMDUISBURGatconstantdepthofwaterh=5.0m(in

t

0,1 modelscale)

0

-0,1 0 5 10 15

-0,2 BM-DUISBURG

VS [km/h]

0,3

deduction factor (t) for motor cargo vessel OBM sailing 0,2

alone (solo) and coupled with a single dumb barge

we

0,15

(kombi)

0,1

0,05

OBM 'soko' 0

2 3 4 5 6

0,7

h [m]

0,6

weT, T=1.60m, deep w.

0,5 BM-DUISBURG

weT, T=2.36m, deep w.

0,4 weT, T=1.60m, h=2.5m

weQ, T=1.60m, deep w. 0,35

we

weQ, T=1.60m, h=2.5m 0,3

0,2

0,25

0,1

0,2

0

t

0,15

-0,1 0 5 10 15 20

VS [km/h] 0,1

0,05

OBM 'kombi' 0

2 3 4 5 6

0,7

h [m]

0,6

weT, T=1.60m, deep w.

0,5

weT, T=2.36m, deep w. Figure7.Theeffectofwaterdepthonwakefraction(we)and

0,4 weT, T=1.60m, h=2.5m

weQ, T=1.60m, deep w.

thrust deduction factor (t) for motor cargo vessel BM

we

weQ, T=1.60m, h=2.5m

0,2

0,1

When ship speed increases the effective wake

0

fraction is getting weaker (Fig. 3). In deep water, at

-0,1 0 5 10 15 20

speedshigherthan12km/hbecomesalmoststeady.In

VS [km/h]

shallow water (h/T=1.56) the wake fraction decreases

Figure5.Comparisonofeffectivewakefractiondetermined faster, and at speed of 12km/h (Fnh=0.67) is

with assumption of thrust identity (weT) and determined considerably less than in deep water, because of

with assumption of torque identity (weQ) for motor cargo intensive sinkage and trim by stern. The change of

draught in deep water does not affect the wake

381

fractionasfarastopofsterntunnelisbelowthefree tworows,atbargedraughtof3.0m(0.188minmodel

surface in calm water. In arrangement with dumb scale). Numerical computations were carried out

barge (kombi) both values and trends in change of using theoretical model described in [6], at the same

the effective wake fraction are almost the same as operating conditions as in model tests. Main

whensailingalone(Fig.4). particularsofpushboatsanddumbbargeEUROPAII

are given in Table 3. Hull forms of considered

When ship speed increases the thrust deduction pushboatsareshowninFigures8and9.

factor also increases (Fig. 3). In shallow water the

values are greater than in deep water. The effect of

draught at highest speed in deep water is negligible. Table 3. Main particulars of tested pushboats and dumb

Based on data shown in Fig. 4 one can not conclude barges[4],[5]

_______________________________________________

the changes in thrust deduction factor caused by Vessel Twin Triple Dumbbarge

enlargement of ship length (by coupling with a screw screw EUROPAII

barge). _______________________________________________

pushboat pushboat

The diagrams shown in Fig. 5 illustrate the Scale 1:16 1:16 1:16

difference between values of wake fraction LOA[m] 2.1875 2.1875 4.7813

LWL[m] 2.1188 2.1181 4.565 4.587 4.611

determined with the assumption of thrust identity

B[m] 0.875 0.9344 0.706 0.706 0.706

and determined with the assumption of torque T[m] 0.1093 0.10625 0.175 0.1875 0.200

identity. CB[] 0.622 0.6426 0.947 0.946 0.945

The extent of model tests with the motor cargo Screwpropeller

vesselBMDUISBURGallowstoidentifythevariation z 4 4

D[m] 0.13125 0.13125

of interaction coefficients caused by change of P/D[] 1.052 1.052

draught in shallow water (1.56h/T2.00; see Fig. 6). Ag/A0[] 0.71 0.71

When ship draught increases the wake fraction h[m] 0.3125

evidently decreases due to decreasing underkeel _______________________________________________

clearance between ship and bottom of waterway. At

the same time the thrust deduction factor slightly

increases. Table4.Resultsofmodeltestsandnumericalcomputations

_______________________________________________

Reductionofwaterdepthatconstantshipdraught Vessel Twinscrew Triplescrew

caused the weakening of wake and intensification of _______________________________________________

pushboat pushboat

propeller suction (Fig. 7). Reduction of underkeel h[m] 0.3125 0.3125

clearance is considerable and one might expect T[m] 0.1093 0.10625

greater difference between values of wake fraction. (pushboat)

However, the trends are the same as in the case of TB[m](dumb 0.1750.200 0.188

reduction of underkeel clearance by increasing ship barges)

draught at constant water depth, or in the case of h/TB 1.79 1.56 1.67

V[m/s] 0.8880.835 0.873

transition from deep to shallow water in tests with

Fnh 0.51 0.48 0.50

motorcargovesselOBM. n[rps] 16.0716.13 15.20

Central Side Side

propellerpropeller propeller

(screw (ducted

4 INTERACTIONCOEFFICIENTSFORPUSHED prop.) prop.)

BARGETRAINS Modeltestwn 0.4380.471 0.625 0.520 0.520

we 0.3180.324 0.39 0.46

Model tests of pushed barge trains with twin wzp 0.0720.090 0.064 0.029 0.4126

t 0.20 0.21

propeller pushboat and triplepropeller pushboat

Comput. wn 0.4090.463 0.628 0.629 0.629

were carried out in research centre in Duisburg [4], (HPSDK) we 0.2110.244 0.657 0.543 0.543

[5]. The twinpropeller pushboat was tested in train wzp 0.1070.113 0.253 0.125 0.188

with 4 dumb barges arranged in two rows, at barge t 0.1110.107 0.268 0.239 0.344

draught of 2.8m (0.175m in model scale) and 3.2m _______________________________________________

KT 0.3710.383 0.440 0.424 0.435

(0.200minmodelscale).Thetriplepropellerpushboat

was tested in train with 6 dumb barges arranged in

382

Figur8.Hullformoftwinscrewpushboat

Figure9.Hullformoftriplescrewpushboat

computationsarepresentedinTable4. particulars of virtual pushboat are given in Table 5.

Thesectionalongthesterntunnelofvirtualpushboat

Inthecaseoftestedpushedbargetrainsinshallow isshowninFig.6.Accordingtothepracticeindesign

watertheincreaseofbargedraughtatconstantwater ofinlandwaterwayvessels,thetunnelheightof1.3m

depth caused increase of wake fraction. The trend is is considered the maximum applicable at ship

opposite to that observed in the case of motor cargo draughtof1.0m.

vessels and described in the preceding section. The

reason is that the draught of pushboat remained

unchangedand,infact,itwasthechangeofhullform Table5.Mainparticularsofvirtualpushboat[7]

_______________________________________________

and not only of ship draught. Some regularities in Length,L[m] 20.0

variation of interaction coefficients observed in the Beam,B[m] 9.0

case of motor cargo vessel do not refer to pushed Draught,T[m] 1.0

bargetrains. Heightoftunnel,hw[m] 1.1;1.3;1.5

Slopeoftunnel, [deg] 25

_______________________________________________

Moreover,inthecaseofpushboatsthatoperateat

almostconstantdraught,regardlessofthedraughtof

barges, the height of tunnels is usually greater than

draught, in order to accommodate propeller of

sufficientdiameter.Thatiswhythevaluesofnominal

and effective wake fraction are, in general, greater

thaninthecaseofmotorcargovesselswherethetop

ofsterntunnelisbelowthefreesurfaceofwater.

The effect of tunnel height on coefficients of Figure 6. Section along the stern tunnel of virtual pushboat

propellerhull interaction was studied theoretically

383

Three values of tunnel height were considered decreases until depth Froude number (Fnh =

(Table 6). For each height the diameter of ducted VS/(gh)1/2) reaches the value of 0.65. Operation of

propeller was determined with assumption, that cargo vessels at higher speed is unprofitable and

nozzleisintegratedwithshiphull.Usingthetestdata may cause grounding due to intensive trim and

of Ka470 screw series in nozzle 19A the propeller sinkageofship.

pitchwasdesignedsoastoachievemaximumthrust Change of ship loading (and corresponding

atgivenadvancespeedVA=2.1m/s.Thrustofpropeller change of ship draught) in deep water does not

and mean pressure gradient in propeller disk were affectthepropellerhullinteractioncoefficients.

determined for three values of ship speed, based on Inshallowwaterboththereductionofwaterdepth

propulsive characteristics. The results are presented as well as the increase of ship draught result in

inTable6. decrease of underkeel clearance and in the same

trendsinvariationofinteractioncoefficients:when

the distance between hull and waterway bottom

Table6.Diameterandthrustofductedpropellersdesigned

(or h/T ratio) decreases, wake fraction also

forvirtualpushboat

_______________________________________________ decreasesandthrustdeductionfactorincreases.

hw D Z0 n VS T p The effective wake fraction determined with

[m] [m] [m] [rps] [m/s] [kN] [kPa]

_______________________________________________ assumption of torque identity differs significantly

1.1 0.91 0.64 12.0 0.10 37 56.9 from that determined with assumption of thrust

1.56 33 50.7 identity.

