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CTU in Prague

ADVANCED DESIGN OF GLASS


STRUCTURES
Lecture L4_ME
Bolted connection in glass structures
Martina Eliov

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC
CTU in Prague
Objectives of the lecture
Objectives

Introduction
Introduction
Structural design of
bolted
connections Structural design of bolted connections
Typology and
technology Typology and technology
Behaviour under
loading Behaviour under loading
Experimental
research Experimental research
Design concepts
Design concepts

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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives

Introduction
Bolted Connection in horizontal Glass Beams
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Allied Irish Banks, Bank centre, Dublin


Architect: RKD Architects
Facade: Gartner Steel and Glass,
Germany
Structure Specialist Glazing, Curtain Wall,
Steel- and Glass roof
Surface: 20,000 m
Completion: 2008 Wellershoff F., Schreiter D., Schmitt F., 2008
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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted Connection in horizontal glass beams
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology
F. Wellershoff

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

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Practical examples
Objectives
Bolted Connection in horizontal glass beams
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Glass roof for university of Glasgow, 2002


friction grip connection
soft interlayer replaced by aluminium alloy
prestressed M20 bolts
special friction layers

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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in vertical fins
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

River City - Danube house, Prague


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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in vertical fins
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

Trump Tower, Chicago (SOM Architects, 2008)


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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in vertical fins
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Museum of history Luxembourg


Glass fins: height - 12 m, thickness 19 mm
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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in vertical fins
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Museum of history Luxembourg


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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in vertical fins
Introduction

Structural design of wind


bolted
connections
compression
Typology and
A
technology
tension in steel tie
Behaviour under
glass fin divided into pieces of 4m and 2m
loading

Experimental

steel ties with nuts


research

direct contact
Design concepts

Detail A

Natural museum in Rotterdam, 1997


glass faade of 6m height is stabilized by
glass fins
depth of fin 400mm, distance 2.5m
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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in glass bridges
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Glass footbridge, Rotterdam, 1994


beam: span 3,5 m, depth 300 mm, composition 3 x 10 mm float glass,
parabolic shape = architectural reasons
floor plates float glass 2 x 15 mm
walls: laminated glass - external:10 mm toughened glass, internal: 6 mm
heat-strengthened glass
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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in glass bridges
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Glass footbridge, Rotterdam, 1994


beam: span 3,5 m, depth 300 mm, composition 3 x 10 mm float glass,
parabolic shape = architectural reasons
floor plates float glass 2 x 15 mm
walls: laminated glass - external:10 mm toughened glass, internal: 6 mm
heat-strengthened glass
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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives

Introduction

Structural design of high modulus 4mm, 180mm low modulus


bolted structural silicone steel plate
connections sealant silicone sealant

Typology and 15mm thick,


technology 130mm 8mm heat
steel plate M16 countersunk strengthened
Behaviour under screw glass
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

1,52mm thick
round polished PVB interlayer
edge hole
142mm nylatron
bush 15mm toughened
glass
1mm thick vulcanised ground and
cellulose fibre gaskets arrissed hole
12mm, steel 28mm
plate, 180mm

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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in glass bridges
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Eaton Center, Calgary (MMC International Architects, Toronto, 2010)

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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in glass bridges
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

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Examples of bolted connections
Objectives
Bolted connection in glass bridges
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives
Stress Analysis with FE-Methods
Introduction

Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives
Kravis Center, LA (Gartner, 2011)
Introduction

Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Rafael Vinoly Architects

Client Claremont MC Kenna College


Architect Rafael Vinoly, NY
Faade Gartner Steel and Glass, Germany
Structure Structural glass columns, steel roof, glass walls
Completion 2011
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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives
Kravis Center, LA (Gartner, 2011)
Introduction

Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Gartner Steel and Glass

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives
Stress Analysis with FE-Methods
Introduction

Structural design
0.9 X
of bolted X
Y
Y
connections Z
Z

Typology and
technology Spannungen
1,+ [kN /cm 2]

