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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications
Engineering I
Jorma Kekalainen

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Telecommunications
Engineering I
Modulation

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

What is modulation?

We have a lower-frequency signal, such as voice,


music or data bits.
This is called the modulating signal (intelligent
signal).
If we want to transmit this over air or wire, we need
a frequency that will propagate (travel through) this
medium.
The signal is carried on a carrier wave.
Somehow we combine the modulating signal with
the carrier wave to form a modulated signal.

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What is modulation
Idea is to change one or more of the waveform parameters
amplitude, phase, frequency
in a radio-frequency carrier, in response to the signal we want
to transmit.
In other words, we superimpose or combine one signal on
another.
The trick is how to do this so that the original signal can be
recovered at the receiver.
Also desire
minimal cost/complexity,
minimal power wastage,
maximum quality of the recovered signal,
minimum susceptibility to interference (electrical noise and
interference).
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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Types of modulation
There are many different types of modulation:
Amplitude modulation (AM) changes the amplitude of a
high frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency
modulating signal;
Frequency modulation (FM) changes the frequency of a
high frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency
modulating signal;
Phase modulation (PM) changes the phase of a high-
frequency carrier in response to the low-frequency
modulating signal;
Also there are many other combinations (usually of
amplitude and phase), which give higher throughput
(data rate) for digital data systems.
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Overview of modulation

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example

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Concept of modulation

The signal is carried on a carrier wave.


Somehow we combine the modulating signal with
the carrier wave to form a modulated signal.
There are many types, eg. FM, OFDM (used in
wireless networks), QAM (digital modulation), etc.
The modulation has to occur at the transmitter.
Getting the modulating (audio) signal back out of the
modulated (radio) signal is called demodulation.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Modulation types
Amplitude Modulation (AM) is where we change the
amplitude of the carrier according to the modulating signal.
Frequency Modulation (FM) is where we change the
frequency of the carrier according to the modulating signal.
Phase Modulation (PM) is where we change the phase of the
carrier according to the modulating signal.

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AM, FM and PM

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Why all the different types?


AM uses simple electronics.
Used since early 1900s, after telegraph era.
AM used for analog terrestrial
FM is not as susceptible to noise.
Electronics is a bit more complicated (especially in receiver).
FM used for satellite (because its less affected by the atmosphere),
some telemetry systems (remote controls).
PM was not used much until we needed it for digital
transmission.
Digital modulation uses a combination of AM and PM to get
high bitrates.
Technology is much more complex than simple AM or PM.

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Amplitude modulation

We also need to think of the receiver, when we


design the transmitter.
Basically, the receiver needs to strip away the higher
frequency (carrier) at RF, and leave the audio (AF).
What if we multiply the modulating audio by the
radio frequency carrier?
The receiver will need to know the carrier frequency,
so we add a bit of that in to the waveform.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude modulation
Mathematically
Let the carrier be

The modulation is m(t).


This is usually audio, could be video or data.
To make the Amplitude Modulated (AM) waveform, multiply
and add

Note: The component parts of this, m(t)sinct and Ac sinct


Note what the equation is doing.

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Amplitude modulation Diagram

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude modulation Waveforms


Waveforms combined for standard amplitude modulation

Note: We have used


carrier waveform sinct.
Many references use a
cosine wave instead. It
does not matter, just
changes the maths a bit.

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Amplitude modulation Waveforms


Note how the carrier is a higher frequency.
It is always sine (or cosine)
We have shown the modulation as a sine wave.
Sine (or cosine) is OK for a test signal.
But in practice, modulation is not sine but a complex
signal like voice, video, or a data stream (1s and 0s
represented by high and low voltages, i.e., square
wave)
In practice the carrier is a much higher frequency.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude modulation Waveforms

Carrier with single-tone modulation

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Envelope

Amplitude Modulation The envelope of the waveform

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Amplitude modulation Analysis


We need to know a few things about this AM-waveform.
What are the frequency components that we end up with?
This is important for the channel bandwidth, so several channels can
co-exist and not interfere with each other.
We would like to be able to work out the parameters of the
waveform
Also we would like to know how much power the transmitter
needs.
We start our analysis with a plain sine wave test signal.

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AM-analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM-analysis

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AM-analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM-analysis
AM waveform showing B as maximum
of envelope, and A as minimum

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Analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Analysis

How do we work out the Ac and Am ?

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Analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Effect of modulation index


Changing modulation index

Higher , amplitude change more pronounced. 180

Frequency analysis

What are the frequency components of this


AM waveform?
This is important to know, since it tells us
how wide the channel needs to be.
Or equivalently, how many channels we can
fit in a given spectrum allocation.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency analysis

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Frequency analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Trigonometric formulas

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Frequency analysis

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency analysis

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Spectrum summary

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Examples

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Power

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Power

Note: Power depends on the square of the modulation index. 190


If = 0, there is only carrier (of course).

Efficiency

Note: When = 0, the efficiency is zero. The power is completely in the


carrier (and there is no modulation, not very useful in information transfer). 191
When = 1, the efficiency is 1/3.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Conclusions

AM is not ideal from several points of view


A lot of power is wasted in the carrier
which carries no information;
the sidebands are what we really need
The bandwidth is twice the highest modulating
frequency.

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Double-sideband (amplitude)
modulation
Spectrum for fixed frequency signal m(t) at
frequency m will be at c - m.

