You are on page 1of 5

Solution of MIDTEST I, Heat Transfer II, 17 March 2016

Solution No. 1

Schematics:

Assumptions:
(1) Steady-state conditions,
(2) Two-dimensional conduction,
(3) Constant properties,
(4) Negligible thermal contact resistance at interface.

Analysis: The control volume is defined about nodal point 0 as shown above. The conservation of energy
requirement has to be applied.
q1 q 2 q3 q 4 q5 q6 q VB 0
Take the thickness in one dimension unit.

y y y
kA 1 (T1 T0 ) k A x 1 (T2 T0 ) k A 1 (T3 T0 ) k B 1 (T3 T0 )
2 2 2
y y
k B x 1 (T4 T0 ) k B 1 (T1 T0 ) q 1 x 0
2 2
Recognizing that x = y and regrouping gives the relation:

1
T1 T3 T2 k B T 3T1 2T4 q x
2 2k A 2k A
T0
k
2 1 B
kA

Solution No. 2
Schematic:
Assumption:
- constant thermal properties
- Table is perfect isolator
- Radiation is neglected
- 2 D conduction the ice cylinder

Analysis:

Figure (a) and (b) are equivalent. Figure (c) shows in relation to the dimensional effect.

Multidimensional effect:
T ( x, r , t ) T
P ( x, t ) C ( r , t )
Ti T

Check Biot Number:


V r 2 L
Lc
A 2r 2 2rL
In this calculation, take the equivalent configuration (figure (b)), so that total length = 2 L = 0.08 m, and L =
0.04 m
V (0.04) 2 0.08
Lc 0.01333
A 2 0.04 2 2 0.04 0.08
m

Bi hL / k 25 0.01333 / 2.22 0.1502

Lumped capacitance method can not be used.

Fo t / L2 0.124 10 7 120 60 / 0.013332 0.502

Fo is greater than 0.2 -> one term approximate is applicable

a).
t = 120 minutes and x = 40 mm
plat
Bi hL / k 25 0.04 / 2.22 0.45045
L = 40 mm,
From the table, thus: 1=0.6235, C1 = 1.0641
Fo t / L2 0.124 10 7 120 60 / 0.04 2 0.0558
x* =x/L= 1


P(0.04 m,120 minutes) C1 exp 1 Fo cos 1 x *
2

1.0641 exp(-0.6235 2 0.0588) cos(0.6235 1)
0.8453

Cylinder:
Bi hro / k 25 0.04 / 2.22 0.45045
ro = 40 mm,
From the table, thus: 1= 0.8966, C1 = 1.1038

Fo t / ro 0.124 10 7 120 60 / 0.04 2 0.0558


2

r* = 1

C (0.04 m,120 minutes) C1 exp 12 Fo J 0 1 r *


0.8966 exp(-0.8966 2 0.0558) J o (0.8966 1)
0.8966 exp(- 0.04486) 0.80882
0.6934

T(40 mm, 40 mm, 120 minutes) < 0oC

T ( x, r , t ) T
P( x, t ) C (r , t ) 0.8453 0.6934 0.5861
Ti T

T ( x, r , t ) 20 0.5861 (Ti 20)


Thus
20 0.5861 (Ti 20) 0
Ti <-14.124oC

b). The condition will be same with the first case because it is symmetric at the middle of the height of the
ice cylinder and adiabatic behavior in longitudinal direction at the middle.

Solution No. 3
Schematic and Data:

t2= 60 mm, ki = 0.026 W/mK, t1=4 mm, kp = 180 W/m.K

L = 10 m and W = 3.5 m, V =90 km/h, T = 32C, and GS= 750 W/m2.

Assumption:
- Steady state
- Constant termal properties
- 1-D conduction inside roof material
- Roof is opaque

Analysis:
From an energy balance for the outer surface,
}}
}} = {{T} rsub {s , o} - {T} rsub {s , i}} over {{2 R} rsub {p} rsup {
Rtot + Ri
} - {T} rsub {s , o} rsup {4} = {q} rsub {cond} rsup { T T s ,i
s G s+ q conv = s ,o

Where Rp=(t1/kp) = 2.78x10-5 m2.K/W, Ri = (t2/ki) = 1.923 m2.k/W, and ReL = uL/ = 1.57x107.
W
0.0263 . K 4
h= k 0.037 4L /5 Pr1 /3 = m 7 5 1 /3 W
0.037 ( 1.57 10 ) (0.7078) =49.59 2 . K
L 10 m m
Hence,
W T s , o263
(
0.15 750
m
2 )
+ 49.59 W /m 2
. K (305T s ,o )0.8 5.67 108 4
T s , o = 5
5.56 10 +1.923

Solving it, The result is obtained: Ts,o = 299.5 K = 26.5C.


Hence, the heat load imposed on the refrigeration system is
} = left (3.5 m 10 m right ) {left (26.5+12 right ) C} over {5.56 {10} ^ {- 5} +1.923 {m} ^ {2} . {K} over

q=( W . L ) . q cond

Solution 4:
Schematic and data:
Assumption:
- steady state
- constant properties
- radiation effect is neglected

Rayleigh Number:

Empiric Relation for Cavity:

Heat transfer rate occurs between the glass plate if radiation componen is neglected: