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# FLUID

MECHANICS
LAB

## Department of Mechanical Engineering

School of Engineering & Technology
Manipal University-Jaipur
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-1
DISCHARGE THROUGH NOTCHES
OBJECTIVE

THEORY

## Notch is a structure which is used to measure the rate of flow in canal,

streams and channels. The flow of water in the canals is obstructed by notch
structure. This will cause rise of water on upstream side of notch and head
builds above sill level of notch. This causes the flow over notch. By principle,
the kinematic head is converted into static head and again it converts kinetic

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

## The experimental set-up consists of supply tank with perforated sheets

placed near inlet valve to reduce the velocity of incoming water and to
reduce the velocity of approach. Thus the perforated sheet can reduce
eddies and steady flow can be obtained in the channel.

The notches are fitted in interchangeable groove at the front end of the
channel. A collecting tank is provided to measure the actual discharge.

PROCEDURE

## 1. Note the geometrical; features of the notch.

2. Open valve and allow the water to fill the weir tank till it first touches
the apex of the notch.
3. Stop the inflow of water and adjust the pointer of the hook gauge so
that it just breaks through the water surface. Note down the initial
reading on the hook gauge say H1.
4. Open the valve and allow the water to pass over the notch for some
time when the head over the notch becomes constant. Note down the
reading on the hook gauge say H2.
5. Repeat steps for at least three different inlet valve openings.

OBSERVATIONS

## Angle of V-notch (): 90o

Length of rectangular notch (L):

No. H1

CALCULATIONS

PRECAUTIONS

## 1. Pointer gauge readings should be taken only after steady state

condition is reached.
2. While taking pointer gauge readings ensure that the tip of the gauge
just touches the water surface
3. The readings should be taken at a section sufficiently upstream of the
notch where the water surface is horizontal
4. For the measurement of current discharge there must not be any
leakage near the notch and take care that notch is not running in
overflow conditions.
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-2
DISCHARGE THROUGH WEIRS
OBJECTIVE

## To study the pressure distribution at the upstream of curved weir and to

calibrate the same.

THEORY

## A weir is a concrete or masonary structure, placed in an open channel over

which the flow occurs. It is generally in the form of vertical wall, with a sharp
edge at the top, running all the way across the open channel.

## a) According to the shape of opening

Rectangular weir
Triangular weir
Trapezoidal weir
b) According to the shape
Sharp-crested weir
Narrow crested weir
Ogee shaped weir
c) According to the effect of sides on the emerging nappe
Weir with end contraction
Weir without end contraction

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

## The experimental setup consists of supply tank with perforated sheets

placed near inlet valve to reduce the velocity of incoming water and to
reduce the velocity of approach. Thus the perforated sheet can reduce
eddies and steady flow can be obtained in the channel.

PROCEDURE

1. Fix the weir in the groove and measure the sill length of the weir.
2. Open the inlet valve and allow the water into the channel to raise upto
sill of the weir in the channel.
3. Measure the water surface level with the help of depth gauge (initial
water level) H1.
4. Allow the water to enter into channel and flows over the sill of the weir
5. Measure the water surface level with the help of depth gauge (Final
water level) H2.
6. The difference between initial water level and final water level gives
the head causing flow over the weir.
7. Collect the known volume of water (V) in collecting tank in specified
time (t).
8. Determine the actual discharge Qact.
9. Determine the theoretical discharge Qth.
10. Repeat the step for various heads of water above the sill level of
weir in the channel.

OBSERVATIONS

No. notch

CALCULATIONS

Cd = Qact / Qth

## RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

PRECAUTIONS
condition is reached.
2. While taking pointer gauge readings ensure that the tip of the gauge
just touches the water surface
3. The readings should be taken at a section sufficiently upstream of the
weir where the water surface is horizontal
4. For the measurement of current discharge there must not be any
leakage near the weir and take care that weir is not running in overflow
conditions.

## MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-3
ORIFICEMETER
OBJECTIVE

## To calibrate the orifice meter and to determine the coefficient of discharge.

THEORY

An orifice meter is another simple device used for measuring the discharge
through pipes, orifice meter also works on the same principle as that of
venturimeter i.e. by reducing the cross-sectional area of the flow passage, a
pressure difference between the two sectiona before and after orifice is
developed and the measurement of the pressure difference enables the
determination of the discharge through the pipes. However, an orifice meter
is a cheaper arrangement for discharge measurement through pipes and its
installation requires a smaller length as compared with venturimeter. As such
where the space is limited, the orifice meter may be used for the
measurement of discharge through pipes.

APPARATUS

## 1. Measuring tank to measure the flow rate

2. A pipe line with an orifice meter.
3. Tappings with Ball Valves are provided at inlet & outlet of orifice meter
and these are connected to manometer
4. A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow
rate using Monoblock pump.
5. Separate valves are provided for orifice meter to conduct experiments
separately.

PROCEDURE

## 1. Note down the relevant dimension as diameter of pipe, diameter of

throat.
2. Regulating valve of pipeline is kept open.
3. Pressure tappings of orifice meter are kept open.
4. Open the inlet flow control valve and regulate the valve to allow a
5. The flow rate was adjusted to its maximum value. By maintaining
suitable amount of steady flow or nearby steady flow in the pipe
circuit, there establishes a non-uniform flow in the circuit. Time is
allowed to stabilize the levels in the manometer tube.
6. Note down the water levels in left and right limbs of manometer tube.
7. The flow rate is reduced in stages by means of flow control valve and
the readings of manometer are recorded for every stage.

OBSERVATIONS

## Sl. Manometer H = 12.6 T in sec R in Qa = A.R/T

No. difference h in h in cm cm
cm

CALCULATIONS

1. Theoretical discharge
Qth = a1 a2 2gH/(a12 a22)

## a1 = area of inlet section of orifice

a2 = area of throat section of orifice
2. Actual discharge
Qa = A.R/T
3. Coefficient of discharge
Cd = Qa / Qth

PRECAUTIONS

## 1. Ensure that there is no air bubbles in the manometer.

2. After each change in the valve opening wait for some time for the flow
3. Take a number of readings to obtain accurate result.

## MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-4
VENTURIMETER
OBJECTIVE

THEORY

## A venturimeter is a device which is used for measuring the rate of flow of

fluid through pipe line. The basic principle on which a venturimeter works is
that by reducing the cross-sectional area of the flow passage, a pressure
difference is created between the inlet and throat and the measurement of
the pressure difference enables the determination of the discharge through
the pipe.

## 1. An inlet section followed by a convergent cone.

2. A cylindrical throat.

The inlet section of the venturimeter is of the same diameter as that of the
pipe which is followed by a convergent cone. The convergent cone is a short
pipe which tapers from the original size of the pipe to that of the
venturimeter. The throat of the venturimeter is a short parallel side tube
having its cross-sectional area smaller than that of the pipe. The divergent
cone of the venturimeter is gradually diverging pipe with its cross-sectional
area increasing from that of the throat to the original size of the pipe. At the
inlet section and the throat of the venturimeter, pressure tappings are
provided through pressure rings.

APPARATUS

## 1. Measuring tank to measure the flow rate

2. A pipe line with an venturimeter.
3. Tappings with Ball Valves are provided at inlet and throat of
venturimeter and these are connected to manometer
4. A constant steady supply of water with a means of varying the flow
rate using Monoblock pump.
5. Separate valves are provided for venturimeter to conduct experiments
separately.

PROCEDURE

## 1. Note down the relevant dimension as diameter of pipe, diameter of

throat.
2. Regulating valve of pipeline is kept open.
3. Pressure tappings of venturimeter are kept open.
4. Open the inlet flow control valve and regulate the valve to allow a
5. The flow rate was adjusted to its maximum value. By maintaining
suitable amount of steady flow or nearby steady flow in the pipe
circuit, there establishes a non-uniform flow in the circuit. Time is
allowed to stabilize the levels in the manometer tube.
6. Note down the water levels in left and right limbs of manometer tube.
7. The flow rate is reduced in stages by means of flow control valve and
the readings of manometer are recorded for every stage.

OBSERVATIONS

## Rise in water level in collecting tank (R):

Sl. Manometer H = 12.6 T in sec R in Qa = A.R/T
No. difference h in h in cm cm
cm

CALCULATIONS

1. Theoretical discharge
Qth = a1 a2 2gH/(a12 a22)

## a1 = area of inlet section of venturi

a2 = area of throat section of venturi
2. Actual discharge
Qa = A.R/T
3. Coefficient of discharge
Cd = Qa / Qth

PRECAUTIONS

## 1. Ensure that there is no air bubbles in the manometer.

2. After each change in the valve opening wait for some time for the flow
3. Take a number of readings to obtain accurate result.
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-5
FRICTION IN PIPE (MAJOR LOSSES)
OBJECTIVE

## To determine the head loss of given length of pipe.

THEORY

When liquid flows through a pipe under pressure, some head is lost in
overcoming the friction between the pipe walls and flowing fluid. The
frictional resistance offered to flow depends on the type of flow. Mostly the
flow of fluids in pipes lies in turbulent zone. On the basis of the experimental
observations the laws of fluid friction for turbulent flow are as under:

## Proportional to (velocity)n, where n varies from 1.72 to 2.0

Independent of pressure.
Proportional to density of the flowing fluid
Slightly affected by variation of temperature of the fluid.
Proportional to area of surface in contact
Dependent on the nature of the surface in contact
The formula for turbulent flow in pipes may be written in the form of darcy-
weisbach equation for head loss due to friction:

hf = fLV2/2gD

## where, f = friction factor

L = Length of pipe

## Q = Discharge through pipe

D = Diameter of pipe

APPARATUS
1. Pipes of different sizes with regulating valves fed by mainline through a
common inlet valve at one end and outflow valve at the other end.
2. Each pipe provided with two pressure tappings at certain distance
apart.
3. U-tube differential manometer is provided to find the difference of