Note that there is no carrier.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSB-AM

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Single-sideband AM

USB (or LSB) also takes away the other


sideband.
Leaves only one sideband.
Harder to generate: can use low-pass filtering
of DSB, or else phase shift method.
Often use vestigal sideband vestige of
carrier to aid synchronization in demodulator.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Variations on amplitude modulation

DSB- LSB- USB-AM Modulation

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SSB-AM modulation using filtering

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

SSB-AM modulation using phase shifting

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Vestigial Sideband (VSB)

Keep one sideband and a remnant or vestige of


the other.
Used in analog TV, also digital TV in US (but
not Australia/Europe, which uses OFDM)

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

AM modulation variants AM, DSB,


SSB

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Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing (OFDM)
Another variant that uses both sine and cosine
at the same time.
Very efficient in bandwidth
Used in digital TV in Australia/Europe (but
not in US)
Used in wireless networks and ADSL
modems.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications
Engineering I
Angle modulation

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Angle modulation

AM has disadvantage of susceptibility to interference.


What else than amplitude can be changed?
Frequency and phase of a waveform.
These methods are called angle modulation.
Most common example in practice is frequency
modulation (FM).
Phase modulation (PM) often used in digital
communications

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency modulation

Basic idea is simple: vary the frequency of the carrier


a little bit either way (plus or minus)
Amplitude changes are ignored.
Define instantaneous frequency as i(t), then change
the waveform according to

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Definition: Phase modulation

PM signal for modulation m(t) is

Compare with

where is just a phase angle. If it is fixed, we just write .


But if it changes over time, we write it as (t).

PM = Change the phase in the carrier equation.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Diagram: Phase modulation

Phase modulation

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Frequency and phase


Frequency modulation and phase modulation are similar.

Frequency equals rate of change of phase

Mathematically,

Phase is the sum of frequency changes


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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Definition: Frequency modulation


Frequency modulation and phase modulation are similar.
We had earlier

where instantaneous frequency is i(t)

So the frequency is the part in the square brackets,


ie. c + kfm(t)

FM = Change the frequency in the carrier equation.

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Frequency modulation
Now remember that frequency equals rate of change of phase,

or turned around phase is the integral of frequency,

So from

we could integrate the i(t) part.

It could be written as

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency modulation

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Time waveforms
Frequency and Phase modulation

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FM Analysis
FM signal for modulation m(t) is

for a single-tone sinusoid modulation

The FM signal becomes

with

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Note: This is only for a single-tone modulation. In reality the modulation is a complex
signal, but for analysis we use a single test tone.

FM Analysis
Single-tone FM signal

We call the deviation ratio, defined as

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FM Analysis
Single-tone FM signal

Frequency components can be found in terms of Bessel functions to be

The Bessel function Jk() is used, where k is the frequency


component and is the deviation ratio or the modulation index.

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FM Analysis

Use Bessel tables or computer and work out


the amplitudes of the frequency components.
Graphical interpretation: draw a line at the
modulation index on the Bessel function plot
and read off amplitudes of harmonics.
Remember that harmonics are on either side
of the carrier, ie., it is symmetrical.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Bessel functions of the first kind


Jn()
Modulation index

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Bessel functions Jn()

Modulation
Index

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example Effect of

=1

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Example Effect of

=2

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example Effect of

=4

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FM Analysis

How is the power distributed in the sidebands?

Power is proportional to the magnitude of the component


squared.

Note also that

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications
Engineering I
Digital modulation

Modulation
Digital modulation
digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)
ASK, FSK, PSK
differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness
Analog modulation
shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier
Motivation
smaller antennas (e.g., /4)
Frequency Division Multiplexing
medium characteristics
Basic schemes
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Phase Modulation (PM)

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Modulation and demodulation


analog
baseband
digital
signal
data digital analog
101101001 modulation modulation radio transmitter

radio
carrier

analog
baseband
digital
signal
analog synchronization data
demodulation decision 101101001 radio receiver

radio
carrier

Digital modulation

Transmitting digital (binary) signals


Need to encode 0 and 1 streams serially
Distinguish:
Passband: modulate onto a carrier.
Baseband: encode 0/1 directly with no carrier.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital modulation Theoretical


limits
How do we maximize the number of bits per
second (kbps, Mbps, Gbps)?
Depends on:
How we encode each bit
Amount of noise in the channel (eg., telephone
line, optic fiber, radio)

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Channel capacity (Nyquist-Hartley)

Maximum data rate (capacity) depends on


bandwidth.

Based on Nyquist rate (pulses in second 2B),


capacity in bits per second using channel
bandwidth B with M levels per symbol is

B Bandwidth of the channel (Hz)


M Number of levels used for each signaling element
bps Bits per second

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Note: log is to base 2, because it is binary information

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example: PSTN = Public Switched


Telephone Network

Also called POTS = Plain Old Telephone System

Bandwidth B ~ 3kHz
With one bit per signalling interval (symbol) M = 2

Using C = 2B log2M,

C = 230001 = 6 kbps

To get a higher rate, we need larger M (bits per symbol)

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Channel capacity & noise

Maximum data rate (capacity) depends on noise Shannon-Hartley


Law.
Capacity in bits per second with given channel bandwidth B, SNR
S/N and using white noise assumption is

B Bandwidth of the channel (Hz)


S Signal Power (W)
N Noise Power (W)
bps Bits Per Second

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Note: Here S/N is not expressed in dB

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Limit rate in a noisy channel


Given a noisy channel with capacity C and information transmitted at a line
rate R, then if

R<C

there exists a code which allows the probability of error at the receiver to
be made arbitrarily small.
This means that theoretically, it is possible to transmit information nearly
without error up to nearly a limit of C bits per second.
If

R>C

the probability of error at the receiver increases without bound as the rate is
increased.
So no useful information can be transmitted far beyond the channel
capacity. 230

Example: PSTN/POTS

Suppose S/N = 1000, B = 3 kHz

SNR = 10log10103 = 30 dB

What is the capacity?

Using C = B log2(1 + S/N)

C = 3000log2(1 + 1000) 3000 10 = 30kbps

The presence of noise reduces the capacity.