140.0
Behaviour under 2.33
loading 2.01

80.0

50.0
1.69
Experimental 1.37
research 1.04
0.72
Design concepts 0.40
0.08
-0.25

-0.57
-0.89
4 8.90
48.9 1
48.90
48.91
34.25
-1.21 191.0
34.25
34.26 3 4.26
Max : 2.33 146.0
Min : -1.21

10.1 6
10.16 1 0.6610 .16
10.66

80.0
10.66
10.6610.16

50.0
8.74
7.51 7.51
8.74 7.51
8.74 8.74 7.51
8 .74 8 .74

40.24
40.25 4040.2
.24 5

146.0
57.68
57.68 57.68
57.68

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives

Introduction
Detail tests of the connection force
resistance
Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Sttzenkrfte Kraftresultierende je Bolzenpaar


Lastkombination N [kN] V [kN] R druck [kN] R zug [kN]
nach ASCE-07
DL + LLR 34
DL + 0,7 EL 17 66,5 195 178
0,6 DL + 0,7 EL 10,5 66,5 191,5 181
DL (Dead Load), LLR (Life Load), EL (Earthquake Load)

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives

Introduction

Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

F. Wellershoff F. Wellershoff

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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives

Introduction
Detail tests of the connection
force resistance
Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
Test Breakage force of glass layer Max. force Safety coefficient 1)
loading
sample
Experimental
research

Design concepts First Second All


layer layer layer

2 719,5 755,0 4,17


3 682,0 682,0 3,77
4 775,9 733,2 800,0 4,42
5 449,2 578,9 476,7 578,9 3,20
7 798,0 801,4 4,43
8 742,8 742,8 4,10
1) Global safety factor related to characteristic connection force (181 kN)
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Structural design of bolted connections
Objectives
Full scale test for overall behavior of the
Introduction
column
Structural design
of bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

F. Wellershoff

F. Wellershoff

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Great number of point fittings on market
Introduction

Structural design of Glass connectors, cylindrical


bolted
connections flat shape, round-head
Typology and
technology
Glass connectors, countersunk
Behaviour under
loading flat-head, round-head
Experimental
research
Slideable glass connectors,
Design concepts countersunk

Glass connectors for round pipe mounting

Hinged glass connectors

3D-glass connectors

Countersunk glass connector, tapered

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Typology and technology
Objectives

Introduction
Hole shapes
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology cylindrical hole conical hole undercut hole
Behaviour under
loading
no universally accepted rules for positioning or dimensioning of drilled holes
Experimental
research hole diameter at least glass thickness, preferable twice of the glass thickness
Design concepts

A 2T
A edge distance
B distance between holes (from hole
DT DT edge to hole edge)
C distance to corner
B 2T
D hole diameter
T glass thickness

C 6T
A 2T

recommended distances between holes and edges


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Typology and technology
Objectives
Standard bolt - simplest type of fixing
Introduction
load transfer by direct bearing of the glass on the shank of the bolt
Structural design of
bolted small contact area limits capacity, liner between glass and bolt
connections
increase bearing surface
Typology and
technology
little provision for rotation to the fixing under applied out-of plane
loads
Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts
fibre
washers

steel
steel
washer
washer
liner

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Simple countersunk bolt bolt head is flush with glazing
Introduction
liners enhance the in-plane load capacity
Structural design of
bolted little provision for rotation of the glass relative to the fixing under
connections
applied out-of plane loads
Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts liner

steel
washer
fibre
washer

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Bolted connection with steel splices
Introduction bearing or friction bolts (bolts are tightened to a specific torque in
Structural design of order to achieve a friction connection)
bolted increased contact area and wider load spread provide high load
connections
carrying capacity
Typology and
technology

Behaviour under fibre


loading gasket
Experimental
research steel
Design concepts washer

steel
washer

plate plate

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Bearing bolt connection with steel splices
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections
stress concentrations around the bolt
hole necessity of tempered or heat
Typology and strengthened glass
technology

Behaviour under ultimate breaking stress depends on the


loading number and diameter of bolts
Experimental
research
maximum force about 30kN per bolt