PROCEDURE

## 1. Note down the relevant dimensions a diameter of the pipe, length of

each pipe between pressure tappings, area of collecting tank etc.
2. Pressure tappings of one pipe are kept open while for other pipe it is
closed.
3. Keeping the outlet valves closed; open the main inlet valve fully.
4. Open the outlet valve of this pipe partially; wait for few seconds so that
5. Note the manometer readings in both the limbs of the manometer h 1
and h2.
6. Make discharge measurements by measuring the level rise (h) in the
discharge measurement tank for a particular interval of time T. This is
actual discharge Qa.
7. Repeat the process for at least three different openings of the outlet
valve.
8. This procedure is repeated by closing the pressure tappings of this pipe
and for opening of another pipe.

OBSERVATIONS

## Area of collecting tank (A): 0.3 x 0.3 m2

Rise in collecting tank water level (R):

## Sl. Pipe Manometer T in sec R in cm Qa =

No. Size Difference (h in A.R/T
cm)

CALCULATIONS

Qa = A.R/T

PRECAUTIONS

## 1. There should not be any air bubble in manometer.

2. Discharge must be varied very gradually from higher to smaller values.
3. Ensure that there is no leakage from any pipe fittings.
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-6
IMPACT OF JET
OBJECTIVE

To study the relation between the force produce and the change of
momentum when a jet strikes a vane.
Compare between force exerted by a jet on a flat plate and on a
hemispherical surface.
THEORY

When jet of water is directed to hit the vane of particular shape, the force is
exerted on it by fluid in the opposite direction. The amount of force exerted
depends on the diameter of jet, shape of vane, fluid density and flow rate of
water; it also depends on whether the vane is moving or stationary (here, we
are concern about the force exerted on stationary vanes).

One way of producing mechanical work from fluid under pressure is to use
the pressure to accelerate the fluid to a high velocity in a jet; the jet is
directed on the vanes of a turbine wheel which is rotated by the force
generated on the place as the jet strikes the vanes.
If a flow Q m3/s with a velocity Uo m/s strikes a vane perpendicular to it, the
flow is deflected by angle so that the fluid leaves the vanes with velocity U 1
inclined at angle to the original axis of flow. The force acting on the fluid
being equal to the rate of change of momentum that is:

## F = Q (U1 cos - Uo)

Where:
=density in Kg/m3

## The force R on the vane is equal & opposite of F so that:

R = Q (Uo - U1 cos )

In the case of flat plate = 90o and the force acting on the plate:
R = Q (Uo)
In the case of a hemispheric cup we may assume that = 180o hence:
R = Q (Uo + U1)

Since the changes in peizometric pressure and elevation are neglected the
maximum value of U1 will be Uo thus max. force on the hemispheric cup is (2
Q Uo) i.e. twice the force on the flat plate .

EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP

## It is a closed circuit water re-circulating system consisting of sump tank,

mono block pump set, jet/vane chamber, pressure gauge for pressure
measurement. The water is drawn from sump to mono block pump and
delivers it vertically to the nozzle. The flow control valve is also provided for
controlling the water into the nozzle. The water issued out of nozzle as jet.
The jet is made to strike the vane, the force of which is transferred directly to
the force. The provision is made to change the size of nozzle/jet and vane of
different shapes.
PROCEDURE

1.
Fix the flat plate in position.
2.
Keep the delivery valve closed & switch ON the pump.
3.
Close the front transparent cover tightly.
4.
Open the delivery valve and adjust the flow rate of water.
5.
Note down the diameter of jet, flow rate & force
6.
Tabulate the results.
7.
A series of reading for the similar procedures was taken for Flat
plate with reducing the rate of flow in each reading by using the
valve.
8. The same steps were then repeated by using the hemispherical cup
SPECIFICATIONS
Vane shapes: Flat, Hemispherical

Jet diameter: 5 mm

stainless steel

OBSERVATIONS:

## Sl. No. Type of Weighing Height of Time Flow rate

Vane of water water taken in Q = AR/T
collected collected sec (T)
(Fa) (R)

CALCULATIONS

## Calculations for Flat Plate:

Q = (volume of used water) / (the time for this volume)
Ujet = The velocity at exit from the nozzle = (Q / Area of jet)
Uo2 = Ujet2 (2 g S), where S = the distance between the jet and the plates
R1 = Q (Uo) = theoretical value (predicted value)
R2 = Reading on weighing machine = actual value
Calculations for Hemispheric cup:
Similar with flat plate but
R1 = 2 Q (Uo) = theoretical value (predicted value)

PRECAUTIONS

## 1. Apparatus should be in leveled condition.

3. Vane should be tightly fitted.

## MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-7
BERNOULIS THEOREM

## 2. INTRODUCTION: Bernoullis theorem states that when there is a

continuous connection between particles of flowing mass of liquid, the
total energy at any section of flow will remain the same provided there
is no reduction or addition of energy at any point. This is the energy
equation and is based on the law of conservation of energy. This
equation states that at two section of flow field the total energy
remains the same. Provided that there is no loss or gain of energy
between the two sections. This equation is valid only for steady flow.
This equation is expressed as:

p1 v 12 P2 V2
E= pg + 2g + Z1 = Pg + 2g Z2

If Z 1 = Z2
p1 v 12 P2 V2
E = pg + 2g = Pg + 2g

## 3. DESCRIPTION: The present experimental set-up for Bernoulli`s

Theorem is self-contained recirculating unit. The set-up accompanies
the Sump Tank. Constant Head Tank. Centrifugal Pump for water
circulation. Measuring Tank etc. Control Valve and By-Pass Valve is
provided to regulate the flow of water in Constant Head Tank. A conduit
made of Perspex of varying cross section is provided which is having
converging and diverging section. Piczometer tubes are fitted on this
test section at specified points. The inlet of the conduit is connected to
constant head tank. At the outlet of conduit a valve is provided to
regulate the flow of water through the test section. After achieving the
steady state discharge through test section can be measured with the
help of measuring Tank and Stop Watch.

4. UTILITIES REQUIRED:
(a) Electric supply: Single Phase. 220 Volts. 50 Hz 5 Amp.
(b)Water Supply (Initial Fill)
(c) Drain Required.
(d)Floor Area required : 2 m x 0.5 m

5. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
Starting Procedure
(a) Ensure that all On/Off Switches given on the Panel are at OFF
position
(b)Close all the drain valves provided.
(c) Fill Sump tank with clean water and ensure that no foreign
particles are there.
(d)Close all Flow Control Valves given at the end of Test Section.
(e) Clean the apparatus and make all Tanks free from Dust.
(f) Open by-pass valve given on the water Supply.
(g)Switch on the Pump.
(h)Partially close By-Pass Valve to allow water to fill in Overhead Tank.
(i) Wait until overflow occurs from Overhead Tank.
(j) Regulate flow of water through test section with the help of valve
provided at the end of test section.
(k) Ensure that overflow still occurs; if not partially close the By-Pass
Valve to do so.
(l) Measure Pressure head by Piezometer tubes.
(m) Measure flow rate of water using Measuring Tank and Stop
Watch.
(n)Repeat step (j) to (m) for different flow rate of water.

Closing Procedure:

## (a) When experiment is over, Switch off Pump.

(b) Switch off Power Supply to Panel.
(c) Drain water from all tanks with the help of given drain valves.

6. SPECIFICATION:

## Test Section : Material Acrylic.

Piezometer Tubes : Material P.U. Tubes (7 Nos.)

## Water circulation : FHP Pump.

Flow Measurement : Using Measuring Tank & Stop
Watch.
Sump Tank : Material SS. Capacity
70 Ltrs.
Overhead Tank : Material SS. Capacity
20 Ltrs.
The whole set-up is well designed and arranged in a good quality
painted structure.
7. FORMULAE:

p p
+
E= pg pg

Q
V= A m/s

AxR
Q= t100 m3

R 1R 2
R= 100 m

Data:
g = 9.81 m/sec2

A = 0.1 m2

## S.no. of test Points Cross-Section Area Distance

from Reference points

## 1. 4.91 x 10-4 0.04

2. 3.14 x 10-4 0.0785
3. 1.77 x 10-4 0.092
4. 7.85 x 10-5 0.1105
5. 1.77 x 10-4 0.13585
6. 3.14 x 10-4 0.1562
7. 4.91 x 10-4 0.19155
Tube No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
V (m/s)
P/pg = h/100
V2/2g
E
No. cm cm sec At Piezometerric tube No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1:

2:

3:

S R1 R2 t
h (cm)

CALCULATION TABLE:

Run No. =

Discharge = m3/s
9. NOMENCLATURE:

## p=Density of fluid, kg/m3

A= Area of measuring tank, m3
a= Cross-section area at test point, m2
E=Total energy.
g= Acceleration due to gravity, m/s2
P=Pressure of fluid.
Q= Discharge through test section, m3/s
R= Rise of water level in measuring Tank. m.
R1=Final height of water in Measuring Tank after time t. cm.
R2=Initial height of water in Measuring Tank. Cm.
t= Time taken for R (sec)
V= Velocity of fluid, m/s
Z=Potentional energy per unit weight of potentional head.

## 10. PRECAUTION &MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS:

(a) Do not run the pump if voltage is less than 180 Volts and above 230
Volts.
(b)Never fully close the Delivery Valve and By-Pass Valve at a time.
(c) To prevent clogging of moving parts, Run Pump at least once in a
fortnight.
(d)Always use clean water.

## 11. TROUBLE SHOOTINGS:

(a) If pump gets jam, open the back cover of pump and rotate the shaft
manually.
(b)If pump gets heat up. Switch off main power for 15 minutes and
avoid closing the Flow Control Valve and By Pass valve at a time
during operation.

## MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-8
RECIPROCATING PUMP TEST RIG

## and dosing pumps. The UNICOOL apparatus consists of a single cylinder,

double acting reciprocating pump mounted over the sump tank. The pump is

## meter measure electrical input to motor. Measuring tank is provided to

measure discharge of the pump. The pressure and vacuum gauges provided

SPECIFICATIONS

22mm.

Measurements

## b) 1 Ph. Energy meter for motor input measurement.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

## Fill up the air vessel for about 2/3rd capacity.

Open the gate valve in the discharge pipe of the pump fully.

Close the Ball valve and drain valve of the measuring tank.

Check nut bolts & the driving belt for proper tightening.

Driven the outlet pipe into funnel and slowly increase the pump speed,

slightly close the discharge valve. Note down the various reading in the

## observations table. Repeat the procedure for different gate valve

openings. Take care that discharge pressure does not rise above 4

Kg/cm2.

Change the speed and tank readings for different Ball valve openings.

## Repeat the procedure for different speeds and complete the

observation table.
OBSERVATIONS

## Sr No. Discharge Discharge Time for 10 Time for 10

Pressure
(meters) In measuring Energy meter
(Kgs/cm2)
tank
te (sec)
t (sec)
CALCULATIONS

Where,

## pHg = Sp gravity of mercury 13.6

pw = Sp gravity of water 1

## Take Suction Head = 0 ( Because level of water is more than

level of suction of pump)

## (as 10m of water = 1 Kg / cm2)

Hq = Hs + Hp + 3mtr

Where,

4) Discharge
L x B x .01

## 5) Out put power of pump

W. Qa. Hp

Pw = -------------------- Kw

1000

Where,

## W = Specific weight of water = 9810 N/m3

Qa = Discharge m3/sec

## Let time required for 10 Ind. of energy meter is to sec.

Then,

10 3600

IP = --------- x -------------- Kw

te 3200

where,

## Taking motor efficiency 60% and transmission efficiency as

60 %,
we have input shaft power

## 7) Over all efficiency of pump

Pw

o = -------- x 100%

SP

PRECAUTIONS

## Always use clean water for experiment.

Before starting the pump ensure that discharge valve is opened fully.
SAMPLE CALCULATION

OBSERVATIONS

## 10 lit rise Energy meter te

No. Pressure Vacuum
in Sec
(Kg/cm2) mm of Hg
measuring

tank

t sec

## 1 0.5 0 16.12 354.1

2 1 0 16.75 317.6

3 2 0 17.16 269.6

4 3 0 17.37 225.0

Hs = 0 mtrs

Ha = 0.5 x 10

= 5 mtrs

Hq = 0 + 5 + 3 mtr

= 8 mtrs.
Discharge

0.01 x 0.1

16.12

## 9810 x 6.20 x 10-4 x 8

Pw = ----------------------------------------- kw

1000

= 0.048 kw

## Let time required for 10 rev. of energy meter be to sec.

Then, 10 3600
IP = ------------ x ---------------- kw

354.1 3200

= 0.42 kw

= 0.1512 kw

## Overall efficiency of pump

0.048

O = ------------= 0.31

0.1512
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-9
GEAR PUMP TEST RIG

## Device which when imposed in a Pipe Line, converts Mechanical Energy

supplied to it from external source into Hydraulic Energy thus resulting in the

## THEORY: The pumps are of major concern to most Engineers and

Technicians. The types of Pump vary in principal and design. The selection of

## pump for any particular application is to be done by understanding their

characteristics. The most commonly used pumps are classified under major

Pumps.

## While the operations of other pumps discussed elsewhere in standard books,

the Gear Pump falling under the category of Positive Displacement Pumps,

## which is of our present concern, has a pair of accurately Ground Meshed

Gears housed in a casing. As the gears rotate, the fluid is trapped between

the gears teeth and the casing thus transferring the liquid from inlet end of
one gear to the outlet end of the other gear. During each revolution a certain

volume of liquid is transferred. The Discharge rate depends upon speed, size

of gear teeth.

## operated on close circuit (re-circulation) basis. The main components are

Gear Pump, collecting & sump tank, and all these are mounted on rigid

## 1. To measure the overall input horsepower to the motor using energy

meter.

2. To measure the delivery and suction heads using pressure and vacuum

gauges separately.

## 3. To change the head and flow rate-using control valves.

4. To measure the discharge using collection tank fitted with tank level

## indicator/ gauge glass.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:

## 3. Space Required : 1.6 x 0.6 m

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Clean the apparatus and make all Tanks free from Dust.

## 2. Close the drain valves provided.

3. Fill Sump tank with oil ( SAE 40 ) and ensure that no foreign particles

are there.