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Note: 210 = 1024, so log to base 2 of 1000 is approx. 10.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital modulation

To encode 0 or 1, we could just change one of


amplitude, frequency or phase
Only need 2 levels.
Digital Carrier Modulation Amplitude
Digital Carrier Modulation Frequency
Digital Carrier Modulation Phase

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Digital modulation
Modulation of digital signals known as shift keying
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): 1 0 1
very simple
low bandwidth requirements
t
very susceptible to interference

1 0 1
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):
needs larger bandwidth
t

Phase Shift Keying (PSK): 1 0 1


more complex
robust against interference
t

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital carrier modulation


Amplitude
Amplitude modulation of binary signal

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Digital carrier modulation


Frequency
Frequency modulation of binary signal

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital carrier modulation Phase


Phase modulation of binary signal

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Digital multi-level modulation

To get higher throughput, we could encode


several bits at once
Encode two bits together (called a dibit)
as 4 distinct amplitude levels or
as 4 distinct frequencies or
as 4 distinct phases

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital carrier modulation Multi-level AM

Amplitude modulation of multi-level binary signal

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Digital carrier modulation Multi-level FM

Frequency modulation of multi-level binary signal

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital modulation

Even higher throughput, encode multiple


combinations of amplitude and phase.
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.
Multiple phase angles allowed
QAM Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation.
Changes both phase and amplitude.

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Digital carrier modulation QPSK


Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital carrier modulation QAM


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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Advanced FSK
Bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between
the carrier frequencies
Special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit
is doubled
depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the
other
Even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-pass
filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Example of MSK
1 0 1 1 0 1 0
data bit
even 0101
even bits odd 0011

odd bits signal hnnh


value - - ++

low h: high frequency


frequency n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal
high
frequency

MSK
signal
t

No phase shifts!

Towards higher throughput

Pack more and more bits into each symbol


interval
The Q means Quadrature we can generate
these waveforms from sine and cosine added
together
Quadrature means 90 phase.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Advanced PSK
Q
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):
bit value 0: sine wave
bit value 1: inverted sine wave I
1 0
very simple PSK
low spectral efficiency
robust, used e.g. in satellite systems 10 Q 11
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift
Keying):
2 bits coded as one symbol I
symbol determines shift of sine wave
needs less bandwidth compared to
00 01
BPSK
more complex A
Often also transmission of relative,
not absolute phase shift: DQPSK -
Differential QPSK t

11 10 00 01

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
combines amplitude and phase modulation
it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
2n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared
Q to
0010
comparable PSK schemes 0001

Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol) 0011 0000



Symbols 0011 and 0001 have a I
the same phase , but different 1000

amplitude a, symbols 0000 and 1000 have


different phase, but same amplitude.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Hierarchical modulation
DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a single DVB-T stream
High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority (LP) stream
Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers
QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM
Example: 64QAM
good reception: resolve the entire
Q
64QAM constellation
poor reception, mobile reception:
resolve only QPSK portion
6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most 10
significant determine QPSK I
HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit),
LP uses remaining 4 bit
00

000010 010101

Digital encoding Baseband


Baseband: no carrier as such
Eg., Manchester used on Ethernet 10Mbps (bps = bits per
second).
Variations for higher rates (100Mbps, 1Gbps, ...)
Fundamental problem: need to detect where a bit
starts and stops.
Receiver needs to keep track of phase, to work out
where bits start and end
Encoding means that a long string of 0s or 1s dont
cause receiver to lose synchronization

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Digital encoding Manchester


encoding
Encodes 0 as L-H transition
Encodes 1 as H-L transition

Manchester encoding

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Digital encoding Baseband

Receiver needs to keep track of phase, to work


out where bits start and end
Encoding means that a long string of 0s or
1s dont cause receiver to lose
synchronization
Received waveforms are not perfect
Square edges knocked off due to channel
filtering effects (capacitance/inductance)
May also have noise coupled in
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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Received waveforms
Received waveforms are not perfect.
Square edges knocked off due to channel filtering effects
(capacitance/inductance)
May also have noise coupled in
Manchester waveforms after going through simple theoretical channel

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Summary

Modulation superimposes modulation on


carrier.
There are many different types of modulation.
Modulation issues include complexity of
transmitter, complexity of receiver, bandwidth
required, immunity to noise, etc.
Spectrum depends on type of modulation.
Squeeze more bits per second by exploiting
combinations of amplitude and phase.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Telecommunications
Engineering I
Multiplexing and Multiple
Access

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Definition and possibilities

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Multiplexing
Multiplexing in 4 dimensions channels ki

space (si) k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

time (t) c
frequency (f) t c

code (c) t
s1
f
s2
Goal: multiple use f

of a shared medium c
t

Important: guard spaces needed! s3


f

Frequency multiplexing
Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands
A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole
time
Advantages
no dynamic coordination
k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6
necessary
c
works also for analog signals
f

Disadvantages
waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed
unevenly t
inflexible

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FDM: Principle
Each channel carried on different frequency

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FDM: Carrier waves

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

FDM
Carrier at different frequencies.
Modulation can be anything

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FDM: Sub-channels
Filter responses
No channel overlap Channels overlap

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Frequency-division multiplexing

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FDM system

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Composite signal

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Example: Stereo FM

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Note: Compatibility is usually needed in upgrades, e.g., black and white TV colour TV

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Stereo transmitter

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Stereo FM spectrum

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Stereo FM receiver

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Subcarrier system

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Subcarrier system

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RDS and RBDS

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Subsidiary Communications Authority


(SCA) services

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Complete FM transmitter

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Complete FM receiver

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Orthogonal FDM approach

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Orthogonal FDM approach + phase


quadrature

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Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing (OFDM)

Orthogonal signals Non-orthogonal signals

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

OFDM
Multiply and integrate.
Clock synchronization not OFDM recovery
shown.
If equal get a larger product
If not equal low (ideally zero)
product
If all input frequencies are
orthogonal, they will yield zero
for all local frequencies not equal
to the local one.
Thus signals can be recovered,
and can coexist.

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Time division multiplexing (TDM)


A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of
time

Advantages
only one carrier in the
medium at any time k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6
throughput high even
for many users c
f

Disadvantages
precise
synchronization
necessary t

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

TDM and FDM


Combination of TDM and FDM
A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount
of time
Example: GSM

Advantages k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6
better protection against
c
tapping (eavesdropping)
f
protection against frequency
selective interference
but: precise coordination
required
t

Space Division Multiplexing: Cell structure


Implements space division multiplex (SDM)
base station covers a certain transmission area (cell)
Mobile stations communicate only via the base station

Advantages of cell structures


higher capacity, higher number of users
less transmission power needed
more robust, decentralized
base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally
Problems
fixed network needed for the base stations
handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary
interference with other cells
Cell sizes from <100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) -
even less for higher frequencies

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Frequency reuse
Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations
Standard model using 7 frequencies:
f3
f5 f2
f4 f6 f5
f1 f4
f3 f7 f1
f2
Fixed frequency assignment:
certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell
problem: different traffic load in different cells
Dynamic frequency assignment:
base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already
used in neighbor cells
more capacity in cells with more traffic
assignment can also be based on interference measurements

Frequency reuse

f3 f3 f3 f2 f3 f7
f2 f2 f5 f2
f1 f1 f1 f4 f6 f5
f3 f3 f1 f4
3 cell cluster f3 f7 f1
f2 f2 f2
f1 f1 f2 f3
f3 f3 f3 f6 f5 f2

7 cell cluster

f2 f2 f2
f1 f f f f3
3 h 1 f3 h2 1
h1 2
g 2 h3 g 2 1 h3
h
g2 3 cell cluster
g1 g1 g1
g3 g3 g3 with 3 sector antennas

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Code division multiplexing (CDM)


Each channel has a unique code k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6

All channels use the same spectrum c

at the same time


Advantages
bandwidth efficient
no coordination and synchronization f
necessary
good protection against interference
and tapping
Disadvantages
t
varying user data rates
more complex signal regeneration
Implemented using spread spectrum technology

Note: Cell breathing


CDM systems: cell size depends on current load
Additional traffic appears as noise to other users
If the noise level is too high cell size is decreased (in other
words excess users are dropped out of cell.

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Sublayers of Data Link Layer


If we have a dedicated link (or channel) between the sender and the receiver, then
we only need data link control, a mechanism which provides a link with reliable
communication.
On the other hand, if we use e.g. our cellular phone to connect to another phone, the
channel is not dedicated and we need some method to resolve access to the shared
media
We can consider the data link layer as two sublayers.
The upper sublayer is responsible for data link control, and
the lower sublayer is responsible for resolving access to the shared media.
If the channel is dedicated, we do not need the lower sublayer. network
link
physical

Multiple-access control
286

LLC and MAC

The upper sublayer that is responsible for flow and error


control is called the logical link control (LLC) layer.
The lower sublayer that is mostly responsible for multiple-
access resolution is called the media access control (MAC)
layer.
When nodes or stations are connected and use a common link, called a
multipoint or broadcast link, we need a multiple-access protocol to
coordinate access to the link.
When two or more devices are connected to the same link
(multiple access), data link layer protocols are necessary to
determine which device has control over the link at any given
time.
287

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Multiple access protocols


When hosts communicate over a shared medium, a protocol is
needed so that the signals sent by multiple senders do not
interfere at the receivers.
Medium access protocols can be classified:
channelization or channel partitioning,
random access, and
controlled access or taking turns.

288

Medium Access Control (MAC)


MAC: Different nodes must gain access to the shared
medium (for instance a wireless channel) in a
controlled fashion (otherwise there will be collisions).

Some access methods:


:
FDMA Assigning channels in frequency domain
LLC
TDMA Assigning time slots in time domain
MAC
CDMA Assigning code sequences in code domain
PHY
CSMA Assigning transmission opportunities in
time domain on a statistical basis

289

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Channelization (Channel partitioning)

Channelization is a multiple-access method in


which the available bandwidth of a link is
shared in time, frequency, or through code,
between different stations.
In this section, we discuss three channelization
protocols: FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA.

290

Multiple Access (MA)


Many telecommunications systems are point-to-point.
However many are shared.
Best example is mobile phone system (cell-phone, hand-phone)
How do many users share the same system?
Alternatives:
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).
Simplest.
Can use for analog or digital.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
Digital transmission required.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).
Much more advanced digital methods required.

291

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Analogy

An analogy to the problem of multiple access


is a room (channel) in which people wish to
communicate with each other.
To avoid confusion, people could take turns
speaking (time division), speak at different
pitches (frequency division), or speak in
different languages (code division).

292

Frequency Division Multiple Access


(FDMA)
Where transmission and reception from each user is
given a different frequency.
Each device has its own frequencies (one for
uplink, one for downlink).
Geographic area divided up into cells, so frequencies
can be re-used.
Need to plan cells carefully so no
overlap/interference between nearby cells.

293

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Frequency-Division Multiple Access


(FDMA)
In Frequency-Division Multiple Access (FDMA), the available
bandwidth is divided into frequency bands.
Each station is allocated a band to send its data.
In other words, each band is reserved for a specific station, and
it belongs to the station all the time.
Each station also uses a bandpass filter to bound the
transmitter frequencies.
To prevent station interferences, the allocated bands are
separated from one another by small guard bands.

294

Frequency-Division Multiple Access


(FDMA)

295

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FDMA
Channel spectrum divided into frequency bands
each station assigned fixed frequency band
unused transmission time in frequency bands go idle
example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packet, frequency bands
2,5,6 idle

frequency bands

FDM cable

296

Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA)


In time-division multiple access (TDMA), the
stations share the bandwidth of the channel in time.
Each station is allocated a time slot during which it
can send data.
Each station transmits its data in assigned time slot.
Base-station needs to send synchronization signal to
users.
Possible problem: where we need real-time
transmission (voice/video), we must govern
maximum wait time for our slot to come around
again.
297

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Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

298

TDMA
access to channel in "rounds"
each station gets fixed length slot (length = single packet
can be transmitted during a slot time) in each round
unused slots go idle
example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have packet, slots 2,5,6 idle

6-slot
frame
1 3 4 1 3 4

299

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Synchronization
The main problem with TDMA lies in achieving
synchronization between the different stations.
Each station needs to know the beginning of its slot and the
location of its slot.
This may be difficult because of propagation delays introduced
in the system if the stations are spread over a large area.
To compensate for the delays, we can insert guard times.
Synchronization is normally accomplished by having some
synchronization bits (normally referred to as preamble bits) at
the beginning of each slot.

300

Note: TDMA vs. TDM


We also need to emphasize that although TDMA and TDM
conceptually seem the same, there are differences between
them.
TDM is a physical layer technique that combines the data
from slower channels and transmits them by using a faster
channel.
The process uses a physical multiplexer that interleaves data
units from each channel.
TDMA, on the other hand, is an access method in the data link
layer.
The data link layer in each station tells its physical layer to use
the allocated time slot.

301

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Code Division Multiple Access


(CDMA)
We spread the transmission out over a wide
frequency range.
Technique is called spread spectrum.
It is much more complicated than FDMA and
TDMA
Code division multiple access (CDMA) belongs to
the family of channelization or channel partitioning
protocols.
CDMA and its modifications are common in
wireless LAN and cellular technologies.
302

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access


method utilized by various radio communication.
CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special
coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to
allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical
channel.
CDMA is a form of spread-spectrum signaling, since the
modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than
the data being communicated.

303

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Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

Code-division multiple access (CDMA) was invented


several decades ago.
Recent advances in electronics have finally made its
implementation economically possible.
CDMA differs from FDMA because only one
channel occupies the entire bandwidth of the link.
It differs from TDMA because all stations can send
data simultaneously; there is no timesharing.

304

Spread spectrum technique


Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can
wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the interference
Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal
using a special code
protection against narrow band interference
power interference spread power signal
signal
spread
detection at interference
receiver

f f

Side effects:
coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination
tap-proof
Alternatives: Direct Sequence (DS), Frequency Hopping (FH)

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spread Spectrum

What can be gained from apparent waste of


spectrum?
Immunity from various kinds of noise and
multipath distortion
Can be used for hiding and encrypting signals
Several users can independently use the same
higher bandwidth with very little
interference

306

Effects of spreading and


despreading with interference
dP/df dP/df

user signal
i) ii) broadband interference
narrowband interference
f f
sender
dP/df dP/df dP/df

iii) iv) v)
f f f
receiver

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spreading and frequency selective fading


channel
quality

2 narrowband channels
1 5 6
3
4
frequency
narrow band guard space
signal

channel
quality
2
2 spread spectrum channels
2
2
2
1

spread frequency
spectrum

Spread spectrum
Instead of transmitting on one or a few frequencies, the
modulator deliberately tries to use a much wider channel
bandwidth.
It is used:
military communications,
cellular communications (where the term CDMA is used),
interference-prone environments

Two main types:


Frequency Hopping and
Direct Sequence

309

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Spread spectrum Why?


Military use: Want to
Keep our transmissions secret from enemy.
Stop enemy jamming our transmissions with high-power
RF.

Civilian use: Want to


Minimize effect of interference from others.
Minimize our interference on others.
Share bandwidth with others (instead of TDMA or
FDMA).
Mobile communications are a big driver.

310

Spread-spectrum multiple access


The origins of spread spectrum are in military field and navigation systems.
Techniques developed to counteract intentional jamming have also proved
suitable for communication through dispersive channels in cellular applications.
In CDMA each user is assigned a unique code sequence it uses to encode its
information-bearing signal.
The receiver, knowing the code sequences of the user, decodes a received signal
after reception and recovers the original data.
This is possible since the cross-correlations between the code of the desired user
and the codes of the other users are small.
Since the bandwidth of the code signal is chosen to be much larger than the
bandwidth of the information-bearing signal, the encoding process enlarges
(spreads) the spectrum of the signal and is therefore also known as spread-
spectrum modulation.
The resulting signal is also called a spread-spectrum signal, and CDMA is often
denoted as spread-spectrum multiple access (SSMA).

N 1
Rxy (k ) = lim
1
Definition of cross-correlation function:
N N
x
n=0
n yn k
311

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Correlation
Each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their
signal.
Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is very important in the
performance of CDMA systems.
The best performance will occur when there is good separation between the
signal of a desired user and the signals of other users.
The separation of the signals is made by correlating the received signal
with the locally generated code of the desired user.
If the signal matches the desired user's code then the value of correlation
function will be high and the system can extract that signal.
If the desired user's code has nothing in common with the signal the
correlation should be as close to zero as possible (thus eliminating the
signal).
If the code is correlated with the signal at any time offset other than zero,
the correlation should be as close to zero as possible.
This is used to reject multi-path interference (operation is referred to as
auto-correlation).
312

Synchronous CDMA
In general, CDMA belongs to two basic categories: synchronous (orthogonal codes)
and asynchronous (pseudorandom codes).
Synchronous CDMA exploits mathematical properties of orthogonality between
vectors representing the data strings.
For example, binary string "1011" is represented by the vector (1, 0, 1, 1).
Vectors can be multiplied by taking their dot product, by summing the products of
their respective components.
Example: if u=(a,b) and v=(c,d), the dot product uv = a*c + b*d.
If the dot product is zero, the two vectors are said to be orthogonal to each other
If vectors a and b are orthogonal, then