3.12 24 36.9

1.3 1.08 0.75 7.5 0.10 44 48.0 In the case of pushed barge trains the change of

2.31 35 38.2 barge loading (or change of barge draught) does nor

3.47 31 33.8

1.5 1.24 0.87 6.67 0.10 48 39.7

affect the draught of pushboat, and implies the change

2.36 37 30.6 of hull form. Regularities in variation of interaction

_______________________________________________

3.54 32 26.5 coefficients observed in the case of motor cargo vessel

may not obey in the case of pushed barge trains.

The results of model tests and numerical computa-

UsingCFDsoftwareAnsysFluentandtheactuator

disk with pressure gradient to simulate the action of tions also show that the height of stern tunnels affects

propeller a series of numerical computations were the flow around ship considerably, and, in conse-

carriedoutatwaterdepthof1.5and3.0m.Thevalues quence, the value of thrust deduction factor.

ofnominalwakefractionandthrustdeductionfactor

determined for virtual pushboat are presented in

Table7. REFERENCES

determinedforvirtualpushboat und Nachstrom auf beschrankter Wassertiefe in

_______________________________________________

stehendenundstromendernWasser,Schiffstechnik,Bd.

hw[m] VS[m/s] h/T wn t

_______________________________________________ 8,H.44,1961

1.1 3.12 1.5 0.837 0.302 [2]Badania modelowe OBM, Centrum Techniki Okrtowej,

3.0 0.679 0.285 Gdask1975

1.3 3.47 1.5 0.861 0.299 [3]Luthra, G.: Untersuchung der Nachstromverteilung an

3.0 0.752 0.320 einem 2SchraubenBinnengutermotorschiff,

1.5 3.54 1.5 0.899 0.394 Versuchsanstalt fr Binnenschiffbau E.V., Duisburg,

_______________________________________________

3.0 0.733 0.403 BerichtNr.788

[4]Luthra,G.:UntersuchungderNachstomverteilungeines

imVerbandschiebendenSchubbootsinPontonformmit

einer zwecks Verbesserung zum Propeller genderten

5 CONCLUSIONS ZwierumpfUnterwasserformgebung, Versuchsanstalt

frBinnenschiffbauE.V.,Duisburg,BerichtNr.702

Due to the little amount of data the conclusions are [5]Luthra,G.:UntersuchungderNachstromverhltnissean

ratherqualitativethanquantitativeandrefertomodel DreiundVierSchraubenSchubbooten,Versuchsanstalt

frBinnenschiffbauE.V.,Duisburg,BerichtNr.919

scale,however,shallbevalidalsoinfullscale. [6]Kulczyk, J.: Modelowanie numeryczne oddziaywa

The results of model tests and numerical hydrodynamicznych w ukadzie napdowym statku

computations show that operating parameters rdldowego, Prace Naukowe Instytutu Konstrukcji i

considered in this paper, i.e. ship loading (or Eksploatacji Maszyn, Politechnika Wrocawska, Seria:

Monografie,Nr17,Wrocaw,1992

corresponding ship draught), water depth and ship [7]Kulczyk, J., Tabaczek, T., Zawilak, M., Zieliski, A.,

speed, affect the values of both wake fraction and Werszko, R.: Numeryczne modelowanie przepywu

thrustdeductionfactor. lepkiego wok kaduba statku rdldowego na

Considering inland waterway vessels with stern ograniczonej drodze wodnej, Instytut Konstrukcji i

EksploatacjiMaszyn,PolitechnikaWrocawska,Raportz

tunnels that do not rise above free surface of water seriiPreprinty,NrS043/03,Wrocaw,2003

(hw<h), as motor cargo vessels with full or partial [8]Kulczyk, J.; Winter, J.: rdldowy transport wodny,

loading,onemayexpectthat: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocawskiej,

The increase of ship speed in deep as well as in Wrocaw,2003

shallowwatercausesthedecreaseofwakefraction [9]InternationalTowingTankConference:QualitySystems

and increase of thrust deduction factor. At higher Manual, Version 2011, ITTC Recommended

speeds in deep water the wake fraction becomes ProceduresandGuidelines

steady. In shallow water the wake fraction

384

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