Design concepts load is transferred into the plane of glass


by contact between suitable interlayer
and bolt bearing surface
use of single splice plate avoided due to
load eccentricities
important is quality of edge treatment

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Friction bolt connection with steel splices
Introduction

Structural design of normally double shear connection


elastomer spring
bolted
connections friction forces resist the shear forces sleeve washer
between the components of joint
Typology and
technology
magnitude of stresses, which friction
Behaviour under grip connection can carry, depends
loading on the contact pressure and friction
Experimental coefficient
research
special friction layers greater load
Design concepts
capacity in comparison to bearing friction steel splice
connection layer plate

normally used ONLY with monolithic


glass creep behaviour of PVB foil
laminated glass PVB foil can be
replaced in area of load transfer by
insert of stiffer material, i.e.
aluminium

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Typology and technology
Objectives
Bolted connections with steel splices
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

bolt groups and multiply bolt connection are typical


example of internal splice plate design of friction grip connection
friction grip connection with more than one individual splice plate
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Behaviour under loading
Objectives
Basic Parameters in Bolted Connections
Introduction

Structural design of Glass thickness


bolted
connections Glass type (pre stress)
Typology and Glass surface quality in the borehole
technology

Behaviour under Borehole offset in laminated glass


loading
Borehole diameter
Experimental
research Bolt diameter
Design concepts
Bushing diameter and tolerances to bolt diameter
Contact material (thickness and tolerances, Young's modulus,
viscosity, creeping performance, compression strength, adhesion to
glass surface, UV-stability, moisture-stability,..)
Load eccentricity (additional bending moment)
Distances (between boreholes and from boreholes to glass edges)

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Behaviour under loading
Objectives
Stress distribution around the hole
Introduction

Structural design of 1. bearing bolt connection with steel splices


bolted
connections 2. compressive stress in the glass pane
Typology and 3. tensile stress in the glass pane
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

stress distribution around the bolt


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Behaviour under loading
Objectives
Description of contact compression with Fourier formula
Introduction
(Girkmann, 1978)
Structural design of
bolted
connections Centric Load
Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

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Experimental research
Objectives
Research and concepts
Introduction

Structural design of Example of original beam with a splice connection and the
bolted
connections
isolated detail
Typology and
technology
Ioad q
Belastung qd
Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Isolated Beispiel
Detail fr
to be
tested bauteilhnlichen
in laboratory
Ausschnittsversuch

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Experimental research
Objectives
Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen
Introduction

Structural design of Test set up


bolted
connections Centric Load Eccentric Load M = F e
Typology and
technology

Steel plate
Behaviour under Load F
200

loading Load F
Load introduction material
Experimental
research
Side view:
600
200

Design concepts
Steel bolt Glass bore hole
25 35 (cylindrical) Steel bolt
Steel plate

Glass sample
e
200

600 * 400

e = 0 / 4 / 5 / 6 cm

[ mm ]
400
200 200

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Experimental research
Objectives
Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen
Introduction

Structural design of Tested Materials: Treatment:


bolted
connections
Polyamide 6 with 30% glass Pre fabricated bushes
Typology and fibers (PA6 GF30)
technology Fill out the gap between the bush and
Polyethereethereketone the glass without compression
Behaviour under
loading (PEEK)
Fill out the gap between the bush and
Experimental PolySulfone (PSU) the glass with compression
research
Rein Aluminum
Design concepts
AlMgSi (toughened)
POM
Hilti Hit Hy50
epple easy glass mortar
epple easy 5610

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Experimental research
Objectives
Bolted Connection Tests RWTH Aachen
Introduction

Structural design of Test results centric load


bolted
connections

Typology and Tests with bolted connections;


Lochleibungsversuch, ESG d = Tempered Glass
10 mm und 15 mm
technology 100
PSU PA6 PEEK POM Hilti
Alu
Behaviour under 90 (weichgeglht) GF30 nur Stahl
[kN]

loading epple
80
in [kN]

5610
at failure

Experimental
70 epple
research
Bruchkraft

Glasmrtel
60
Design concepts
Maximal force

50
gemessene

40

30

20
d = 10 mm
10 d = 15 mm

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
Versuchsnummer
Number of test