313

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Synchronous CDMA

Each user in synchronous CDMA uses a code


orthogonal to the other users' codes to
modulate their signal.
Orthogonal codes have a cross-correlation
equal to zero; in other words, they do not
interfere with each other.
E.g. 64 bit Walsh codes are used to encode the
signal to separate different users.
Since each of the 64 Walsh codes are orthogonal to
one another, the signals are channelized into 64
orthogonal signals. 314

Asynchronous CDMA
Since it is not mathematically possible to create sequences that are
orthogonal for arbitrarily random starting points, unique pseudo-random or
pseudo-noise (PN) sequences are used in Asynchronous CDMA systems.
A PN code is a binary sequence that appears random but can be reproduced
in a deterministic manner by intended receivers.
These PN codes are used to encode and decode a user's signal in
Asynchronous CDMA in the same manner as the orthogonal codes in
synchronous CDMA.
These PN sequences are statistically uncorrelated, and the sum of a large
number of PN sequences results in Multiple Access Interference (MAI) that
is approximated by a Gaussian noise process.
If all of the users are received with the same power level, then the variance
(the noise power) of the MAI increases in direct proportion to the number
of users.
In other words, unlike synchronous CDMA, the signals of other users will
appear as noise to the signal of interest and interfere slightly with the
desired signal in proportion to number of users.
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Processing gain
All forms of CDMA use spread spectrum processing gain (spreading factor) to
allow receivers to partially discriminate against unwanted signals.
Signals encoded with the specified PN sequence (code) are received, while signals
with different codes (or the same code but a different timing offset) appear as
wideband noise reduced by the process gain.
Since each user generates MAI (Multiple Access Interference) , controlling the
signal strength is an important issue with CDMA transmitters.
A Synchronous CDMA, TDMA or FDMA receiver can in theory completely reject
arbitrarily strong signals using different codes, time slots or frequency channels due
to the orthogonality of these systems.
This is not true for Asynchronous CDMA; rejection of unwanted signals is only
partial.
If any or all of the unwanted signals are much stronger than the desired signal, they
will overwhelm it.
This leads to a general requirement in any Asynchronous CDMA system to
approximately match the various signal power levels as seen at the receiver
(Near-far problem).
In CDMA cellular, the base station uses a fast closed-loop power control scheme
to tightly control each mobile's transmit power.

316

Spread Spectrum characteristics of CDMA


Most modulation schemes try to minimize the bandwidth of this signal
since bandwidth is a limited resource.
However, spread spectrum techniques use a transmission bandwidth that is
several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal
bandwidth.
One of the initial reasons for doing this was problematical military
applications including guidance and communication systems.
These systems were designed using spread spectrum because of its security
and resistance to jamming.
Asynchronous CDMA has some level of privacy built in because the signal
is spread using a pseudorandom code; this code makes the spread spectrum
signals appear random or have noise-like properties.
A receiver cannot demodulate this transmission without knowledge of the
pseudorandom sequence used to encode the data.
CDMA is also resistant to jamming.
A jamming signal only has a finite amount of power available to jam the
signal.
The jammer can either spread its energy over the entire bandwidth of
the signal or jam only part of the entire signal.
317

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Characteristics of CDMA
CDMA can also effectively reject narrowband interference.
Since narrowband interference affects only a small portion of the spread spectrum
signal, it can easily be removed through notch filtering without much loss of
information.
Convolution encoding and interleaving can be used to assist in recovering this lost
data.
CDMA signals are also resistant to multipath fading.
Since the spread spectrum signal occupies a large bandwidth only a small portion of this
will undergo fading due to multipath at any given time.
Like the narrowband interference this will result in only a small loss of data and can be
overcome.
Another reason that CDMA is resistant to multipath interference is because the
delayed versions of the transmitted pseudorandom codes will have poor
correlation with the original pseudorandom code, and will thus appear as another
user, which is ignored at the receiver.
In other words, as long as the multipath channel induces at least one chip of delay,
the multipath signals will arrive at the receiver such that they are shifted in time by
at least one chip from the intended signal.
The correlation properties of the pseudorandom codes are such that this slight
delay causes the multipath to appear uncorrelated with the intended signal, and
it is thus ignored.
318
A spreading code assigned to each station is also called chip sequence.

Characteristics of CDMA
Some CDMA devices use a rake receiver, which exploits
multipath delay components to improve the performance of the
system.
A rake receiver combines the information from several correlators,
each one tuned to a different path delay, producing a stronger version
of the signal than a simple receiver with a single correlator tuned to the
path delay of the strongest signal.
Frequency reuse is the ability to reuse the same radio channel
frequency at other cell sites within a cellular system.
In the FDMA and TDMA systems frequency planning is of paramount
importance.
The frequencies used in different cells need to be planned carefully in
order to ensure that the signals from different cells do not interfere with
each other.
In a CDMA system the same frequency can be used in every cell
because channelization is done using the pseudorandom codes.

319

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Spread spectrum Basic idea


Conventional transmission:
to transmit on one channel, and
receive on the same channel, of course.
Suppose we start transmitting on a channel called CH4.
Then after a short time, swap to CH7.
Then swap to CH13, then CH1, then finally back to CH4.
So the transmitter hops on channels 4, 7, 13, 1, 4, 7, 13, 1, ...
Obviously the receiver has to follow this sequence.
The set (4,7,13,1) is called the hopset.

320

Spread spectrum Basic idea


Tx and Rx need to (a) know the hopset, and (b) know
where/when to start.
This is the synchronization issue.
If an interceptor of our RF transmission does not know the
start and sequence, it would be difficult to eavesdrop.
Also, another Tx/Rx pair could use the same channels, in a
different order.
If we use a large number of channels (eg., 79 in Bluetooth),
even if two communicating pairs happen to collide, the amount
of interference is small (1 in 79).
Hop rate determines performance, complexity (eg., Bluetooth
1600 hops/sec)

321

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Spread spectrum Basic idea


The actual sequence is pseudo-random.
That is, it only looks random, but repeats after a large number
of hops.
System just described is SS-FH (Frequency Hopping).
Hop rate is relatively slow (thousands per second)
Another approach is Direct Sequence (SS-DS).
Several hops per bit.
Much higher rate (M hops/sec).
More complicated system & synchronization more demanding.
SS-DS is used in CDMA mobile.
Advantage of SS: efficient use of RF spectrum.

