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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 12 | Dec -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Effect Of Coconut Shell Ash On Properties Of Expansive Soils


Rashmi Bade1, Syed Sohailuddin2, Tasneem Khan3, Er. Imran Sheikh4
1Assistant professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Anjuman College of engineering and technology, Maharashtra,
India
2Assistant professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Anjuman College of engineering and technology, Maharashtra,

India
3Assistant professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Anjuman College of engineering and technology, Maharashtra,

India
4Student of Graduation, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Anjuman College of engineering and technology, Maharashtra,

India
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Abstract - Black cotton soil deposits in India are a boon to is to try to stabilize or improve the engineering properties of
farmers but are problematic to civil engineers. Civil the soils at the site. Several measures such as application of
Engineering structures experience large scale damage due to adequate surcharge load, pre-wetting, moisture control, CNS
heaving accompanied by loss of strength of these soils during layer technique (Katti, 1979). Chemical stabilization
rainy seasons and shrinkage during summer. In India the soil (Snethen et. al, 1979; Ramana Murthy, 1998) was suggested
mostly present is Clay, in which the construction of sub grade to alleviate the problems posed by expansive soils. The
is problematic. Keeping this in view stabilization of weak soil variation in liquid limit, plastic limit, unconfined
may be done with suitable admixtures to save the construction compression stress (UCS), of expansive soil are presented
cost considerably. Soil stabilization can be explained as the and discussed.
alteration of the soil properties by chemical or physical means
in order to enhance the engineering quality of the soil. The 1.1 Sub Heading 1
main objective of the soil stabilization is to increase the
bearing capacity of the soil. The best way to stabilise such type Before you begin to format your paper, first write and
of soil is to disturb the soil sample by physically adding an save the content as a separate text file. Keep your text and
additive. In the present work an organic waste product which graphic files separate until after the text has been formatted
is readily available and is quite effective and cost friendly is and styled. Do not use hard tabs, and limit use of hard returns
used. The material used is the shell of coconut which is easily to only one return at the end of a paragraph. Do not add any
available waste product in every household. The laboratory kind of pagination anywhere in the paper. Do not number text
investigation has shown that it increases the strength of soil heads-the template will do that for you.
effectively without affecting the foundation of the structure. Finally, complete content and organizational editing
The test have shown that the material used for stabilization is before formatting. Please take note of the following items
highly soil friendly and effective for civil engineers who have when proofreading spelling and grammar:
major problems dealing with expansive soils.
Key Words: Stabilisation, Black Cotton Soil, Coconut Shell
2. Experimental Investigations
Ash.
Material Used
Soil
1. INTRODUCTION ( Size 11 , cambria font)
Expansive black cotton soil collected from the neighborhood
Industrial development in India has necessitated of Nagpur city was used. Its basic properties are: liquid limit
construction of infrastructure facility such as highways, wL = 61%, plastic limit Ip = 32%, clay and silt content 86%,
specific gravity = 2.69.
airports seaports and residential, commercial buildings.
There is a need to select a good soil conditions for proper Organic Additives Used
safety consideration of all these projects. Expansive soil is
Coconut shell covering (In the form of ash).Sample
one among the problematic soils that has a high potential for
paragraph, The entire document should be in cambria font.
shrinking or swelling due to change of moisture content. Type 3 fonts must not be used. Other font types may be used
Expansive soils can be found on almost all the continents on if needed for special purposes. The entire document should
the Earth. In geotechnical engineering, soil stabilization or be in cambria font. Type 3 fonts must not be used. Other font
other methods are required when a given site does not have types may be used if needed for special purposes.
suitable engineering properties to support structures, roads,
and foundations. One possibility is to adapt the foundation
to the geotechnical conditions at the site. Another possibility
2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 271
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 12 | Dec -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Different parts of the coconut fruit Chart -1: 10% Coconut shell ash.

3. Sample Preparation

The behavior of coconut shell ash with soil has been


investigated in present paper. Coconut shell ash has been
used in percentage by weight of soil. Three different
percentages (5%, 10%, 15%) of coconut shell ash has been
used by weight of soil. The Maximum Dry Density (MDD) and
Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) obtained for different
percentages.

4. Results And Discussion


The changes of dry density values with different percentages
of coconut shell ash mixed in expansive soil are presented in
the Fig. 1. It is observed that the decrease in the liquid limit is
significant up to 5% of admixture there is an increase in dry
density.

Chart -1: 15% Coconut shell ash.

IRJET sample template format ,Define abbreviations and


acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after
they have been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as
IEEE, SI, MKS, CGS, sc, dc, and rms do not have to be defined.
Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are
unavoidable.

4. CONCLUSIONS

The plasticity index of each sample reduced with the


addition of various percentages of CSA, indicating a
reduction in swelling potential and hence an increase in
Chart -1: 5% Coconut shell ash. strength properties. The samples gained higher unit weights
with the addition of CSHA, the dry density of all samples
increased respectively at 10% CSA values increased
gradually with increased percentages of CSA. It was
therefore concluded that coconut shell ash can effectively
stabilize expansive soil.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 272
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 12 | Dec -2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

IRJET sample template format ,Conclusion content comes


here. Conclusion content comes here Conclusion content
comes here Conclusion content comes here Conclusion Er. Imran Khan,
content comes here Conclusion content comes here Student of Graduation.
Conclusion content comes here Conclusion content comes
here Conclusion content comes here Conclusion content 4th
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Photo
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REFERENCES

[1] Krishna, P. H., Murty, V. R., and Kumar, A. K. (2004), A


comparative study on load carrying capacity of model
underreamed and anchored granular micropiles, Proc.,
Indian Geotechnical Conf. Warangal, India, 183186.
[2] Phanikumar, B.R., Ramesh, V. and Shastry, M.V. (1998),
Efficiency of calcium chloride in stabilizing swelling
soils, Proc. IGC-1998,Vol. 1., 245-246.
[3] Krishna, P. H., Murty, V. R., and Kumar, A. K. (2004), A
comparative study on load carrying capacity of model
underreamed and anchored granular micropiles, Proc.,
Indian Geotechnical Conf. Warangal, India, 183186.
[4] Phanikumar, B.R., Ramesh, V. and Shastry, M.V. (1998),
Efficiency of calcium chloride in stabilizing swelling
soils, Proc. IGC-1998,Vol. 1., 245-246.
[5] Golait, Y.S., Wakhare, A.S. and, B.J. Malkhandale,
Influence of Course Grained Fraction on Index Property
Parameters of Swelling Soils,Indian Geotechnical
Conference, Vol. 1. 1998.
[6] S.P.Lajurkar, and M.S. Bhagat, Experimental study on
shrinkage behaviour of clay, Proceeding MPGI National
Multi Conference publishedby Indian Research
Transaction. 2012.

BIOGRAPHIES

Er. Mrs. Rashmi G. Bade,


(M.Tech-Geotechnical
Engineering)

1st
Author
Photo Er. Syed Sohailuddin.
(M.Tech-Structural Engineering)

2nd
Author
Photo Mrs. Tasneem Khan,
(M.Sc, Chemistry, Pursuing Phd.)

3rd
Author
Photo

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 273