4. Open Flow Control Valve given on the discharge line and Control Valve

## 5. Set the revolution of motor / pump with the help of pulley.

6. Ensure that all on/off Switches given on the Panel are at OFF position.

the pump.

discharge line.

## 11. Measure the discharged by using measuring tank and Stop

Watch.

12. Repeat the same procedure for direct speeds of pump and

discharge.

Closing Procedure :
1. When experiment is over, Ball valve is proper open provided on

discharge line.

SPECIFICATIONS

NOMENCLATURE

## P = Pulse of Energy Meter

Q = Discharge, m3/s

## 2. Use clean oil.

3. It apparatus will not in use for more than half month, collect oil in any

vessel.
OBSERVATIONS: -

## S. DISCHARGE TIMES FOR 10 Cm. TIMES FOR 10

rev. of
NO. PRESSURE Water level rise
Energy meter
(Kg/cm2) Pd (Sec) tw
(Sec) te

CALCULATIONS: -

## Discharge head, hd = Pd x 10 m of water.

Suction vacuum, Ps = 0 mm of Hg

## Because Level of Gear Oil is more than suction level of Pump.

Total Head, ht = hd + hs + hr

Discharge: -

0.01x 0.1

tw

## Output power (or water power)

W.Q. ht

WP = --------------- kw

1000

Where,

## W = Specific weight of Oil= 9.8 x 8910 N / m3

Q = Discharge m3 / sec.

## ht = Total head, mtrs.

Electrical Input: -

## Let time required for 10 rev. of energy meter disc be te sec.

10 3600
Electrical input power, Ip = ------- x -----------

te 3200

## Overall efficiency of the pump: -

WP

o = -------- x 100%

SP
CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF GEAR OIL PUMP
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-10
HYDRAULIC RAM

## principle, which enables the dynamic pressure of a large quantity of water

flowing under a low head to lift a small portion of water to a higher head. It

consists of a supply pipe connected as its upper end to the reservoir and at

its lower end to the ram inlet. At the ram outlet, the waste water flows out in

the large opening and a small quantity of water at high pressure flows

## through he smaller deliver valve.

The Test Rig consists of a Hydraulic Ram placed over a sump tank. As the

ram vibrates heavily while it is working (due to the water hammer), the ram

## is placed on an independent stand and this stand should be firmly bolted to

the ground to avoid the vibrations. A Centrifugal Pump supplies water from

the sump tank to a supply tank kept on top of a stand. A long and straight

M.S. pipe connects the supply tank to the hydraulic ram. Once the ram starts

working, the high-pressure water (useful water) flows into a collecting tank.

This tank is provided with a gauge glass and valve to measure the useful

water flow rate. A gate valve is provided in the useful water line to vary he
delivery pressure. The waste water from the ram flows back directly into the

sump tank. To measure the waste water flow rate (or the total flow rate =

waste water + useful water), the gauge glass provided in the supply tank is

used. The inlet valve to the supply tank can be closed and time taken for a

certain drop in water level in the supply tank is measured to determine the

flow rate.

To operate the Ram in uniform conditions, the water level in the supply tank

## valve in the inlet pipe to the supply tank.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The Ram will require some back pressure to begin working Priming Process.

## 1. Admit water in the supply tank by switching on the pump.

2. Open the valve in the long inlet pipe to ram after water has reached a

## certain level in the supply tank.

3. Open the ram outlet valve slightly to allow water and any air in the

## 4. Initially the ram will have to be manually started several times to

remove all the air. When the water from the supply tank flows out

through the waste water valve, the swing check inside the valve shuts.

Manually push it open again use a rod to push this as the swing check
is inside the valve. This process of pushing the swing check may have

to be repeated several times until all the air is purged from the system

## and pressure builds up in the ram.

5. Adjust the ram outlet valve to obtain the required water outlet pressure

water.

6. Keep the supply head constant by controlling suitably the inflow into

the supply reservoir say 60-70 cm in the tank gauge glass scale.

## 7. Measure the total discharge W in passing through ram by closing the

inlet valve to the supply tank and the time taken for the water level in

## the tank to fall a few cms (5cm or 10 cm).

8. Note the useful water pumped per minute from the collecting tank at

OBSERVATIONS:

## Hs = Suction Head = Height of Water in supply tank

above the chamber.(m)

## Hd = Delivery Head = Height of Water raised from the chamber.

(m)
Calculations:
Choosing supply water surface as datum i.e. Choosing the datum plane as

## MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-11

## Introduction: The Hydraulic Machines which converts the Mechanical

energy into Hydraulic energy are called Pumps. The Hydraulic energy is in

## the form of Pressure energy. If the mechanical energy is converted into

Pressure energy by means of centrifugal force acting on the Fluid, the

## Hydraulic machines is called Centrifugal Pumps. The centrifugal fan with

consists of a blower driven by FHP Motor with a series of curved redial vanes.

