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MArket Research Regression

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Research for Marketing Decisions

Review: Basic analysis

Calculate means, and standard deviations for important

interval scaled variables

Do cross tabulations (2 variables at a time) for nominally

scaled variables to generate insights

Do t-tests for important interval scaled variables

Check ANOVAs for impact of categorical variables on interval

measurements

One way ANOVAs for one factor

Two way (or n-way )ANOVAs for two (or more) factors and

interactions

Review: Cross tabulations

Brands A, B, C, D across segments formed by age, gender, SEC

Underlying model is independence between the two variables

(no association between the row variable and the column

variable)

In Chi2 we test the model by comparing observed and

expected frequencies.

If we want to analyze models greater than 2 dimensional, we

have to use Log Linear models

2 way ANOVA

Advertising

Low

Price Medium

High

Model : x ijk = + i + j + ijk

= .

=

= .

= . +

= . .

Results

Source SS dF MS F P-value

A (Ad) 5.3 1 5.3 0.75 0.3951

B (Price) 74.46 2 37.23 5.27 0.0127

A x B (Ad x Price) 52.6 2 26.3 3.72 0.0392

Error (5 test markets ) 169.6 24 7.07

Total 301.96 29

Table of means: Purchase intention or Sales

Price

Low Medium High

Ad

Standard

Interactions

51.6

37.7

Purchase intention

intention 23.2

Standard Luxury

Standard Ad

Purchase

Luxury Ad

intention

Source: Adapted from Iacobucci (2015)

Type of relationship

examined

Interdependence

Dependence

Single Relationship Factor Analysis

Multiple Regression (Dependent Metric)

Conjoint Analysis (Dependent Metric)

Multiple Discriminant Analysis (Dependent Non-metric)

Linear Probability Models (Dependent Non-metric) Focus on Cases/Objects

Cluster Analysis

Single Relationship Focus on Objects

Canonical Correlation Analysis with dummy variables Multidimensional Scaling

(Dependent Metric/Non-metric, Predictor Metric) (Attributes are Metric)

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Dependent Metric, Correspondence Analysis

Predictor Non-Metric) (Attributes are Metric/Non-

metric)

Independent Variables

Structural Equation Modeling

Correlation

correlation coefficient, simple correlation or bivariate

correlation

Is an index used to determine whether a linear or straight line

relationship exists between two metric (interval or ratio

scaled) variables say X and Y

Represented by r

R = Cov XY/Sx Sy

R varies between 0 and 1

R indicates the strength of the association between X and Y

Does not depend on the underlying unit of measurement

SPSS Windows: Pearson Correlation

Duration[duration] ] in to the VARIABLES box..

7. Click OK.

Bivariate Regression

straight line is: Y = 0 + X1

where

Y = dependent or criterion (dependent) variable

X = independent or predictor (independent ) variable

0= intercept of the line

1 = slope of the line

probabilistic or stochastic nature of the relationship:

Yi = 0 + 1 Xi + ei

17-12

Explaining Attitude Toward

the City of Residence

the City Residence Attached to

Weather

1 6 10 3

2 9 12 11

3 8 12 4

4 3 4 1

5 10 12 11

6 4 6 1

7 5 8 7

8 2 2 4

9 11 18 8

10 9 9 10

11 10 17 8

12 2 2 5

17-13

Plot of Attitude with Duration

9

Attitude

Duration of Residence

Source: Malhotra and Dash (2011)

Bivariate Regression

least squares

0 + 1X

Y

YJ

eJ

eJ

YJ

X

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5

Source: Malhotra and Dash (2011)

17-15

Decomposition of

Variation

Step 3: Estimate the value of Y that captures the

maximum variance

Y

Residual Variation SSres

Y

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X

17-16

Bivariate Regression

Multiple R 0.93608

R2 0.87624

Adjusted R2 0.86387

Standard Error 1.22329

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

df Sum of Squares Mean Square

Residual 10 14.96444 1.49644

F = 70.80266 Significance of F = 0.0000

Variable b SEb Beta () T Significance

of T

Duration 0.58972 0.07008 0.93608 8.414 0.0000

(Constant) 1.07932 0.74335 1.452 0.1772

17-17

Assumptions

value of X, the distribution of Y is normal.

X, lie on a straight line with slope b.

variance does not depend on the values assumed by X.

observations have been drawn independently.

17-18

Multiple Regression

is as follows:

Y = 0 + 1 X1 + 2 X2 + 3 X3+ . . . + k Xk + e

which is estimated by the following equation:

but the b's are now the partial regression coefficients.

Multiple Regression

Multiple R 0.97210

R2 0.94498

Adjusted R2 0.93276

Standard Error 0.85974

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

df Sum of Squares Mean Square

Residual 9 6.65241 0.73916

F = 77.29364 Significance of F = 0.0000

Variable b SEb Beta () T Significance

of T

IMPORTANCE 0.28865 0.08608 0.31382 3.353 0.0085

DURATION 0.48108 0.05895 0.76363 8.160 0.0000

(Constant) 0.33732 0.56736 0.595 0.5668

Source: Malhotra and Dash (2011)

17-20

Multicollinearity

predictors are very high.

The partial regression coefficients may not be estimated precisely.

The standard errors are likely to be high.

The magnitudes, as well as the signs of the partial regression coefficients, may

change from sample to sample.

Assessment of relative importance of the independent variables in explaining

variation in the dependent variable becomes difficult.

Predictor variables may be incorrectly included or removed in stepwise

regression.

Adjusting for Multicollinearity

Use only one of the variables in a highly correlated set of variables.

Transform the set of independent variables into orthogonal factors

through principal component analysis

SPSS Windows: Regression

1. Select ANALYZE from the SPSS menu bar.

2. Click REGRESSION and then LINEAR.

COEFFICIENTS. Check MODEL FIT. Click CONTINUE.

into the Y box and *ZPRED into the X box. Check HISTOGRAM

and NORMAL PROBABILITY PLOT in the STANDARDISED

RESIDUALS PLOT. Click CONTINUE.

8. Click OK

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