322

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)


Signal is broadcast over seemingly random series of radio frequencies
A number of channels allocated for the FH signal
Width of each channel corresponds to bandwidth of input signal
Signal hops from frequency to frequency at fixed intervals
Transmitter operates in one channel at a time
Bits are transmitted using some encoding scheme
At each successive interval, a new carrier frequency is selected

323

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Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)


Discrete changes of carrier frequency
sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number
sequence
Two versions
Fast Hopping:
several frequencies per user bit
Slow Hopping:
several user bits per frequency
Advantages
frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period
simple implementation
uses only small portion of spectrum at any time
Disadvantages
not as robust as DSSS
simpler to detect

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)


tb

user data

0 1 0 1 1 t
f
td
f3 slow
f2 hopping
(3 bits/hop)
f1

td t
f

f3 fast
f2 hopping
(3 hops/bit)
f1

tb: bit period td: dwell time

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spread spectrum - Frequency


Hopping (FH)

326

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)

narrowband
spread
signal
transmit
user data signal
modulator modulator

frequency hopping
synthesizer sequence
transmitter

narrowband
received signal
signal data
demodulator demodulator

hopping frequency
sequence synthesizer
receiver

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSSS - Direct-Sequence Spread-


Spectrum
There are basic techniques to spread the bandwidth:
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).
Direct-sequence spread-spectrum transmissions multiply the data being
transmitted by a "noise" signal.
This noise signal is a pseudorandom sequence of 1 and 1 values, at a
frequency much higher than that of the original signal, thereby spreading
the energy of the original signal into a much wider band.
The resulting signal resembles white noise.
However, this noise-like signal can be used to exactly reconstruct the
original data at the receiving end, by multiplying it by the same
pseudorandom sequence (because 1 1 = 1, and 1 1 = 1).
This process, known as "de-spreading", mathematically constitutes a
correlation of the transmitted PN sequence with the PN sequence that the
receiver believes the transmitter is using.

328

DSSS - Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum

The resulting effect of enhancing signal to noise ratio


on the channel is called processing gain.
This effect can be made larger by employing a longer
PN sequence and more chips per bit.
If an undesired transmitter transmits on the same
channel but with a different PN sequence (or no
sequence at all), the de-spreading process results in
no processing gain for that signal.
This effect is the basis for the code division multiple
access (CDMA) property of DSSS, which allows
multiple transmitters to share the same channel within
the limits of the cross-correlation properties of their
PN sequences.
329

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Idea of spread spectrum

330

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum


(DSSS)

Each bit in original signal is represented by


multiple bits in the transmitted signal
Spreading code spreads signal across a wider
frequency band
Spread is in direct proportion to number of bits
used
One technique combines digital information
stream with the spreading code bit stream
using exclusive-OR
331

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Example: Direct Sequence Spread


Spectrum

332
Note: Exclusive-OR

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)


XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence)
many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal
Advantages
reduces frequency selective tb

fading user data


in cellular networks 0 1 XOR
base stations can use the tc
same frequency range chipping
sequence
several base stations can
01 1 01 01 01 1 01 01 =
detect and recover the signal
soft handover resulting
signal
(soft changing from one cell to another) 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
Disadvantages
tb: bit period
precise power control necessary tc: chip period

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

Spread spectrum - Direct Sequence


(DS)

334

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum


(DSSS)
spread
spectrum transmit
user data signal signal
X modulator

chipping radio
sequence carrier

transmitter

correlator
lowpass sampled
received filtered products sums
signal signal data
demodulator X integrator decision

radio chipping
carrier sequence

receiver

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Lecture notes Telecommunications Engineering I by Jorma Kekalainen

DSSS system
Multiply BPSK signal,
sd(t) = A d(t) cos(2 fct)
by c(t) [+1, -1] to get
s(t) = A d(t)c(t) cos(2 fct)
A = amplitude of signal
fc = carrier frequency
d(t) = [+1, -1]
At receiver, incoming
signal multiplied by c(t)
Since, c(t) x c(t) = 1,
incoming signal is
recovered
336

Direct-Sequence Multiple Access


Direct Sequence CDMA In DS-CDMA
the modulated information-bearing signal (the
data signal) is directly modulated by a digital
(discrete-time, discrete-valued) code signal.
The data signal can be either analog or digital;
in most cases it is digital.
In the case of a digital signal the data
modulation is often omitted and the data
signal is directly multiplied by the code
signal and the resulting signal modulates the
RF carrier. 337

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DSSS-CDMA

338

Spreading and De-spreading DSSS


10 KHz bandwidth chip rate (BW) chip rate (BW) 10 KHz bandwidth

0 fc fc 0
Transmission Reception

Coding
Baseband Walsh Code Walsh Code Deinterleaving Baseband
and
Information Bits Spread Correlator and Decoding Information Bits
Interleaving
9,6 kbps 19,2 kbps chip rate chip rate 19,2 kbps 9,6 kbps

-113 dBm (1,23 MHz) Spurious Signals chip rate (BW) chip rate (BW)

fc fc fc fc
Thermal Noise External Interference Interference from other Interference from users 339
cells within the system within the same cell

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CDMA
Receiver for User 1
m1(t)+
Transmitter for User 1 Wireless m2(t)c1(t)c2(t) m1(t)+e1(t)
m1(t)
m1(t) m1(t)c1(t) Channel TSym bol

c1(t) m1(t)c1(t)+ c1(t)


m2(t)c2(t)

Transmitter for User 2 Receiver for User 2


m2(t) m2(t)c2(t) m2(t)+
m1(t)c1(t)c2(t) m2(t)+e2(t)
TSym bol m2(t)
c2(t)
0

c2(t)

Important Note: mi(t): Information Message of User i


The value of ei(t) depends on the ci(t): Spreading code of user i
cross correlation properties ei(t): Interference sensed at
between c1 & c2 receiver of user i 340
ei(t)=0 if c1 & c2 are orthogonal mi(t): Message detected at receiver

Spreading code properties


After the signal is created by the source, the spreading process uses a
spreading code and spreads the bandwidth.

The spreading code is a series of numbers that look random, but are
actually a pattern.

Good CDMA spreading codes should be characterized by relatively


low cross-correlation properties to minimize multiple access
interference (MAI).

Good CDMA spreading codes should be characterized by low


autocorrelation properties to minimize inter-symbol interference
due to multi-path channels

Ideally it is desirable to have both correlation functions to approach


zero
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Spreading and despreading

BW= BS BW= GBS BW= GBS BW= BS

Data Symbol
Symbol Detection

Spreading Code Interference Spreading Code

Signal Spreading Communication Signal De-spreading


Channel

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PN sequences
PN generator produces periodic sequence that
appears to be random
PN Sequences
Generated by an algorithm using initial seed
Sequence is not statistically random but will pass many
test of randomness
Sequences referred to as pseudorandom numbers or
pseudonoise sequences
Unless algorithm and seed are known, the sequence is
impractical to predict

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Pseudo-random sequence
Can generate the pseudo-random sequence (PN, Pseudo-Noise) using shift registers
with feedback.
Low the register with initial starting point.
The parallel output of the registers can be used to select the carrier frequency in
Frequency Hopping system.
The single bit output of one register can be used to select the plus/minus multiplier
in Direct Sequence system (0 binary for -1 volt, 1 binary for +1 volt)

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Important PN properties

Randomness
Uniform distribution
Independence
Correlation property
The periodic autocorrelation of a 1 m-sequence is

1 = 0, N, 2N, ...
R ( ) = 1
otherwise
N
Where N=2m-1 is sequence length of m-stage register
Maximal length sequences are not perfectly orthogonal
Maximal length sequences have good auto-correlation properties

Unpredictability
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Definitions
Correlation
The concept of determining how much similarity
or resemblance one set of data has with another
Range between 1 and 1
1 The second sequence matches the first sequence
0 There is no relation at all between the two sequences
-1 The two sequences are mirror images
Cross correlation
The comparison between two sequences from
different sources rather than a shifted copy of a
sequence with itself
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Orthogonal codes
Orthogonal codes
All pairwise cross-correlations are zero
Fixed- and variable-length codes used in CDMA systems
For CDMA application, each mobile user uses one
sequence in the set as a spreading code
Provides zero cross-correlation among all users
Types
Walsh codes
Variable-Length orthogonal codes

A Walsh matrix (proposed by J.L. Walsh) is a specific square matrix, with


dimensions a power of 2, the entries of which are +1 or 1, and the property that
the dot product of any two distinct rows (or columns) is zero. The Walsh matrix
(and Walsh functions) are used in computing the Walsh transform and have 347
applications in the efficient implementation of certain signal processing operations.

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Chipping sequence
In a CDMA protocol, each bit being sent is encoded by
multiplying the bit by a signal or spreading code (the chipping
sequence) that changes at a much faster rate (known as the
chipping rate) than the original sequence of data bits.
Suppose that the rate at which original data bits reach the
CDMA encoder defines the unit of time; that is, each original
data bit to be transmitted requires a one-bit slot time.
Let di be the value of the data bit for the ith bit slot.
For mathematical convenience, we represent a data bit with a 0
value as -1.
Each bit slot is further subdivided into M mini-slots.
The CDMA code used by the sender consists of a sequence of
M values, cm, m = 1, . . . ,M, each taking a +1 or -1 value.
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CDMA example

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CDMA example

350

Recap: CDMA

used in several wireless broadcast channels (cellular,


satellite, etc) standards
unique code assigned to each user; i.e., code set
partitioning
all users share same frequency, but each user has own
chipping sequence (i.e., code) to encode data
encoded signal = (original data) X (chipping sequence)
decoding: inner-product of encoded signal and chipping
sequence
allows multiple users to coexist and transmit
simultaneously with minimal interference (if codes are
orthogonal)

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Example: Spread-Spectrum FSK


(SSFSK)
Normally just transmit binary 0 with one
frequency, binary 1 with another frequency.
Now after some bits are sent, we hop to the
next pair of frequencies.

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FSK = Frequency Shift Keying

Conventional FSK
FSK time waveforms

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FSK with Frequency Hopping Spread


Spectrum
FSK-FH Time Waveforms

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Frequency spectra
FSK and FHFSK

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Example: Spread-Spectrum QPSK

Transmits pairs of bits using a phase change.


Can be any combination, for example
Bits 00 waveform phase 45.
Bits 01 waveform phase 135.
Bits 10 waveform phase 225.
Bits 11 waveform phase 315.
Within each bit pair (symbol), the frequency is
changed.
This is called a chip.

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QPSK = Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

Conventional QPSK Time waveform

QPSK time waveforms

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QPSK with DirectSequence Spread


Spectrum
QPSK-DSSS time waveforms

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Frequency spectra
QPSK-DSSS frequency spectra

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QPSK with Frequency Hopping


Spread Spectrum
QPSK-FHSS time waveforms

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Frequency spectra
Frequency spectra: QPSK and FHQPSK

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Summary

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) is an


important technique for maximizing utilization
of a channel.
There are three main Multiple Access (MA)
techniques.
Spread-Spectrum (SS) techniques have several
advantages, especially for multiple-access and
interference mitigation.

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