Air is drawn near the hub, called the blower eye, and is whirled round at high

speed by the vanes on the blower as the blower rotates at high rotational

speed. The static pressure of the air increases from the eye of the blower to

the tip of the blower in order to provide the centrifugal force on the air. As

the air leaves the blower tip it is passed through diffuser passage which

converted most of the kinetic energy of the air into an increase in enthalpy

and hence the pressure of the air is further increased. The blower may be

double sided, having an eye either side of the unit, so that air is drown in

both side. The advantages of this type are that the blower is subjected to

## approximately equal forces in an axial direction. In practice nearly half the

total practice is achieved in blower and the remaining half the diffuser. A

pressure ratio of around 4: 1 can be achieved with the centrifugal fan. The

## Centrifugal pump acts as a reversed of an inward radial flow reaction turbine.

This means that the flow in centrifugal pumps is in the radial outward

directions. The centrifugal pump works on the principle of forced vortex flow

## which means that when a certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external

torque, the rise in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place. The rise in

pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional to the square

of tangential velocity of the liquid at that point. Thus at the outlet of the

impeller, whose radius is more, the rise in pressure head will be more and
the liquid will be discharged at the outlet with a high pressure head. Due to

this high pressure head, the liquid can be lifted to a high level.

1. Impeller

2. Casing

motor.

## discharged at the outlet of the Impeller is converted into pressure

Energy before the Water Leaves the Casing and enters the delivery

Pipe.

## pumped to higher level.

The UNICOOL unit consists of a centrifugal pump driven by a Dimmer

## head. Thus, performance of pump can be estimated at various speed and

SPECIFICATIONS: -

## Centrifugal pump 25 x 25 mm. size, base mounted= 2 Nos.

connected in series,

Motor: - 1 H.P.

Measuring tank ---- x ---- x -----mm. height, fitted with drain valve.

## Energy meter to measure input the motor.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE: -

## Fill up sufficient water in the sump tank.

Open the priming nipple plug (At the top of pump) and fill up water up

## Slowly open the discharge valve, so that small discharge is observed.

Note down discharge head, suction vacuum and time required for 10

meter disc.

OBSERVATIONS: -

## S. DISCHARGE TIMES FOR 10 TIMES FOR 10

Cm Ind. of
NO. PRESSURE
Water level Energy meter
(Kg/cm2)
rise (Sec)
Pd (P1 + P2)
(Sec) tw
CALCULATIONS: -

## Discharge head, hd = Pd x 10 m of water.

Total Head, ht = hd + hr
Where, hr = 3 mtr. Is the head loss due to Friction.

Discharge: -

## Let time for 10 Cm. Level rise be tw sec.

.15 m2 x .10
Then, discharge, Q = ------------------------- m3 / sec
tw

## Output power (or water power)

W.Q. ht
WP = --------------- kw
1000
Where,

## W = Specific weight of water = 9810 N / m3

Q = Discharge m3 / sec.

## ht = Total head, mtrs.

Electrical Input: -

## Let time required for 10 blinking of energy meter indication be te sec.

10 3600
Electrical input power, Ip = ------- x -----------
te 3200

## Overall efficiency of the pump: -

WP
o = -------- x 100%
SP
PRECAUTIONS

run empty.

## 3. Operate all the Controls Gently.

MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-12
FRANCIS TURBINE TEST RIG

## mechanical and electrical energy. Francis Turbine is a radial inward flow

reaction turbine. This has the advantage of Centrifugal forces acting against

the flow, thus reducing the tendency of the turbine to over speed. Francis

Turbines are best suited for medium heads. The specific speed ranges from

25 to 300.

The turbine test rig consists of a 5.0 HP turbine supplied with water from a

## suitable 15 HP Centrifugal Pump through suitable pipelines, a Gate valve,

and a flow measuring Orificemeter. The turbine consists of a cast iron body

with a volute casing and a gunmetal runner consisting of two shrouds with

## aerofoil shaped curved vanes in between. The runner is surrounded by a set

of brass guide vanes. At the outlet, a draft tube is provided to increase the

net head across the turbine. The runner is attached to the output shaft with a

## brake drum to absorb the energy produced.

Water under pressure from pump enters through the guide vanes into the

runner. While passing through the spiral casing and guide vanes, a portion of

the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy. Water thus enters the

## passes through the runner vanes, the remaining pressure energy is

converted into kinetic energy. Due to the curvature of the vanes, the kinetic

energy is transformed into the mechanical energy i.e., the water head is

converted into mechanical energy and hence the runner rotates. The water

## from the runner is then discharged into the tailrace.

The flow through the pipe line into the turbine is measured with the Orifice

meter fitted in the pipe line. The Orifice meter is provided with a set of

pressure gauges. The net pressure difference across the turbine inlet and

outlet is measured with a pressure gauge and a vacuum gauge. The turbine

## DESCRIPTION:- The actual experimental facility supplied consists of

Centrifugal Pump Set, Turbine Unit, Sump tank, arranged in such a way that

## whole unit works as re-circulating water system.

The Centrifugal Pump Set supplies the water from Sump Tank to the Turbine

through Control Valves. The loading of the Turbine is achieved by rope rake

## drum connected to spring balance.

UTILITIES REQUIRED:-

1. Water Supply.
2. 3 Phase Supply, 440 Volt A.C.15 Hp Capacity
3. Drain
4. Space Required: 2.5 m x 1.5 m x 3.0 m

SPECIFICATION:-

volute.