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Experimental research
Objectives
Application of photoelastic method - CTU in Prague
Introduction
F F
Structural design of
bolted
Steel
connections splice

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under Glass


loading specimen
Experimental
research

Design concepts

Testing
machine
F F

Nominal dimensions of the specimens: 680 x


300 x 12 mm, float glass
Insert from hard plastic between glass and bolts
M16, quality 8.8
Special steel hinge - from one side of the glass
specimen
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Experimental research
Objectives
F = 0 kN F = 5 kN F = 10 kN
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts
Numerical study comparison with experiments

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Design Concepts
Objectives
Design Formula
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted K Pd
connections ,max,d k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 1,2 2,2 m d
bm d0 t
Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental Pd design load at relevant bore hole


research
d0 bore hole diameter
Design concepts
t glass thickness (one layer for laminated glass)
ki factors for design and production parameters
bm relevant width in [d0]
Km factor to consider load balance at multiple bore holes

Baitinger M., 2009


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Design Concepts
Objectives
Definition of relevant pane width
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives

Introduction
Factor Km to consider load balance at multiple bore holes
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives

Introduction
Factor Km to consider load balance at multiple bore holes
Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives
Factors for design and production parameters
Introduction

Structural design of Factor to consider unequal distribution of compression


bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under Factor to consider little relevant width


loading

Experimental
research

Design concepts
Design formula is not applicable for bm < 3 d0

Factor to consider little edge distances e1=e2

k3=1.0 for e1e2


Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives
Factors for design and production parameters
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections
Factor to consider little bore hole distances p1

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading
Factor to consider offset in laminated glass
Experimental
research

Design concepts

The maximum allowed offset is 50% of the mortar thickness

Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives
Example: Splice connection in the point of zero shear load
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections glass panels

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
steel
loading
splices
Experimental
research

Design concepts
Characteristic bending moment
MEk = 2.3 kNm

Required glass thickness?

Bolted
connection
Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives

Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections geometric parameters factors
Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading centric load

Experimental
research

Design concepts

2 layers laminated glass

Baitinger M., 2009

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Design Concepts
Objectives
Determination of Pd:
Introduction

Structural design of
bolted
connections

Typology and
technology

Behaviour under
loading Determination of trequired:
Experimental
research

Design concepts

Baitinger M., 2009

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References
Educational pack of COSTActin TU0905 Structural Glass - Novel design methods and next generation
products
TECHEN, H.
Fgetechnik fr den konstruktiven Glasbau, Institut fr Statik, TU Darmstadt, PhD 1997.
WELLERSHOFF, F.; SEDLACEK, G.
Glass Pavilion Rheinbach Stability of Glass Columns; Proceedings of the Glass Processing Days 2003,
page 316-318.
MOCIBOB, D.
Glass Panel under Shear Loading - Use of Glass Envelopes in Building Stabilization, EPFL Lausanne,
PhD 2008.
VENCL, R., ELIASOVA, M.
Bolted Connections of Glass Structures by means of Two Holes In-line. In: proceedings Challenging
Glass, Conference on Architectural and Structural Applications of Glass, Faculty of Architecture, Delft
University of Technology, May 2008, s. 279 284, IOS Press, ISBN 978-1-58603-866-3.
VENCL, R., ELIASOVA, M., NETUSIL, M.
Connections of Glass Structures by Used Shear Bolts in a Row. In: proceedings Eurosteel 2008
Volume A, 5th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures, Graz, Austria, 3rd 5th
September 2008, ECCS, s. 923 -928, 2008, ISBN 92-0147-000-90.
BAITINGER, M.
Zur Bemessung von SL-belasteten Anschlssen im konstruktiven Glasbau, RWTH Aachen, PhD 2009.
WELLERSHOFF, F., SENDELBACH, M.; SCHMITT, F.
Glass Colunms and Glass Beams Projects of 2010, engineered transparency at glastec 2010.
Conference Proceedings, page 349- 357.

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Thank you
for your kind attention

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