## Flow Measurement. OrificeMeter.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:-

A. STARTING PROCEEDURE
1. Clean the apparatus and make Tank free from Dust.
2. Close the Drain Valve Provided.
3. Fill Sump Tank with Clean Water and ensure that no foreign particles
are there.
4. Tighten all the clamps of Rubber Pipe of Gauges.
5. Now switch on the Main Power supply (440 V AC, 50 Hz).
6. Open the Gate Valve before staring the pump.
7. Switch on the Pump with the help of Starter.
8. Open the Valve provided on the OrificeMeter, slowly.
9. Now Turbine is in operation.
10. Regulate the discharge by regulating the spear position.
11. Load the Turbine with the help of hand wheel attached to the
spring balance.
13. Note the RPM of the Turbine.
14. Note the Spring Balance Reading.
15. Repeat the same experiment for different Load and different
Discharge.

B. CLOSING PROCEEDURE:-
1. When the Experiment is over, first remove load on Dynamometer.
2. Close the Ball Valves provided on Orifice meter.
3. Switch OFF Pump with the help of Starter.
4. Switch OFF main power supply.
OBSERVATION TABLE

## S.NO. RPM Pr. Gauge Differential Dead Weight Spring

P (Kg/cm2) P1-P2 W1 (Kg) W2 (Kg)
(Kg/cm2)

CALCULATION TABLE

## S.No. RPM Total head Discharge Output Input Watt Turbine

(H) Q(m3/Sec.) Watt Efficiency
M of Water
NOMECLATURE:-

W = W1 W2. (Kg)

## Rc = Effective Radius. (m) =

Q = Discharge. (m3/sec)
H = Total Head. m of water

FORMULAE:-
Total Head H = 10 x P m of Water.

Discharge Q = A x V m3/sec

The Discharge from the tube can be obtained by calculating the volume flow
rate through tube

60

## Turbine Input = w x Q x H x 9.81 Watt

Where ,

H = 10 x P m of Water.

g = 9.8 m/sec2

Input

## PRECAUTIONS AND MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS

1 Do not run the Pump at Low Voltage i.e. less than 390 Volts.
2 Always keep apparatus free from Dust.
3 To Prevent Clogging of Moving Parts, Run Pump at least once in a
fortnight.
4 Frequent Grease/Oil the rotating parts, once in three months.
5 Always use clean water.
6 If apparatus will not in use for more than half month, drain the
apparatus completely, and fill pump with cutting oil.

TROUBLESHOOTING

1 If the Pump does not lift the water, the revolution of the motor may be
reverse. Change the electric connections of Motor to change the
revolutions.
2 If Panel is not showing input, check the main supply.
LAYOUT OF FRANCIS TURBINE
MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR
FLUID MECHANICS LAB
EXPERIMENT-13
Pelton Wheel

OBJECTIVE:

APPARATUS:

## 2. Nozzle & Spear Arrangement

3. Pressure Gauges

THEORY:

## Pelton Wheel Turbine is an IMPULSE type of turbine which is used to utilize

high head for generation of electricity. All the energy is transferred by means
of Nozzle & Spear arrangement. The water leaves the nozzle in a jet
formation. The jet of water then strikes on the buckets of Pelton Wheel
Runner. The buckets are in the shape of double cups joined together at the
middle portion. The jet strikes the knife edge of the bucket with least
resistance and shock. Then the jet glides along the path of the cup & jet is
deflected through more than 160 170 degrees. While passing through along
the buckets, the velocity of water is reduced & hence impulse force is applied
to the cups which are moved & hence shaft is rotated. The Specific Speed of
Pelton wheel varies at constant head.

PROCEDURE:

## 5. Take the respective readings in the respective pressure gauges.

6. Load the turbine by putting the weights.

OBSERVATION:

## 3. Total diameter (D) = 415 mm = 0.415 m JNEC CIVIL/FM-II/AUG 2012 Page

17

OBSERVATION TABLE:

## Sr. Spear Speed Rope Tension Manometer Pressure gauge

No. openi N W (Kg) S difference (Kg/cm2)
ng (rpm) (Kg)

Sr. No. Rope Tension Turbine Speed (rpm)
W (Kg) S (Kg)

CALCULATIONS:

Power supplied

## Pin = w QH x 9.81 watts

Overall efficiency

RESULT: