You are on page 1of 343

Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis

2008-12


Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis


()

9 1 5

6 9

MATLAB ANSYS

ANSYS

MATLAB ANSYS

-1-

1963 1988 1988-1992


()
(1998)(2000)(1994-1995)

863 30

(
1993)(2004)(T.R.Chandrupatla
)(2006)
1 (O.C.Zienkiewicz( 5 ))(2008)
100

-2-

MATLAB
ANSYS

9 1 5

6 9

MATLAB
ANSYS


()


(1)

(2)

MATLAB

(3) MATLAB
ANSYS

(4)

(5)

(Benchmark) MATLAB

-3-

ANSYS APDL ANSYS



2008-12-11

-4-


Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis

1.1 1
1.2 1
1.3 5

2 7

2.1 7
2.2 9
2.3 17
2.4 20
2.5 22

3 23

3.1 23
3.2 24
3.2.1 24
3.2.2 28
3.2.3 32
3.2.4 MATLAB 35
3.2.5 38
3.3 47
3.3.1 48
3.3.2 54
3.3.3 62
3.3.4 63
3.3.5 66
3.3.6 MATLAB 68
3.3.7 70
3.4 ANSYS 77

3.4.1 77
3.4.2 ANSYS 78
3.5 83
3.6 83

4 89

4.1 89
4.2 89
4.3 95
4.3.1 3 95
4.3.2 4 101
4.3.3 3 MATLAB 114
4.3.4 4 MATLAB 116
4.4 118
4.4.1 118
4.4.2 3 () 120
4.4.3 4 () 122
4.5 123
4.5.1 4 123
4.5.2 8 126
4.5.3 4 MATLAB 128
4.5.4 8 MATLAB 130
4.6 133
4.6.1 133
4.6.2 137
4.6.3 137
4.7 143
4.7.1 3 143
4.7.2 4 151
4.8 155
4.8.1 4 155
4.8.2 8 161
4.9 165
4.10 166

5 169

5.1 169
5.2 170
5.2.1 170
5.2.2 171
5.3 177

II

5.4 188
5.4.1 188
5.4.2 189
5.4.3 190
5.5 C0 C1 192
5.6 193
5.6.1 193
5.6.2 195
5.7 196
5.7.1 196
5.7.2 199
5.7.3 202
5.8 h p 204
5.9 205
5.10 205

6 208

6.1 MATLAB 208


6.1.1 208
6.1.2 MATLAB 212
6.2 216
6.3 ANSYS 222
6.4 228
6.4.1 228
6.4.2 8 230
6.5 235

7 237

7.1 237
7.1.1 237
7.1.2 239
7.1.3 241
7.2 243
7.3 247
7.4 251
7.5 255

8 258

III

8.1 258
8.1.1 258
8.1.2 259
8.1.3 262
8.2 264
8.3 267
8.4 271
8.5 275

9 279

9.1 279
9.1.1 279
9.1.2 282
9.1.3 282
9.1.4 Newton-RaphsonN-R 283
9.2 284
9.3 289
9.4 294

296

AMATLAB 297

BANSYS 309

C 316

D 317

E 318

319

323

327

IV

MATLAB ANSYS


[[[[[[ \\\\\\

2.1(1)
2.2(1) 1D
2.2(2) 1D
2.2(3) 1D
2.3(1) 1D

3.2.1(1) 1D
3.2.1(2) 1D
3.2.1(3) 1D
3.2.1(4) 1D
3.2.1(5) 1D
3.2.1(6)
3.2.2(1)
MATLAB 3.2.4(1) 1D (Bar1D2Node)
MATLAB 3.2.4(2) 2D (Bar2D2Node)
3.2.5(1)
MATLAB 3.2.5(2) (Bar2D2Node)
ANSYS 3.2.5(3)
3.3.1(1)
3.3.1(2)
3.3.1(3)
3.3.1(4)
3.3.1(5)
3.3.2(1)
3.3.2(2)
3.3.2(3)
3.3.2(4) -
MATLAB 3.3.6(1) 1D (Beam1D2Node)
MATLAB 3.3.6(2) 2D (Beam2D2Node)
3.3.7(1)
MATLAB 3.3.7(2) (Beam2D2Node)
ANSYS 3.3.7(3)
ANSYS 3.4.2(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 3.4.2(2)

ANSYS 3.4.2(3)

4.2.1(1)
4.2.1(2)
4.2.1(3)
4.2.1(4)
4.2.1(5)
4.2.1(6) ()
4.3.1(1) 3
4.3.1(2) 3
4.3.1(3) 3
4.3.2(1) 4
4.3.2(2) 4
4.3.2(3)
ANSYS 4.3.2(4)
MATLAB 4.3.3(1) 3 (Triangle2D3Node)
MATLAB 4.3.4(1) 4 (Quad2D4Node)
4.4.1(1)
4.4.1(2)
4.4.2(1) 3 ()
4.4.3(1) 4 ()
4.5.1(1) 4
4.5.1(2) 4
4.5.1(3) 4
4.5.2(1) 8
4.5.2(2) 8
MATLAB 4.5.3(1) 4 (Tetrahedron3D4Node)
MATLAB 4.5.4(1) 8 (Hexahedral3D8Node)
4.6.1(1)
4.6.1(2)
4.6.1(3) ()
4.6.2(1)
4.6.3(1) Gauss
4.6.3(2) 4
4.7.1(1) 3
MATLAB 4.7.1(2) 3 (Triangle2D3Node)
ANSYS 4.7.1(3) 3
MATLAB 4.7.2(1) 4 (Quad2D4Node)
ANSYS 4.7.2(2) 4
MATLAB 4.8.1(1) 4 (Tetrahedron3D4Node)
ANSYS 4.8.1(2) 4
MATLAB 4.8.2(1) 8 (Hexahedral3D8Node)

ii

ANSYS 4.8.2(2) 8

5.2.1(1) 10/1
5.2.1(2) 2 1
5.2.2(1) 1 1/0
5.2.2(2) 2 1/0
5.2.2(3) 3
5.2.2(4) 4
5.2.2(5) 5
5.2.2(6) 6()
5.2.2(7)
5.3(1)
5.3(2) 1
5.3(3)
5.3(4)
5.3(5) Lagrange
5.3(6)
5.3(7)
ANSYS 5.3(8)
5.4.3(1) 1(
5.4.3(2) 2(
5.4.3(3)
5.4.3(4)
5.4.3(5) 3
5.5(1) C0
5.5(2) C1
5.6.1(1)
5.6.1(2)
5.6.1(3)
5.6.2(1)
5.6.2(2)
5.7.1(1) 1D
5.7.1(2) 1D
5.7.2(1) ()
5.7.2(2) 2D 6
5.7.2(3) 2D Lagrange
5.7.3(1) 3D 10
5.7.3(2) 3D 20
5.8(1) h (h-version h-method)
5.8(2) p (p-version p-method)

iii

MATLAB 6.1.2(1) FEM2D.m


MATLAB 6.2(1) (FEM2D.m)
ANSYS 6.2(2)
ANSYS 6.3(1) ANSYS
ANSYS 6.4.2(1) 8 (GUI)
ANSYS 6.4.2(2) 8 ()

7.1.1(1)
7.1.1(2) /
7.1.1(3)
7.1.2(1)
7.1.3(1)
7.1.3(2)
7.1.3(3)
ANSYS 7.2(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 7.2(2) ()
ANSYS 7.3(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 7.3(2) ()
ANSYS 7.4(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 7.4(2) ()

8.1.1(1)
8.1.1(2) ()
8.1.2(1)
8.1.2(2) 3
8.1.3(1)
8.1.3(2)
8.1.3(3)
ANSYS 8.2(1) 2D (GUI)
ANSYS 8.2(2) 2D ()
ANSYS 8.3(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 8.3(2) ()
ANSYS 8.4(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 8.4(2) ()

iv

9.1.1(1)
9.1.1(2)
9.1.2(1)
9.1.3(1)
9.1.4(1) Newton-RaphsonN-R
ANSYS 9.2(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 9.2(2) ()
ANSYS 9.3(1) (GUI)
ANSYS 9.3(2) ()

1.1

(finite element method)(finite element analysis)[1][2]

(1)
(2)(3)
(3)
(1)(2)
MATLAB
ANSYS

1.2

1870 Rayleigh
1909 Ritz
20 40
1943 Courant
[3]1956 TurnerCloughMartin
Topp [4]1960
Clough (finite element method)
[5][6]1955 Argyris [7]
1967 Zienkiewicz Cheung
1970
1954 [8]
[9] 20
20
1-1

ANSYSABAQUSMSC/NASTRANMSC/MARCADINAALGOR
PRO/MECHANICAIDEAS LS-DYNADEFORM
PAM-STAMP, AUTOFORMSUPER-FORGE
1-1 1-2

1-1

1-1


1965 ASKA (PERMAS) IKOSS GmbH, (INTES),Germany www.intes.de
STRUDL MCAUTO, USA www.gtstrudl.gatech.edu
1966 NASTRAN MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., USA www.macsch.com
1967 BERSAFE CEGB, UK (restructured in 1990)
SAMCEF Univer. of Liege, Belgium www.samcef.com
1969 ASAS Atkins Res.&Devel., UK www.wsasoft.com
MARC MARC Anal. Corp., USA www.marc.com
PAFEC PAFEC Ltd, UK now SER Systems
SESAM DNV, Norway www.dnv.no
1970 ANSYS Swanson Anal. Syst., USA www.ansys.com
SAP NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, www.eerc.berkeley.edu/sof
USA tware_and_data
1971 STARDYNE Mech. Res. Inc., USA www.reiusa.com
TITUS (SYSTUS) CITRA, France; ESI Group www.systus.com
1972 DIANA TNO, The Netherlands www.diana.nl
WECAN Westinghouse R&D, USA
1973 GIFTS CASA/GIFTS Inc., USA
1975 ADINA ADINA R&D, Inc., USA www.adina.com
CASTEM CEA, France www.castem.org:8001/
HomePage.html
FEAP NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, www.eerc.berkeley.edu/sof
USA tware_and_data
1976 NISA Eng. Mech. Res. Corp., USA www.emrc.com
1978 DYNA2D, DYNA3D Livermore Softw. Tech. Corp., USA www.lstc.com
1979 ABAQUS Hibbit, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., USA www.abaqus.com
1980 LUSAS FEA Ltd., UK www.lusas.com

1982 COSMOS/M Structural Res. & Anal. Corp., USA www.cosmosm.com


1984 ALGOR Algor Inc., USA www.algor.com

1-2


Academic Press IDEAL www.idealibrary.com J. of Sound and Vibration
Elsevier ScienceDirect www.elsevier.nl Acta Materialia
Advances in Eng. Software
Applied Math. Modelling
Composite Structures
Composites A, B
Composites Science and Technology
Computational Materials Science
Computer Meth. in Appl. Mech and Eng.
Computers & Structures
Eng. Analysis with Boundary Elements
Eng. Failure Analysis
Eng. Fracture Mechanics
Eng. Structures
European J. of Mechanics A, B
Finite Elements in Analysis and Design
Int. J. of Mechanical Sciences
Int. J. of Solids and Structures
Int. J. of Impact Eng.
Int. J. of Fatigue
Int. J. of Plasticity
Int. J. of Non-Linear Mechanics
J. of Constructional Steel Research
J. of Material Processing Technology
J. of the Mech. and Physics of Solids
Materials Science and Eng. A
Mechanics of Materials
Mechanics Research Communications
Nuclear Eng. And Design
Probabilistic Eng. Mechanics
Structural Safety
Theoretical and Appl. Fracture Mech.
Thin-Walled Structures
IoP Publishing Electronic J. www.iop.org/ EJ Smart Materials and Structures
Kluwer Kluwer www.wkap.nl/ Applied Composite Materials
Academic Online journals Int. J. of Fracture
Publishing Meccanica
Mechanics of Composite Materials

MCB Emerald www.mcb.co.uk/ Engineering Computations


University Library portfolio.htm Int. J. of Num. Meth. For Heat&Fluid Flow
Press
Springer LINK Link.springer.de/ Archive of Applied Mechanics
Verlag ol/eol/index.htm Computational Mechanics
Engineering With Computers
J. Wiley & Interscience www.interscience. Communicat. in Numer. Meth. in Eng.
Sons wiley.com Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Eng.
Mech. of Cohesive-Frictional Mater.
Progress in Structural Eng. and Mater.

Richard Courant(1888.01.08-1972.01.27Lublinitz), 1910


,1928 19281933
1936 1964
Courant
Courant

CourantFriedrichsLewyCourant

John Argyris( 1913.08.19-2004.04.02Volos)





5 G8 16
Argyris 1950 40

Olgierd Cecil Zienkiewiz (1921.05.18-Caterham) Swansea



CalalunyaUNESCO 1961 1989 Swansea
1968
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering
24 Zienkiewiez 5
1978
(1981)(1985)
(1998)(1999)1967
5 1 (O.C.Zienkiewicz, R.L.Taylor( 5 )
)(2008)

1.3

60



1-2 42000
14000 78 78

2006 9 17

1-2 1-3

1-3 [10] 1-4 A350


19 [11] 1-5
[12]

1-2 A350 19

1-5

2.1

((deformed body))

(1) ((displacement))
(2) ((strain))
(3) ((stress))


()
(strength)
(stiffness)

2-1

Z X

(a) (b)
2-1


(discretized approximation)

(base function)
(1)()(2)

(sub-domain)(pieces function)()

2.1(1)

f ( x), x [ x0 , xL ]

(Fourier series)
f ( x) c0 0 ( x [ x0 , xL ]) + c1 1 ( x [ x0 , xL ]) + "
n (2-1)
= cii ( x [ x0 , xL ])
i =0

i ( x [ x0 , xL ]) [ x0 , xL ] c0 , c1 , c2 "

[ xi , xi +1 ] ,

f ( x) {a0 + b0 x( x [ x0 , x1 ])} + {a1 + b1 x( x [ x1 , x2 ])} + "


n (2-2)
= {ai + bi x( x [ xi , xi +1 ])}
i =0

ai + bi x( x [ xi , xi +1 ]) [ xi , xi +1 ] a0 , b0 , a1 , b1 "

2-2

(a) [ x0 , xL ]

(b) [ xi , xi +1 ]

2-2

i ( x [ x0 , xL ])

[ x0 , xL ]

ai + bi x( x [ xi , xi +1 ]) [ xi , xi +1 ]

[ x0 , xL ]

-(Rayleigh-Ritz
principle)

(1)
(2)
(3)
(1)
(2)

2.2

1D(one dimension) 1D

2-3 1D

2.2(1) 1D

2-3

E1 = E2 = 2 107 Pa A1 = 2 A2 = 2cm 2 l1 = l2 = 10cm F = 10N

2-4

2-4

C
F

Pc = F = 10 N (2-3)

I B2 = Pc = F = 10 N (2-4)

I B I B I B I B = 0
1 2 1 2

PA = I B1 = I B = PC = F = 10 N
2
(2-5)

PA 10 N N
1 = = 2
= 5 10 4 2 = 5 10 4 Pa (2-6)
A1 2cm m

PC 10 N N
2 = = 2
= 1105 2 = 1 105 Pa (2-7)
A2 1cm m
(Hooke law)

1 = E11
(2-8)
1 = E2 2

1 2

1 5 104 PA
1 = = = 2.5 103
E1 2 10 Pa
7

(2-9)
2 110 PA
5
3
2 = = = 5 10
E2 2 107 Pa

10

= l / l l = l

l1 = 1 l1 = 2.5 103 10 = 2.5 102 cm


(2-10)
l2 = 2 l2 = 5 103 10 = 5 102 cm

A x u A = 0 B

2
l1 u B = l1 = 2.5 10 cm C

uc = l1 + l2 = 7.5 102 cm

1 = 5 104 Pa, 2 = 1 105 Pa



1 = 2.5 103 , 2 = 5 103 (2-11)

u A = 0, uB = 2.5 102 cm, uC = 7.5 102 cm
2-5

2-5

(compatibility equation)
d

ABC u Au BuC

2.2(2) 1D

2.2(1)

2-3 2-6

11

2-6 1D

2-6(c) (u B u A )
1

uB u A
1 = (2-12)
l1

E1
1 = E11 = ( uB u A ) (2-13)
l1

1
I B

E1 A1
I B1 = 1 A1 = ( uB u A ) (2-14)
l1

2
I B

E2 A2
I B2 = 2 A2 = ( uC uB ) (2-15)
l2

2-6(b) ABC
A

PA + I B1 = 0 (2-16)

(2-14)

E1 A1
PA + ( uB u A ) = 0 (2-17)
l1
B

I B1 + I B2 = 0 (2-18)

12

(2-14)(2-15)

E1 A1 E A
( uB u A ) + 2 2 ( uC uB ) = 0 (2-19)
l1 l2
C

PC I B2 = 0 (2-20)

(2-15)

E2 A2
PC ( uC uB ) = 0 (2-21)
l2
ABC

EA EA
PA 1 1 u A + 1 1 uB + 0 = 0
l1 l1
E1 A1 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 A2

0+ uA + uB + uC = 0 (2-22)
l1 l1 l2 l2
E A E A
PC 0 + 2 2 uB 2 2 uC = 0
2
l 2
l

E1 A1 E1 A1
0
l l1
PA 1 u A 0
E1 A1 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 A2
0 l + uB = 0 (2-23)
l1 l2 l2
1
uC 0
PC E2 A2 E2 A2
0
l2 l2
(2-23)
4 104 4 104 0 u A PA

4 10
4
6 104 2 104 uB = 0 (2-24)
0
2 10 4
2 104 uC 10

u A = 0 u BuCPA

u B = 2.5 104 m

uC = 7.5 104 m (2-25)

PA = 10N
PA (reaction force of support)

13

uB u A
1 = = 2.5 103
l1

uC uB 3
2 = = 5 10 (2-26)
l2
1 = E11 = 5 104 Pa

2 = E2 2 = 1105 Pa
2.2(1)2.2(2)

(2-23)
P I =0 (2-27)
( 31) ( 31)

P (load matrix) I (inner force matrix)


( 31) ( 31)

(deformed force matrix)


PA

P = 0 (2-28)
( 31)
PC

E1 A1 E1 A1
0
l1 l1 u A
EA E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 A2
I = 1 1 + uB (2-29)
( 31)
l1 l1 l2 l2
uC
E2 A2 E2 A2
0
l2 l2
(2-27)(2-29)

(nodal displacement) u Au BuC

(2-23) ABC

(a) u Au BuC PAPC

(b)2.2(1)

(c) u Au BuC

(2-26)
(2-23)2.2(1)
(2-23)

2.2(3) 1D

(2-23)

14

(2-23)
E1 A1 E1 A1
0
l1 l1 u A PA
E1 A1 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 A2
+ uB = PB (2-30)
l1 l1 l2 l2
uC PC
E2 A2 E2 A2
0
l2 l2

E1 A1 E1 A1
l 0
l1 0 0 0
1 u A u A PA
E1 A1 E2 A2
0 uB + 0
E1 A1 E2 A2
l l1 l2
uB = PB
l2
(2-31)
1 uC uC PC
0 0 0 E2 A2 E2 A2
0
l2 l2
(2-31) 1

E1 A1 E1 A1
l
l1 u A E1 A1 u A uB I B1
1 = =
E1 A1 uB l1 uB u A I B1
(2-32)
E1 A1
l l1
1

I B I B 2-6c
1 1

(2-31) 2

E2 A2 E2 A2
l
l2 uB E2 A2 uB uC I B2
2 = u u = 2
E2 A2 uC
(2-33)
E2 A2 l2 C B IB
l
2 l2

I B I B 2-6(c)
2 2

(2-31)

(component)

(element)(generalization)
(standardization)
()
(2-32)(2-33)
(bar element)
2-7

15

2-7

u
q e = 1 = [u1 u2 ]
T
(2-34)
( 21) u2

P
P e = 1 = [ P1 P2 ]
T
(2-35)
( )

2 1
P2
(2-32)

EA EA

I1 l l u1
I = EA
EA u2
(2-36)
2
l l

P P1 = I1 P2 = I 2
e
( 21)

EA EA
l
l u1 P1
=
EA u2 P2
(2-37)
EA
l l

K e qe = Pe (2-38)
( 22 ) ( 21) ( 21)

EA EA

l l K11 K12
Ke = =
K 22
(2-39)
( 22 )
EA EA K 21
l l
(2-38)(equilibrium equation)
e
(stiffness equation) ( (3-41)) K (stiffness

matrix), K11K12K 21K 22 (stiffness coefficient)

16

2.3

1D

2.3(1) 1D

2-8

E1 = E2 = E3 = 2 105 Pa , 3A1 = 2 A2 = A3 = 0.06m 2


l1 = l2 = l3 = 0.1m

2-8 1D

(2-38)
(2-31)

(1)

(numbering of element) 2-8


2-9 x

2-9

(2)

2-9 2-7
2-37

17

E1 A1 E1 A1
l
l1 u1 P1(1)
1 = 2-40
E1 A1 E1 A1 u2 P2 (1)
l l1
1

E2 A2 E2 A2
l
l2 u2 P3(2)
2 = 2-41
E2 A2 E2 A2 u3 P3(2)
l l2
2

E3 A3 E3 A3
l
l2 u3 P3(3)
3 = 2-42
E3 A3 E3 A3 u3 P4 (3)
l l3
3

(3)


2-402-412-42

u1 u2 u3 u4

E1 A1 E1 A1
l 0 0
l1
1
E1 A1 E1 A1 E2 A2 E2 A2 u1 P1(1)
l + 0 (1) (2)
u2 = P2 + P2
l1 l2 l2
1

E2 A2 E2 A2 E3 A3 E A u P (2) + P (3)
0 + 3 3 3 3 (3) 3
l2 l2 l3 l3 u4 P4
E3 A3 E3 A3 2-43
0 0
l3 l3

2-43

2-43 P1 P2
(1) (2)
+ P2(2)P3(2) + P3(3)P4(3) 1234

P1 = P1(1)P2 = P2(1) + P2(2)P3 = P3(2) + P3(3)P4 = P4(3) 2-44

2-8 P1 = 100 NP2 = 0P3 = 50 N P4

2-43

18

4 104 4 104 0 0 u1 P1

4 10 1 105 6 104
4
0 u2 = P2 2-45
0 6 104 1.8 105 5
1.2 10 u3 P3

0 0 1.2 105 1.2 105 u4 P4

u1u2u3u4 P1P2P3P4 2-9

2 2

P2(1) 2 P2(2)

P1P2P3P4

2-45

(4)

2-8 u4 = 0

2-45
4 104 4 104 0 0 u1 100 N

4 10 1 105 6 104
4
0 u2 = 0 2-46
0 6 104 1.8 105 1.2 105 u3 50 N

0 0 1.2 105 1.2 105 u4 = 0 P4

u4 = 0 4 4

4 104 4 104 0 u1 100



4 10
4
1105 6 104 u2 = 0 2-47
0 6 10 4
1.8 105 u3 50

u1 = 4.58333 103 m

u2 = 2.08333 103 m 2-48

u3 = 4.16667 104 m
(5)

2-48 u4 = 0 2-46

P4

P4 = 1.2 105 u3 = 50N 2-49

(6)

19

2-12

u2 u1 ( 2.08333 + 4.5833) 10
3

1(1) = = = 2.49997 10 2 2-50


l1 0.1

(2) u u
= 3 2 =
( 0.416667 + 2.08333) 10 3

= 1.6667 102 2-51


l2 0.1

u4 u3 0 + 4.16667 104
(3) = = = 4.16667 103 2-52
l3 0.1
2-13

(1) = E1 (1) = 4.999 103 Pa 2-53

(2) = E2 (2) = 3.3333 103 Pa 2-54

(3) = E3 (3) = 8.3333 10 2 Pa 2-55

2-10

2-10

2.4


(
) 2-11

20

2-11

2-11

( 2-12)

2-12 (ANSYS )


2.2(2)

21

1D2D3D
[13][14]2.2(2)

[15]
3

2.5
z
z
z
z
z
z ()

22

3.1

1D2D3D
()

1D2D3D 3-1

3-1

23

3.2

3.2.1

P l A
E 3-2

EA
P x

3-2

3.2.1(1) 1D
x x
x u (x )
x () x (x)
x x (x )

3.2.1(2) 1D

()
d x
x = c1 =0 (3-1)
dx
c1

x dx du
du
x = (3-2)
dx

x
x = (3-3)
E

(BC, boundary condition)

BC(u) u ( x) x =0 = 0 (3-4)

24

P
BC(p) x ( x ) x =l = = px (3-5)
A
x = l , x (x)

(Saint-Venants principle) x = l ,

(1) 3 3
(2)()

()(trail function)
()(unknown constant)

3-2

3.2.1(3) 1D
(3-1)-(3-3)


x ( x) = c1

c1
x ( x) = (3-6)
E
c1
u ( x) = x + c2
E
P
c1 c2 ,(3-4)(3-5)(3-6) c2 = 0 c1 =
A

P
x ( x) =
A

P
x ( x) = (3-7)
EA
P
u( x ) = x
EA
3-2

3.2.1(4) 1D

25

3-3

3-3

PA l B
= (3-8)
PB l A

()

A , B

B lB
= (3-9)
A lA

()(virtual displacement)
(3-9)(3-8)

PA A PB B = 0 (3-10)

PA A A (virtual work)( PA A A ) PB B B

( PB B B )

(3-10)(principle of virtual work)

W
U U (virtual strain energy)

W U = 0 (3-11)

U = W (3-12)

(
) BC(u)
3-2

26

u ( x ) = cx (3-13)

c
(3-13)
( x) = c

u ( x) = c x (3-14)
( x) = c

c 3-2
l
U = x x d = E x x dA dx = E c c A l (3-15)
0 A

W = P u( x = l) = P c l (3-16)

(3-12)

E c c A l = P c l (3-17)

c
P
c= (3-18)
EA
(3-13)

3.2.1(5) 1D

BC(u) u ( x )

(potential energy)

(u ) = U W (3-19)

U W 3-2

1
2
U= x (u ( x)) x (u ( x))d
(3-20)
W = P u( x = l )

u ( x ) u ( x )

min
u ( x )BC ( u )
[ (u ) = U W ] (3-21)

27

3-2

(3-13)

du
x ( x) = =c
dx (3-22)
x ( x) = E x ( x) = E c

(3-20)
1
(u ) = U W = E c2 A l P c l (3-23)
2
(3-21)(3-23)
(u )
=0 (3-24)
c
c = P / EA (3-18)
(principle of
minimum potential energy)((3-15)(3-20))

3.2.2

3.2.2(1)


(
)

(1)

3-4 (local coordinate system)(bar element)

Node 1 Node 2() q


e

q e = [u1 u2 ]
T
(3-25)

(DOF, degree of freedom)

() P
e

28

P e = [P1 P2 ]
T
(3-26)

3-4

(3-26)
(

u ( x ) ( x ) ( x ) ) q
e e

(2)

u ( x ) Taylor

u ( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 +"" (3-27)

u1 u2 (3-27)

(interpolation model)

u ( x) = a0 + a1 x (3-28)

a0 a1 (unknowns)


u ( x) |x =0 = u1
(3-29)
u ( x ) | x = l e = u2
(3-29)(3-28) a0 a1

a0 = u1

u2 u1
a1 =
(3-30)
le

(3-28)
u2 u1 x x
u ( x) = u1 + ( e
) x = (1 e )u1 + ( e )u2 = N( x) q e (3-31)
l l l
N (shape function matrix)

29

x x
N ( x) = (1 e ) (3-32)
l l e

q e (nodal displacement vector)

q e = [u1 u2 ]T (3-33)

(3)

1D

du ( x) 1 1 u1
( x) = = [ e ] = B( x ) q e (3-34)
dx l l e u2

d 1 1
B( x) = N ( x) = [ e ] (3-35)
dx l le
(strain-displacement matrix)

(4)

1D

( x ) = E e ( x ) = E e B ( x ) q e = S ( x ) q e (3-36)

Ee Ee
S( x ) = E e B( x ) = [ ] (3-37)
le le
(stress-displacement matrix)

(5)

(3-34)(3-36)
1
e = U e W e =
2 e
( x) ( x) d ( P1e u1 + P2e u2 )
1 le eT T
2 0
= q S ( x) B( x) q e Ae dx ( P1e u1 + P2e u2 )

E e Ae E e Ae
e e
1 l u1 e u
= [u1 u2 ] le e P1 P2e 1
2 E A E e Ae u2 u2
l e l e

= 1 q eT K e q e Pe q e
T
(3-38)
2

30

K (stiffness matrix of element)


e

Ee Ae 1 1
Ke = (3-39)
l e 1 1

P e (nodal force vector)

Pe
P e = 1e (3-40)
P2
(6)
(3-38)(stiffness equation of element)
K e qe = Pe (3-41)
(22) (21) (21)

3.2.2(2)

3-5 A1 A2 l
E

(a) (b)
3-5

3-5(b)

x x
A ( x ) = 1 A1 + A2 (3-42)
l l

q e = [u1 u2 ] P e = [ P1 P2 ]
T T

u ( x ) = a0 + a1 x = N ( x ) q e (3-43)

31

x x
N ( x ) = 1 (3-44)
l l

1 1
B ( x ) = (3-45)
l l

K e qe = P
e
(3-46)
( 22 ) ( 21) ( 21)

K e = BT E B d
( 22 )

1
l 1 1
A ( x ) dx
l
= E
0
1 l l
l
l E 1 1 x x
= 2 1 A1 + A2 dx
0 l
1 1 l l
E ( A1 + A2 ) 1 1
= 1 1
2l
(3-47)

3.2.3
1.

(global coordinate system)


3-6 (local coordinate system)
(
) 3-6 ( x o y )( ox )

32

3-6

q e = [u1 u2 ]
T
(3-48)

T
_ _ _ _
q = u1 v1 u 2
e
v2 (3-49)


3-6 1 u 1 v1


u1 2 u 2 v 2 u2

u1u1 cos + v1 sin


(3-50)
u2u 2 cos + v 2 sin

u1

u cos sin 0 0 v1
qe = 1 = Te q e (3-51)
u2 0 0 cos sin u 2

v2

T (transformation matrix)
e

cos sin 0 0
Te (3-52)
0 0 cos sin
()
(3-51)

33

1
e = q e T K e q e p eT q e
2
1
= q e T (Te T K e Te )q e (Te T P e )T q e
2
= 1q K q P q
eT e e eT e
(3-53)
2

K P
e e

K = Te T K e Te
e
(3-54)

P = Te T P e
e
(3-55)

()(3-53) q
e

K q = P
e e e
(3-56)
(4 4) (4 2) (42)

3-6 (3-54)
cos 2 cos sin cos 2 cos sin

E e Ae cos sin sin 2 cos sin sin 2
K = e
e
(3-57)
(44) l cos2 cos sin cos 2 cos sin

cos sin sin 2 cos sin sin 2

2.

3-7

3-7

( Ox )

34

q e = [u1 u2 ]
T
(3-58)

(
Ox y z )
T
q e = u1 v1 w1 u 2 v2 w2 (3-59)

x 2 x1 y y1 z 2 z1
cos(x, x) = cos( x, y ) = 2 cos( x, z ) = (3-60)
l l l

( x1 , y1 , z1 ) ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ) 1 2 l

q e q e

u1

v1
u cos( x, x) cos( x, y ) cos( x, z ) 0 0 0 w1
qe = 1 =
u2 0 0 0 cos( x, x) cos( x, y ) cos( x, z ) u2

v2

w2
= Te q
e
(3-61)

T
e

cos( x, x) cos( x, y ) cos( x, z ) 0 0 0


Te = (3-62)
0 0 0 cos( x, x) cos( x, y ) cos( x, z )

eT
K = T
e e e
K T (3-63)
(66) (6 2) (2 2) (26)

e eT
P = T
e
P (3-64)
(61) (62) (21)

3.2.4 MATLAB

MATLAB [16]
MATLAB
MATLAB A

35

MATLAB 3.2.4(1) 1D (Bar1D2Node)



MATLAB
Bar1D2Node _Stiffness(E,A,L)
E A L k(2X2)

Bar1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
k ij KK

Bar1D2Node _Stress(k,u,A)
k u(21) A
stress

Bar1D2Node_Force(k,u)
k u(21) 21
forces

3.2.2 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%% Bar1D2Node %% begin %%%%%%%%%
function k=Bar1D2Node_Stiffness(E,A,L)
%
% E A L
% k(2X2)
%---------------------------------------
k=[E*A/L -E*A/L; -E*A/L E*A/L];
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z=Bar1D2Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
%
% k ij
% KK
%-----------------------------------
DOF(1)=i;
DOF(2)=j;
for n1=1:2
for n2=1:2
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%------------------------------------------------------------
function stress=Bar1D2Node_Stress(k,u,A)
%
% k, u(21)
% A
% stress
%-----------------------------------
stress=k*u/A;

36

%-----------------------------------------------------------
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function forces=Bar1D2Node_Force(k,u)
%
% k u(21)
% 21 forces
%-----------------------------------------
forces=k*u;
%%%%%%%%%%% Bar1D2Node %% end %%%%%%%%%

MATLAB 3.2.4(2) 2D (Bar2D2Node)


3-5
MATLAB
Bar2D2Node_Stiffness(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha)
E Ax1,y1
x2,y2 alpha k(4X4)

Bar2D2Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
k ij KK

Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
Ex1,y1x2,y2 alpha
u

Bar2D2Node_Forces(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
E Ax1,y1x2,y2

alpha u

3.2.3 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%% Bar2D2Node %% begin %%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function k=Bar2D2Node_Stiffness(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha)
%
% E A
%x1,y1x2,y2 alpha
% k(4X4)
%-------------------------------------------------
L=sqrt((x2-x1)*(x2-x1)+(y2-y1)*(y2-y1));
x=alpha*pi/180;
C=cos(x);
S=sin(x);
k=E*A/L*[C*C C*S -C*C -C*S; C*S S*S -C*S -S*S;
-C*C -C*S C*C C*S; -C*S -S*S C*S S*S];
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Bar2D2Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
%
% k ij
% KK
%--------------------------------------------------------
DOF(1)=2*i-1;

37

DOF(2)=2*i;
DOF(3)=2*j-1;
DOF(4)=2*j;
for n1=1:4
for n2=1:4
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%--
function stress= Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
%
% Ex1,y1x2,y2
% alpha u
% stress
%------------------------------------------------
L=sqrt((x2-x1)*(x2-x1)+(y2-y1)*(y2-y1));
x=alpha*pi/180;
C=cos(x);
S=sin(x);
stress=E/L*[-C -S C S]*u;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function forces= Bar2D2Node_Forces(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
%
% E A
%x1,y1x2,y2 alpha
% u
% forces
%-------------------------------------------------------------
L=sqrt((x2-x1)*(x2-x1)+(y2-y1)*(y2-y1));
x=alpha*pi/180;
C=cos(x);
S=sin(x);
forces= E*A/L*[-C -S C S]*u;
%%%%%%%%%%% Bar2D2Node %% end %%%%%%%%%%%%%%

3.2.5
3.2.5(1)

3-8 E = 29.5 10 4 N/mm 2 ,

A = 100mm 2

38

3-8

3-8
3-1 3-3

3-1
x y
1 0 0
2 400 0
3 400 300
4 0 300

3-2
2
1 2
3 2
1 3
4 3

3-3

l nx ny

400 1 0
300 0 -1
500 0.8 0.6
400 1 0

39

2

u1 v1 u2 v2

1 0 1 0 u1
0 v1
29.5 104 100 0 0 0
K (1) = (3-65)
400 1 0 1 0 u2

0 0 0 0 v2

u3 v3 u2 v2

0 0 0 0 u3
0 1 v3
29.5 104 100 0 1
K (2) = (3-66)
300 0 0 0 0 u2

0 1 0 1 v2

u1 v1 u3 v3

0.64 0.48 0.64 0.48 u1

29.5 104 100 0.48 0.36 0.48 0.36 v1
K (3) = (3-67)
500 0.64 0.48 0.64 0.48 u3

0.48 0.36 0.48 0.36 v3

u4 v4 u3 v3

1 0 1 0 u4
0 0 0 v4
29.5 104 100 0
K (4) = (3-68)
400 1 0 1 0 u3

0 0 0 0 v3

K = K + K (2) + K (3) + K ( 4)
(1)

q = [u1 v4 ]
T
v1 u 2 v2 u3 v3 u4

P = R + F = R x1 [ R y1 2 10 4 Ry2 0 2.5 10 4 Rx 4 Ry4 ]


T

40

( Rx1 , R y1 ) 1 x y Ry 2 2 y ( Rx 4 , R y 4 )

4 x y

u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4


22.68 5.76 15.0 0 7.68 5.76 0 u1 Rx1 Rx1
0
5.76 4.32 R R
0 0 5.76 4.32 0
0 v1 y1 y1
15.0 0 u2 Fx 2 2 10
4
0 15.0 0 0 0 0

29.5 10 100 0
4
0 0 20.0 0 20.0 0 0 v2 Ry 2 Ryz
= =
6000 7.68 5.76 0 0
22.68 5.76 15.0 0 u3 Fx3 0
4
5.76 4.32 0 20.0 5.76 24.32 0 0 v3 Fy 3 2.5 10
0 0 0 0 15.0 0 15.0 0 u4 Rx 4 Rx 4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v4 Ry 4 Ry 4

(3-69)

(4)

BC(u) u1 = v1 = v 2 = u 4 = v 4 = 0 (3-69)

15 0 0 u2 2 104
29.5 10 100
4
u =
0 22.68 5.76 3 0 (3-70)
6000
0 5.76 24.32 v3 2.5 104

u2 0.2712
u = 0.0565 mm (3-71)
3
v3 0.2225

q = [ 0 0 0.2712 0 0.0565 0.2225 0 0] mm


T
(3-72)

(5)

E
(1) = E B T q = [ 1 1] T q
l
0
0
29.5 10 4
= [ 1 0 1 0 ] = 200 N/mm 2
400 0.2712

0

41

T

(2) = 218.8N/mm 2 (3) = 52.08N/mm 2 (4) = 41.67N/mm 2 (3-73)

(6)

(3-72)(3-69)
0
0
R x1 22.68 5.76 15.0 0 7.68 5.76 0 0
R 0.2712
y1 29.5 10 4 100 5.76 4.32 0 0 5.76 4.32 0 0

0
Ry2 = 0 0 0 20.0 0 20.0 0 0
6000 0.0565
Rx 4 0 0 0 0 15.0 0 15.0 0
0.2225
Ry4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
0

0
15833.0
3126.0

= 21879.0 N

4167.0
0
(3-74)

MATLAB 3.2.5(2) (Bar2D2Node)

3.2.5(1) 3-8 MATLAB

1
3-8
3-1 3-3
2()
MATLAB
Bar2D2Node_StiffnessBar2D2Node_Assembly
Bar2D2Node_StressBar2D2Node_Forces MATLAB
MATLAB E A x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3,x4,y4,
alpha 1, alpha 2 alpha 3, 123 4 Bar2D2Node_Stiffness

>>E=2.95e11;
>>A=0.0001;
>>x1=0;
>>y1=0;
>>x2=0.4;
>>y2=0;
>>x3=0.4;
>>y3=0.3;

42

>>x4=0;
>>y4=0.3;
>> alpha1=0;
>> alpha2=90;
>> alpha3=atan(0.75)*180/pi;
>> k1=Bar2D2Node_Stiffness (E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha1)
k1 = 73750000 0 -73750000 0
0 0 0 0
-73750000 0 73750000 0
0 0 0 0
>> k2=Bar2D2Node_Stiffness (E,A,x2,y2,x3,y3,alpha2)
k2 = 1.0e+007 *
0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000
0.0000 9.8333 -0.0000 -9.8333
-0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
-0.0000 -9.8333 0.0000 9.8333
>> k3=Bar2D2Node_Stiffness (E,A,x1,y1,x3,y3,alpha3)
k3 = 1.0e+007 *
3.7760 2.8320 -3.7760 -2.8320
2.8320 2.1240 -2.8320 -2.1240
-3.7760 -2.8320 3.7760 2.8320
-2.8320 -2.1240 2.8320 2.1240
>> k4=Bar2D2Node_Stiffness (E,A,x4,y4,x3,y3,alpha1)
k4 = 73750000 0 -73750000 0
0 0 0 0
-73750000 0 73750000 0
0 0 0 0

3
4 KK(88) KK
Bar2D2Node _Assembly
>>KK=zeros(8,8);
>>KK=Bar2D2Node_Assembly (KK,k1,1,2);
>>KK=Bar2D2Node_Assembly (KK,k2,2,3);
>>KK=Bar2D2Node_Assembly (KK,k3,1,3);
>>KK=Bar2D2Node_Assembly (KK,k4,4,3)
KK= 1.0e+008 *
1.1151 0.2832 -0.7375 0 -0.3776 -0.2832 0 0
0.2832 0.2124 0 0 -0.2832 -0.2124 0 0
-0.7375 0 0.7375 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 0 0
0 0 0.0000 0.9833 -0.0000 -0.9833 0 0
-0.3776 -0.2832 -0.0000 -0.0000 1.1151 0.2832 -0.7375 0
-0.2832 -0.2124 -0.0000 -0.9833 0.2832 1.1957 0 0
0 0 0 0 -0.7375 0 0.7375 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3-8 1 u1 = 0 , v1 = 0 2 v2 = 0

4 u4 = 0 v4 = 0 F3 10NMATLAB

43

\

q = [u1 v4 ]
T
v1 u 2 v2 u3 v3 u4

P = R + F = R x1 [ R y1 2 10 4 Ry2 0 2.5 10 4 Rx 4 Ry4 ]


T

( Rx1 , R y1 ) 1 x y Ry 2 2 y ( Rx 4 , R y 4 )

4 x y
>>k=KK([3,5,6],[3,5,6])
k =1.0e+008 *
0.7375 -0.0000 -0.0000
-0.0000 1.1151 0.2832
-0.0000 0.2832 1.1957

>> p=[20000;0;-25000];
>>u=k\p
u = 1.0e-003 *
0.2712 0.0565 -0.2225 []

u2 = 0.2712mm, u3 = 0.0565mm, v3 = 0.2225mm

q = [ 0 0 0.2712 0 0.0565 0.2225 0 0] mm


T
(3-75)

(3-72)

5

q P

>> q=[0 0 0.0002712 0 0.0000565 -0.0002225 0 0]'


q = 1.0e-003 *
0 0 0.2712 0 0.0565 -0.2225 0 0 []
>>P=KK*q
P = 1.0e+004 *
-1.5833 0.3126 2.0001 2.1879 -0.0001 -2.5005 -0.4167 0 []

(3-76)

44

6
q
Bar2D2Node_Stress
Bar2D2Node_Forces(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)

>>u1=[q(1);q(2);q(3);q(4)]
u1 = 1.0e-003 *
0 0 0.2712 0 []
>> stress1=Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha1,u1)
stress1 =2.0001e+008

>>u2=[q(3);q(4);q(5);q(6)]
u2 = 1.0e-003 *
0.2712 0 0.0565 -0.2225 []

>> stress2=Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x2,y2,x3,y3,alpha2,u2)
stress2 = -2.1879e+008

>>u3=[q(1);q(2);q(5);q(6)]
u3 = 1.0e-003 *
0 0 0.0565 -0.2225 []
>> stress3=Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x1,y1,x3,y3,alpha3,u3)
stress3 = -52097000

>>u4=[q(7);q(8);q(5);q(6)]
u4 = 1.0e-003 *
0 0 0.0565 -0.2225 []
>> stress4=Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x4,y4,x3,y3,alpha1,u4)
stress4 = 41668750

1 = 2.0001 108 Pa 2

= 2.1879 108 Pa 3 = 5.2097 107 Pa 4

= 4.167 107 Pa (3-73)

ANSYS
ANSYS
MATLAB ANSYS
[20] ANSYS B

ANSYS 3.2.5(3)

3.2.5(1) ANSYS

ANSYS (GUI, graphic user interface)

45

1 (GUI)(step by step)
(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): planetrussRun OK
(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add Link2D spar 1
OK ( Element Types ) Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear Elastic
Isotropic: EX:2.95e11 ()PRXY: 0 () OK U

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 OKReal
Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), AREA: 1e-4 () OKClose
(6)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling CreatNodes In Active CSNode number 1
X:0,Y:0,Z:0 ApplyNode number 2 X:0.4,Y:0,Z:0 ApplyNode number 3 X:0.4,Y:0.3,Z:0
ApplyNode number 4 X:0,Y:0.3,Z:0OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create ElementsElem Attributes
User numberedThru nodes OK node 1 node2 Apply node 2 node3 Apply
node 1 node3 Apply node 4 node3 ApplyOK
(7)
1 X Y 2 Y 4 X Y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
1 Apply Lab2 DOFs: UXUY VALUE0 Apply 2 Apply
Lab2 DOFs: UY VALUE0 Apply 4 Apply Lab2 DOFs: UX,UY VALUE0
OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/moment On Nodes
2 Apply FX VALUE: 20000 Apply 3 Apply
FYVALUE: 25000 OK
(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Should The Solve Command be Executed?
Y Close (Solution is done! )
(10)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape Def + Undeformed
OK ( Plot Results) Contour Plot Nodal Solu DOF solutionDisplacement vector sum (
)

46

ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Nodal solution DOF solutionDisplacement
vector sum ()
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Reaction SoluALL items OK (
)
(11)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

2
!
B
!%%%%%%%% []3.2.5(1) %%%% begin %%%%%%
/ PREP7 !
/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
!=====
ET,1,LINK1 !
UIMP,1,EX, , ,2.95e11, !
R,1,1e-4, !()
N,1,0,0,0, ! 1 ,(0,0,0)
N,2,0.4,0,0, ! 2 ,(0.4,0,0)
N,3,0.4,0.3,0, ! 3 ,(0.4,0.3,0)
N,4,0,0.3,0, ! 4 ,(0,0.3,0)
E,1,2 ! 1 ( 1 2 )
E,2,3 ! 2 ( 2 3 )
E,1,3 ! 3 ( 1 3 )
E,4,3 ! 4 ( 4 3 )
FINISH !
!=====
/SOLU !()
D,1,ALL ! 1
D,2,UY ! 2 y
D,4,ALL ! 4
F,2,FX,20000, ! 2 x (20000)
F,3,FY,-25000, ! 3 y (-25000)
SOLVE !
FINISH !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !
FINISH !
!%%%%%%%% []3.2.5(1) %%%% end %%%%%%

3.3

47

3.3.1
3-9
xoy
dxdy
4.2 2D

(characterized modeling)
3-9 1
long beam x 2 x (deflection)
(1)
(2)

3.3.1(1)
v ( x , y = 0)
( x ) M
( x )

dx ( 3-10)

3-9 3-10 dx

3.3.1(2)

1

3-10 x X = 0

M = x y dA (3-77)
A

y (neutral layer) y M

y Y = 0 dQ + p ( x) dx = 0

dQ
+p = 0 (3-78)
dx

48

Q M = 0 dM Qdx = 0
0

dM
Q= (3-79)
dx
2
dx 3-11

3-11

(pure bending deformation) 3-11

y ()

( R y ) d R d
x ( y ) =
R d (3-80)
y
=
R
R (curvature) R
d d 1
= = = (3-81)
ds R d R
v ( x , y = 0) k

v '' ( x)
= v ''( x ) (3-82)
(1 + v ' ( x) 2 )3/ 2
3-11

d 2v
= (3-83)
dx 2
(3-81)(3-83)(3-80)

x ( x, y )
d 2v (3-84)
= y
dx 2
3

49

x = E x (3-85)

d 4v
EI + p( x) = 0 (y ) (3-86)
dx 4

M ( x ) = x y dA
A

= y 2 Ev ''dA (x ) (3-87)
A

d 2v
= EI
dx 2

d 2v
x ( x) = E y () (3-88)
dx 2

d 2v
x ( x) = y () (3-89)
dx 2

(3-87) I = A
y 2 d A (moment of inertia)

v ( x , y = 0)

3-11 p ( x ) (

(3-86))

BC(u) v x = 0 = 0 v x =l = 0 (3-90)

()

BC(p) M x =0
= 0M x =l
=0 (3-91)

(3-87)

BC(p) v |x =0 = 0 v |x =l = 0 (3-92)

3.3.1(3)

dxdy


3-9

50

d 4v
EI + p0 = 0 (3-93)
dx 4

BC(u) v x =0 = v x =l = 0 (3-94)

BC(p) v x =0 = v x =l = 0 (3-95)

1 p0 4
v( x) = ( x + c3 x3 + c2 x 2 + c1 x + c0 ) (3-96)
EI 24
c 0 c3

p0
v( x) = ( x 4 2lx3 + l 3 x) (3-97)
24 EI
p0l 4
v( x = 12 l ) = 0.013020833 (3-98)
EI

1
2
U= x x d

1 d 2v d 2v
= ( E y 2 )( y 2 )dAdx (3-99)
2 dx dx
2
1 d 2v
= EI z 2 dx
2 l dx

W = p ( x) v( x)dx (3-100)
l

1 d 2v 2
2 l
= U W = EI ( ) dx p ( x) v( x)dx (3-101)
dx 2
z l

3.3.1(4)

3-9 BC(u) v( x )

x
v( x) = c1 sin (3-102)
l

51

c1

x
v( x) = c1 sin (3-103)
l
c1 (3-102) BC(u) BC(u)
(admissible displacement)

U = x x d

l
= E x x dA dx (3-104)
0 A

A (3-84)

d 2 v
x = y (3-105)
dx 2
(3-104)

d 2 v d 2 v
( )
l
U = E A
y 2
d A 2 2 dx (3-106)
dx dx
0

(3-102)(3-103)
2 2
l x x
U = EI c1 sin sin c1 dx
0
l l l l
(3-107)
4
EIl
= c1 c1
2 l

I = A
y 2 dA


l
W = p0 vdx
0
l x
= p0 c1 sin dx
0 l
2lp0
= c1 (3-108)

(3-12) U = W
4
2lp0 EIl
c1 = c1 c1 (3-109)
2 l

c 1

52

4l 4
c1 = p0 (3-110)
EI 5
(3-102)

 4l 4 x
v ( x) = p0 sin (3-111)
EI 5
l

3.3.1(5)
3-9

BC(u) v( x )

x 3 x
v( x) = c1 sin + c2 sin (3-112)
l l
c1 c2 U

1
2
U= x x d
2
1 l d 2 v
= EI 2 dx
2 0 dx

1 l 2 3 x
4 4 2 2
2x 2 3 2 3 x 3 x
= EI c1 sin + c2 sin + 2c1c2 sin sin dx
2 0 l l l l l l l l

EI 2 4 l 4
2 3 l

= c1 + c2 (3-113)
2 l 2 l 2
W
l x 3 x
W = p0 c1 sin + c2 sin dx
0
l l
(3-114)
2l 2l
= p0 c1 + c2
3
= U W

EI l
4
2l
= 1 p0 = 0
2 c
c1 2 l 2
(3-115)
EI 3 l
4
2l
= 2 p0
2c =0
c2 2 l 2 3

53

c1 c2 v ( x )

4 p0l 4 x 4 p0l 4 3 x
v( x) = sin + sin (3-116)
EI
5
l 243 EI
5
l
(3-97)

(3-112)
-
3.3.1(4)3.3.1(5)(
) BC(u)

3.3.2
3.3.2(1)
3-12 (beam element) l E
Iz

3-12

(1)

q
e
Node 1 Node 2

q e = [ v1 1 v2 2 ]
T
(3-117)

4 (DOF) P
e

P e = [ Pv1 M2]
T
M1 Pv 2 (3-118)

v1 , 1 , v2 , 2 (deflection)(slope)

(3-118)

54

q
e

(2)

v( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x3 (3-119)

a0a1a2a3

v( x = 0) = v1 , v ' ( x = 0) = 1
(3-120)
v( x = l ) = v2 , v ( x = l ) = 2
'

(3-119) 4
a0 = v1
a1 = 1


a2 = 12 (3v1 21l + 3v2 2l ) (3-121)
l

a3 = 13 (2v1 + 1l 2v2 + 2l )
l
(3-121)(3-119)

v( x) = (1 3 2 + 2 3 )v1 + l ( 2 2 + 3 )1 + (3 2 2 3 )v2 + l ( 3 2 ) 2
(3-122)
= N( ) q e
x
= N ( )
l
N( ) = (1 3 2 + 2 3 ) l ( 2 2 + 3 ) (3 2 2 3 ) l ( 3 2 ) (3-123)

(3)

d 2 v( x)
( x, y^ ) = y^
dx 2
1 1 1 1
= y^ 2 (12 6) (6 4) 2 (12 6) (6 2) q e (3-124)
l l l l
= B( ) q e

y^ y B ( )

55

B( ) = y^ [ B1 B2 B3 B4 ] (3-125)

1 1 1
B1 = 12 (12 6) , B2 = (6 4) , B3 = 2 (12 6) , B4 = (6 2)
l l l l
(4)

( x, y^ ) = E ( x, y^ ) = E B( x, y^ ) q e = S( x, y^ ) q e (3-126)

E S ( x )

(5)
e

e = U e W e (3-127)

1 l
2 0 A
Ue = ( xy)
^
( x, y)
^
dA dx

1 l
= q e T [ BT E B dA dx]q e (3-128)
2 0 A

1
= qeT K e qe
2

K
e

B1
B
K e = ( y^ ) 2 E [ B1 B4 ] ( y^ ) dA dx
l
B2 B3
0 A B3

B4
B12 B1 B2 B1 B3 B1 B4

l BB B22 B2 B3 B2 B4
= ( y ) dA E 1 2
^ 2
dx
A 0 B B B2 B3 B32 B3 B4
1 3

B1 B4 B2 B4 B3 B4 B42

56

12 6l 12 6l
6l 4l 2 6l 2l 2
EI
= 3z (3-129)
l 12 6l 12 6l

6l 2l
2
6l 4l 2
Iz (3-127)
W e = Pv1 v1 + M 11 + Pv 2 v2 + M 2 2 = P e T q e (3-130)

T
P e = [ Pv1 M1 Pv 2 M2] (3-131)

(6)

(3-127) q
e e

K e qe = Pe (3-132)
4441 41

K P (3-129)(3-130)
e e

3.3.2(2)
3-13
()(DOF) 6 3-13

3-13

3-13 q P
e e

q e = [u1 v1 1 u1 v2 2 ]
T
(3-133)
61

P e = [ Pu1 M2 ]
T
Pv1 M1 Pu 2 Pv 2 (3-134)
61

K e qe = Pe (3-135)
6661 61

3-13 (3-133)
(3-135)

57

EA EA
l 0 0 0 0
l

0 12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI
0
l3 l2 l3 l2

0 6 EI 4 EI 6 EI 2 EI
0 2 (3-136)
l2 l l l
K =
e
66 EA EA
0 0 0 0
l l
12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI
0 0
l3 l2 l3 l2
6 EI 2 EI 6 EI 4 EI
0 0 2
l2 l l l

3.3.2(3)
3-14a

(a) (b)
3-14

3-15 ()

3-14(a)

3-14(b) q e = [ v1 1 v2 2 ]
T

P e = [ Pv1 M 2 ] v ( x ) v ( x ) = N ( x ) q e
T
M1 Pv 2

58

N ( x ) = (1 3 2 + 2 3 ) l ( 2 2 + 3 ) ( 3 2
2 3 ) l ( 3 2 )
(3-137)

x
= W
l
W = p ( x ) v ( x ) dx
l

= ( p0 ) N ( x ) dx q e
l
(3-138)
0
= P eT q e

(3-137) P
e

P eT = ( p0 ) N ( x ) dx
l

= p0 (1 3 2 + 2 3 ) l ( 2 2 + 3 ) ( 3 2 3 ) l ( 3 2 ) dx
l
2
0

= p0 l 2 p0 l 2 12 p0 l 2 p0 l 2 12
(3-139)

1
3-15

p0l p l2 p l2 p l2
Pv1 = M 1 = 0 Pv 2 = 0 M 2 = 0 (3-140)
2 8 2 8
(3-139) M1 M2
23-138
3-14a
3-139

3.3.2(4) -

A = 6650mm 2 h = 317mm
I = 118.6 106 mm4 3-16 E = 200 GPa
p0 = 25 000 N m 3 2 3 1
2

59

(a) (b)

3-16

q = [ v1 1 v2 2 v3 3 ]T (3-141)

P = F + R = [ Fv1 +Rv1 F 1 +R 1 Fv 2 +Rv 2 F 2 Fv 3 F 3 ]T (3-142)

F (3-148) R
(3-129)1

v1 1 v2 2
12 6 (5) 12 6 ( 5)
2
200 109 1.186 104 6 ( 5 ) 4 ( 5 ) 6 ( 5 ) 2 ( 5 )
2
(3-143)
k( )
1
=
53 12 6 ( 5 ) 12 6 ( 5 )

6 ( 5 ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 6 ( 5 ) 4 ( 5 ) 2

2

v2 2 v3 3
12 6 ( 2.5 ) 12 6 ( 2.5 )
2
200 109 1.186 104 6 ( 2.5 ) 4 ( 2.5 ) 6 ( 2.5 ) 2 ( 2.5 )
2
(3-144)
k ( 2) =
( 2.5)
3
12 6 ( 2.5 ) 12 6 ( 2.5 )

6 ( 2.5 ) 2 ( 2.5 )2 6 ( 2.5 ) 4 ( 2.5 )2

( 2)
K = k + k ( 2)

v1 1 v2 2 v3 3
2 277 120 5 692 800 2 277 120 5 692 800 0 0
5 692 800 18 976 000 5 692 800 9 488 000 0 0

2 277 120 5 692 800 20 494 080 17 078 400 18 216 960 22 771 200
K=
5 692 800 9 488 000 17 078 400 56 928 000 22 771 200 18 216 960
0 0 18 216 960 22 771 200 18 216 960 22 771 200

0 0 22 771 200 18 976 000 22 771 200 37 952 000
(3-145)
3.3.2(3)12

60

wL 25 10 5
3

2
2

wL 25 10 5 62 500
2 3 2

12 12 52 083
F (1) = = = (3-146)
wL 25 10 3
5 62 500
2
2 52 083
2
wL 25 10 5
3 2

12 12

wL 25 10 2.5
3

2
2

wL 25 10 2.5 31 250
2 3 2

12 12 13 021
F ( 2) = = = (3-147)
wL 25 10 3
2.5 31 250
2

2
13 021
2
wL 25 10 2.5
3 2

12 12

62 500 62 500
52 083 52 083

62 200 31 250 93 750
F = F (1) + F (2) = = (3-148)
52 083 13 021 39 062
31 250 31 250

13 021 13 021

Kq = P = F + R (3-149)

1 v1 = 1 = 0 2 v2 = 0

56 958 000 22 771 200 18 976 000 2 39 062


22 771 200 18 216 960 22 771 200 v = 31 250 (3-150)
3
18 976 000 22 771 200 37 952 000 3 13 021

q = [ v1 1 v2 2 v3 3 ]T
(3-151)
= 0 0 0 0.001 3723 ( rad ) 0.008 577 2 ( m ) 0.004 117 ( rad )
T

R = Kq F (3-152)

61

R (3-152)

R = [ Rv1 R 1 Rv 2 0 0 0]T
(3-153)
= [54687.8(N) 39062.6(Nm) 132814.8(N) 0 0 0]T

3.3.3
3-17 l
E A Iz

3-17

( Oxy )

q e = [u1 v1 1 u 2 v2 2 ]
T
(3-154)
61

( Oxy )

[
q e = u 1 v1 1 u 2
61
v2 2 ]
T
(3-155)

1 2

u1 = u1 cos + v 1 sin

v1 = u1 sin + v 1 cos
(3-156)
u2 = u 2 cos + v 2 sin

v2 = u 2 sin + v 2 cos

q e = Te q e (3-157)
61 66 (61)

62

T
e

cos sin 0 0 0 0
sin cos 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0
T
e
(3-158)
66
0 0 0 cos sin 0
0 0 0 sin cos 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

K q = P
e e e
(3-159)
6661 61

K = TeT K e Te
e
(3-160)
66 666666

e
P = TeT P e (3-161)
61 6661

3.3.4
1.


. 3-18 l E

I z ( z ) I y ( y ) J

3-18 6 12

q P
e e

3-18

T
q e = u1 v1 w1 x1 y1 z1 u2 v2 w2 x 2 y 2 z 2 (3-162)
121

63

T
P e = Pu1 Pv1 Pw1 M x1 M y1 M z1 Pu 2 Pv 2 Pw 2 M x2 M y2 M z 2 (3-163)
121

3-18

(1) 3-18 u1u2

(3-160)

EA 1 1
K ue1u2 = (3-164)
2 2 l 1 1

(2) 3-18 x1 x 2


()(3-164)

GJ 1 1
Ke x1 x 2 = 1 1 (3-165)
2 2 l
J G

(3) 3-18 Oxy v1 z1 v2 z 2

Oxy
12 6l 12 6l
6l 4l 2 6l 2l 2
= 3Z
EI
K e( Oxy ) (3-166)
4 4
l 12 6l 12 6l

6l 2l
2
6l 4l 2

I z z

(4) 3-18 Oxz w1 y1 w2 y 2

Oxz (3-166)

(6)

(3-162)

64

u1 v1 w1 x1 y1 z1 u2 v2 w2 x2 y2 z 2
EA EA
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l l
12EI z 6EI z 12EIz 6EI z
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l3 l2 l3 l2

12EI y 6EI y 12EI y 6EI y
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l3 l2 l3 l2

GJ GJ
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l l

0 6EI y 4EI y 6EI y 2EI y
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l2 l l2 l

0 6EI z 4EI z 6EI z 2EI z
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l2 l l2 l
K =e

1212
EA 0 0 0 0 0
EA
0 0 0 0 0
l l

0 12EI z 6EI z 12EI z 6EI z
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l3 l2 l3 l2
12EI y 6EI y 12EI y 6EI y
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l3 l2 l3 l2

0 GJ GJ
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l l
6EI y 2EI y 6EI y 4EI y
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l 2
l l 2
l
6EI z 2EI z 6EI z 4EI z
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
l2 l l2 l

(3-167)

2.


q e = u1 v1
121
[ w1 x1 y1 z1 u 2 v2 w2 x 2 y 2 z 2 ] T
(3-168)


q e = u1
121
[ v1 w1 x1 y1 z1 u2 v2 w2 x2 y 2 z 2 ] T
(3-169)

(3-168) 1

u1 u1 cos( x, x ) + v1 cos( x, y ) + w1 cos( x, z ) u1


v = u cos( y, x) + v cos( y, y ) + w cos( y, z ) = v (3-170)
1 1 1 1 33 1
w1 u1 cos( z , x) + v1 cos( z , y ) + w1 cos( z , z )
w1

x1 x1 cos( x, x) + y1 cos( x, y ) + z1 cos( x, z ) x1


= cos( y, x) + cos( y, y ) + cos( y, z ) =

(3-171)
y1 x1 y1 z1 33 y1

z1 x1 cos( z , x) + y1 cos( z , y ) + z1 cos( z , z ) z1

65

2

u2 u 2
v = v2
2 33 (3-172)
w2 w 2

x 2 x 2
= y 2 (3-173)
y 2 33
z 2 z 2


cos( x, x) cos( x, y ) cos( x, z )

cos( y, x) cos( y , y ) cos( y, z ) (3-174)
3 3
cos( z , x) cos( z , y ) cos( z , z )

cos( x, x ) , , cos( z , z ) xyz x, y, z ( )

(3-170)(3-173)
e
q e = Te q (3-175)
121 1212121

T
e

(33) 0 0 0
(33) (33) (33)

0 0 0
T =
(33) (33) (33) (33)
e
(3-176)
(1212) 0 0 0
(33) (33) (33) (33)

0 0 0
(33) (33) (33) (33)

3.3.5

3-4
( 3-4
)

3-4

66

W e = z p ( x ) v ( x ) dx
= l p ( x ) N ( x ) dx
= [ RA MA RB M B ] qe

RA = P / 2
RB = P / 2
M A = PL / 8
M B = PL / 8

RA = ( Pb 2 / L3 ) ( 3a + b )
RB = ( Pa 2 / L3 ) ( a + 3b )
M A = Pab 2 / L2
M B = Pa 2 b / L2

RA = p0 L / 2
RB = p0 L / 2
M A = p0 L2 /12
M B = p0 L2 /12
RA = 3 p0 L / 20
RB = 7 p0 L / 20
M A = p0 L2 / 30
M B = p0 L2 / 20

RA = ( p0 a / 2 L3 ) ( a 3 2a 2 L + 2 L3 )
RB = ( p0 a 3 / 2 L3 ) ( 2 L a )
M A = ( p0 a 2 /12 L2 ) ( 3a 2 8aL + 6 L2 )
M B = ( p0 a 3 /12 L2 ) ( 4 L 3a )

RA = p0 L / 4
RB = p0 L / 4
M A = 5 p0 L2 / 96
M B = 5 p0 L2 / 96

67

RA = 6 M 0 ab / L3
RB = 6M 0 ab / L3
M A = ( M 0b / L2 ) ( 3a L )
( )
M B = M 0 a / L2 (3b L )

3.3.6 MATLAB
MATLAB 3.3.6(1) 1D (Beam1D2Node)
3-12
2 MATLAB
Beam1D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,L)
E I L
k(44)

Beam1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
k ijm KK

Beam1D2Node_ Strain(x,L,y)
x y
L B(14

Beam1D2Node _Stress(E,B,u)
E B u stress

Beam1D2Node_Deflection(x,L,u)
x L
u v

3.3.2 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%% Beam1D2Node %%% begin %%%%%%%%%%%%
function k =Beam1D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,L)
%
% E I L
% k(44)
%-----------------------------------------
k = E*I/(L*L*L)*[12 6*L -12 6*L ; 6*L 4*L*L -6*L 2*L*L ;
-12 -6*L 12 -6*L ; 6*L 2*L*L -6*L 4*L*L];
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Beam1D2Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
%
% k ijm
% KK
%-----------------------------------------

68

DOF(1)=2*i-1;
DOF(2)=2*i;
DOF(3)=2*j-1;
DOF(4)=2*j;
for n1=1:4
for n2=1:4
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function B= Beam1D2Node_Strain(x,L,y)
%
% x
% y L
% B(14
%-----------------------------------------
e=x/L;
B1=(12*e-6)/(L*L);
B2=(6*e-4)/L;
B3=-(12*e-6)/(L*L);
B4=(6*e-2)/L;
B=-y*[B1,B2,B3,B4];
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function stress= Beam1D2Node_Stress(E,B,u)
%
% E B u
% stress
%-----------------------------------------
stress = E*B*u;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function v=Beam1D2Node _Deflection(x,L,u)
%
% x
% L u
% v
%-----------------------------------------
e=x/L;
N1=1-3*e*e+2*e*e*e;
N2=L(e-2*e*e+e*e*e);
N3=3*e*e-2*e*e*e;
N4=L(e*e*e-e*e);
N=[N1,N2,N3,N4];
v=N*u;
%%%%%%%%%% Beam1D2Node %%% end %%%%%%%%%%%%

MATLAB 3.3.6(2) 2D (Beam2D2Node)


3-13

2 MATLAB
Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L)

69

E A I L k(6
6)

Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k,i,j)
k ij KK

Beam2D2Node_Forces(k,u)
k u forces

3.3.3 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%% Beam2D2Node %% begin %%%%%%%%%%%%
function k =Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L)
%
% E A I L
% k(66)
%-----------------------------------------
k=[E*A/L,0,0,-E*A/L,0,0;0,12*E*I/(L^3),6*E*I/(L^2),0,-12*E*I/(L^3),6*E*I/(L^2);0,6*E*I/(L^2),4*E*I/L,0,-6*E*I/
(L^2),2*E*I/L;-E*A/L,0,0,E*A/L,0,0;0,-12*E*I/(L^3),-6*E*I/(L^2),0,12*E*I/(L^3),-6*E*I/(L^2);0,6*E*I/(L^2),2*
E*I/L,0,-6*E*I/(L^2),4*E*I/L]
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function y =Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k,i,j)
%
% k ij
% KK
%-----------------------------------------
DOF(1)=3*i-2;
DOF(2)=3*i-1;
DOF(3)=3*i;
DOF(4)=3*j-2;
DOF(5)=3*j-1;
DOF(6)=3*j;
for n1=1:6
for n2=1:6
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))=KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
y = KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function forces = Beam2D2Node_Forces(k,u)
% k u
% forces
%-----------------------------------------
forces = k * u;
%%%%%%%%%% Beam2D2Node %% end %%%%%%%%%%%%

3.3.7

70

3.3.7(1)
3-19

E = 3.0 1011 Pa I = 6.5 10 7 m 4 A = 6.8 10 4 m 2

3-19

(a) (b)
3-20

3-20(a)
3-5

3-5

1 2
3 1
4 2

71

q = [u1 v1 1 v2 2 v3 3 v4 4 ]
T
u2 u3 u4 (3-177)

4.1

[
F = Fx1 F y1 M1 0 Fy 2 M 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 ]
T
(3-178)

[
R = 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rx3 R y3 R 3 Rx 4 Ry4 R 4 ]
T
(3-179)

Rx 3 Ry 3 R 3 3 x y Rx 4 Ry 4

R 4 4 x y


P =F+R
T (3-180)
= 3000 3000 720 0 3000 720 Rx3 Ry3 R 3 Rx 4 Ry 4 R 4

(3-136)
u1 v1 1 u2 v2 2

141.7 0 0 141.7 0 0 u1
0 0.784 0.564 0 0.784 0.564 v1
(3-181)
0 0.564 0.542 0 0.564 0.271 1
K (1)
= 106
141.7 0 0 141.7 0 0 u2
0 0.784 0.564 0 0.784 0.564 v2

0 0.564 0.271 0 0.564 0.542 2

212.5 0 0 212.5 0 0
0 2.645 1.270 0 2.645 1.270

0 1.270 0.8125 0 1.270 0.4062 (3-182)
(2)
K = 106
212.5 0 0 212.5 0 0
0 2.645 1.270 0 2.645 1.270

0 1.270 0.4062 0 1.270 0.8125

cos( x, x ) = 0 cos( x, y ) = 1

72

0 1 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0 0
T= (3-183)
0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

2.645 0 1.27 2.645 0 1.27


0 212.5 0 0 212.5 0

0.4062
K (2) (2) T = 106 1.27
= TT K
0 0.8125 1.27 0

(3-184)
2.645 0 1.27 2.645 0 1.27
0 212.5 0 0 212.5 0

1.27 0 0.4062 1.27 0 0.8125

[u 3 v3 3 v1 1 ]
T
u1 (3-185)

[u 4 v4 4 v2 2 ]
T
u2 (3-186)

K q = P (3-187)

K = K (1) + K (2) + K (3) (3-188)

u 3 = v3 = 3 = u 4 = v 4 = 4 = 0 (3-189)

144.3 0 1.270 141.7 0 0 u1 3000


0
213.3 0.564 0 0.784 0.564 v1 3000
1.270 0.564 1.3545 0 0.564 0.271 1 720
106 =
141.7 0 0 144.3 0 1.270 u2 0
0 0.784 0.564 0 213.3 0.564 v2 3000

0 0.564 0.271 1.270 0.564 1.3545 2 720
(3-190)

73

u1 = 0.92mm
v1 = 0.0104mm
1 = 0.00139rad (3-191)
u2 = 0.901mm
v2 = 0.018mm

2 = 3.88 105 rad

MATLAB 3.3.7(2) (Beam2D2Node)

3.3.7(1) 3-19 MATLAB

3-20
3-5

MATLAB E A I L
1 2 3 Beam2D2Node_Stiffness
k1(66) k2(66) 2 3

>> E=3E11;
>> I=6.5E-7;
>> A=6.8E-4;
>> L1=1.44;
>> L2=0.96;
>> k1=Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L1);
>> k2=Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L2);

2 3 4
12 KK(1212) KK
Beam2D2Node_Assemble

>> T=[0,1,0,0,0,0;-1,0,0,0,0,0;0,0,1,0,0,0;0,0,0,0,1,0;0,0,0,-1,0,0;0,0,0,0,0,1];
>> k3=T'*k2*T;
>> KK=zeros(12,12);
>> KK=Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k1,1,2);
>> KK=Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k3,3,1);
>> KK=Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k3,4,2)
KK = 1.0e+008 *
1.4431 0 0.0127 -1.4167 0 0 -0.0264 0 0.0127 0 0 0
0 2.1328 0.0056 0 -0.0078 0.0056 0 -2.1250 0 0 0 0
0.0127 0.0056 0.0135 0 -0.0056 0.0027 -0.0127 0 0.0041 0 0 0
-1.4167 0 0 1.4431 0 0.0127 0 0 0 -0.0264 0 0.0127

74

0 -0.0078 -0.0056 0 2.1328 -0.0056 0 0 0 0 -2.1250 0
0 0.0056 0.0027 0.0127 -0.0056 0.0135 0 0 0 -0.0127 0 0.0041
-0.0264 0 -0.0127 0 0 0 0.0264 0 -0.0127 0 0 0
0 -2.1250 0 0 0 0 0 2.1250 0 0 0 0
0.0127 0 0.0041 0 0 0 -0.0127 0 0.0081 0 0 0
0 0 0 -0.0264 0 -0.0127 0 0 0 0.0264 0 -0.0127
0 0 0 0 -2.1250 0 0 0 0 0 2.1250 0
0 0 0 0.0127 0 0.0041 0 0 0 -0.0127 0 0.0081

u 3 = v3 = 3 = u 4 = v 4 = 4 = 0 1 2

1 2 KK 6 6 KK(12
12) k pMATLAB
\
>> k=KK(1:6,1:6);
>> p=[3000;-3000;-720;0;-3000;720];
>> u=k\p
u = 0.0009 -0.0000 -0.0014 0.0009 -0.0000 -0.0000 []


()
U(121) P(121)(3-180)

>> U=[u;0;0;0;0;0;0]
U = 0.0009 -0.0000 -0.0014 0.0009 -0.0000 -0.0000 []
0 0 0 0 0 0 []
>> P=KK*U
P = 1.0e+003 *
3.0000 -3.0000 -0.7200 0.0000 -3.0000 0.7200 []
-0.6658 2.2012 0.6014 -2.3342 3.7988 1.1283 []

ANSYS 3.3.7(3)
3.3.7(1) ANSYS

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): beam3Run OK

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK

(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add beam2D elastic 3

75

OK ( Element Types ) Close

(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear Elastic
Isotropic: EX:3e11 () OK U

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 Beam3 OK
Real Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), Cross-sectional area:6.8e-4 () OK Close

(6)


ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling CreatNodes In Active CSNode number 1
X:0,Y:0.96,Z:0 ApplyNode number 2 X:1.44,Y:0.96,Z:0 ApplyNode number 3 X:0,Y:0,Z:0
ApplyNode number 4 X:1.44,Y:0,Z:0OK


ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Element Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 12( 1) apply 1 3( 2) apply 2 4(
3)OK

(7)
X
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On Nodes
1 apply Direction of force: FX VALUE3000 OK

Y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Pressure On Beams
1( 1 2 ) apply VALI4167VALJ4167OK


ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
3 4 Apply Lab:ALL DOF OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Should The Solve Command be
Executed? Y Close (Solution is done! )

(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape Def + Undeformed
OK ( Plot Results)

(10)

ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

(11)
MATLAB

76

!%%%%%%%%%% []3_3_7(3) %%% begin %%%%%
/ PREP7 !
ET,1,beam3 !
R,1,6.5e-7,6.8e-4 !()
MP,EX,1,3e11 !
N,1,0,0.96,0 ! 4 ,(0,0.96,0)
N,2,1.44,0.96,0
N,3,0,0,0
N,4,1.44,0,0
E,1,2 !( 1 2 )
E,1,3
E,2,4
D,3,ALL ! 3
D,4,ALL ! 4
F,1,FX,3000 ! 1 x (3000)
SFBEAM,1,1,PRESS,4167 !
FINISH !
/SOLU !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !
FINISH !
!%%%%%%%%%% []3_3_7(3) %%% end %%%%%

3.4 ANSYS

3.4.1

1995 Normandie 184


864m 51m 1 9 7 3-21

(a) Normandie (b)


3-21

77


"Old North Park Bridge" (1904-1988) 3-22
3-6 L=32m, H=5.5m 8
4m
4000kg P1 P2 P3
P1= P3=5000 N, P2=10000N 3-23

3-22 "Old North Park Bridge" (1904-1988)

3-23 ()

3-6

(beam1) 3.83 106 m 4 2.19 103 m 2

(beam2) 1.87 106 m 4 1.185 103 m 2

(beam3) 8.47 106 m 4 3.031103 m 2

(GUI)
ANSYS

3.4.2 ANSYS

78

ANSYS 3.4.2(1) (GUI)

ANSYS (GUI, Graphic User Interface)


(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname
:TrussBridge Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Beam: 2d elastic 3
OK Element Types Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add select Type 1
Beam 3 OK input Real Constants Set No. : 1 , AREA: 2.19E-3Izz: 3.83e-6(1 )
Apply input Real Constants Set No. : 2 , AREA: 1.185E-3Izz: 1.87E-6 (2 ) Apply
input Real Constants Set No. : 3, AREA: 3.031E-3Izz: 8.47E-6 (3 ) OK (back to Real
Constants window) Close (the Real Constants window)
(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic Isotropic input EX: 2.1e11, PRXY: 0.3() OK Density (
) input DENS: 7800, OK Close
(6)

ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS NPT
Keypoint number1XYZ Location in active CS00 Apply 15
(4,0), (8,0), (12,0), (16,0), (20,0), (24,0), (28,0), (32,0), (4,5.5), (8,5.5), (12,5.5), (16.5.5),
(20,5.5), (24,5.5), (28,5.5) Lines Lines Straight Line OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Meshing Mesh Attributes Picked Lines
OK select REAL: 1, TYPE: 1 Apply OK select REAL: 2, TYPE: 1
Apply OK select REAL: 3, TYPE:1 OK ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor
Meshing MeshTool Size Controls LinesSet Element Size on Picked Pick all Apply
NDIV1 OK Mesh Lines Pick all OK ()
(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
OK select Lab2: All DOF() Apply OK
select Lab2: UY( Y ) OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Keypoints x 12 20 OK select Lab: FYValue: -5000

79

Apply x 16 OK select Lab: FYValue: -10000 OK
ANSYS Utility Menu Select Everything
(9)
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
(10)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Deformed shape Def shape only OK
Plot Results Contour Plot Nodal Solu DOF Solution, Y-Component of Displacement OK
Y UY( 3-24(a))
I
ANSYS Main Menu General Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab: [bar_I],
By sequence num: [SMISC,1] OK Close
J
ANSYS Main Menu General Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab: [bar_J],
By sequence num: [SMISC,1] OK Close
( 3-24(b))
ANSYS Main Menu General Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Line Elem Res LabI:
[ bar_I], LabJ: [ bar_J], Fact: [1] OK
(11)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

(a) 0.003374m (b) 25380N


3-24 UY

ANSYS 3.4.2(2)
!%%%%% [ANSYS ]3_4_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%%
!------$------
/prep7 !
/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
!=====
ET,1,BEAM3 !
R,1,2.19E-3,3.83e-6, , , , , ! 1
R,2,1.185E-3,1.87e-6,0,0,0,0, ! 2

80

R,3,3.031E-3,8.47E-6,0,0,0,0, ! 3
MP,EX,1,2.1E11 !
MP,PRXY,1,0.30 !
MP,DENS,1,,7800 !
!-----
K,1,0,0,, $ K,2,4,0,, $ K,3,8,0,, $K,4,12,0,, $K,5,16,0,, $K,6,20,0,, $K,7,24,0,, $K,8,28,0,, $K,9,32,0,, $K,10,4,5.5,,
$K,11,8,5.5,, $K,12,12,5.5,, $K,13,16,5.5,, $K,14,20,5.5,, $K,15,24,5.5,, $K,16,28,5.5,,
!-----
L,1,2 $L,2,3 $L,3,4 $L,4,5 $L,5,6 $L,6,7 $L,7,8 $L,8,9
!------
L,9,16 $L,15,16 $L,14,15 $L,13,14 $L,12,13 $L,11,12 $L,10,11 $L,1,10
!------
L,2,10 $L,3,10 $L,3,11 $L,4,11 $L,4,12 $L,4,13 $L,5,13 $L,6,13 $L,6,14 $L,6,15 $L,7,15 $L,7,16 $L,8,16
!------
LSEL,S,,,9,16,1,
LATT,1,1,1,,,,
!-----
LSEL,S,,,17,29,1,
LATT,1,2,1,,,,
!-----
LSEL,S,,,1,8,1,
LATT,1,3,1,,,,
!------
AllSEL,all !
LESIZE,all,,,1,,,,,1 !
LMESH,all !
!=====
/solu
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0 !
D,all,,,,,,ALL,,,,, !
AllSEL,all !
NSEL,S,LOC,X,32 !
D,all,,,,,,,UY,,,, !
ALLSEL,all !
!------
FK,4,FY,-5000 $FK,6,FY,-5000 $FK,5,FY,-10000
/replot !
Allsel,all !()
solve !
!=====
/post1 !

81

PLNSOL, U,Y, 0,1.0 ! Y
PLNSOL, U,X, 0,1.0 ! X
!------------
ETABLE,bar_I,SMISC, 1
ETABLE,bar_J,SMISC, 1
PLLS,BAR_I,BAR_J,0.5,1 !
finish !
!%%%%% [ANSYS ]3_4_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%%%

ANSYS 3.4.2(3)
!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]3_4_2(3) %%% begin %%%%%%%
!------$-----------
/prep7 !
/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
!=====
!(1) L DL H
L=32
DL=L/8
H=5.5
!(2) A I
A1=2.19E-3
I1=3.83E-6
A2=1.185E-3
I2=1.87E-6
A3=3.031E-3
I3=8.47E-6
!(3)
e_modu=2.1e11
prxy_Poi=0.3
!(4)
P1=-5000 $P2=-10000 $P3=-5000
!======
ET,1,BEAM3 !
R,1,A1,I1, , , , , ! 1
R,2,A2,I2,0,0,0,0, ! 2
R,3,A3,I3,0,0,0,0, ! 3
!-------
MP,EX,1,e_modu
MP,PRXY,1,prxy_Poi
MP,DENS,1,,7800 !
!-----

82

K,1,0,0,, $K,2,DL,0,, $K,3,2*DL,0,, $K,4,3*DL,0,, $K,5,4*DL,0,, $K,6,5*DL,0,,
K,7,6*DL,0,, $K,8,7*DL,0,, $K,9,8*DL,0,, $K,10,DL,H,, $K,11,2*DL,H,, $K,12,3*DL,H,,
K,13,4*DL,H,, $K,14,5*DL,H,, $K,15,6*DL,H,, $K,16,7*DL,H,,
!-----
L,1,2 $L,2,3 $L,3,4 $L,4,5 $L,5,6 $L,6,7 $L,7,8 $L,8,9
!------
L,9,16 $L,15,16 $L,14,15 $L,13,14 $L,12,13 $L,11,12 $L,10,11 $L,1,10
!------
L,2,10 $L,3,10 $L,3,11 $L,4,11 $L,4,12 $L,4,13 $L,5,13 $L,6,13 $L,6,14 $L,6,15 $L,7,15 $L,7,16 $L,8,16
!------
LSEL,S,,,9,16,1,
LATT,1,1,1,,,,
!-----
LSEL,S,,,17,29,1,
LATT,1,2,1,,,,
!-----
LSEL,S,,,1,8,1,
LATT,1,3,1,,,,
!------
AllSEL,all !
LESIZE,all,,,1,,,,,1 !
LMESH,all !
!=====
/solu
NSEL,S,LOC,X,0 ! x=0
D,all,,,,,,ALL,,,,, !
AllSEL,all
NSEL,S,LOC,X,L ! x=L
D,all,,,,,,,UY,,,, ! UY
ALLSEL,all
!-----
FK,4,FY,P1 $FK,6,FY,P3 $FK,5,FY,P2
/replot
Allsel,all !()
solve !
!=====
/post1 !
PLNSOL, U,Y, 0,1.0 ! Y
PLNSOL, U,X, 0,1.0 ! X
!------
ETABLE,bar_I,SMISC, 1

83

ETABLE,bar_J,SMISC, 1
PLLS,BAR_I,BAR_J,0.5,1
finish !
!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]3_4_2(3) %% end %%%%%

3.5

()
1D ()
1D ()


3.6

3-1 1D
2
x x
3-2 A( x) = 1 A1 + A2
l l
3-3
3-4

3-5 E = 2 10 MPa (
5

(a) (b)
3-5

2
3-6 A = 2 10 cm
2

E = 2 10 MPa
5

84

3-6

3-7 3-7(b)

(a) (b)
3-7

3-8 3-8

3-8
3-9 2

x x
3-10 l A( x) = 1 A1 + A2
l l

85

x x
I ( x) = 1 I1 + I 2
l l
3-11
3-12 3-12
3-12(b)

(a) (b)
3-12

3-13 3-13

3-13

3-14

86

3-14

2
3-15 3-14 A = 4 10 m
2

I = 6.75 104 m 4 E = 2 105 MPa

3-15

3-16 R R  L
F
F

3-16

87

3-17 ANSYS 3.4.2(3)
P1_P2_P3 ()

3-17

88

()
Courant 1943
Clough 1960

4.1

1D 2D 3D
1D
2D 3D
3

2D 3D
3
4-1
()() 4-2

4-1

4-2

4.2

3
[17][18]

89

4.2.1(1)
2D 3D 1D
()
4-1

4-1 ()
1D 2D 3D
u (x) u ( x, y ), v( x, y ) u ( x, y, z ), v( x, y, z ), w( x, y, z )

xx ( x) xx ( x, y ), yy ( x, y ), xy ( x, y ) xx ( x, y, z ), yy ( x, y, z ), zz ( x, y, z ),
xy ( x, y, z ), yz ( x, y, z ), xz ( x, y, z )

xx ( x)
xx ( x, y ), yy ( x, y ), xy ( x, y ) xx ( x, y, z ), yy ( x, y, z ), zz ( x, y, z ),
xy ( x, y, z ), yz ( x, y, z ), xz ( x, y, z )

xx ( x)
xx ( x, y, z ) yy ( x, y, z ) x ( x, y, z ) y ( x, y, z )
y z

4.2.1(2)
2D 3D 1D
4-2

4-2 ()
1D 2D 3D
d xx xx xy xx xy xz
=0 + =0 + + =0
dx x y x y z
xy yy xy yy yz
+ =0 + + =0
x y x y z
xz yz zz
+ + =0
x y z

du u v u v w
xx = xx = , yy = xx = , yy = , zz = ,
dx x y x y z
v u v u w v w u
xy = + xy = + , yz = + , zx = +
x y x y y z x z

xx 1
xx = xx =
1
xx yy xx = xx ( yy + zz )
E E E
1
1 yy = yy ( xx + zz )
yy = yy xx E
E
1
1 zz = zz ( xx + yy )
xy = xy E
G
1 1 1
xy = xy , yz = yz , zx = zx
G G G

E , , G

90

(Boundary Condition) BC(u)


BC(p) 4-3

4-3 ()
1D 2D 3D
u ( x, y , z ) x = x , y = y , z = z = u
u ( x) x = x = u u ( x, y ) x = x , y = y = u
0 0 0 0 0
0

v ( x, y ) x = x , y = y = v v ( x, y , z ) x = x , y = y , z = z = v
0 0 0
BC(u) 0 0

w( x, y, z ) x = x , y = y , z = z = w
0 0 0

nx xx ( x0 , y0 ) + ny xy ( x0 , y0 ) = px nx xx ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + ny xy ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + nz xz ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) = px
xx ( x) x = x = px

0
nx xy ( x0 , y0 ) + ny yy ( x0 , y0 ) = p y nx xy ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + ny yy ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + nz xz ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) = p y
BC(p) nx xz ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + ny yz ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) + nz zz ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) = pz

x0 , y0 , z0 nx , n y , nz u , v , w
px , p y , pz

4.2.1(3)
()(
) 1D
2D
()

()
()
()
()
()
()
()()
()



Airy (stress function)



Rayleigh(1870 ) Ritz(1909 )
()
()



20 50

91

()()

[19] 4-3

4-3

4.2.1(4)

( 2D ) ( b x , b y )

S p ( px , p y ) (u, v)

() ( u , v) ( xx , yy , xy )

U = ( xx xx yy yy xy xy )d (4-1)


W = (b x u + b y v)d + ( px u + p y v)dA (4-2)
Sp

U = W



( xx xx yy yy xy xy )d = (b x u + b y v)d + ( px u + p y v)dA
Sp

(4-3)

4.2.1(5)

2D (u , v) (

)
min (u , v) (4-4)
( u , v )BC ( u )

92

= U W
1
= ( xx xx yy yy xy xy )d (4-5)
2
(b x u + b y v)d + ( px u + p y v)dA
Sp

4.2.1(6) ()


4-4
[21]

4-4

(1)(max. tensile stress criterion)


()

ij 1 (

1 [ ] (4-6)

s
[ ] [ ] =
n
s n

93

(2)(max. shearing stress criterion)()


()

ij max

1 3
max = (4-7)
2

max [ ] (4-8)

[ ]

3 = 0

[ ]
[ ] = (4-9)
2

(4-7)(4-9)(4-8)

1 3 [ ] (4-10)

(3)(max. distortion energy criterion)()


( Mises
)

ij

1+
U d = ( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2 (4-11)
6E

U d [U d ] (4-12)

[U d ]

1+
2 = 0, 3 = 0 (4-11) [U d ] = [ ]2
3E
(4-11)(4-12)

1
( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2 [ ] (4-13)
2

1
( xx yy ) 2 + ( yy zz ) 2 + ( xx zz ) 2 + 6( xy2 + yz2 + xz2 ) [ ] (4-14)
2

94

1
eq = ( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
2 (4-15)
1
= ( xx yy ) 2 + ( yy zz ) 2 + ( xx zz ) 2 + 6( xy2 + yz2 + xz2 )
2

eq Mises

4.3

4.3.1 3

4.3.1(1) 3

(1)

3 (3-node triangular element) 4-5 3 123


(xi, yi), i=1,2,3( x y )(ui, vi), i=1,2,3

4-5 3

4-5 6 (DOF)

q P
e e

q e = [u1 v1 u2 v3 ]
T
v2 u3 (4-16)
(61)

T
P e = Px1 Py1 Px 2 Py 2 Px 3 Py 3 (4-17)
(61)

4-5
(

u ( x, y ) ( x, y ) ( x, y ) ) q
e e

(2)

95

4-5 3 3
6

u ( x, y ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y
(4-18)
v ( x, y ) = b0 + b1 x + b2 y
(x=xiy=yi)

u ( xi , yi ) = ui
i=123 (4-19)
v ( xi , yi ) = vi
(4-19)(4-20)(4-18)
u1 x1 y1
1 1
a0 = u2 x2 y2 = ( a1u1 + a2u2 + a3u3 ) (4-20)
2A 2A
u3 x3 y3

1 u1 y1
1 1
a1 = 1 u2 y2 = ( b1u1 + b2u2 + b3u3 ) (4-21)
2A 2A
1 u3 y3

1 x1 u1
1 1
a2 = 1 x2 u2 = ( c1u1 + c2u2 + c3u3 ) (4-22)
2A 2A
1 x3 u3
1
b0 = ( a1v1 + a2v2 + a3v3 ) (4-23)
2A
1
b1 = ( b1v1 + b2v2 + b3v3 ) (4-24)
2A
1
b2 = ( c1v1 + c2v2 + c3v3 ) (4-25)
2A
(4-20)(4-25)
1 x1 y1
1 1 1
A = 1 x2 y2 = ( a1 + a2 + a3 ) = ( b1c2 b2c1 ) (4-26)
2 2 2
1 x3 y3

x2 y2
a1 = = x2 y3 x3 y2
x3 y3
1 y2
b1 = = y2 y3 123 (4-27)
1 y3
1 x2
c1 = = x2 + x3
1 x3
123 122331
(4-20)(4-25)(4-18)

96

u ( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y ) u1 + N 2 ( x, y ) u2 + N 3 ( x, y ) u3 (4-28)

v ( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y ) v1 + N 2 ( x, y ) v2 + N 3 ( x, y ) v3 (4-29)

u1
v
1
u ( x, y ) N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 u2
u ( x, y ) = = = (2N ( x, y ) q e (4-30)
( 21)
v ( x , y ) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3 v2 6) (61)

u3

v3
N( x, y )

N 0 N2 0 N3 0
N ( x, y ) = 1 (4-31)
(26)
0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3

1
Ni = ( ai + bi x + ci y ) i=123 (4-32)
2A
ai , bi , ci (4-27)

(3)

()
u
0
xx x x
v u ( x, y )
( x, y ) = yy = = 0 = [ ] u (4-33)
( 31) y y v ( x, y ) ( 32) ( 21)
xy
u v
+
y x y x

[ ] (operator matrix)


0
x

[ ] = 0 (4-34)
y


y x
(4-30)(4-33)

97

( x, y ) = [ ] N ( x , y ) q e = B ( x, y ) q e (4-35)
( 31) ( 32 ) ( 26 ) ( 61) (36) (61)

B( x, y )


0
x
N1 0 N2 0 N3 0
B ( x, y ) = [ ] N = 0 (4-36)
(36)
( 32 ) ( 26 ) y 0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3


y x
(4-32)

b1 0 b2 0 b3 0
1
B ( x, y ) = 0 c1 0 c2 0 c3 = B1 B2 B3 (4-37)
(36) 2A
b3
( 32 ) ( 32) ( 32 )
c1 b1 c2 b2 c3

bi 0
1
Bi = 0 ci , (4-38)
2A
i =1,2,3
(32)
ci bi

(4)


xx 1 0 xx
E
( x, y, z ) = yy = 1 0 yy = D (4-39)
( 31) 1 2
(33) (31)
xy
1 xy
0 0
2
D


1 0
E
D = 1 0 (4-40)
( 33) 1 2
1
0 0
2

E
( E , ) ( , )
1 1
2

(4-35)(4-39)
= D B qe = S qe (4-41)
(31) (33) (36) (61) (36) (61)

98

S = D B
(36) (33) (36)

(5)

(u, , ) q (4-30)
e

(4-35)(4-41)(4-5)
1
e = T d e bT ud + e pT udA
2 e
Sp
1 eT
( )
T
T e T T
= q e B DBd q e N bd + e N pdA q e
2 Sp
1
= q eT K eq e P eT q e (4-42)
2

K
e

K e = e BT D B d = e BT DB dA t (4-43)
(66) (63) (33) (36) A

t (4-37) B

k 11 k 12 k13
K = B D B tA = k 21 k 22
e T
k 23 (4-44)
( 66 ) ( 63) ( 33) ( 36 )
k 31 k 32 k 33

Et k1 k3
k rs = BTr DB s tA = , r , s = 1, 2, 3 (4-45)
( 22 ) 4 (1 2 ) A k2 k4

1
k1 = br bs + cr cs
2
1
k2 = cr bs + br cs
2
1
k3 = br cs + cr bs
2
1
k4 = cr cs + br bs
2
(4-42) Pe

P = e NT bd + e NT pdA
e
(61) Sp
(4-46)
= e NT b tdA + e NT p tdl
A (62) (21) l p (62) (21)


e
l p dl

99

(6)

(4-42) q
e

K e qe = Pe (4-47)
(66) (61) (61)


3
4-4

4-4 3

T
F e = Fx1 Fy1 Fx 2 Fy 2 Fx 3 Fy 3
1
= 0 Aet [ 0 1 0 1 0 1 ]
T

3

0 Ae t

T
F e = Fx1 Fy1 Fx 2 Fy 2 Fx 3 Fy 3
1
= p0t [ ( y1 y2 ) ( x2 x1 ) ( y1 y2 ) ( x2 x1 ) 0 0]
T

[
F e = Fx1 Fy1 Fx 2 Fy 2 Fx 3 Fy 3 ]
T

x 1
= p 0 l t [1 0 1 0 0 0 ]
T
2
t

[
F e = Fx1 Fy1 Fx 2 Fy 2 Fx 3 Fy 3 ] T

x 1 2 1
T

= p0 l t 0 0 0 0
2 3 3
t

4.3.1(2) 3
x u y v

4.3.1(3) 3

(4-18)(4-27) ai , bi , ci

xiyi B( x, y ) S( x, y )

xy (4-35)(4-41)

100

3 ()CST (constant strain triangle)

()

4.3.2 4
(rectangular element)(parent element)
(mapping)
4.6

4.3.2(1) 4
(1)
4 4-6 8 (DOF)
1234(xi, yi), i=1,2,3,4( x y
)(ui, vi), i=1,2,3,4

4-6 4


x y
= , = (4-48)
a b
4
1 = 1, 1 = 1
2 = 1, 2 = 1
(4-49)
3 = 1, 3 = 1
4 = 1, 4 = 1

q
e

P
e

q e = [u1 v1 u2 v4 ]
T
v2 u3 v3 u4 (4-50)
(81)

T
P e = Px1 Py1 Px 2 Py 2 Px 3 Py 3 Px 4 Py 4 (4-51)
(81)

(4-51)

101

q
e

(2)

4-6 8 x 4 (u1 , u2 , u3 , u4 ) y 4

(v1 , v2 , v3 , v4 ) x y 4

u ( x, y ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y + a3 xy
(4-52)
v( x, y ) = b0 + b1 x + b2 y + b3 xy
x y
xy x y
2 2
y x x y

x2 y2
x=xiy=yi

u ( xi , yi ) = ui
i=1234 (4-53)
v( xi , yi ) = vi
(4-52)(4-53) a0a3 b0b3(4-52)

u ( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y )u1 + N 2 ( x, y )u2 + N3 ( x, y )u3 + N 4 ( x, y )u4


(4-54)
v( x, y ) = N1 ( x, y )v1 + N 2 ( x, y )v2 + N3 ( x, y )v3 + N 4 ( x, y )v4

1 x y
N1 ( x, y ) = (1 + )(1 + )
4 a b

1 x y
N 2 ( x, y ) = (1 )(1 + )
4 a b
(4-55)
1 x y
N 3 ( x, y ) = (1 )(1 )
4 a b
1 x y
N 4 ( x, y ) = (1 + )(1 )
4 a b
(4-48)(4-55)
1
N i = (1 + i )(1 + i ) i=1234 (4-56)
4
(4-54)

102

u1
v
1
u2

u ( x, y ) N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 v2
u ( x, y ) = = = N q
e

(21)
v ( x, y ) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4 u3 (28) (81)

v3
u
4
v4

(4-57)

N( x, y )

(3)

()

xx

( x, y ) = yy = [ ] u = [ ] N q e = B q e (4-58)
( 31) ( 21) ( 32 ) ( 28) (81) (38) (81)
xy (32)

B( x, y )


0
x
N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0
B ( x, y ) = [ ] N = 0
(38)
(32)
(28)
y 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4


y x
(4-59)
= B1 B2 B3 B4
(32) (32) (3 2) (3 2)

(4-59) Bi

N i
0
x
N i
Bi = 0 , i=1234 (4-60)
(3 2)
y
N i N i

y x

(4)

103

= D = D B qe = S qe (4-61)
(31) (33) (31) (33) (38) (81) (38) (81)

S = D B

(5)

(u, , ) q (4-57)
e

1 eT e e
(4-58)(4-61) e = q K q P eT q e K
e

2
4

k11
k k 22 sym
K = e B D B dA t = 21
e T
(4-62)
(88) A (83) (33) (38) k 31 k 32 k 33

k 41 k 42 k 43 k 44
t (4-62)
k rs = e BTr D B s t dxdy, r , s=1,2,3,4 (4-63)
(2 2)
A
(23) (33) (3 2)

(4-60)(4-63)

Et k1 k3
k rs = (4-64)
(22) 4 (1 ) ab k2
2
k4

1 1 2 1
k1 = b 2 r s 1 + r s + a r s 1 + r s
3 2 3
1
k2 = ab r s + r s
2
1
k3 = ab r s + r s
2
1 1 2 1
k4 = a 2 r s 1 + r s + b r s 1 + r s ( r , s = 1, 2,3, 4 )
3 2 3

104

(4-65)

q
e

K e qe = P e (4-66)
(88) (81) (81)

4.3.2(2) 4

(4-52)4 xy
x=a y=b

(completeness)(compatibility)( 5.4.3
) 3

4.3.2(3)

4-7 E = 1, t = 1, = 0.25

BC(u ) : u A = 0, v A = 0, u D = 0
(4-67)
BC( p ) : PBx = 1, PBy = 0, PCx = 1, PCy = 0, PDy = 0

1 CST
2 4

105

4-7

12 4-8

(a) 1 CST (b) 2


4-8

q = [u1 v1 u2 v4 ]
T
v2 u3 v3 u4 (4-68)

(1) 1

(4-44) 1 2

u1 v1 u2 v2 u4 v4

0.7333 0.3333 -0.5333 -0.2000 -0.2000 -0.1333 u1
0.3333 0.7333 -0.1333 -0.2000 -0.2000 -0.5333 v1

-0.5333 -0.1333 0.5333 0 0 0.1333 u2
K = (4-69)
-0.2000 -0.2000 0 0.2000 0.2000 0 v2
-0.2000 -0.2000 0 0.2000 0.2000 0 u4

-0.1333 -0.5333 0.1333 0 0 0.5333 v4

K (2) K (1) q (2) = [u3 v3 u4 v4 u2 v2 ]T

106

K = K + K
0.7333 0.3333 0.5333 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.1333
0.3333 0.7333 0.1333 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.5333

0.5333 0.1333 0.7333 0 0.2 0.2 0 0.3333 (4-70)

0.2 0.2 0 0.7333 0.1333 0.5333 0.3333 0
=
0 0 0.2 0.1333 0.7333 0.3333 0.5333 0.2

0 0 0.2 0.5333 0.3333 0.7333 0.1333 0.2
0.2 0.2 0 0.3333 0.5333 0.1333 0.7333 0

0.1333 0.5333 0.3333 0 0.2 0.2 0 0.7333

K q = P (4-71)
(88) (81) (81)

q = [u1 v4 ]
T
v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4

P = [ R1x R1 y P2 x P2 y P3 x P3 y R4 x P4 y ]T R1x R1 y R4 x 1 4

(4-30)(4-35)(4-39)

u (1) 1.71875 x
u (1) = (1) =
v 0.9375 x + 0.78125 y

u (2) 1.71875( x + 2 y 2)
u (2)
= (2) =
v 1.56425 2.5 x 0.783 y

y xy = [ 1.71875 0.78125 0.9375]


T
(1) = x
T

y xy = [1.71875 0.783 0.9375]


T
(2) = x
T

(1) = x y xy = [1.6922 0.3582 0.375]


T T

(2) = x y xy = [1.62453 0.37687 0.375]


T T

4-9

107

4--9 1

1
U = q T Kq = 1.71875
2

W = P T .q = 3.4375

= U W = 1.71875 (4-72)

(2) 2

(4-65)
0.4889 0.1667 0.2889 0.03333 0.2444 0.1667 0.04444 0.03333
0.1667 0.4889 0.03333 0.04444 0.1667 0.2444 0.03333 0.2889

0.2889 0.03333 0.4889 0.1667 0.04444 0.03333 0.2444 0.1667

0.03333 0.04444 0.1667 0.4889 0.03333 0.2889 0.1667 0.2444
K=
0.2444 0.1667 0.04444 0.03333 0.4889 0.1667 0.2889 0.03333

0.1667 0.2444 0.03333 0.2889 0.1667 0.4889 0.0333 0.04444
0.04444 0.03333 0.2444 0.1667 0.2889 0.03333 0.4889 0.1667

0.03333 0.2889 0.1667 0.2444 0.03333 0.04444 0.1667 0.4889
(4-73)

108

K q = P (4-74)
(88) (81) (81)

(4-57)(4-58)(4-61)


u2 = 4.09091, v2 = 4.09091, u3 = 4.09091, v3 = 4.09091, v4 = 0
(4-75)
R1x = 1, R1 y = 0, R4 x = 1

q = [u1 v1 u2 v4 ]
T
v2 u3 v3 u4
(4-76)
= [ 0 0 4.09091 4.09091 4.09091 4.09091 0 0]
T

u 4.09091( x 2 xy )
u= =
v 4.09091x

x 4.09091(1 2 y )

= y = 0
xy 4.09091(1 2 x)

x 4.36363(1 2 y )

= y = 1.09091(1 2 y )
xy 1.63636(1 2 x)

4-10

109

4-10 2

1
U = qT Kq = 4.09091
2

W = PT .q = 8.18182

= U W = 4.09091 (4-77)

(4-72)(4-77)

ANSYS 4.3.2(4)
4.3.2(3) ANSYS

110

(a) (b)
4-11 ANSYS ( 10 )

ANSYS 4-11

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname
: TrussBridge Press Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Analysis Type New Analysis STATIC OK
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic Isotropic EX: 1), PRXY: 0.25() OK
U
(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Structural
Solid: Quad 4node 42 OK Element Types Close
(6)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 OK
Real Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), THK: 1 () OK Close
(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add Type 1 Plane42 OK Real
Constants Set No: 1 1 , Thickness: 1 OK Close
(8)

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS
Keypoint number1XYZ Location in active CS0,0,0 Apply 3
(1,0,0), (1,1,0), (0,1,0) OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Areas Arbitrary Through KPs
MinMaxInc 1,4,1 OK

111

(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes
MAT: 1 ,TYPE: 1 PLANE42 , REAL: 1 OK
(10)
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Entities Sele lines Sele All OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Meshing Size Cntrls ManualSize Lines All
Lines Element Sizes on All Seleceted Lines: NDIV: 10 ( 10 ) SPACE: 1 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing MeshTool MeshAreasShapeTrimapped
Mesh Pick ALL
(11)
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Everything
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Displacement On KeypointsMinMaxInc 1 OK lab2ALL DOF( 1
) Apply MinMaxInc 4 OK lab2UX( 4 X )
OK
(12)
2 X
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Force/Moment On Keypoints MinMaxInc 2 OK Direction of force/mom: FX ,
Force/moment value: -1 Apply
3 X
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Force/Moment On Keypoints MinMaxInc 3 OK Direction of force/mom: FX
Force/moment value: 1 OK
(13)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK
(14)

ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed shape Def + undeformed
OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Scalar Parameters Selection NB=NODE(1,0,0)
Accept ( NB_UX=UX(NB)NB_UY=UY(NB)
NC=NODE(1,1,0)NC_UX=UX(NC) NC_UY=UY(NC)STR_ENGY= 0.5*(NB_UX*(-1)+ NC_UX*(1))
POTE_ENGY=-0.5*(NB_UX*(-1)+ NC_UX*(1)) ) Close
ANSYS Utility Menu: List Status Parameters All Parameters
(15)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save Everything OK

!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]4_3_2(4) %%%% begin %%%%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !
MP,EX,1,1 ! 1
MP,PRXY,1,0.25 ! 1

112

ET,1,PLANE42 ! 1
KEYOPT,1,3,3 !
R,1,1 ! No.1
K,1,0,0,0 ! No.1
K,2,1,0,0 ! No.2
K,3,1,1,0 ! No.3
K,4,0,1,0 ! No.4
A,1,2,3,4 ! No.1
MAT,1 ! No.1
TYPE,1 ! No.1
REAL,1 ! No.1
!------
LSEL,ALL !
LESIZE,all, , ,10, , , , ,1 ! 10
MSHAPE,1,2D !
!MSHAPE,0,2D !
MSHKEY,1 !
AMESH,1 ! No.1
ALLSEL,ALL !
DK,1,ALL ! 1
DK,4,ALL ! 4
FK,2,FX,-1 ! 2 FX=-1
FK,3,FX,1 ! 3 FX=1
FINISH !
/SOLU !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
NB=NODE(1,0,0) !(1,0,0) (B ) NB
NB_UX=UX(NB) ! NB UX NB_UX
NB_UY=UY(NB) ! NB UY NB_UY
ALLSEL,ALL !
NC=NODE(1,1,0) ! (1,1,0) (C ) NC
NC_UX=UX(NC) ! NC UX NC_UX
NC_UY=UY(NC) ! NC UY NC_UY
STR_ENGY= 0.5*(NB_UX*(-1)+ NC_UX*(1)) !
POTE_ENGY=-0.5*(NB_UX*(-1)+ NC_UX*(1)) !
*status,parm !
!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]4_3_2(4) %%%% end %%%%%

( 10 )
NAME VALUE TYPE DIMENSIONS

113

NB 2.00000000 SCALAR
NB_UX -9.56063701 SCALAR
NB_UY -9.36565959 SCALAR
NC 12.0000000 SCALAR
NC_UX 9.88621794 SCALAR
NC_UY -10.0535107 SCALAR
POTE_ENGY -9.72342747 SCALAR
STR_ENGY 9.72342747 SCALAR

( 10 )
NAME VALUE TYPE DIMENSIONS
NB 2.00000000 SCALAR
NB_UX -12.6893715 SCALAR
NB_UY -12.6893715 SCALAR
NC 12.0000000 SCALAR
NC_UX 12.6893715 SCALAR
NC_UY -12.6893715 SCALAR
POTE_ENGY -12.6893715 SCALAR
STR_ENGY 12.6893715 SCALAR

POTE_ENGY
4-11(a)
= U - W = -9.72342747 (4-78)
4-11(b)
= U - W = -12.6893715 (4-79)
(4-72)(4-77)(4-78)(4-79)

4.3.3 3 MATLAB

MATLAB 4.3.3(1) 3 (Triangle2D3Node)

4-5 3

3 MATLAB
Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,ID)
E NU t ijm
xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym ID(1 2 ) k(6X6)

Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m)
k Ijm
KK

Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,u,ID)
E NU t ijm xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym
ID(1 2 ) u(6X1) stress

114

Sx,Sy,Sxy

4.3.1 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%%% Triangle2D3Node %%% begin %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function k=Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,ID)
%
% E NU t
% ijm xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym
% ID(1 2 )
% k(6X6)
%---------------------------------------------------------------
A = (xi*(yj-ym) + xj*(ym-yi) + xm*(yi-yj))/2;
betai = yj-ym;
betaj = ym-yi;
betam = yi-yj;
gammai = xm-xj;
gammaj = xi-xm;
gammam = xj-xi;
B = [betai 0 betaj 0 betam 0 ;
0 gammai 0 gammaj 0 gammam ;
gammai betai gammaj betaj gammam betam]/(2*A);
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
k= t*A*B'*D*B;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m)
%
% k
% Ijm
% KK
%---------------------------------------------------------------
DOF(1)=2*i-1;
DOF(2)=2*i;
DOF(3)=2*j-1;
DOF(4)=2*j;
DOF(5)=2*m-1;
DOF(6)=2*m;
for n1=1:6
for n2=1:6
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function stress=Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,u,ID)
%
% E NU t
% ijm xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym
% ID(1 2 ) u(6X1)
% stress(3X1) Sx,Sy,Sxy

115

%---------------------------------------------------------------
A = (xi*(yj-ym) + xj*(ym-yi) + xm*(yi-yj))/2;
betai = yj-ym;
betaj = ym-yi;
betam = yi-yj;
gammai = xm-xj;
gammaj = xi-xm;
gammam = xj-xi;
B = [betai 0 betaj 0 betam 0 ;
0 gammai 0 gammaj 0 gammam ;
gammai betai gammaj betaj gammam betam]/(2*A);
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
stress = D*B*u;
%%%%%%%%%%%% Triangle2D3Node %%% end %%%%%%%%%%%%%

4.3.4 4 MATLAB
MATLAB 4.3.4(1) 4 (Quad2D4Node)
4-6 4

4 MATLAB
Quad2D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,h,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,ID)
E NU h4 ijmp
xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp ID(1 2 ) k(8X8)

Quad2D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,p)
k ijmp
KK

Quad2D4Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,u,ID)
E NU h4 ijmp
xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp, ID(1 2 ) u(8X1)
stress(3X1) Sx,Sy,Sxy

4.3.2 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%%% Quad2D4Node %%% begin %%%%%%%%%%%%%
function k= Quad2D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,h,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,ID)
%
% E NU h
% 4 ijmp xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp
% ID(1 2 )
% k(8X8)
%---------------------------------------------------------------
syms s t;
a = (yi*(s-1)+yj*(-1-s)+ym*(1+s)+yp*(1-s))/4;
b = (yi*(t-1)+yj*(1-t)+ym*(1+t)+yp*(-1-t))/4;
c = (xi*(t-1)+xj*(1-t)+xm*(1+t)+xp*(-1-t))/4;
d = (xi*(s-1)+xj*(-1-s)+xm*(1+s)+xp*(1-s))/4;
B1 = [a*(t-1)/4-b*(s-1)/4 0 ; 0 c*(s-1)/4-d*(t-1)/4 ;

116

c*(s-1)/4-d*(t-1)/4 a*(t-1)/4-b*(s-1)/4];
B2 = [a*(1-t)/4-b*(-1-s)/4 0 ; 0 c*(-1-s)/4-d*(1-t)/4 ;
c*(-1-s)/4-d*(1-t)/4 a*(1-t)/4-b*(-1-s)/4];
B3 = [a*(t+1)/4-b*(s+1)/4 0 ; 0 c*(s+1)/4-d*(t+1)/4 ;
c*(s+1)/4-d*(t+1)/4 a*(t+1)/4-b*(s+1)/4];
B4 = [a*(-1-t)/4-b*(1-s)/4 0 ; 0 c*(1-s)/4-d*(-1-t)/4 ;
c*(1-s)/4-d*(-1-t)/4 a*(-1-t)/4-b*(1-s)/4];
Bfirst = [B1 B2 B3 B4];
Jfirst = [0 1-t t-s s-1 ; t-1 0 s+1 -s-t ;
s-t -s-1 0 t+1 ; 1-s s+t -t-1 0];
J = [xi xj xm xp]*Jfirst*[yi ; yj ; ym ; yp]/8;
B = Bfirst/J;
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
BD = J*transpose(B)*D*B;
r = int(int(BD, t, -1, 1), s, -1, 1);
z = h*r;
k = double(z);
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Quad2D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,p)
%
% k ijmp
% KK
%---------------------------------------------------------------
DOF(1)=2*i-1;
DOF(2)=2*i;
DOF(3)=2*j-1;
DOF(4)=2*j;
DOF(5)=2*m-1;
DOF(6)=2*m;
DOF(7)=2*p-1;
DOF(8)=2*p;
for n1=1:8
for n2=1:8
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function stress= Quad2D4Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,u,ID)
%
% E NU h
% 4 ijmp xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,
% ID(1 2 )
% u(8X1)
% stress(3X1)
% Sx,Sy,Sxy
%---------------------------------------------------------------
syms s t;
a = (yi*(s-1)+yj*(-1-s)+ym*(1+s)+yp*(1-s))/4;
b = (yi*(t-1)+yj*(1-t)+ym*(1+t)+yp*(-1-t))/4;
c = (xi*(t-1)+xj*(1-t)+xm*(1+t)+xp*(-1-t))/4;

117

d = (xi*(s-1)+xj*(-1-s)+xm*(1+s)+xp*(1-s))/4;
B1 = [a*(t-1)/4-b*(s-1)/4 0 ; 0 c*(s-1)/4-d*(t-1)/4 ;
c*(s-1)/4-d*(t-1)/4 a*(t-1)/4-b*(s-1)/4];
B2 = [a*(1-t)/4-b*(-1-s)/4 0 ; 0 c*(-1-s)/4-d*(1-t)/4 ;
c*(-1-s)/4-d*(1-t)/4 a*(1-t)/4-b*(-1-s)/4];
B3 = [a*(t+1)/4-b*(s+1)/4 0 ; 0 c*(s+1)/4-d*(t+1)/4 ;
c*(s+1)/4-d*(t+1)/4 a*(t+1)/4-b*(s+1)/4];
B4 = [a*(-1-t)/4-b*(1-s)/4 0 ; 0 c*(1-s)/4-d*(-1-t)/4 ;
c*(1-s)/4-d*(-1-t)/4 a*(-1-t)/4-b*(1-s)/4];
Bfirst = [B1 B2 B3 B4];
Jfirst = [0 1-t t-s s-1 ; t-1 0 s+1 -s-t ;
s-t -s-1 0 t+1 ; 1-s s+t -t-1 0];
J = [xi xj xm xp]*Jfirst*[yi ; yj ; ym ; yp]/8;
B = Bfirst/J;
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
str1 = D*B*u;
str2 = subs(str1, {s,t}, {0,0});
stress = double(str2);
%%%%%%%%%%%% Quad2D4Node %%% end %%%%%%%%%%%%%

4.4

4.4.1

r, ,z 4-12(a)
(axisymmetric problem) rdr dz 4-12

(a) rdr dz

118

(b) ()
4-12

4.4.1(1)

[ur w]T u = 0

[ rr zz rz ]T r = z = 0

[ rr zz rz ]T r = z = 0

u r r w z
u = 0 rr zz

rz r z rr zz
rz z
r z 10

4.4.1(2)
1

rr rz rr
+ + + br = 0
r z r (4-80)

zz rz rz
+ + + bz = 0
z r r
2

ur u
rr = , = r
r r (4-81)

w u w
zz = , rz = r +
z z r
3
1
rr = [ rr ( + zz )]
E

1
= [ ( zz + rr )]
E (4-82)

1
zz = [ zz ( rr + )]
E
1
rz = rz
G
4(BC)

119

ur = u r
BC(u) on Su (4-83)
w=w

rr = rr
BC(p) on S p (4-84)
zz = zz

4.4.2 3 ()
4.4.2(1) 3 ()
(1)

3 (axisymmetric ring element) 4-13


3 3600 123
(ri, zi), i=1,2,3( r z ) (uri , wi ) , i=1,2,3

4-13

4-14 z roz 6
(DOF) q
e

P
e

q e = [ ur1 w3 ]
T
w1 ur 2 w2 ur 3 (4-85)
(61)

P e = [ Pr1 Pz 3 ]
T
Pz1 Pr 2 Pz 2 Pr 3 (4-86)
(61)

(2)
3 r z 3

ur (r , z ) = a 0 + a1r + a 2 z
(4-87)
w(r , z ) = b 0 + b1r + b 2 z
3

120

ur 1
w
1
u (r , z ) N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 u r 2
u (r , z ) = r = = N (r , z ) q
e
(4-88)
(21)
w(r , z ) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3 w2 (26) (61)

ur 3

w3
N( r , z ) N1N2N3 3

(3)


r 0
rr 1
0
r u r (r , z )
(r , z ) = = = [ ] ( 2u3) = [ ] ( 2N qe = B qe (4-89)
(41) zz w(r , z ) ( 42) ( 42 ) 6 ) ( 61) (46) (61)
0
rz z


z r
B(r , z )


r 0

1 0
r N1 0 N2 0 N3 0
B = [ ] N = (4-90)
(46)
(4 2)
(26)
0 0 N1 0 N2 0 N 3
z


z r

= D = D B qe = S qe (4-91)
(41) (44) (41) (44) (46) (61) (46) (61)

S = D B D


1 1 1
0


1 0
E (1 ) 1 1

D = (4-92)
(44) (1 + )(1 2 )
1 1 0
1

1 2
0 0 0
2(1 )

121

(4)

1 eT e e
e = q K q P eT q e
2
2
K e = e B T D B d = BT D Brd drdz = e BT DB 2 rdrdz (4-93)
(66) e
A 0 A

P e = NT bd + e NT pdA
(61) e Sp

= NT b 2 rdrdz + e NT p 2 rdl (4-94)


e (6 2) (21) l p (6 2) (21)

q
e

q = P
e e e
K (4-95)
(66) (61) (61)

4.4.3 4 ()
4.4.3(1) 4 ()
4 4-14 4 3600
4 1234(ri, wi), i=1,2,3,4
( r z ) (uri , wi ) , i=1,2,3,4

4--14 4

4-15 z Orz 8
(DOF) q
e

P
e

q e = [ ur1 w4 ]
T
w1 ur 2 w2 ur 3 w3 ur 4 (4-96)
(81)

P e = [ Pr1 Pz 4 ]
T
Pz1 Pr 2 Pz 2 Pr 3 Pz 3 Pr 4 (4-97)
(81)

(4-97)

q
e

122

4 x y 4

ur (r , z ) = a0 + a1r + a2 z + a3 rz
(4-98)
w(r , z ) = b0 + b1r + b2 z + b3 rz
4 N ( r , z )

B(r , z )

K e qe = Pe (4-99)
(88) (81) (81)

2
K = D B d = BT DBrd drdz = e BT DB2 rdrdz
e T
B (4-100)
(88) (84)
e
(44) (48) Ae
0 A

P e = N T b d + e N T p d A
(81) e (82) (21) S p (8 2) (21)
(4-101)
= NT b 2 rdrdz + e NT p 2 rdl
e (82) (21) l p (82) (21)

4.5

4.5.1 4

4.5.1(1) 4
(1)

4 (tetrahedron element) 3 (
) 4-15

4-15 4

(1)

123

4-15 4 q P
e e

q e = [u1 v1 w4 ]
T
w1 u2 v2 w2 u3 v3 w3 u4 v4 (4-102)
(121)

T
P e = Px1 Py1 Pz1 Px 2 Py 2 Pz 2 Px 3 Py 3 P3 z Px 4 Py 4 Pz 4 (4-103)
(121)

(2)

4 12 (DOF)
4

u ( x, y, z ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y + a3 z

v( x, y, z ) = b0 + b1 x + b2 y + b3 z (4-104)
w( x, y, z ) = c0 + c1 x + c2 y + c3 z

x=xiy=yiz=zi

u ( xi , yi , zi ) = ui

v( xi , yi , zi ) = vi , i=1,2,3,4 (4-105)
w( xi , yi , zi ) = wi
(4-104)(4-105)(aibici)i0123
(4-104)

u N1 0 0 N2 0 0 N3 0 0 N4 0 0
u ( x, y, z ) = v = 0 N1 0 0 N2 0 0 N3 0 0 N4 0 q e
(31)
w 0 0 N1 0 0 N2 0 0 N3 0 0 N 4
= N qe
(312) (121)

(4-106)

1
Ni = ( ai + bi x + ci y + d i z ) , i1234 (4-107)
6V
V ai , bi , ci , d i [16]

(3)

(4-106)

124


x 0 0

0
0
xx y

yy 0
0 u
zz z
( x, y , z ) = = v = [ ] (3u1)
xy
(61)
0 w (63)
yz y x

zx 0
z y

0

z x
= [ ] N qe = B qe
(312) (121) (612) (121)
(63)

(4-108)
B( x, y, z )


B = [ ] N = B1 B2 B3 B4 (4-109)
(612)
(63)
(312)
(63) (63) (63) (63)

(4-109) Bi

bi 0 0
0 ci 0
Ni 0 0
1 0 0 di
Bi = [ ] 0 Ni 0 = ( i = 1, 2,3, 4 ) (4-110)
(63) (63) 6V ci bi 0
0 0 N i
0 di ci

di 0 bi

= D = D B qe = S qe (4-111)
(61) (66) (61) (66) (612) (121) (612) (121)

(4)

B( x, y, z )

Ke = B T D B d (4-112)
(1212) e (126) (66) (612)

P e = NT b d + e NT p dA (4-113)
(121) e (123) (31) S p (123) (31)

(5)

125

(4-42) q
e

K e qe = P e (4-114)
(1212) (121) (121)

4.5.1(2) 4
3 x
uy vz w
4.5.1(3) 4
3 (4-104)

(4-110) ai , bi , ci , di xiyizi

B( x, y, z ) S( x, y, z ) xyz (4-108)

(4-111)4
()CST (constant strain triangle)
()

4.5.2 8
4.5.2(1) 8
(1)
8 (hexahedron element) 3 ( 3
) 4-16

4-16 8

4-16 8 24 (DOF)
q P
e e

qe = [u1 v1 w8 ]
T
w1 # u2 v2 w2 # " # u8 v8 (4-115)
(241)

T
P e = Px1 Py1 Pz1 # Px 2 Py 2 Pz 2 # " # Px8 Py 8 Pz 8 (4-116)
(21)

(2)

126

8 8

u ( x, y, z ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y + a3 z + a4 xy + a5 yz + a6 zx + a7 xyz

v( x, y, z ) = b0 + b1 x + b2 y + b3 z + b4 xy + b5 yz + b6 zx + b7 xyz (4-117)
w( x, y, z ) = c0 + c1 x + c2 y + c3 z + c4 xy + c5 yz + c6 zx + c7 xyz
(aibici), i012.8(4-117)

u N1 0 0 # N 2 0 0 # " # N8 0 0
u = v = 0 N1 0 # 0 N2 0 # " # 0 N8 0 q e = N q e
(31) (324) (241)
w 0 0 N1 # 0 0 N2 # " # 0 0 N8
(4-118)
24
Lagrangian interpolation
( 5.2.1 )

(3)

()

= [ ] u = [ ] N qe = B qe (4-119)
(61) (31) (324) (241) (624) (241)
(63) (63)

(4)

Ke = B T D B d (4-120)
(24 24) e (246) (66) (6 24)

Pe = N T b d + e N T p dA (4-121)
(241) e (243) (31) S p (243) (31)

(5)

q
e

K e qe = Pe (4-122)
(2424) (241) (241)

4.5.2(2) 8

4 (4-117) x
yz

127

(completeness)(compatibility)
4

4.5.3 4 MATLAB

MATLAB 4.5.3(1) 4 (Tetrahedron3D4Node)

4-15 4

4 MATLAB
Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn)
E NU 4 i j m n
xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn k(12X12)

Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,n)
k ijmn
KK

Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn,u)
E NU 4 i j m n
xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn u(12X1) stress
Sx,Sy,Sz,Sxy,Syz,Szx

MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%% Tetrahedron3D4Node %%% begin %%%%%%%%%%
function k = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4)
%
% E NU
% 4 ijmn xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn
% k(12X12)
%---------------------------------------------------------------
%
% betai - bi
% gammai - ci
% deltai - di
% i = 1:4
xyz = [1 x1 y1 z1 ; 1 x2 y2 z2 ; 1 x3 y3 z3 ; 1 x4 y4 z4];
V = det(xyz)/6;
mbeta1 = [1 y2 z2 ; 1 y3 z3 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta2 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y3 z3 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta3 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y2 z2 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta4 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y2 z2 ; 1 y3 z3];
mgamma1 = [1 x2 z2 ; 1 x3 z3 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma2 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x3 z3 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma3 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x2 z2 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma4 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x2 z2 ; 1 x3 z3];
mdelta1 = [1 x2 y2 ; 1 x3 y3 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta2 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x3 y3 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta3 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x2 y2 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta4 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x2 y2 ; 1 x3 y3];
beta1 = -1*det(mbeta1);
beta2 = det(mbeta2);

128

beta3 = -1*det(mbeta3);
beta4 = det(mbeta4);
gamma1 = det(mgamma1);
gamma2 = -1*det(mgamma2);
gamma3 = det(mgamma3);
gamma4 = -1*det(mgamma4);
delta1 = -1*det(mdelta1);
delta2 = det(mdelta2);
delta3 = -1*det(mdelta3);
delta4 = det(mdelta4);
B1 = [beta1 0 0 ; 0 gamma1 0 ; 0 0 delta1 ;
gamma1 beta1 0 ; 0 delta1 gamma1 ; delta1 0 beta1];
B2 = [beta2 0 0 ; 0 gamma2 0 ; 0 0 delta2 ;
gamma2 beta2 0 ; 0 delta2 gamma2 ; delta2 0 beta2];
B3 = [beta3 0 0 ; 0 gamma3 0 ; 0 0 delta3 ;
gamma3 beta3 0 ; 0 delta3 gamma3 ; delta3 0 beta3];
B4 = [beta4 0 0 ; 0 gamma4 0 ; 0 0 delta4 ;
gamma4 beta4 0 ; 0 delta4 gamma4 ; delta4 0 beta4];
B = [B1 B2 B3 B4]/(6*V);
D = (E/((1+NU)*(1-2*NU)))*[1-NU NU NU 0 0 0 ; NU 1-NU NU 0 0 0 ; NU NU 1-NU 0 0 0 ;
0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2 0 0 ; 0 0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2 0 ; 0 0 0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
y = abs(V)*B'*D*B;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function y = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,n)
%
% k
% ijmn
% KK
%---------------------------------------------------------------
DOF = [3*i-2:3*i,3*j-2:3*j,3*m-2:3*m,3*n-2:3*n];
for n1=1:12
for n2=1:12
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))= KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
y=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function y = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,u)
%
% E NU
% 4 ijmn xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn
% u(12X1)
% stress(6X1)
% Sx,Sy,Sz,Sxy,Syz,Szx
%---------------------------------------------------------------
xyz = [1 x1 y1 z1 ; 1 x2 y2 z2 ; 1 x3 y3 z3 ; 1 x4 y4 z4];
V = det(xyz)/6;
mbeta1 = [1 y2 z2 ; 1 y3 z3 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta2 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y3 z3 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta3 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y2 z2 ; 1 y4 z4];
mbeta4 = [1 y1 z1 ; 1 y2 z2 ; 1 y3 z3];
mgamma1 = [1 x2 z2 ; 1 x3 z3 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma2 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x3 z3 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma3 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x2 z2 ; 1 x4 z4];
mgamma4 = [1 x1 z1 ; 1 x2 z2 ; 1 x3 z3];

129

mdelta1 = [1 x2 y2 ; 1 x3 y3 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta2 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x3 y3 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta3 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x2 y2 ; 1 x4 y4];
mdelta4 = [1 x1 y1 ; 1 x2 y2 ; 1 x3 y3];
beta1 = -1*det(mbeta1);
beta2 = det(mbeta2);
beta3 = -1*det(mbeta3);
beta4 = det(mbeta4);
gamma1 = det(mgamma1);
gamma2 = -1*det(mgamma2);
gamma3 = det(mgamma3);
gamma4 = -1*det(mgamma4);
delta1 = -1*det(mdelta1);
delta2 = det(mdelta2);
delta3 = -1*det(mdelta3);
delta4 = det(mdelta4);
B1 = [beta1 0 0 ; 0 gamma1 0 ; 0 0 delta1 ;
gamma1 beta1 0 ; 0 delta1 gamma1 ; delta1 0 beta1];
B2 = [beta2 0 0 ; 0 gamma2 0 ; 0 0 delta2 ;
gamma2 beta2 0 ; 0 delta2 gamma2 ; delta2 0 beta2];
B3 = [beta3 0 0 ; 0 gamma3 0 ; 0 0 delta3 ;
gamma3 beta3 0 ; 0 delta3 gamma3 ; delta3 0 beta3];
B4 = [beta4 0 0 ; 0 gamma4 0 ; 0 0 delta4 ;
gamma4 beta4 0 ; 0 delta4 gamma4 ; delta4 0 beta4];
B = [B1 B2 B3 B4]/(6*V);
D = (E/((1+NU)*(1-2*NU)))*[1-NU NU NU 0 0 0 ; NU 1-NU NU 0 0 0 ; NU NU 1-NU 0 0 0 ;
0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2 0 0 ; 0 0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2 0 ; 0 0 0 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
y = D*B*u;
%%%%%%%%%%% Tetrahedron3D4Node %%% end %%%%%%%%%%

4.5.4 8 MATLAB

MATLAB 4.5.4(1) 8 (Hexahedral3D8Node)

4-16 8
8 MATLAB
Hexahedral3D8Node_Stiffness(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z8)
E NU8 x1y1z1x2y2z2
x3y3z3x4y4z4x5y5z5x6y6z6x7y7z7x8y8z8 k(24X24)

Hexahedral3D8Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,l,m,n,o,p,q)
k ijlmnop q
KK

Hexahedral3D8Node_Stress(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z8,u)
E NU8 x1y1z1x2y2
z2x3y3z3x4y4z4x5y5z5x6y6z6x7y7z7x8y8z8 u (6X1)
stress(6X1) Sx,Sy,Sz,Sxy,Syz,Szx

5.4.2 MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%% Hexahedral3D8Node %%% begin %%%%%%%%%%
function
k=Hexahedral3D8Node_Stiffness(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z8)
%

130

% E NU
% 8 x1y1z1x2y2z2x3y3z3x4y4z4
% x5y5z5x6y6z6x7y7z7x8y8z8
% k(24X24)
%---------------------------------------------------------------
syms s t n; %
% N
N1=(1+s)*(1-t)*(1-n)/8;
N2=(1+s)*(1+t)*(1-n)/8;
N3=(1-s)*(1+t)*(1-n)/8;
N4=(1-s)*(1-t)*(1-n)/8;
N5=(1+s)*(1-t)*(1+n)/8;
N6=(1+s)*(1+t)*(1+n)/8;
N7=(1-s)*(1+t)*(1+n)/8;
N8=(1-s)*(1-t)*(1+n)/8;
%
x=N1*x1+N2*x2+N3*x3+N4*x4+N5*x5+N6*x6+N7*x7+N8*x8;
y=N1*y1+N2*y2+N3*y3+N4*y4+N5*y5+N6*y6+N7*y7+N8*y8;
z=N1*z1+N2*z2+N3*z3+N4*z4+N5*z5+N6*z6+N7*z7+N8*z8;
%
J=[diff(x,s),diff(y,s),diff(z,s);diff(x,t),diff(y,t),diff(z,t);diff(x,n),diff(y,n),diff(z,n)];
Jdet=det(J);
J
Jdet
% B
a=diff(y,t)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,t)*diff(y,n);
b=diff(y,s)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,s)*diff(y,n);
c=diff(y,s)*diff(z,t)-diff(z,s)*diff(y,t);
d=diff(x,t)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,t)*diff(x,n);
e=diff(x,s)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,s)*diff(x,n);
f=diff(x,s)*diff(z,t)-diff(z,s)*diff(x,t);
g=diff(x,t)*diff(y,n)-diff(y,t)*diff(x,n);
h=diff(x,s)*diff(y,n)-diff(y,s)*diff(x,n);
l=diff(x,s)*diff(y,t)-diff(y,s)*diff(x,t);
%
Ns=[N1,N2,N3,N4,N5,N6,N7,N8];
Bs=sym(zeros(6,3,8));
for i=1:8
Bs(:,:,i)=[a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n),0,0;
0,-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n),0; 0,0,g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n);
-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n),a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n),0;
0,g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n),-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n);
g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n),0,a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n)]/Jdet;
end
% B
B=[Bs(:,:,1),Bs(:,:,2),Bs(:,:,3),Bs(:,:,4),Bs(:,:,5),Bs(:,:,6),Bs(:,:,7),Bs(:,:,8)];
B
% D
D=(E/((1+NU)*(1-2*NU)))*[1-NU,NU,NU,0,0,0;NU,1-NU,NU,0,0,0;NU,NU,1-NU,0,0,0;
0,0,0,0.5-NU,0,0;0,0,0,0,0.5-NU,0;0,0,0,0,0,0.5-NU];
D
% k
BD=Jdet*transpose(B)*D*B;
z=(int(int(int(BD,n,-1,1),t,-1,1),s,-1,1));
z
k=double(z);

131

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Hexahedral3D8Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,l,m,n,o,p,q)
%
% k
% ijlmnop q
% KK
%---------------------------------------------------------------
DOF=[3*i-2:3*i,3*j-2:3*j,3*l-2:3*l,3*m-2:3*m,3*n-2:3*n,3*o-2:3*o,3*p-2:3*p,3*q-2:3*q];
for n1=1:24
for n2=1:24
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))=KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function
stress=Hexahedral3D8Node_Stress(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z
8,u)
%
% E NU
% 8 x1y1z1x2y2z2x3y3z3x4y4z4
% x5y5z5x6y6z6x7y7z7x8y8z8
% u (6X1)
% stress(6X1), Sx,Sy,Sz,Sxy,Syz,Szx
%---------------------------------------------------------------
syms s t n; %
% N
N1=(1+s)*(1-t)*(1-n)/8;
N2=(1+s)*(1+t)*(1-n)/8;
N3=(1-s)*(1+t)*(1-n)/8;
N4=(1-s)*(1-t)*(1-n)/8;
N5=(1+s)*(1-t)*(1+n)/8;
N6=(1+s)*(1+t)*(1+n)/8;
N7=(1-s)*(1+t)*(1+n)/8;
N8=(1-s)*(1-t)*(1+n)/8;
%
x=N1*x1+N2*x2+N3*x3+N4*x4+N5*x5+N6*x6+N7*x7+N8*x8;
y=N1*y1+N2*y2+N3*y3+N4*y4+N5*y5+N6*y6+N7*y7+N8*y8;
z=N1*z1+N2*z2+N3*z3+N4*z4+N5*z5+N6*z6+N7*z7+N8*z8;
%
J=[diff(x,s),diff(y,s),diff(z,s);diff(x,t),diff(y,t),diff(z,t);diff(x,n),diff(y,n),diff(z,n)];
Jdet=det(J);
% B
a=diff(y,t)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,t)*diff(y,n);
b=diff(y,s)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,s)*diff(y,n);
c=diff(y,s)*diff(z,t)-diff(z,s)*diff(y,t);
d=diff(x,t)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,t)*diff(x,n);
e=diff(x,s)*diff(z,n)-diff(z,s)*diff(x,n);
f=diff(x,s)*diff(z,t)-diff(z,s)*diff(x,t);
g=diff(x,t)*diff(y,n)-diff(y,t)*diff(x,n);
h=diff(x,s)*diff(y,n)-diff(y,s)*diff(x,n);
l=diff(x,s)*diff(y,t)-diff(y,s)*diff(x,t);
%
Ns=[N1,N2,N3,N4,N5,N6,N7,N8];
Bs=sym(zeros(6,3,8));

132

for i=1:8
Bs(:,:,i)=[a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n),0,0;
0,-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n),0;
0,0,g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n);
-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n),a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n),0;
0,g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n),-d*diff(Ns(i),s)+e*diff(Ns(i),t)-f*diff(Ns(i),n);
g*diff(Ns(i),s)-h*diff(Ns(i),t)+l*diff(Ns(i),n),0,a*diff(Ns(i),s)-b*diff(Ns(i),t)+c*diff(Ns(i),n)]/Jdet;
end
% B
B=[Bs(:,:,1),Bs(:,:,2),Bs(:,:,3),Bs(:,:,4),Bs(:,:,5),Bs(:,:,6),Bs(:,:,7),Bs(:,:,8)];
% D
D=(E/((1+NU)*(1-2*NU)))*[1-NU,NU,NU,0,0,0;NU,1-NU,NU,0,0,0;NU,NU,1-NU,0,0,0;
0,0,0,0.5-NU,0,0;0,0,0,0,0.5-NU,0;0,0,0,0,0,0.5-NU];
%
w=D*B*u;
%
wcent=subs(w,{s,t,n},{0,0,0})
stress=double(wcent)
%%%%%%%%%% Hexahedral3D8Node %%% end %%%%%%%%%%

4.6

()
(parametric element)
[22]

4.6.1

( x, y ) ( , )

( x, y )

( )
K e( xy ) = e BT ( x, y, x , y ) D B x, y, x , y dxdy t
A
(4-123)

B( x, y, x , y ) ( x, y ) ( x, y, x , y )

( , )

K e( ) = e B*T ( , , , ) D B* ( , , , )d d t (4-124)
A

B ( , , , ) ( , ) ( , , , )
*

(transformation)(mapping)

(mapping of coordinate)
( x, y ) ( , ) (4-125)
(mapping of partial differential)
( x , y ) ( , ) (4-126)

133

()(mapping of area)

Ae
dxdy e d d
A
(4-127)

( , ) (reference coordinate)
4-17
( x, y ) (physical coordinate) ( , )
(parent element)()(curved
element)() ( x, y )
( , )
( , ) ( x, y )

4-17

4.6.1(1)
4-17

x = x( , )
(4-128)
y = y ( , )
(4-128)
( , ) ( x, y )

xi = x(i ,i )
i=1234 (4-129)
yi = y (i ,i )
x y 4 x y
4

x( , ) = a0 + a1 + a2 + a3
(4-130)
y ( , ) = b0 + b1 + b2 + b3
a0a3 b0b3 (4-129)
4 (4-52)(4-130)
(4-130)

134

x( , ) = N 1 ( , ) x1 + N 2 ( , ) x2 + N 3 ( , ) x3 + N 4 ( , ) x4
(4-131)
y ( , ) = N 1 ( , ) y1 + N 2 ( , ) y2 + N 3 ( , ) y3 + N 4 ( , ) y4

1
N i = (1 + i )(1 + i ), i=1,2,3,4 (4-132)
4
(4-132)(4-56)
( x, y )

q = [ x1 y4 ]
T
y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 (4-133)
(81)

(4-131)

x( , ) N 1 0 N 2 0 N 3 0 N 4 0  ( , ) q
x = = q = (2N
(21)
y ( , ) 0 N 1 0 N 2 0 N 3 0 
N4 8) (81)

(4-134)

4.6.1(2)
( x, y ) ( x, y )

x y
= +
x y
y
(4-135)
x
= +
x y

x y
= +
x y
(4-136)
x y
= +
x y



= J x (4-137)

y

x y

J= (4-138)
x y

(Jacobian matrix)(4-136)

135

y y

x 1 1
= J = x
x
(4-139)
J
y

J J (determinant)

x y y x
J = (4-140)

(4-139)

1 y y
= ( )
x J
(4-141)
1 x x
= ( + )
y J

4.6.1(3) ()
4-17 ( x, y ) d d

dA = d d (4-142)

d d ( x, y )

x y
d = d i + d j

(4-143)
x y
d = d i + d j

i j ( x, y ) x y (4-142)

x y
d d

dA = = J d d (4-144)
x y
d d

(4-144) ( x, y ) dA ( x, y, z )
d d d d = d (d d)

136

x y z
d d d

x y z
d = d d d = J d d d (4-145)

x y z
d d d

( x, y, z ) d

4.6.2
( x, y ) ( , )
 ( , ) N( , )
(4-134) N
.
4.6.2(1)

(iso-parametric element)
 N
N
(super-parametric element)
 > N
N
(sub-parametric element)
 < N
N

4-18

(a) (b) (c)


4-18
()

4.6.3

137

K e( xy ) = e BT ( x, y, x , y ) D B ( x, y, x , y )dA t
A
1 1
= B ( , , , ) D B* ( , , , ) J d d t
*T
(4-146)
1 1

4 (4-146)
1 1
1
k(exy )ij = A
1 1 0
( A i + B i + C i )( A j + B j + C j ) d d t
+ B0 + C0
(i, j=1,2, ..8) (4-147)
A0 , B0 , C0 , A i , B i , C i , A j , B j , C j

Gauss


(numerical integration)

4.6.3(1) Gauss
n
n
f ( )d Ak f ( k )
1
1
k =1
(4-148)

f ( ) n Ak i n

Ak k (4-148) Ak k

Gauss (Gauss integral point) (weight


coefficient)

11 Gauss

(4-148) n=1

1
I= f ( )d 2 f (0)
1
(4-149)

A1 = 2, 1 = 0

(2) 2 Gauss

(4-148) n=2

1
I= f ( )d A f ( ) + A f ( )
1
1 1 2 2 (4-150)

A1A2 1 2 Gauss
Gauss

138

(4-150) f ( ) 1
2 3

A1A2 1 2

f ( ) 1 (4-150) 4
2 3

2 = A1 + A2
0 = A11 + A2 2
2 (4-151)
= A112 + A2 22
3
0 = A113 + A2 23

1 1
1 = ,2 = , A1 = A2 = 1 (4-152)
3 3
2 Gauss
1
1 1
I= f ( )d
1
f (
3
)+ f( )
3
(4-153)

(3) Gauss

n Gauss
1
I= f ( )d A f ( ) + A f ( ) + "" + A
1
1 1 2 2 n f ( n ) (4-154)

1 2 n A1A2An

Legendre i
Ai
Gauss ( 4-5)

4-5 Gauss

n i Ai
1 0. 000000000000000 2.000000000000000

2 0. 577350269189626 1.000000000000000

0. 774596669241483 0. 555555555555556
3
0. 000000000000000 0. 888888888888889

0. 861136311594053 0. 347854845137454
4
0. 339981043584856 0. 652145154862546

(4) 2D 3D Gauss

1DGauss 2D 3D
2D

139

n

A
1 1 1
I = f ( , )d d = j f ( j , )d
1 1 1
j =1

n n n n
= A (A i j f ( j ,i )) = Ai Aj f ( j ,i ) (4-155)
i =1 j =1 i =1 j =1
n
= A
i , j =1
ij f ( j ,i )

AijAiAj i j Ai A j Gauss

3D
1 1 1
I = f ( , , )d dd
1 1 1
n n n
= Am Aj Ai f (i , j , m ) (4-156)
m =1 j =1 i =1
n
=
i , j , m =1
Amji f (i , j , m )

AmjiAmAiAj i j m Ai A j Am Gauss

4.6.3(2) 4

4-19 4 4 Gauss

E = 30 10 MPa = 0.3 t = 0.1m


6

4-19 4

x ( , y ) = N1 ( , ) x1 + N 2 ( , ) x2 + N 3 ( , ) x3 + N 4 ( , ) x4
1
= (1 )(1 ) x1 + (1 + )(1 ) x2 + (1 + )(1 + ) x3 + (1 )(1 + ) x4
4
1
= (1 )(1 ) + 2 (1 + )(1 ) + 2.25 (1 + )(1 + ) + 1.25 (1 )(1 + )
4
(4-157)

140

y ( , y ) = N1 ( , ) y1 + N 2 ( , ) y2 + N 3 ( , ) y3 + N 4 ( , ) y4
1
= (1 )(1 ) y1 + (1 + )(1 ) y2 + (1 + )(1 + ) y3 + (1 )(1 + ) y4
4
1
= 1.5 (1 + )(1 + ) + (1 )(1 + )
4
(4-158)

x y
J J12
J = 11 = (4-159)
J 21 J 22 x

x 1
J11 = =
2

x 1
J 21 = =
2
(4-160)
y 1
J12 = = ( 0.5 0.5 )
4

y 1
J 22 = = ( 2.5 0.5 )
4

1
J = J11 J 22 J12 J 21 = ( 4 ) (4-161)
16

u u v v
x 1 J J12 x 1 J 22 J12
= 22 , = (4-162)
u J J 21 J11 u v J J 21 J11 v
y
y

u u

u
x u u
xx J 22 J12 0 0
v 1
yy = y = J 0 0 J 21 J11 = H (4-163)
v v
xy
u v J 21 J11 J 22 J 21

+
y x v v


H

141

J 22 J12 0 0
1
H= 0 0 J 21 J11 (4-164)
J
J 21 J11 J 22 J 21

u
0 0

u
0 0
u
= = N ( , ) q = Q q (4-165)
v v
0 0

v
0
0


0


0
Q= N ( , ) (4-166)

0


0

q = [u1 v4 ]
T
v1 u2 v3 u3 v4 u4 (4-167)

N 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0
N ( , ) = 1 (4-168)
0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4

(4-164)(4-165)(4-163)
xx

yy = H Q q = B q (4-169)
xy

B = H Q (4-170)
4-19
2.5 0.5 ( 0.5 0.5 ) 0 0
4
H = 0 0 2 2 (4-171)
( 34 ) 4
2 2 2.5 0.5 ( 0.5 0.5 )

142

1 0 1 0 1+ 0 (1 + ) 0

1 1 0 (1 + ) 0 1+ 0 1 0
Q = (4-172))
( 48) 4 0 1 0 1 0 1+ 0 (1 + )

0 1 0 (1 + ) 0 1+ 0 1
4-19

1 0.3 0
D = 32.97 10 0.3 1 0 MPa
6
(4-173)
( 33)
0 0 0.35
4 Gauss

3
i = j =
3 (4-174)
Ai = Aj = 1

2
2
T
K = t Ai Aj Q J (i , j )
e T
H D H Q
(88) i =1 j =1 (84) ( 43) ( 33) ( 34 ) ( 48) ,
( i j)
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4
2305 798 1759 152 617 214 72 432
1453 52 169 214 389 533 895

1957 522 471 14 669 560

993 41 45 633 869
= 103 MN m
sym 166 57 19 116

104 143 240
616 244

1524
(4-175)

4.7

4.7.1 3
4.7.1(1) 3

4-20 F = 100000N
E = 1107 Pa = 1/ 3 t = 0.1m

143

a) b)
4--20 ()

4-20(b) 3
F 1 2

q = [u1 v4 ]
T
v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 (4-176)

T
F F
F = 0 0 0 0 0 0 (4-177)
2 2
T
R = 0 0 0 0 Rx 3 Ry 3 Rx 4 Ry 4 (4-178)


T
F F
P = F + R = R = 0 0 Rx 3 Ry 3 Rx 4 Ry 4 (4-179)
2 2

( ) ( )
Rx 3 , Ry 3 Rx 4 , Ry 4 3 4

(i,j,m)

144

k ii k ij ki m

K(1)(2)
= k ji k jj k jm
k m i km j k m m

2 2
1 0 0 1
3 3

0 1 2 2 1
0
3 3 3 3
(4-180)
0 2 4 4 2
0
9 Et 3 3 3 3
=
32 2 2
0 0 4 4
3 3
2 4 2 7 4
1
3 3 3 3 3
2 1 2 4 13
3
3

3
4
3 3

K = K (1) + K (2) (4-181)

u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4

u1
k m m(2) k m j(2) k mi(2)
(2) v1
(2) k (2)
k
k im(1) u2
jj ji
k jm (4-182)
+k ii (1)
+k ij (1)
v2
K = (2)
k (2) k ij
(88) (2)
k ii (1)
u3
k jm
im +k ji(1) +k jj
(1) v3
u4
k mi(1) k mj(1) k mm(1)

v4
(4-182)(4-176)(4-179)

Kq = P

145

7 4 4 2 2
3 1 0 0
3 3 3 3

4 13

2
4
2

1
0 0
3 0
3 3 3 3
u
4 2 7 4 2 1 F
0 0 1
3 1 2
v
3 3 3 3
0
2 13 4 2 1 u2

4 0 0 F (4-183)
9 Et 3 3 3 3 3 v2
=
32 2 4 7 4 2 u 3 2

1 0 0
3 3 3 3 3 v3 R x 3
2 1 4 13 2 R
3 0 0 4 u4 y 3
3 3 3 3
v 4 x 4
R

0 2 4 2 7 4 R
0 1 y 4
3 3 3 3 3

0 2 1 2 4 13
0 4
3 3 3 3 3

u3 = 0, v3 = 0, u4 = 0, v4 = 0 (4-183)

5 8

7 4 4 2
3
3 3 3 0
u
4 13 2 F
4
1

9 Et 3 3 3 v1 2
= (4-184)
32 4 2 7 u 0
0 2
3 3 3 v2 F
2 13 2
4 0
3 3
(4-184)
F
[u1 v2 ] = [1.88 8.99 1.50 8.42]
T T
v1 u2 (4-185)
Et
5

(4-185)(4-183)

9 Et 2 4
Rx 3 = u1 v1 + v2 = 2 F
32 3 3

9 Et 2 1 4
Ry 3 = u1 v1 + u2 = 0.07 F
32 3 3 3

9 Et 2
Rx 4 = u2 v2 = 2 F
32 3

146

9 Et 2 1
Ry 4 = u2 v2 = 1.07 F
32 3 3

MATLAB 4.7.1(2) 3 (Triangle2D3Node)

MATLAB 4.7.1(1) 4-20 MATLAB

3 4-20(b)

2()

MATLAB E NU t
ID 1 2 Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness
k1(66) k2(66)

>> E=1e7;
>> NU=1/3;
>> t=0.1;
>> ID=1;
>> k1=Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,2,0,0,1,0,0,ID)
k1 = 1.0e+006 *
0.2813 0 0 0.1875 -0.2813 -0.1875
0 0.0938 0.1875 0 -0.1875 -0.0938
0 0.1875 0.3750 0 -0.3750 -0.1875
0.1875 0 0 1.1250 -0.1875 -1.1250
-0.2813 -0.1875 -0.3750 -0.1875 0.6563 0.3750
-0.1875 -0.0938 -0.1875 -1.1250 0.3750 1.2188

>>k2=Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,0,1,2,0,2,1,ID)
k2 = 1.0e+006 *
0.2813 0 0 0.1875 -0.2813 -0.1875
0 0.0938 0.1875 0 -0.1875 -0.0938
0 0.1875 0.3750 0 -0.3750 -0.1875
0.1875 0 0 1.1250 -0.1875 -1.1250
-0.2813 -0.1875 -0.3750 -0.1875 0.6563 0.3750
-0.1875 -0.0938 -0.1875 -1.1250 0.3750 1.2188

4 8 KK(8
8) KK Triangle2D3Node_Assembly
>>KK = zeros(8,8);
>>KK=Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k1,2,3,4);
>>KK=Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k2,3,2,1)
KK = 1.0e+006 *
Columns 1 through 6
0.6563 0.3750 -0.3750 -0.1875 -0.2813 -0.1875
0.3750 1.2188 -0.1875 -1.1250 -0.1875 -0.0938
-0.3750 -0.1875 0.6563 0 0 0.3750
-0.1875 -1.1250 0 1.2188 0.3750 0

147

-0.2813 -0.1875 0 0.3750 0.6563 0


-0.1875 -0.0938 0.3750 0 0 1.2188
0 0 -0.2813 -0.1875 -0.3750 -0.1875
0 0 -0.1875 -0.0938 -0.1875 -1.1250

Columns 7 through 8
0 0
0 0
-0.2813 -0.1875
-0.1875 -0.0938
-0.3750 -0.1875
-0.1875 -1.1250
0.6563 0.3750
0.3750 1.2188

4-20(b) 3 4

u3 = 0, v3 = 0, u4 = 0, v4 = 0 1 2 1

2 KK 4 4 KK(88) k
pMATLAB \

>>k=KK(1:4,1:4)
k = 1.0e+006 *
0.6563 0.3750 -0.3750 -0.1875
0.3750 1.2188 -0.1875 -1.1250
-0.3750 -0.1875 0.6563 0
-0.1875 -1.1250 0 1.2188

>>p=[0;-5000;0;-5000]
p = 0 -5000 0 -5000 []

>>u=k\p
u = 0.0188 -0.0899 -0.0150 -0.0842 []

u1 = 0.0188, v1 = 0.0899, u2 = 0.0151, v2 = 0.0842

(4-183)
(
) U(81) P(8
1)(4-179)
>>U=[u;0;0;0;0];
>>P=KK*U
P = 1.0e+004 *
-0.0000 -0.5000 0 -0.5000 -2.0000 -0.0702 2.0000 1.0702 []
(4-179)
Rx 3 = 20000, Ry 3 = 702, Rx 4 = 20000, Ry 4 = 10702

6
U(81)

148

Triangle2D3Node_Stress
>>u1=[U(3);U(4);U(5);U(6);U(7);U(8)]
u1 = -0.0150 -0.0842 0 0 0 0

>>stress1=Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,2,0,0,1,0,0,u1,ID)
stress1 = 1.0e+005 *
-0.8419 -0.2806 -1.5791 []

>>u2=[U(5);U(6);U(3);U(4);U(1);U(2)]
u2 = 0 0 -0.0150 -0.0842 0.0188 -0.0899 []

>>stress2=Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,0,1,2,0,2,1,u2,ID)
stress2 =1.0e+004 *
8.4187 -2.8953 -4.2094 []

1 x = 84190Pa, y = 28060Pa,

xy = 157910Pa 2 x = 84187Pa, y = 28953Pa, xy = 42094Pa

ANSYS 4.7.1(3) 3

MATLAB 4.7.1(2) ANSYS


ANSYS

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): 2D3NodeRun OK

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK

(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add SolidQuad
4node 42 OK ( Element Types ) Options K3: Plane Strs w/thk(
) OKClose

(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear
Elastic Isotropic: EX:1.0e7 ()PRXY: 0.33333333 () OK
U

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 OK
Real Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), THK: 0.1 () OK Close

(6)
4
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes On Working Plane
1 x,y,z (2,1,0) 2 x,y,z (2,0,0) 3 x,y,z (0,1,0)
4 x,y,z (0,0,0)OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes
Element type number:1 Material number:1Real constant set number:1 OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements User Numbered Thru
NodesNumber to assign to element:1Pick nodes:2,3,4OKNumber to assign to element:2Pick
nodes:3,2,1OK

149

(7)
x,y,
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On
Nodes 34 OK Lab2 DOFs to be constrained: UXUYVALUE0 OK
y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 12 OK Direction: FY VALUE: -0.5e5 OK

(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Close (Solution is done! )

(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape Def + Undeformed
OK ( Plot Results) Contour Plot Nodal Solu Stress, Von Mises, Undisplaced shape
key: Deformed shape with Undeformed model OK ()

(10)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

2
!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]4_7_1(3) %%%% begin %%%%%
/PREP7 !
!=====
ET,1,PLANE42 !
KEYOPT,1,3,3 !
MP,EX,1,1.0e7 !
MP,PRXY,1,0.33333333 !
R,1,0.1 ! 0.1
!------ 4
N,1,2,1,0,,,, ! 1,(2,1,0)
N,2,2,0,0,,,, ! 2,(2,0,0)
N,3,0,1,0,,,, ! 3,(0,1,0)
N,4,0,0,0,,,, ! 4,(0,0,0)
!------
TYPE,1 ! 1
MAT,1 ! 1
TSHAP,LINE !
!-------
EN,1,2,3,4 ! 4
EN,2,3,2,1 ! 4
!-------
D,3,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,, ! 3 ,
D,4,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,, ! 4 ,
!-------
F,1,FY,-0.5e5 ! 1 , FY=-0.5e5
F,2,FY,-0.5e5 ! 2 , FY=-0.5e5
!=====
/solu !
solve !
finish !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]4_7_1(3) %%%% end %%%%%

150

4.7.2 4

MATLAB 4.7.2(1) 4 (Quad2D4Node)


4-21 F

E = 1 107 Pa, =1/3, t =0.1m, F =1 105 N MATLAB

F
2
1
5 3


F 1m

6 4 2 x

F
2m 2

(a) (b)
4-21

4 4-21(b)
4-6 4-7 F 1 2

4-6

1 3 5 6 4
2 1 3 4 2

4-7
(m)
x y
1 2 1
2 2 0
3 1 1
4 1 0
5 0 1
6 0 0

q = [u1 v6 ]
T
v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 u5 v5 u6 (4-186)

151

T
F F
F = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (4-187)
2 2

T
R = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rx 5 Ry 5 Rx 6 Ry 6 (4-188)

T
F F
P = F + R = R = 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rx 5 Ry 5 Rx 6 Ry 6 (4-189)
2 2

( ) ( )
Rx 5 , Ry 5 Rx 6 , Ry 6 5 6

2()

MATLAB E NU h
ID 1 2 Quad2D4Node_Stiffness
k1(88) k2(88)

>> E=1e7;
>> NU=1/3;
>> t=0.1;
>> ID=1;
>> k1= Quad2D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t, 1,1, 0,1,0,0,1,0, ID);
>>k2=Quad2D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t, 2,1,1,1,1,0,2,0, ID);

6 12 KK(12
12) KK Quad2D4Node_Assembly
>>KK = zeros(12,12);
>>KK= Quad2D4Node_Assembly(KK,k1, 3,5,6,4);
>>KK= Quad2D4Node_Assembly(KK,k2, 1,3,4,2);

4-21(b) 5 6

u5 = 0, v5 = 0, u6 = 0, v6 = 0 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 KK 8 8
KK(1212) k p
MATLAB \
>>k=KK(1:8,1:8);
>>p=[0;-50000;0;-50000;0;0;0;0];
>>u=k\p
u = 0.8000 -2.5333 -0.8000 -2.5333 0.6000 -0.8667 -0.6000 -0.8667 []

u1 = 0.8000, v1 = 2.5333, u2 = 0.8000, v2 = 2.5333,

u3 = 0.6000, v3 = 0.8667, u4 = 0.6000, v4 = 0.8667

152


()
U(121) P(121)(4-189)

>>U=[u;0;0;0;0];
>>P=KK*U
P = 1.0e+005 *
-0.0000 -0.5000 0.0000 -0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 []
0.0000 -0.0000 -2.0000 0.5000 2.0000 0.5000 []
(4-189)

Rx 5 = 200000, R y 5 = 50000, Rx 6 = 200000, Ry 6 = 50000

6
U(121)
Quad2D4Node_Stress
>>u1=[ U(5);U(6) ;U(9);U(10);U(11);U(12);U(7);U(8)]
u1 = 0.6000 -0.8667 0 0 0 0 -0.6000 -0.8667 []

>>stress1=Quad2D4Node_Stress(E,NU, 1,1,0,1,0,0,1,0, u1,ID)


stress1 = 1.0e+005 *
0.0000 0.0000 -10.0000 []

>>u2=[ U(1);U(2) ;U(5);U(6); U(7);U(8);U(3);U(4)]


u2 = 0.8000 -2.5333 0.6000 -0.8667 []
-0.6000 -0.8667 -0.8000 -2.5333 []

>>stress2=Quad2D4Node_Stress(E,NU, 2,1,1,1,1,0,2,0, u2,ID)


stress2 = 1.0e+005 *
0.0000 0.0000 -10.0000 []

1 x = 0Pa, y = 0Pa, xy = 1000000Pa

2 x = 0Pa, y = 0Pa, xy = 1000000Pa

ANSYS 4.7.2(2) 4
MATLAB 4.7.2(1) ANSYS
4-21(b)
4

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS product launcherFilemanagementWorking directory ()
Jobname(): rectangularRun OK

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK

(3)

153

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add SolidQuad


4node 42 OK ( Element Types ) Options K3: Plane Strs w/thk(
) OKClose

(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear
Elastic Isotropic: EX:1e7 ()PRXY: 0.3 () OK U

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 OK
Real Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), THK: 0.1 () OK Close

(6)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS NODE:(
) X,Y, Z:() THXYTHYZTHZX Apply
OK

(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: PreprocessorModeling Create Elements User Numbered Thru
Nodes Number to assign to element: 1 Apply 3564 Apply
Number to assign to element: 2 Apply 1342 OK

(8)
X Y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On
Nodes ( 56) OK Lab2 DOFs to be constrained : All DOF
VALUE 0() OK
Y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes ( 12) OK Lab Direction of force/mom: FY
VALUE-5.0e4 OK
(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Close (Solution is done! )

(10)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Nodel Solution DOF Solution
Displacement vector sum OK()
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Reaction Solu All items OK , 5
6
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Element Solution Stress X-component
of stress OK, X )

(11)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

2
!%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_7_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%
/prep7 !
et,1,plane42 !(no.1 plane42 )
KEYOPT,1,3,3 !
mp,ex,1,1e7 !
mp,prxy,1,0.33333 !
R,1,0.1, ! (0.1)
!------ 6
N,1,2,1,,,,, ! 1,(2,1,0)
N,2,2,,,,,, ! 2,(2,0,0)

154

N,3,1,1,,,,, ! 3,(1,1,0)
N,4,1,0,,,,, ! 4,(1,0,0)
N,5,0,1,,,,, ! 5,(0,1,0)
N,6,0,0,,,,, ! 6,(0,0,0)
E,5,6,4,3 ! 4
E,3,4,2,1 ! 4
d,5,all ! 5 ,
d,6,all ! 6 ,
F,1,FY,-50000 ! 1 , FY=-50000
F,2,FY,-50000 ! 2 , FY=-50000
!=====
/solu !
solve !
finish !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
finish !
!%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_7_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%

4.8

4.8.1 4

MATLAB 4.8.1(1) 4 (Tetrahedron3D4Node)


4-22 F MATLAB

E = 1 10 Pa, =0.25
10

F =1 105 N

4-22

155

5 4 4-22
4-8 4-9

4-8

1 1 4 2 6
2 1 4 3 7
3 6 7 5 1
4 6 7 8 4
5 1 4 6 7

4-9
(m)
x y z
1 0 0 0
2 0.2 0 0
3 0 0.8 0
4 0.2 0.8 0
5 0 0 0.6
6 0.2 0 0.6
7 0 0.8 0.6
8 0.2 0.8 0.6

q = [u1 v1 w1 u2 v2 w2 " u8 v8 w8 ]
T
(4-190)

T
F = 0 0 F3T F4T 0 0 F7T F8T (4-191)

0 0
F3 = F4 = 0
F7 = F8 = 0

0 1105 N

T
R = R1T RT2 0 0 RT5 RT6 0 0 4-192

R1x R2 x R5 x R6 x
R1 = R1 y R 2 = R2 y R 5 = R5 y R 6 = R6 y

R1z R2 z R5 z R6 z

T
P = F + R = R = R1T R T2 F3T F4T R T5 R T6 F7T F8T (4-193)

156

2()

MATLAB E NU 1 2
5 Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness k1(66)
k5(66)
>> E=1e10;
>> NU=0.25;
>> k1 = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0.2,0,0,0.2,0,0.6);
>> k2 = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0,0.8,0,0,0.8,0.6);
>> k3 = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6,0,0,0.6,0,0,0);
>> k4=Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6,0.2,0.8,0.6,0.2,0.8,0);
>> k5 = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6);

8 24 KK(24
24) KK 5 Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly

>>KK = zeros(24);
>> KK = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k1,1,4,2,6);
>> KK = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k2,1,4,3,7);
>> KK = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k3,6,7,5,1);
>> KK = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k4,6,7,8,4);
>> KK = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k5,1,4,6,7);

4-22 1 2 5 6

u1 = v1 = w1 = u2 = v2 = w2 = u5 = v5 = w5 = u6 = v6 = w6 = 0 347

8 1256 KK 1 6 13 18
1 6 13 18 KK(2424) k
pMATLAB \

>>k=KK([7:12,19:24],[7:12,19:24]);
>>p=[0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-1e5,0,0,-1e5]'
>>u=k\p
u = 1.0e-003 *
0.1249 -0.0485 -0.4024 0.1343 -0.0715 -0.4031 []
0.1314 0.0858 -0.4460 0.1353 0.0681 -0.4742 []
4-10

4-10

u3 0.124910-3 u7 0.131410-3
v3 -0.048510-3 v7 0.085810-3
w3 -0.402410-3 w7 -0.446010-3
u4 0.134310-3 u8 0.135310-3
v4 -0.071510-3 v8 0.068110-3

157

w4 -0.403110-3 w8 -0.474210-3
5


()
U(241) P(241)(4-192)

>>U=[zeros(6,1);u([1:6]);zeros(6,1);u(7:12)];
>>P=KK*U
P = 1.0e+005 *
0.3372 1.3774 0.1904 -0.4202 1.2892 0.4984 []
-0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 []
-0.4745 -1.3774 0.5604 0.5575 -1.2892 0.7509 []
-0.0000 -0.0000 -1.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 []
(4-193) 4-11

4-11

R1x = 0.3372 105 N R5 x = 0.4745 105 N


R1 y = 1.3774 105 N R5 y = 1.3774 105 N
R1z = 0.1904 105 N R5 z = 0.5604 105 N
R2 x = 0.4202 105 N R6 x = 0.5575 105 N
R2 y = 1.2892 105 N R6 y = 1.2892 105 N
R2 z = 0.4984 105 N R6 z = 0.7509 105 N

6
U(241)
Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress
>>u1=[U(1:3);U(10:12);U(4:6);U(16:18)];
>>stress1 = Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0.2,0,0,0.2,0,0.6,u1)
stress1 = 1.0e+006 *
-0.3574 -1.0721 -0.3574 0.6717 -2.0155 0 []
>>u2=[U(1:3);U(10:12);U(7:9);U(19:21)];
>> stress2= Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0,0.8,0,0,0.8,0.6,u2)
stress2 = 1.0e+006 *
0.0314 -0.8298 -0.9260 0.1649 -1.1170 0.0294 []
>> u3=[U(16:21);U(13:15);U(1:3)];
>> stress3=Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6,0,0,0.6,0,0,0,u3)
stress3 = 1.0e+006 *
0.4289 1.2867 0.4289 0.6568 -2.2301 0 []
>> u4=[U(16:21);U(22:24);U(10:12)];
>> stress4=Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6,0.2,0.8,0.6,0.2,0.8,0,u4)
stress4 = 1.0e+006 *
0.1046 0.6272 -1.0012 0.3233 -1.4402 -0.5562 []
>> u5=[U(1:3);U(10:12);U(16:21)];
>> stress5=Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,0,0,0,0.2,0.8,0,0.2,0,0.6,0,0.8,0.6,u5)
stress5 = 1.0e+006 *
-0.0179 -0.0060 -0.3636 -0.9083 -1.5986 0.4192 []

158

4-12

4-12

x = -0.3574MPa y = -1.0721MPa z = -0.3574MPa


1
xy = 0.6717MPa yz = 2.0155MPa zx = 0MPa

x = 0.0314MPa y = -0.8298MPa z = -0.9260MPa


2
xy = 0.1649MPa yz = 1.1170MPa zx = 0.0294MPa

x = 0.4289MPa y = 1.2867MPa z = 0.4289MPa


3
xy = 0.6568MPa yz = 2.2301MPa zx = 0MPa

x = 0.1046MPa y = 0.6272MPa z = -1.0012MPa


4
xy = 0.3233MPa yz = 1.4402MPa zx = 0.5562MPa

x = -0.0179MPa y = -0.0060MPa z = -0.3636MPa


5
xy = -0.9083MPa yz = 1.5986MPa zx = 0.4192MPa

ANSYS 4.8.1(2) 4
MATLAB 4.8.1(1) ANSYS .
4-22 5 4

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): TBrickRun OK

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK

(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add SolidBrick
8node 45 OK ( Element Types ) Close

(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear
Elastic Isotropic: EX:1e10()PRXY: 0.25 () OK U

(5)

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Node In Active CS NODE : 1,
X,Y,Z : 0,0,0 Apply 2 8 8

159

OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Element User Numberd Thru
Nodes Number to assign to element: 1 1426 OK Thru Nodes
Number to assign to element: 2 1437 OK
5 OK

(6)
78 Z
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 7 OK Direction of Force: FZ
VALUE-1e5 Apply 8 Direction of Force: FZVALUE-1e5 OK

1256
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On
Nodes OK Lab2 All DOFs () OK

(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Should The Solve Command be
Executed? Y Close (Solution is done! )

(8)


ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Nodal Solution DOF Solution
Displacement vector sum OK ( Matlab )

ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Reaction Solu All items OK (
Matlab )

ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc List Results Element Solution Stress X
component of stress OK ( Matlab )

(9)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

2
!%%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_8_1(2) %%%%% begin %%%%
/PREP7 !
!=====
ET,1,SOLID45 !(SOLID45)
MP,EX,1,1e10 !
MP,PRXY,1,0.25 !
!------ 8
N,1,0,0,0,,,, ! 1,(0,0,0)
N,2,0.2,0,0,,,,
N,3,0,0.8,0,,,,
N,4,0.2,0.8,0,,,,
N,8,0.2,0.8,0.6,,,,
N,7,0,0.8,0.6,,,,
N,6,0.2,0,0.6,,,,
N,5,0,0,0.6,,,,
!------
EN,1,1,4,2,6 ! 1,4,2,6 1 5
EN,2,1,4,3,7
EN,3,6,7,5,1
EN,4,6,7,8,4

160

EN,5,1,4,6,7
FINISH
!=====
/SOLU
F,7,FZ,-100000,,, ! 7 FZ, -100000
F,8,FZ,-100000,,, ! 8 FZ, -100000
D,1, ,0, ,2, ,ALL, , , , , ! 1 2
D,5, ,0, ,6, ,ALL, , , , , ! 5 6
SOLVE !
FINISH !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
!%%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_8_1(2) %%%%% end %%%%

4.8.2 8

MATLAB 4.8.2(1) 8 (Hexahedral3D8Node)


4-23 F

E = 1 1010 Pa, =0.25, t =0.2m, F =1 105 N MATLAB 8

(a) (b)
4-23

8 4-23(b)
4-13

4-13
m

x y z
1 0.2 0 0
2 0.2 0.8 0

161

3 0 0.8 0
4 0 0 0
5 0.2 0 0.6
6 0.2 0.8 0.6
7 0 0.8 0.6
8 0 0 0.6

q e = [u1 v1 w1 u2 v2 w2 " u8 v8 w8 ]T 4-194


(241)

Pe = [ Px1 Py1 Pz1 Px 2 Py 2 Pz 2 " Px 8 Py 8 Pz 8 ]T 4-195


(241)

Pz 6 = Pz 7 = F = 1 10 N Px1 = Rx1 Py1 = Ry1 Pz1 = Rz1


5

Px 4 = Rx 4 Py 4 = Ry 4 Pz 4 = Rz 4 Px 5 = Rx 5 Py 5 = Ry 5 Pz 5 = Rz 5 Px8 = Rx 8 Py 8 = Ry 8

Pz 8 = Rz 8

2()

MATLAB E NU
Hexahedral3D8Node_Stiffness k1 (2424)

>>E=1.0e10;
>>NU=0.25;
>>lx=0.2;
>>ly=0.8;
>>lz=0.6;
>>k1=Hexahedral3D8Node_ElementStiffness(E,NU,lx,0,0,lx,ly,0,0,ly,0,0,0,0,lx,0,lz,lx,ly,lz,0,ly,lz,0,0,lz);

8 24 K K(24
24) KK Hexahedral3D8Node_Assembly
KK k1

>>KK=zeros(24,24);
>>KK=Hexahedral3D8Node_Assembly(KK,k1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8);

4-23(b) 1 4 5 8

u1 = v1 = w1 = 0, u4 = v4 = w4 = 0, u5 = v5 = w5 = 0, u8 = v8 = w8 = 0

2 3 6 7 4 KK 4 9
4 9 4 9 16 21 16 21 4 9 16 21 16 21
KK(2424) k p
MATLAB \

162

>> k=[KK(4:9,4:9),KK(4:9,16:21);KK(16:21,4:9),KK(16:21,16:21)];
>> p=[0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;-1e5;0;0;-1e5];
>> u=k\p
u = 1.0e-003 *
0.0223 -0.2769 -0.6728 -0.0223 -0.2769 -0.6728 []
-0.0129 0.3108 -0.7774 0.0129 0.3108 -0.7774 []
m

u2 = 0.0223, v2 = -0.2769, w2 = -0.6728,

u3 = -0.0223, v3 = -0.2769, w3 = -0.6728,

u6 = -0.0129, v6 = 0.3108, w6 = -0.7774,

u7 = 0.0129, v7 = 0.3108, w7 = -0.7774,

K q = P

(
) U(241)
P(241)
>> U=[0;0;0;u(1:6);0;0;0;0;0;0;u(7:12);0;0;0];
>> P=KK*U
P = 1.0e+005 *
-0.2509 1.3333 0.6938 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 []
0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.2509 1.3333 0.6938 []
0.3455 -1.3333 0.3062 -0.0000 -0.0000 -1.0000 []
-0.0000 0.0000 -1.0000 -0.3455 -1.3333 0.3062 []
4-195 N

Rx1 = -0.2509, Ry1 = 1.3333, Rz1 = 0.6938,

Rx 4 = 0.2509, Ry 4 = 1.3333, Rz 4 = 0.6938,

Rx 5 = 0.3455, Ry 5 = -1.3333, Rz 5 = 0.3062,

Rx 8 = -0.3455, Ry 8 = -1.3333, Rz 8 = 0.3062,

6
U(241)
Hexahedral3D8Node_Stress
>> u1=U(1:24);
>>stress1=Hexahedral3D8Node_Stress(E,NU,lx,0,0,lx,ly,0,0,ly,0,0,0,0,lx,0,lz,lx,ly,lz,0,ly,lz,0,0,lz,u1)
stress1 = 1.0e+006 *
0.0197 0.0000 -0.8673 -0.0000 -1.6667 -0.0000 []
1

163

x = 19700Pa, y = 0Pa, z = 867300Pa, xy = 0Pa, yz = 1666700Pa, zx = 0Pa

ANSYS 4.8.2(2) 8
MATLAB 4.8.2(1) ANSYS
4-23(b) 8

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): 3D8nodeRun OK

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK

(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add SolidBrick 8node
45 OKClose

(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear
Elastic Isotropic: EX:1.0e10 ()PRXY: 0.25 () OK U

(5)
8
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling CreatNodes In Active CSNode number 1
X:0.2,Y:0,Z:0 ApplyNode number 2 X:0.2,Y:0.8,Z:0 ApplyNode number 3 X:0,Y:0.8,Z:0
ApplyNode number 4 X:0,Y:0,Z:0ApplyNode number 5 X:0.2,Y:0,Z:0.6 ApplyNode
number 6 X:0.2,Y:0.8,Z:0.6 ApplyNode number 7 X:0,Y:0.8,Z:0.6ApplyNode number 8
X:0,Y:0,Z:0.6OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes Element
type number:1 Material number:1 OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes Min,Max,Inc,1,8OK

(6)
4 x,y,z
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
1458 OK Lab2 DOFs: UXUY UZ VALUE0 OK
Z
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On Nodes
67 OK Direction: FZ VALUE: 1.0e5 OK

(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Close (Solution is done! )

(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape Def + Undeformed
OK ( Plot Results) Contour Plot Nodal Solu Stress, Von Mises, Def + Undeformed OK
()

164

(9)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_8_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%%


/prep7 !
!=====
ET,1,SOLID45 !(SOLID45)
MP,EX,1,1.0e10 !
MP,PRXY,1,0.25 !
!-------- 8
lx=0.2 ! lx
ly=0.8 ! ly
lz=0.6 ! lz
N,1,lx,0,0,,,, ! 1,(lx,0,0)
N,2,lx,ly,0,,,,
N,3,0,ly,0,,,,
N,4,0,0,0,,,,
N,5,lx,0,lz,,,,
N,6,lx,ly,lz,,,,
N,7,0,ly,lz,,,,
N,8,0,0,lz,,,,
!------
TYPE,1 ! 1
MAT,1 ! 1
TSHAP,QUA8 ! 8 3D ()
E,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 ! 8
!-------
D,1,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,, ! 1
D,4,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,,
D,5,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,,
D,8,,,,,,UX,UY,UZ,,,
!-------
F,6,FZ,-1.0e5 ! 6 , FZ=-1.0e5
F,7,FZ,-1.0e5 ! 7 , FZ=-1.0e5
!=====
/solu !
solve !
finish !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
finish !
!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ] 4_8_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%%%

4.9

z
z
z (3 4 )
z (3 4 )

165

z (4 8 )
z (Gauss )

4.10

4-1

20 10 10
= 10 20 10 MPa
10 10 20

Mises

4-2 280MPa
4-2

4-2

xx (MPa) yy (MPa) xy (MPa)


A 140 140 0
B 105 105 105
C 0 0 140
D -14 70 -56

4-3

u ( x, y ) = ( x 2 + 2 y 2 + 6 xy ) 104
4
v( x, y ) = (3x + 6 y y ) 10
2

x = 1 , y = 0 xx , yy , xy

4-4

u ( x, y ), v( x, y ) xx , yy , xy

4-4

166

4-5

4-5

4-6 ( x, y )

( , ) = (1, 0.5) ( x, y )

4-6

4-7

4-7

(1)
1 i, j , m K

8 0 6 6 2 6
16 0 12 0 4

13.5 4.5 7.5 4.5
K (1) =
13.5 1.5 1.5
sym. 9.5 1.5

5.5

167

(2)
2 K

4-8

4-8
4-9

1
=
A 2
( xx xx + yy yy + xy xy ) tdA
1
+ kv 2 ( x = a, y = 0) p ( x ) vds
2 s

A t k v y v( x = a, y = 0)

4-9

4-10 4-9 p( x) = 100 N / cm

4-11 ANSYS 4.3.2(4)

168

5.1

(bandwidth)(nodal numbering)

2
6

1 3 7
i

8
4

5-1 2D

5-1 2D i
qi = [u3 v3 u5 v5 u6 v6 ]T (5-1)
(5-1)(5-2)
u1 v1 u2 v2 u3 v3 u4 v4 u5 v5 u6 v6 u7 v7 u8 v8

u1
v
1
u2

v2
u3

v3
u
4
v4
K= u

5
v5

u6
v6

u7
v
7
i u8
v
8
(5-2)
DOF

169

(semi bandwidth)
di = ( i1) , (5-3)

d = max {di } ( i = 1, 2,3, , n) (5-4)
i
n 2D 2 3D 3

5.2

5.2.1
4.3

u ( x) = N1 ( x)u1 + N 2 ( x)u2 = N( x)q e (5-5)


u1u2 N1 ( x), N 2 ( x) 1 2 N( x)
N ( x ) = [ N1 ( x) N 2 ( x) ]

1.

u1 = 1, u2 = 0 , (5-5)
u ( x) = N1 ( x) (5-6)
(5-6) 1 N1 ( x) 1 1

2.

u1 = 0, u2 = 1 (5-5)
u ( x) = N 2 ( x) (5-7)

5.2.1(1) 10/1

N i i 1 0 , 5-2

5-2 1D

3.

u0

170

u0
u ( x ) = u0
(5-8)
u1 = u2 = u0
(5-5),
u0 = N1 ( x)u0 + N 2 ( x)u0 (5-9)
u0
N1 ( x ) + N 2 ( x ) = 1 (5-10)

5.2.1(2) 2 1

N ( x) = 1
i =1
i (5-11)

5.2.2
2 ,
k11 k12 u1 p1
k = (5-12)
21 k22 u2 p2

1.

u1 = 1, u2 = 0 , (5-12)
k11 = p1 (5-13)
k11 2 1
1 5-3(a)

(a) k11

(b) k12
5-3

5.2.2(1) 1 1/0

171

kii i ( ui = 1 )
0 i

2.

u1 = 0, u2 = 1 ,(5-12)
k12 = p1 (5-14)
k12 1 2
1 5-3(b)

5.2.2(2) 2 1/0

kij ( i j ) j
( u j = 1 ), 0 , i

5.2.2(3) 3
(symmetry)
T
K eT = e BT DBd = e BT DBd = K e (5-15)

reciprocal theorem of work Betti-Maxwell

kij k ji

1 kij = 1 k ji kij = k ji

5.2.2(4) 4
(positive Semi-definite)

1
U = q eT K eq e
2
1
= ( k11u12 + + k1i u1ui + + k1nu1un +
2
+ k j1u j u1 + + k ji u j ui + + k jnu j un +
+ kn1un u1 + + kni unui + + knnunun )
1 n n
= kij uiu j
2 i =1 j =1
(5-16)

q = [u1 un ] U qe
e T
u2
(5-16) Ke
q q = 0 U
e e

positive definite
qe0 U0
e
|K |0 kii>0

172

3.

(
)(5-12)
p1 , p2

u1 = c1(1)
(5-17)
u2 = c2(1)
p1p2
u1 = c1(1) + u0 = c1( 2)
(5-18)
u2 = c2(1) + u0 = c2( 2)
u0

k11 k12 c1( 0) p1


= (5-19)
k
21 k22 c2( 0) p2

k11 k12 c1( 2) p1


= (5-20)
k
21 k22 c2( 2) p2
(5-20)(5-19)
k11 k12 c1( 2) c1(1) 0
k = (5-21)
21 k22 c2( 2) c2(1) 0
( 2)
c1 c1(1) , c2( 2) c1(1) (5-21)()

k11 k12
=0 (5-22)
k21 k22
(5-18)(5-21)

k11 u0 + k12 u0 = 0
(5-23)
k21 u0 + k22 u0 = 0

k11 + k12 = 0
(5-24)
k21 + k22 = 0
1 2 (5-24)

5.2.2(5) 5

(singularity) K
e
= 0

5.2.2(6) 6()
( C0
)

173

(a) (b)
(c)(d) (spars matrix)(e) (banded)
C1 5.5
5.2.2(7)

5.2.2(7)

5-4

5-4

v ( x ) = N1v1 + N 21 + N 3v2 + N 4 2
= Nq (5-25)

N = [N1 N 2 N 3 N 4 ] q = [v1 1 v2 2 ]
T

C0 ( [v1 v2 ] )

C1 ( [1 2 ] )

C0

case 1

(a) (b) 1
5-5

174

5-5(a) v0

v ( x ) = v0 (5-26)

v1 = v2 = v0 , 1 = 2 = 0 (5-27)

(5-26)(5-27)(5-25)

v ( x ) = N1 v0 + N 3 v0 = v0 (5-28)

v0

N1 + N 3 = 1 (5-29)

3.3.2

x
2 3
x
N1 = 1 3 + 2
l l
2 3 (5-30)
x x
N3 = 3 2
l l
(5-29)(5-29)(5-29)

case 2

5-5(b) 1 0

v ( x ) = 0 x (5-31)

v1 = 0

v2 = 0 l
(5-32)
1 = 0
2 = 0

(5-31)(5-32)(5-25)

v ( x ) = N1 0 + N 2 0 + N 3 0 l + N 4 0 = 0 x (5-33)

N 2 + N 4 + N3 l = x (5-34)

175

x
N 2 + N 4 = x N3 l = l N3 (5-35)
l
(5-29)

x
N 2 + N 4 = l + N1 1 (5-36)
l

(5-29)(5-36) C0 N i = 1

case 3

5-6

5-6 1 0 ,

v0

v ( x ) = v0 + 0 x (5-37)

v1 = v0

v2 = v0 + 0 l
(5-38)
1 = 0
2 = 0

(5-37)(5-38)(5-25)

N1 v0 + N 2 0 + N3 ( v0 + 0 l ) + N 4 0 = v0 + 0 x (5-39)

( N1 + N3 ) v0 + ( N 2 + N 4 ) 0 + N3 0l = v0 + 0 x (5-40)

(5-29)

N 2 + N 4 = x N 3l (5-41)

case 2

C0

176

C1

N1 + N 3 = 1 (5-42)

C1

N 2 + N 4 = x N 3l (5-43)

5.3
BC(u)

1

qa = 0 (5-44)
2

qa = u (5-45)
()
K aa K ab q a p a Fa + R a
K = = (5-46)
ba K bb q b pb Fb
q a F = [Fa
K ij Fa ]T qb () R a
p a
1

5.3(1)

(1) qa =0

qa =0(5-46)
K bb q b = pb (5-47)
q b
qb = K bb 1pb = K bb 1Fb (5-48)

(2) qa = u

(5-46)
K aa q a + K ab q b = p a (5-49)
K ba q a + K bb q b = pb (5-50)
qa = u (5-50)
K bbq b = pb K ba u (5-51)
q b
qb = K bb 1 (pb K ba u) = K bb 1 (Fb K ba u) (5-52)

177

(a) qa =0 qa = u
(b)
(c) ()
(d)

5.3(2) 1

r q r = 0
krr = 1 krs = ksr = 0 (r s )
pr = 0,

1 2 r
1 0 q1 p1
2 0 q p
2 2


0

r 0 0 0 krr = 1 0 0 0 q r = p r = 0

0


0

0
(5-53)
(5-53) q r = 0
(5-53) r
krr qr = pr (5-54)
krr = 1, pr = 0
qr = 0 (5-55)
(5-53) r r
0 q r = 0
q r = 0
1
(a) q r = 0
(b)
(c)

5.3(3)

r qr = u
krr pr krr u ,

178

1 2 r
1 q1 p1

2 q
2 p2



k r1 kr 2 k rr k u
r q r = rr








(5-56)
5-56 qr = u
5-56 r
kr1q1 + kr 2 q2 + + krr qr + + krn qn = krr u (5-57)
krr >> kri (i = 1, 2, 3 .... r 1, r + 1... n)
krr qr krr u (5-58)

qr u (5-59)
5-56 r qr u
qr u

(a) q r = 0 q r = u
(b)
(c)

5.3(4)

5-46
qb 5-49 Pa(
5-495-50
R a )

R a = p a Fa = (K aa q a + K abqb ) Fa (5-60)

5.3(5) Lagrange

()

C11u1 + C12u2 + C13u3 + = d1



C21u1 + C22u2 + C23u3 + = d2 (5-61)

Cq = d (5-62)

179

C d q = [u1 u2 u3 ]T


1
= qT Kq FT q (5-63)
2
K F 5-61
(Lagrangian multiplier

algorithm)
*

* = + T (Cq - d)
1
= qT Kq FT q + T (Cq d) (5-64)
2
5-64

* *
* = q + = 0 (5-65)
q

*
= 0
q
(5-66)
*
= 0

5-645-66

Kq + CT = F
(5-67)
Cq = d

K CT q F
= (5-68)
C 0 d

5-67 q 5-67

CK 1CT = d CK 1F (5-69)

5-67 F
5-69

5-68 C

ui j

180

j ui C C ji 0

5.3(6)

(penalty function approach)


(5-62)()
1 1
* = qT Kq FT q + S (Cq d)2 (5-70)
2 2
S S (Cq d) 0
*

* / q = 0

Kq F + SCT (Cq d) = 0 (5-71)

(K + SCT C)q = F + SCT d (5-72)

K *q = F* (5-73)

K = K + SC C F = F + SC d K F
* T * T * *

*
K

5.3(7)
5-7 2 3 4
45 (inclined support) 4

(a) (b)
5-7

181

5-7b4-65

E = 2 10 MPa, = 0.25, t = 0.1m, a = b = 1m 2


5

3
u1 v1 u4 v4
0.45833 0.15625 0.041667 0.03125 u1 Pu1 Fu1 10MN

16 Et 0.15625 0.45833 0.03125 0.27083 v1 Pv1 Fv1 10MN
= = =
15 0.041667 0.03125 0.45833 0.15625 u4 Pu 4 Fu 4 + Ru 4 Ru 4

0.03125 0.27083 0.156625 0.45833 v4 Pv 4 Fv 4 + Rv 4 Rv 4
(5-74)

Ru 4 , Rv 4 4

u4 = v4 (5-75)

Ru 4 = Rv 4 (5-76)

(5-74) 4 4 u1 , v1 , u4 , Ru 4


n 1
(5-75)(5-76)(5-74)
u1 v1 u4
0.45833 0.15625 0.072917 u1 10MN
16 Et (5-77)
0.15625 0.45833 0.30208 v1 = 10MN
15
0.072917 0.30208 0.60416 u4 0

15
u1 = 11.3448 =0.53178 10-3 m
16Et

15 (5-78)
v1 = 25.4280 =0.1192 10-2 m
16Et
15
u4 = 11.3448 =0.53178 10-3m
16Et
(5-78) (5-74) 3

Ru 4 = 3.105MN

(5-77)

o 2
4 5-7(a)

182

cos 450 sin 450 u4 u4


= (5-79)
sin 45
0
cos 450 v4 v4

cos 450 sin 450 Ru 4 Ru 4


= 5-80
sin 45
0
cos 450 Rv 4 Rv 4

u4 , v4 Ru 4 , R v 4 4 5-74

T
u1 v1 u4 v4
0.45833 0.15625 0.041667 0.03125 u1 10MN
5-81
16 Et T 0.15625 0.45833 0.03125 0.27083 v1 10MN
T T =
15 0.041667 0.03125 0.45833 0.15625 u4 0

0.03125 0.27083 0.15625 0.45833 v4 Rv 4

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
T= (5-82)
0 0 cos 450 sin 450

0 0 sin 450 cos 450

v4 = 0 Ru 4 = 0 5-83

v4 = 0 (5-81)

u1 v1 u4 v4
0.45833 0.15625 0.04167 0 u1 10MN

16 Et 0.15625 0.45833 0.03125 0 v1 10MN 5-84
=
15 0.04167 0.03125 0.45833 0 u4 0

0 0 0 1 v4 0
5-84
15
u1 = 11.3448 =0.53178 10-3 m
16Et

15 5-85
v1 = 25.4280 =0.1192 10-2 m
16Et
15
u4 = 16.0649
16Et
5-79

u4 = v4 =0.53178 10-3 m 5-86

183

p
5-75

u1
v
u4 v4 = 0 [ 0 0 1 1] 1 = 0 cq = d (5-87)
u4

v4
(5-68)

0.45833 0.15625 0.041667 0.03125 0 u1 10MN


0.15625 0.45833 0.03125 0.27083 0 v 10MN
16 Et 1
0.041667 0.03125 0.45833 0.15625 15 /16 Et u4 = 0
15
0.03125 0.27083 0.15625 0.45833 -15 /16 Et v4 0
0 0 15 /16 Et 15 /16 Et 0 0

(5-88)

(5-88)
K q = F (5-89)
( 55) ( 51) ( 51)

q = [ u1 ] K
T
v1 u4 v4
(5-89)

15
u1 = 11.3448 =0.53178 10-3 m
16Et

15
v1 = 25.4280 =0.1192 10-2 m (5-90)
16Et
15
u4 = 11.3448 =0.53178 10-3 m
16Et
=-3.1051MN

= Ru 4

u4 v4 = 0 (5-91)

(5-70)
1 1
* = qT Kq FT q + S (u4 v4 ) 2 (5-92)
2 2
S
*

184

u1 v1 u4 v4
0.45833 0.15625 0.041667 0.03125 u1 10MN
0.15625 0.45833
16 Et 0.03125 0.27083 v1 10MN (5-93)
=
15 0.041667 0.03125 0.45833 + S 0.15625 S u4 0

0.03125 0.27083 0.156625 S 0.45833 + S v4 0
S=1000

15
u1 = 11.3441
16Et

15
v1 = 25.4296
16Et
(5-94)
15
u4 = 11.3441
16Et
15
v4 = 11.3472
16Et

S=100000

15
u1 = 11.3448
16Et

15
v1 = 25.4280
16Et
(5-95)
15
u4 = 11.3448
16Et
15
v4 = 11.3448
16Et
S 5-78(5-85)(5-90)(5-94)
(5-95)(5-93)

ANSYS 5.3(8)

5-7 ANSYS

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial
jobname:Plane support() Run OK

(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK

(3)

185

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Solid: Quad


4node 42 OK Element Types Type 1 PLANE42 OptionsK3:Plane strs w/thk(
) OK Close

(4)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Real Constants Add Type 1 PLANE42 OK
Real Constants Set No: 1,THK:0.1 Close ( Real Constants )

(5)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Isotropic EX: 2E5, PRXY:0.25() OK Close

(6)


ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node
number:1XYZ Location in active CS:220 Apply 3
0200002005.3(7)o
4 THXY 45 UY=0


ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes
MAT,1,TYPE,1 PLANE42,REAL,1 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered
Thru Nodes 1234 ()

(7)

XY
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply -Structural Displacement On Nodes
23 OK Lab2: All DOF( XY ) OK

n
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Coupling/ Ceqn Constraint Eqn Const :0, NODE1:4, Lab1:
UX,C1:1,NODE2:4,Lab2:UY,C2:1 OK

o
ANSYS Utility MenuWorkPlane Local Coordinate System Create local system At specified
LOC + OK XCYCZC 200,THXY45 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor modeling Move / Modify Rotate Node CS To active CS
4
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
4 OK Lab2:UY( Y ) OK

(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 1 OK LabFX, Value: 10 Apply 1 OK Lab

186

FY, Value: 10 OK

(9)
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Analysis Type New Analysis Static OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK

(10)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Nodal Solu Nodal
solution DOF Solution Displacement vector sum OK()
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc List Results Nodal Solu Nodal solution DOF
Solution Displacement vector sum OK()

(11)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]5_3(8) %%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !
MP,EX,1,2E5 ! 1
MP,PRXY,1,0.25 ! 1
ET,1,PLANE42 ! 1
KEYOPT,1,3,3 !
R,1,0.1 ! No.1 0.1
N,1,2,2 ! 1
N,2,,2 ! 2
N,3,,, ! 3
N,4,2,, ! 4
!-------- 5.3(7)o---begin ---
!N,4,2,,,45 ! 4 z 45
!D,4,UY !
!-------- 5.3(7)o---end ---
MAT,1 ! No.1
TYPE,1 ! No.1
REAL,1 ! No.1
E,1,2,3,4 !
D,2,ALL ! 2
D,3,ALL ! 3
!-------,
!--- 1 begin----
CE,1,0,4,UX,1,4,UY,-1 !(No.1): 0=node4_UX*1+node_UY*(-1)
!--- 1 end ---
!--- 2 begin --
!local,11,0,2,0,0,45 ! 4

187

!nrotat, 4 ! 4
!D,4,UY !
!--- 2 end
!------
F,1,FX,10 ! FX
F,1,FY,10 ! FY
FINISH !
/SOLU !
SOLVE !
!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
finish !
!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]5_3(8) %%%% end %%%%%

5.4

5.4.1
(displacement model)

(1) DOF
3 DOF 6
u v 4 8

(2)

(3)
2 3

(Pascal
triangle)( 5-8 5-9)

188

5-8 5-9

5-10

5-10

5.4.2

(convergence) 5-11
1 2 1 2 3
(correct solution) 4
(monotonic convergence)
(upper bound)(lower bound) 5
(divergence)

5-11

189

(convergence criterion)


1x
1x, y
1x, y, z
1x, x2
1x, y, x2, xy, y2

5.4.3

5.4.3(1) 1(

m
m

5-8 5-9 m

5.4.3(2) 2(

m
(m-1) Cm-1

5.4.3(3)


1
2
= U W = ( xx xx + yy yy + xy xy )d
(5-96)


( )
b x u + b y v d +
Sp
( p u + p v ) dA
x y

190

b x , b y , p x , p y xx = u x

yy = v y xy = (u y + v x )
u, v 1 m=1 1

u ( x, y ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 y (5-97)

v( x, y ) = b0 + b1 x + b2 y (5-98)
3 4
(5-97)(5-98)
2 3 4 C0

5.4.3(4)


2
1 d 2v
= U W = EI z 2 dx p ( x)iv( x)dx (5-99)
2 l dx l

v 2 m=2
1
v( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 (5-100)
2
v( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x 2 + a3 x3 (5-101)
1
2 C1

5.4.3(5) 3
3

u = a1 x + a2 xy + a3 y
(5-102)
v = a4 x + a5 xy + a6 y

()((m=1))

()
(m-1=0)

(5-102) xy
xy

191

u
xx = = a1 + a2 y
x
v
yy = = a5 x + a6 (5-103)
y
u v
xy = + = a2 x + a3 + a4 + a5 y
y x

a2 = a5 = 0 xx = a1 yy = a6 xy = a3 + a4

xx y yy x

xy

E
xx =
1 2
( a1 + a2 y + ( a5 x + a6 ) )

E
yy =
1 2
( a5 x + a6 + ( a1 + a2 y ) ) (5-104)

E
xy = ( a2 x + a3 + a4 + a5 y )
2 (1 + )

xx , yy , xy

5.5 C0 C1

5.5(1) C0

C0 C0 element() 1
0 5-12
2 C0

5.5(2) C1

C1 C1 element() 2
1 1
5-13 2 C1

192

5-12 C0

5-13 C1

5.6

5.6.1

1
= U W = qT Kq PT q (5-105)
2
= 0

Kq = P (5-106)

(5-106)(5-105)
1 1 W
= qT Kq PT q = qT Kq = U = (5-107)
2 2 2

193

exact

appr appr exact (5-107)

U appr U exact (5-108)

q appr K appr

K appr q appr = P (5-109)

q exact K exact

K exact q exact = P (5-110)

1
U appr = qTappr K appr q appr
2
(5-111)
1 T
U exact = q exact K exact q exact
2
(5-108)
1 T 1
q appr K appr q appr qTexact K exact q exact (5-112)
2 2
(5-109)(5-110)(5-112)

qTappr P qTexact P (5-113)

5.6.1(1)
(5-113)

q appr q exact (upper limit)

5.6.1(2)

(stiffening)

(
)()

194

5.6.1(3)

u u
u = ui + ( ) i x + ( ) i y + ... (5-114)
x y

h x, y h

p Taylor p
p +1
u O(h ) 3

2 2
p1 u O(h ) O(h )

u (1/2)2=1/4

m O(h p m +1 )

p=m=1 O (h )

O (h 2 ( p m +1) ) O (h 2 )

h 0

u1

u2 O(h s ) u

u1 u O(h s )
= (5-115)
u2 u O((h / 2) s )

s=2

u1 u O (h 2 )
= =4 (5-116)
u2 u O (( h / 2) 2 )

1
u= ( 4u2 u1 ) (5-117)
3

()

5.6.2

195

(weighted average)(smoothing)

5.6.2(1)

i kl (i )
e

1 r e
kl (i ) = kl (i)
r e =1
(5-118)

kl (i ) i 1 ~ r

5.6.2(2)

1 r e e
kl (i ) = kl (i)
r e =1
(5-119)

Ae
e = r
3D
Ae

e =1 (5-120)

e
= r
e
, 2D

e =1
e

A 2D 3D
e e

5.7

()

(high-order element)

5.7.1
5.7.1(1) 1D

196


(high-order polynomial) 5-14 1D
(natural coordinate) 5-14(a)2 5-14(b) 5-14cd

5-14 1D


5-14(c)
1D 3 (DOF)
q e = [u1 u2 u3 ]
T
(5-121)
(31)

u ( x) = a1 + a2 x + a3 x 2
(5-122)
= N qe
(13) (31)

N = [ N1 N2 N3 ] (5-123)

x x 1
N1 = (1 2 )(1 ) = 2( )(1 )
l l 2

x x
N 2 = 4 (1 ) = 4 (1 )
l l (5-124)

x x 1
N 3 = (1 2 ) = 2 ( )
l l 2
x
=
l

1D 5-14(a)
l1 l
L1 = , L2 = 2
l l

u ( x) = a1' L1 + a2' L2 + a3' L1 L2


= N1u1 + N 2u2 + N 3u3 (5-125)
= N ( L1 , L2 ) q e
5.2.1

197

1 1 (L1 = 1, L2 = 0)

1 (5-126)
N1 = 0 2 (L1 = L2 = )
2
0 3 (L1 = 0, L2 = 1)

( L1 + L2 = 1 )

N1 = L1 2 L1 L2 = L1 (2 L1 1) (5-127)

N 2 = 4 L1 L2 (5-128)

N 3 = L2 (2 L2 1) (5-129)

( (5-122) (5-125)) ( (5-123)


(5-127)(5-129))

5.7.1(2) 1D

2 C1 ()

dv dv
v( x) = N1 v1 + N 2 + N1 v2 + N 4
dx x = x1 dx x = x2

2
dv
= H 0(1)i vi + H1(1)
i
i =1
dx xi
2 1
= H ki(1) vi( k )
i =1 k = 0
n p
= H ki( p ) vi( k ) ( C1p = 1) (5-130)
i =1 k = 0

( p)
H ki ( p)
Hermite interpolation

n k 4
2
v( x) = N1v1 + N 21 + N 3v2 + N 4 2
2 1
= H ki(1) vi( k ) (5-131)
i =1 k = 0

= H 01(1) v1(0) + H11(1) v1(1) + H 02(1) v2(0) + H12(1) v2(1)

(1)
H 01 , H11(1) , H 02(1) , H12(1)

198

N1 = H 01(1) = 1 3 2 + 2 3
N 2 = H11(1) = 2 2 + 3
(5-132)
N 3 = H 02(1) = 3 2 2 3
N 4 = H12(1) = 3 2
(3-131) l
1 5-15

5-15 2 ()

5.7.2
2D () 2D

2D ()

5.7.2(1) ()

5-16 ijm P

Pjm Pmi Pij Ai A j Am

5-16


Li = Ai / A

L j = Aj / A (5-133)

Lm = Am / A
A P P( Li , L j , Lm )

199

Li , L j , Lm (area coordinate ) 2D

Ai + A j + Am = A (5-134)

Li + L j + Lm = 1 (5-135)

(1) i jm Li

(2) i (1,0,0) j (0,1,0) m(0,0,1)

(3)

jm Li = 0 mi L j = 0 ij Lm = 0
(4) (5-135) 2
xy

5.7.2(2) 2D 6

3 6
5-17

5-17 () 6

6 12 (DOF)
q e = [ u1 v1 u6 v6 ]
T
(5-136)
(121)

u ( x, y ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 x 2 + a5 xy + a6 y 2 (5-137)

v( x, y )

u ( x, y ) = a1' L1 + a2' L2 + a3' L3 + a4' L1 L2 + a5' L2 L3 + a6' L3 L1


(5-138)
= N1u1 + N 2u2 + + N 6 u6

200

N1 = (2 L1 1) L1 , N 2 = (2 L2 1) L2

N 3 = (2 L3 1) L3 , N 4 = 4 L1 L2 (5-139)
N 5 = 4 L2 L3 , N 6 = 4 L3 L1

5.7.2(3) 2D

( , )

5-18

r + 1 p + 1

(r + 1) (column) ( p + 1) (row)

5-18 (r + 1) ( p + 1)

I J i N i r + 1

I 1 0

( 0 )( 1 ) ( I 1 )( I +1 ) ( r )
lI( r ) ( ) = (5-140)
( I 0 )( I 1 ) ( I I 1 )( I I +1 ) ( I r )

( 0 )( 1 ) ( J 1 )( J +1 ) ( p )
lJ( p ) ( ) = (5-141)
( J 0 )( J 1 ) ( J J 1 )( J J +1 ) ( J p )

i N i

Ni = lI( r ) ( )lJ( p ) ( ) (5-142)

N i i 1 0

201

5-19 (Lagrangian
rectangle element)

r=p 5-20
,
r

5-19

5-20

5.7.3
1D 2D 3D 3D

5.7.3(1) 3D 10

4 (inner
node) 5-21

5-21 10

202

10 30 (DOF)
q e = [u1 v1 w1 u10 v10 w10 ]
T
(5-143)
(301)

4 ( 6 ) 10

u ( x, y , z ) = a1 + a2 x + a3 y + a4 z + a5 xy + a6 yz
(5-144)
+ a7 xz + a8 x 2 + a9 y 2 + a10 z 2

N i = (2 Li 1) Li ( i = 1, 2,3, 4 ) (5-145)


N 5 = 4 L1 L2 , N 6 = 4 L2 L3

N 7 = 4 L1 L3 , N 8 = 4 L1 L4 (5-146)
N 9 = 4 L2 L4 , N10 = 4 L3 L4

5.7.3(2) 3D 20

5-22 20
3
Serendipity 5-22 20 Serendipity


1
Ni = (1+ i )(1+
i )(1 + i )( i +
i + i 2)
8
i = 1, 3, 5, 7,13,15,17,19 (5-147)

1
Ni =
4
(1 2 ) (1+
i )(1 + i ) , i = 2, 6,14,18 (5-148)

1
Ni =
4
(1 2 ) (1+ i )(1+ i ) , i = 4, 8,16, 20 (5-149)

1
Ni =
4
(1 2 ) (1+ i )(1+
i ), i = 9,10,11,12 (5-150)

203

5-22 20

5.8 h p

h p
[23][24]

5.8(1) h (h-version h-method)


h
( 5-10%)
p 5-23
ANSYS h
ANSYS size level 10
1 5-23(a)(ANSYS size level=10) 5-23(b)(c)
(ANSYS size level=6 size level=2)

(a)size level=10() (b) size level=6 (c) size level=2()

5-23 h

5.8(2) p (p-version p-method)


5-24 h p
p h p Weierstrass

204

p<9, h p

5-24 h p

5.9

z
z ()
z (1)
z ()
z ()
z C0 C1
z (
)
z ()
z
z h p

5.10

5-1 K

5-1

5-2 4

205

u ( x, y ) = a0 + a1 x + a2 xy + a3 x 2

v( x, y ) = b0 + b1 y + b2 xy + b3 y 2

5-3 3 1D
u1 u3
2

5-3

5-4 4
5-5 3
5-6

2 1 0 0
1 2 1 0
K = 6.4 103 MN/m
0 1 2 1

0 0 1 1

q = [0.0033 0.0058 0.0075 0.0085] m


T

0
5-7 5.3(6) 60

0
5-8 5.3(6) 60

5-9 ANSYS 4

5-9

5-10 5-9 ANSYS 8 16

206

5-9
5-10

207

6
(home-code)[25]

MATLAB ANSYS
FEM2D.m 3

(
ANSYS )

6.1 MATLAB

FEM2D.m 3 ANSYS
node.txt element.txt
constrain.txt force.txt MATLAB 3

FOR_POST.dat ANSYS
ANSYS 6.3

6.1.1

(CST)


Gauss
ANSYS node.txt
ANSYS element.txt
ANSYS FOR_POST.dat

6-1

208

6-1 FEM2D.m

1.

Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,ID)
Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m)
Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,u,ID)

2.

FEM2D.m

node.txt ( ANSYS )
element.txt( ANSYS )
constrain.txt( ANSYS )
force.txt( ANSYS )
ANSYS node.txtelement.txtconstrain.txtforce.txt
6.3

209

FOR_POST.DAT( ANSYS )
FEM2D.m 6-2

6-2 FEM2D.m ANSYS

3.

node.txt 6-1

6-1 node.txt

node.txt(N_NODE,3)

x y
(
(3 0.5 1.2)
)

element.txt 6-2
4 3 ANSYS
14 10 0

6-2 element.txt


element(N_ELE,14)
( 14 4
1() 2() 3()

4()0()0()0()0()0() 0()0(
4 3
)0()0()0
10
(1 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 )
0

)

constrain.txt 6-3 ANSYS

210

6-3 constrain.txt

constrain.txt (nconstrain,4)

()()()



( 4 (1 1 0.00000000 0.00000000 )

)

1 UX 2 UY

force.txt 6-4 ANSYS

6-4 force.txt

force.txt (nforce,4)

()()()



( 4 (1 1 0.00000000 0.00000000 )

)

1 UX 2 UY

ANSYS FOR_POST.DAT 6-5

6-5 FOR_POST.DAT

( 1 (N_NODE) (N_ELE)
PARTI
, 2f9.4) (60000 40000)

PARTII ( X(I) Y(I) RESULT_N(2*I-1) RESULT_N(2*I)


STS_ND(I,1) STS_ND(I,2) STS_ND(I,3)
(
x y x y
) 7
x y
1 1 7f9.4)
(0.0000 2.0000 0.0000 -5.2527 -1.0879 -3.0000

0.4396)

PARTIII ( IJK_ELE(I,1) IJK_ELE(I,2) IJK_ELE(I,3) IJK_ELE(I,3)


STS_ELE(I,1) STS_ELE(I,2) STS_ELE(I,3)

1 2 3
1 1 7
4 x y
7f9.4)
(1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 3.0000 -1.0879 -3.0000

0.4396)

211

6.1.2 MATLAB

MATLAB 6.1.2(1) FEM2D.m

MATLAB 3
FEM2D.m1
E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\ Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness
Triangle2D3Node_AssemblyTriangle2D3Node_Stress
node.txtelement.txtconstrain.txtforce.txt MATLAB
FEM2D.m
node_displace.dat elem_stress.dat
node_stress.dat ANSYS FOR_POST.dat
MATLAB
%%%%%%%%%%%% FEM2D.m(Triangle2D3Node )%% main program begin %%%%%%%%%%
clear;
%
load E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\node.txt
load E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\element.txt
load E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\constrain.txt
load E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\force.txt

%
[nnode,ntmp]=size(node);
[nelem,etmp]=size(element);
[nforce,ftmp]=size(force);
[nconstrain,ctmp]=size(constrain);

%
%
KKG=zeros(2*nnode);
FFG=zeros(2*nnode,1);
UUG=zeros(2*nnode,1);
StrainElem=zeros(nelem,3);
StressElem=zeros(nelem,3);
StressNode=zeros(nnode,3);
k=zeros(6,6); %

%
E=1e6;
NU=1/3;
t=1;
ID=1;

%
for i=1:nelem
k=Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,node(element(i,1),2),node(element(i,1),3) ,node(element(i,2),2),node(eleme
nt(i,2),3) ,node(element(i,3),2),node(element(i,3),3),ID);
KKG =Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KKG,k,element(i,1),element(i,2),element(i,3));
end

%
KKGOLD=KKG;

212

for i=1:nforce
m=force(i,1);
n=force(i,2);
FFG(2*(m-1)+n)= force(i,3);
end

%1
for i=1:nconstrain
m=constrain(i,1);
n=constrain(i,2);
UUG(2*(m-1)+n)=constrain(i,3);
KKG(2*(m-1)+n,:)=0;
KKG(:,2*(m-1)+n)=0;
KKG(2*(m-1)+n,2*(m-1)+n)=1;
FFG(2*(m-1)+n)=0;
end

%
UUG=KKG\FFG;

%
for i=1:nelem
%
l=element(i,1);m=element(i,2);n=element(i,3);
u=[UUG(2*l-1),UUG(2*l),UUG(2*m-1),UUG(2*m),UUG(2*n-1),UUG(2*n)]';
%
stresstemp=Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,node(element(i,1),2),node(element(i,1),3),node(element(i,2),2),node(e
lement(i,2),3),node(element(i,3),2),node(element(i,3),3),u,ID);
StressElem(i,1)=stresstemp(1,1);
StressElem(i,2)=stresstemp(2,1);
StressElem(i,3)=stresstemp(3,1);
end
%
StressNode=zeros(nnode,3);
for i=1:nnode
numElem=0;
for j=1:nelem
if (element(j,1)==i)
StressNode(i,1)=StressNode(i,1)+StressElem(j,1);
StressNode(i,2)=StressNode(i,2)+StressElem(j,2);
StressNode(i,3)=StressNode(i,3)+StressElem(j,3);
numElem=numElem+1;
elseif (element(j,2)==i)
StressNode(i,1)=StressNode(i,1)+StressElem(j,1);
StressNode(i,2)=StressNode(i,2)+StressElem(j,2);
StressNode(i,3)=StressNode(i,3)+StressElem(j,3);
numElem=numElem+1;
elseif (element(j,3)==i)
StressNode(i,1)=StressNode(i,1)+StressElem(j,1);
StressNode(i,2)=StressNode(i,2)+StressElem(j,2);
StressNode(i,3)=StressNode(i,3)+StressElem(j,3);
numElem=numElem+1;
end
end
StressNode(i,1)=StressNode(i,1)/numElem;
StressNode(i,2)=StressNode(i,2)/numElem;
StressNode(i,3)=StressNode(i,3)/numElem;
end

213

%
fid=fopen('E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\FOR_POST.dat','w');
fprintf(fid,'%18.8f%18.8f\n',nnode,nelem);
for i=1:nnode
fprintf(fid,'%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f\n',node(i,2),node(i,3),UUG(2*(i-1)+1),UUG(2*(i-1)
+2),StressNode(i,1),StressNode(i,2),StressNode(i,3));
end
for i=1:nelem
fprintf(fid,'%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f\n',element(i,1),element(i,2),element(i,3),element(i,4
),StressElem(i,1),StressElem(i,2),StressElem(i,3));
end
%
fclose(fid);

%
fid=fopen('E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\node_displace.dat','w');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n','-------------------- NODE DISPLACEMENT ---------------------------');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n',' Node X-coordinate Y-coordinate X-disp Y-disp
');
for i=1:nnode
fprintf(fid,'%10d%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f\n',node(i,1),node(i,2),node(i,3),UUG(2*(i-1)+1),UUG(2*(i-1)+2));
end
%
fclose(fid);

%
fid=fopen('E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\elem_stress.dat','w');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n','-------------------- ELEMENT STRESS ----------------------------');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n',' Node X-stress Y-stress Shear stress ');
for i=1:nelem
fprintf(fid,'%10d%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f\n',element(i,14),StressElem(i,1),StressElem(i,2),StressElem(i,3));
end
%
fclose(fid);

%
fid=fopen('E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\node_stress.dat','w');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n','-------------------- NODE STRESS --------------------------');
fprintf(fid,'\n%s\n',' Node X-stress Y-stress Shear stress ');
for i=1:nnode
fprintf(fid,'%10d%18.8f%18.8f%18.8f\n',node(i,1),StressNode(i,1),StressNode(i,2),StressNode(i,3));
end
%
fclose(fid);
%%%%%%%%%% FEM2D.m(Triangle2D3Node )%% main program end %%%%%
function k=Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,ID)
%
% E NU t

214

% ijm xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym
% ID(1 2 )
% k(6X6)
%---------------------------------------------------------------
A = (xi*(yj-ym) + xj*(ym-yi) + xm*(yi-yj))/2;
betai = yj-ym;
betaj = ym-yi;
betam = yi-yj;
gammai = xm-xj;
gammaj = xi-xm;
gammam = xj-xi;
B = [betai 0 betaj 0 betam 0 ;
0 gammai 0 gammaj 0 gammam ;
gammai betai gammaj betaj gammam betam]/(2*A);
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
k= t*A*B'*D*B;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function z = Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m)
%
% k
% Ijm
% KK
%---------------------------------------------------------------
DOF(1)=2*i-1;
DOF(2)=2*i;
DOF(3)=2*j-1;
DOF(4)=2*j;
DOF(5)=2*m-1;
DOF(6)=2*m;
for n1=1:6
for n2=1:6
KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))=KK(DOF(n1),DOF(n2))+k(n1,n2);
end
end
z=KK;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
function stress=Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,u,ID)
%
% E NU t
% ijm xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym
% ID(1 2 ) u(6X1)
% stress(3X1) Sx,Sy,Sxy
%---------------------------------------------------------------
A = (xi*(yj-ym) + xj*(ym-yi) + xm*(yi-yj))/2;
betai = yj-ym;
betaj = ym-yi;
betam = yi-yj;
gammai = xm-xj;
gammaj = xi-xm;
gammam = xj-xi;

215

B = [betai 0 betaj 0 betam 0 ;


0 gammai 0 gammaj 0 gammam ;
gammai betai gammaj betaj gammam betam]/(2*A);
if ID == 1
D = (E/(1-NU*NU))*[1 NU 0 ; NU 1 0 ; 0 0 (1-NU)/2];
elseif ID == 2
D = (E/(1+NU)/(1-2*NU))*[1-NU NU 0 ; NU 1-NU 0 ; 0 0 (1-2*NU)/2];
end
stress = D*B*u;
%-----------------------------------------------------------

6.2

MATLAB 6.2(1) (FEM2D.m)

6-3(a)

p = 1000N/m y 2000N t = 1m

E = 1 10 N/m = 0 FEM2D.m
6 2

(a) (b) 1/4


6-3

x y 1/4
6-3(b)

2()

216

1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 u1 Rx1 500

2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v1 1500

6 1 4 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 u2 Rx 2

6 1 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 v2 0
6 1 0 0 2 1 0 1 u3 1000

Et 6 0 0 1 4 0 0 v3 1000 (6-1)
=
4 3 1 2 1 0 0 u4 Rx 4

3 0 1 0 0 v4 Ry 4
6 1 2 1 u5 0


6 0 1 v5 Ry 5

2 0 u6 500
1 v6 Ry 6 500

Rx1 , Rx 2 , Rx 4 124 Ry 4 , Ry 5 , Ry 6 456

u1 = u2 = u4 = v4 = v5 = v6 = 0 1

1
q= [ 0 5.252 0 2.252 1.088 1.372 0 0 0.824 0 1.824 0] 103
T

Et
= [ 0 5.252 0 2.252 1.088 1.372 0 0 0.824 0 1.824 0] 103 m
T

(6-2)

(Pa)

1088 824 1088 1000


(1)
= 3000 , = 2252 , = 1374 , = 1374
(2) (3) (4)
(6-3)

440 0 308 132

6 FEM2D.m

node.txt
1 0.0 2.0
2 0.0 1.0
3 1.0 1.0
4 0. 0.
5 1.0 0.
6 2.0 0.

element.txt
1 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 5 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

217

constrain.txt
1 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
2 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 2 0.00000000 0.00000000
5 2 0.00000000 0.00000000
6 2 0.00000000 0.00000000

force.txt
1 1 -500.000000 0.00000000
1 2 -1500.00000 0.00000000
3 1 -1000.00000 0.00000000
3 2 -1000.00000 0.00000000
6 1 -500.000000 0.00000000
6 2 -500.000000 0.00000000

(7) FEM2D.m

node_displace.dat
-------------------- NODE DISPLACEMENT ---------------------------
Node X-coordinate Y-coordinate X-disp Y-disp
1 0.00000000 2.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00525275
2 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00225275
3 1.00000000 1.00000000 -0.00108791 -0.00137363
4 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000
5 1.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00082418 0.00000000
6 2.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00182418 0.00000000

elem_stress.dat
-------------------- ELEMENT STRESS ----------------------------
Node X-stress Y-stress Shear stress
1 -1087.91208791 -3000.00000000 439.56043956
2 -824.17582418 -2252.74725275 0.00000000
3 -1087.91208791 -1373.62637363 307.69230769
4 -1000.00000000 -1373.62637363 -131.86813187

node_stress.dat
-------------------- NODE STRESS --------------------------
Node X-stress Y-stress Shear stress
1 -1087.91208791 -3000.00000000 439.56043956
2 -1000.00000000 -2208.79120879 249.08424908
3 -1058.60805861 -1915.75091575 205.12820513
4 -824.17582418 -2252.74725275 0.00000000
5 -970.69597070 -1666.66666667 58.60805861
6 -1000.00000000 -1373.62637363 -131.86813187

218

FOR_POST.dat ANSYS
FOR_POST.dat
6.00000000 4.00000000
0.00000000 2.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00525275 -1087.91208791 -3000.00000000 439.56043956
0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00225275 -1000.00000000 -2208.79120879 249.08424908
1.00000000 1.00000000 -0.00108791 -0.00137363 -1058.60805861 -1915.75091575 205.12820513
0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 -824.17582418 -2252.74725275 0.00000000
1.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00082418 0.00000000 -970.69597070 -1666.66666667 58.60805861
2.00000000 0.00000000 -0.00182418 0.00000000 -1000.00000000 -1373.62637363 -131.86813187
1.00000000 2.00000000 3.00000000 3.00000000 -1087.91208791 -3000.00000000 439.56043956
2.00000000 4.00000000 5.00000000 5.00000000 -824.17582418 -2252.74725275 0.00000000
5.00000000 3.00000000 2.00000000 2.00000000 -1087.91208791 -1373.62637363 307.69230769
3.00000000 5.00000000 6.00000000 6.00000000 -1000.00000000 -1373.62637363 -131.86813187

ANSYS 6.2(2)

6-3 ANSYS
MATLAB 6.2(1) ANSYS
ANSYS MATLAB 6-6

6-6 ANSYS MATLAB

ANSYS (Pa) MATLAB (Pa)

1 x = 1087.9 x = 1088
y = 3000.0 y = 3000
xy = 439.56 xy = 440

2 x = 824.2 x = 824
y = 2252.7 y = 2253
xy = 0.0000 xy = 0.000

3 x = 1087.9 x = 1088
y = 1373.6 y = 1374
xy = 307.7 xy = 308

4 x = 1000.0 x = 1000
y = 1373.6 y = 1374
xy = 131.9 xy = 132

1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory () Initial jobname(
): PlanarRun OK

219

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element TypeAdd/Edit/Delete Add SolidQuad
4node 42 OK ( Element Types ) Options K3: Plane Strs w/thk(
) OKClose
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material ModelsStructural Linear
Elastic Isotropic: EX:1e6 ()PRXY: 0 () OK U

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1 OK
Real Constant Set No: 1 ( 1 ), THK: 1 () OK Close
(6)

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number
1XYZ Location in active CS020 Apply 5
010110000100200OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes
TYPE,1 PLANE42MAT,1REAL,1 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered
Thru Nodes 123 Apply 245 Apply 235
Apply 356 OK
(7)
Y
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On
Nodes 1/4 ( box
single ) OK Lab2 DOFs: UY() OK
X
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On
Nodes 1/4 ( box
single ) OK Lab2 DOFs: UX() OK

ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities OK 136 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Pressure On Nodes
Pick All VALUE1000 OK
1
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 1 OK LabFY, Value: -1000 OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis Static OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK Should The Solve Command be
Executed? Y Close (Solution is done! )

220

(9)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc List Results Element Solution Element solution
Stress X-Component of Stress OK ( List Results) Nodal Solution Nodal solution
DOF Solution Displacement vector sum OK
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Nodal Solu Nodal
solution DOF Solution Displacement vector sum OK ()
(10)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save EverythingOK

2
!%%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]6_2(2) %%% begin %%%%%%
/prep7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !
et,1,plane42 ! PLANE42
keyopt,1,3,3 !
r,1,1 ! 1
mp,ex,1,1e6 ! 1 1e6N/m2
mp,prxy,1,0 ! 1
n,1,,2 ! 1(0,2)
n,2,,1 ! 2
n,3,1,1 ! 3
n,4, ! 4
n,5,1 ! 5
n,6,2 ! 6
mat,1 ! No.1
type,1 ! No.1
real,1 ! No.1
e,1,2,3 ! 1
e,2,4,5 ! 2
e,2,3,5 ! 3
e,3,5,6 ! 4
d,1,ux !1 x
d,2,ux !2 x
d,4,all !4
d,5,uy !5 y
d,6,uy !6 y
nsel,s,,,1,3,2 ! 1 3
nsel,a,,,6 ! 6
sf,all,pres,1000 ! 1000N/m
nsel,all !
f,1,fy,-1000 ! 1 FY (-1000N)
/solu !
Solve !
FINISH !

221

!=====
/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !
FINISH !
!%%%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]6_2(2) %%% end %%%%%%

6.3 ANSYS

ANSYS 6.3(1) ANSYS

MATLAB 6.2(1) 6-2


ANSYS

ANSYS

(1) ANSYS

ANSYS 8.4
ANSYS ANSYS
node.txt element.txt
constrain.txt force.txtANSYS

nwrite,node,txt,
ewrite,element,txt,

6-4 ANSYS

ANSYS

ANSYS (GUI)

1 ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive working directory () jobname (
)triangle Run OK

2
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete Add Solid : Quad
4node 42 () OK ( Element Types ) Close

3
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node
number:1( ),0( x ),2( y ) Apply 5 xy
222

,2(0,2),3(1,1),4(0,0),5(1,0),6(2,0) OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered


Thru Nodes ()123 Apply 245 Apply 532 Apply 3
56 OK

4
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes Write Node File
node.txt OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Write Elem File
element.txt OK

ANSYS Utility MenuFileExitSave EverythingOK
ANSYS
/PREP7
ET,1,PLANE42
N,1,0,2
N,2,0,1
N,3,1,1
N,4,0,0
N,5,1,0
N,6,2,0
E,1,2,3,
E,2,4,5,
E,5,3,2,
E,3,5,6,
NWRITE, node,txt,, 0 ! write node info to node.txt
EWRITE, element,txt,, 0 ! write element info to element.txt

ANSYS node.txt element.txt


6-7 6-8

6-7 ANSYS node.txt


x y
0.000000000000 2.000000000000
1
0.000000000000 1.000000000000
2
1.000000000000 1.000000000000
3

4
1.000000000000
5
2.000000000000
6
20
0 ANSYS
0

6-8 ANSYS element.txt


1 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
2 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2

5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 3
3 5 6 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 4

223

ANSYS I J K L M N O P NUM

8
0
913

NWRITE node.txt (ANSYS


NWRITE 0)
1 0.000000000000 2.000000000000
2 0.000000000000 1.000000000000
3 1.000000000000 1.000000000000
4
5 1.000000000000
6 2.000000000000

EWRITE element.txt

1 2 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
2 4 5 5 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 2
5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 3
3 5 6 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 4
0
NWRITE,node,txt,,0
* get,nmax,node,count
* cfopen, node,txt
* do,i,1,nmax
* vwrite,i,nx(i),ny(i)
(f5.0,f10.4,f10.4)
* enddo
* cfclose
node.txt
1. 0.0000 2.0000
2. 0.0000 1.0000
3. 1.0000 1.0000
4. 0.0000 0.0000
5. 1.0000 0.0000
6. 2.0000 0.0000

constrain.txt forc.txt ANSYS

DLIST, ALL
NODE LABEL REAL IMAG
1 UX 0.00000000 0.00000000
2 UX 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 UX 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 UY 0.00000000 0.00000000

224

5 UY 0.00000000 0.00000000
6 UY 0.00000000 0.00000000
MATLAB UX 1UY 2
1 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
2 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 1 0.00000000 0.00000000
4 2 0.00000000 0.00000000
5 2 0.00000000 0.00000000
6 2 0.00000000 0.00000000

FLIST, ALL
NODE LABEL REAL IMAG
1 FX -500.000000 0.00000000
1 FY -1500.00000 0.00000000
3 FX -1000.00000 0.00000000
3 FY -1000.00000 0.00000000
6 FX -500.000000 0.00000000
6 FY -500.000000 0.00000000
MATLAB FX 1FY 2
1 1 -500.000000 0.00000000
1 2 -1500.00000 0.00000000
3 1 -1000.00000 0.00000000
3 2 -1000.00000 0.00000000
6 1 -500.000000 0.00000000
6 2 -500.000000 0.00000000

node.txtelement.txtconstrain.txt
force.txtFEM2D.m
FOR_POST.dat6-5FOR_POST.dat
MATLAB6.2(1)

(2) ANSYS

ANSYS
(
)
FOR_POST.dat
ANSYS ANSYS (USER_POST.LOG)
B
USER_POST.LOG
! -----------------------------user_post.log----------begin----------------------
! 2D ()
! FOR_POST.dat
! FOR_POST.DAT
! PART1( 1 2f9.4): INFO(1) INFO(2)
! PART2( INFO(1) 7 7f9.4):
! x y 1(x ) 2(y )
! 3(x ) 4(y ) 5()
! PART3( INFO(2) 7 7f9.4):

225

! 1 2 3 4 4 3
! 1x 2y 3z
! --------------------------------------
/PREP7
ET,1,PLANE42
DOF,rotx ! define new DOF at node which should be ploted
DOF,roty
DOF,rotz
* dim,INFO,,2
! adove define an array INFO which refers to:INFO(1): number of node, INFO(2): number of element
* vread,INFO(1),FOR_POST,dat
(2f9.4)
* dim,ND_INFO,,INFO(2),7
! adove define an array ND_INFO which refers to the information of nodes
* vread,ND_INFO(1,1),FOR_POST,dat,,JIK,7,INFO(1),,1
(7f9.4)
* dim,ELE_INFO,,INFO(2),7
! adove define an array ele_info which refers to the information of elements
* vread,ELE_INFO(1,1),FOR_POST,dat,,JIK,7,INFO(2),,INFO(1)+1
(7f9.4)
* do,i,1,INFO(1)
N,i,ND_INFO(i,1),ND_INFO(i,2)
! creat the nodes by first two columns of ND_INPO
* enddo
* do,i,1,INFO(2)
E,ELE_INFO(i,1),ELE_INFO(i,2),ELE_INFO(i,3),ELE_INFO(i,4)
! adove creat elements by first four columns of ND_INPO
* enddo
/post1
* do,i,1,INFO(1) ! cyclically display nodal information
dnsol,i,u,x,ND_INFO(i,3) ! set ux to display ND_INFO(x,3) data
dnsol,i,u,y,ND_INFO(i,4) ! set ux to display ND_INFO(x,4) data
dnsol,i,rot,x,ND_INFO(i,5) ! set rotx to display ND_INFO(x,5) data
dnsol,i,rot,y,ND_INFO(i,6) ! set rotx to display ND_INFO(x,6) data
dnsol,i,rot,z,ND_INFO(i,7) ! set rotx to display ND_INFO(x,7) data
* enddo
* do,i,1,INFO(2) ! cyclically display element information
* do,j,1,3
num=ELE_INFO(i,j)
desol,i,num,s,x,ELE_INFO(i,5) ! set sx to display ELE_INFO(x,5) data
desol,i,num,s,y,ELE_INFO(i,6) ! set sy to display ELE_INFO(x,6) data
desol,i,num,s,z,ELE_INFO(i,7) ! set sz to display ELE_INFO(x,7) data
* enddo
* enddo!-----------------------------user_post.log----------end----------------------

226

FOR_POST.dat USER_POST.LOG
6-9

6-9 FOR_POST.dat USER_POST.LOG


FOR_POST.dat USER_POST.LOG
PART1 INFO(2)
( 1 2f9.4
INFO
)
PART2 ND_INFO INFO(1)7
( INFO(1) 7 x y 1(x )
7f9.4) 2(y ) 3(x )
4(y ) 5()

PART3
( INFO(2) 7 ELE_INFO INFO(2)7
7f9.4) 1 2 3
4 4 x y

(3) ANSYS
ANSYS 6-5

(a) x (10-3m) (b) y (10-3 m)


( ANSYS UX) ( ANSYS UY)

(c) x (103 Pa) (d) y (103 Pa)


( ANSYS ROTX) ( ANSYS ROTY)

227

(e) x (103 Pa) (f) y (103 Pa)


( ANSYS SX) ( ANSYS SY)

6-5 ANSYS

6.4
6.4.1


4 5 2 7.5 ( 6-6) 1 6.5
( 6-7) 4
3 ( 6-8)

6-6 7.5 (750MN) 34.7 2.6


228

6-7 AD 6.5 (650MN)

6-8 3 ()

2003
8 (800MN)

4 2 6-9

229

6-9 8

6-10 8

8 ( 4 )

R1 = 2.25m R2 = 4.5m H =17 mD =3.4 m E2.11011 Pa

0.3 400MN
p = 4108 /4.53.4Pa

6.4.2 8

ANSYS 6.4.2(1) 8 (GUI)

6-10

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname
Press Run OK

230

(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Solid:
Quad 4node 42 OK Element Types Options K3Plane Strs w/thk
OK Close
(4)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic IsotropicEX2.1e11PRXY0.3 OK

(5)
ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add Type 1
PLANE42 OK Real Constant Set No1 1 THK3.4 OK
Close
6

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS NPT
Keypoint number1XYZ Location in active CS-4.58.5 Apply 5
-2.258.52.258.54.58.5013010.75 OK Lines Lines
Straight Line 12 34 OK Arcs By End KPs & Rad
23 OK 6 OK RAD Radius of the arc2.25 Apply
Warning Close 14 OK 5 OK
RAD Radius of the arc4.5 OK Warning Close Areas Arbitrary
By Lines OK

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS NPT
Keypoint number7XYZ Location in active CS-4.5-8.5 Apply 5
-2.25-8.52.25-8.54.5-8.50-130-10.75 OK Lines
Lines Straight Line 78 910 OK Arcs By End KPs
& Rad 89 OK 12 OK RAD Radius of the arc2.25
Apply Warning Close 710 OK
11 OK RAD Radius of the arc4.5 OK Warning Close Areas
Arbitrary By Lines OK

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Areas Rectangle By 2 Corners
WP X-4.5WP Y-8.5Width2.25Height 17 Apply WP X2.25WP Y-8.5Width
2.25Height17 OK

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Operate Booleans Glue Areas
Pick all
7
ANSYS Utility MenuPlotCtrls Numbering LINEOn OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing MeshTool Size Controls LinesSet
Element Size on Picked1256 Apply NDIV4 4 Apply Element

231

Size on Picked17181920 Apply NDIV20 20 Apply Element Size


on Picked3478 Apply NDIV10 10 OK ShapeMapped
Mesh Pick all
8

ANSYS Main MenuSolution Define Loads Apply Structural Pressure On Lines
Apply PRES on Lines48 OK VALUE4e8/(4.5*3.4) OK
X Y
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities ... Nodes 1 By Location 2
X coordinates -4.5 Apply Reselect Y coordinates -8.5 OK Structural
Displacement On NodesPick allLab2All DOFOK
ANSYS Utility MenuSelectEverything
Y
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities ... Nodes 1 By Location 2
X coordinates4.5From full Apply Reselect Y coordinates -8.5 OK
Structural Displacement On NodesPick allLab2UYOK
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Everything
9
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
10
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Deformed shape Def shape only OK
Plot Results Contour PlotNodal Solu Stress von Mises stressOK

11
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save EverythingOK
12
Von Mises Y 48.9 MPa33.4 MPa
Y 6-11(a)(b)

(a) Von Mises (Pa) (b) Y ()(Pa)


6-11 8

232

Y ()400MN/
22.253.4=26.1 MPa
33.4 MPa

ANSYS 6.4.2(2) 8 ()

ANSYS APDL 8 (
4 )

(1) 8
beam_R1=2.25
beam_R2=4.5
stud_H=17
(2)
stud_D=3.4
(3)
e_modu=2.1e11
prxy_Poi=0.3
(4)
: line_div1=4
: line_div2=20
: arc_div1=10
(5)
pressure=4e8/(4.5*3.4)

!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]6_4_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%%


!------$-----------
/prep7 !
/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
!=====
beam_R1=2.25 !
beam_R2=4.5 !
stud_H=17 !
stud_D=3.4 !
e_modu=2.1e11 !
prxy_Poi=0.3 !
line_div1=6 !
line_div2=40 !
arc_div1=20 !
pressure=4e8/(4.5*3.4) !
!=====
ET,1,PLANE42 !PLANE42

233

KEYOPT,1,3,3 !
MP,EX,1,e_modu !
MP,NUXY,1,prxy_Poi !
R,1,stud_D, !
!=====
! 6
K,1,-1*beam_R2,0.5*stud_H,,
K,2,-1*beam_R1,0.5*stud_H,,
K,3,beam_R1,0.5*stud_H,,
K,4,beam_R2,0.5*stud_H,,
K,5,0,beam_R2+0.5*stud_H,,
K,6,0,beam_R1+0.5*stud_H,,
!-----
L,1,2 $L,3,4 !
LARC,1,4,5,beam_R2, ! beam_R2
LARC,2,3,6,beam_R1, ! beam_R1
AL,1,2,3,4 !
! 6
K,7,-1*beam_R2,-0.5*stud_H,, !
K,8,-1*beam_R1,-0.5*stud_H,,
K,9,beam_R1,-0.5*stud_H,,
K,10,beam_R2,-0.5*stud_H,,
K,11,0,-1*(beam_R2+0.5*stud_H),,
K,12,0,-1*(beam_R1+0.5*stud_H),,
!------
L,7,8 $L,9,10 !
LARC,7,10,11,beam_R2, ! beam_R2
LARC,8,9,12,beam_R1, ! beam_R1
AL,5,6,7,8 !
!
BLC4,-1*beam_R2,-0.5*stud_H,beam_R1,stud_H !
BLC4,beam_R1,-0.5*stud_H,beam_R1,stud_H !
!
Aglue,all !
!=====
!
lsel,s,,,1 $lsel,a,,,2 $lsel,a,,,5 $lsel,a,,,6 !
lesize,all,,,line_div1 !
lsel,s,,,17 $lsel,a,,,18 $lsel,a,,,19 $lsel,a,,,20 !
lesize,all,,,line_div2 !
lsel,s,,,3 $lsel,a,,,4 $lsel,a,,,7 $lsel,a,,,8 !
lesize,all,,,arc_div1 !
MSHKEY,1 !
MSHAPE,0,2D !
AMESH,all !
!=====
/solution
nsel,s,loc,x,-1*beam_R2 ! X -1*beam_R2
nsel,r,loc,y,-0.5*stud_H ! Y -0.5*stud_H

234

D,all,all !
!
nsel,all !
nsel,s,loc,x,beam_R2 ! X beam_R2
nsel,r,loc,y,-0.5*stud_H ! Y -0.5*stud_H
D,all,UY ! Y
SFL,4,PRES,pressure, ! 4 4e8/(4.5*3.4)Pa
SFL,8,PRES,pressure, ! 8 4e8/(4.5*3.4)Pa
/replot !
Allsel,all !()
solve !
!=====
/post1 !
/UDOC,1,CNTR,RIGH !()
plnsol,s,eqv,0,1 !
! JPEG
JPGPRF,1500,300,1 !
/SHOW,JPEG !
PLNSOL,U,SUM,0,1,0 ! file000.jpg
PLNSOL,S,EQV,0,1,0 ! Mises file001.jpg
!() ansys
finish !
!%%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]6_4_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%%%

6.5

6-1 E=1 =0.25


=0 t =1 P=10 ANSYS
FEM2D.m 6-1(b)

6-1

6-2 ANSYS 6-1

6-3 ANSYS 6.4.2(2)

235

(1)
(2)
6-4 ANSYS 6.4.2(2)

6-4 ps = 19.61MPa

( 1.5)

6-4

6-5 6-5ANSYS 6.4.2(2)

ps = 19.61MPa pw = 26.14MPa

6-5

6-6 6-5()

80MPa( Von Mises )( ps = 19.61MPa )

236

7.1

(modal analysis)(transient dynamics


analysis)(harmonic response analysis)(spectrum analysis)
()

7.1.1


[ ]

7.1.1(1)

2D u ( , t )v( , t ) x ( , t ), y ( , t ), xy ( , t )

x ( , t ), y ( , t ), xy ( , t ) ( x, y, z ) t

7-1 dxdydz

7.1.1(2) /

c()
dxdydz 7-1
DAlembert principle(inertial force)
(damping force) 2D
x (t ) xy (t )
+ + bx (t ) u(t ) u (t ) = 0
x y
(7-1)
xy (t ) y (t )
+ + by (t ) v(t ) v(t ) = 0
x y

bx (t ), by (t ) x y

u(t ), u (t ) u (t ) t x
y
d

237

u (t )
x (t ) =
x
v(t )
y (t ) = (7-2)
y
v(t ) u (t )
xy (t ) = +
x y
e

1
x (t ) = x (t ) y (t )
E

1
y (t ) = y (t ) x (t ) (7-3)
E
1
xy (t ) = xy (t )
G

E , , G

f/ BC/IC
BC(u)

u (t ) = u (t )
on S u (7-4)
v(t ) = v (t )
BC(p)
x (t )nx + xy (t )n y = px (t )
on Sp (7-5)
xy (t )nx + y (t )ny = p y (t )
IC(initial condition)

u ( , t = 0) = u ( )
(7-6)
v( , t = 0) = v ( )



u ( , t = 0) = u ( )
(7-7)
v( , t = 0) = v ( )

u (t ), v (t ) S u px (t ), p y (t ) S p

u ( ), v ( ), u ( ), v ( )

7.1.1(3)

238

x (t ) xy (t )
= [ + + bx (t ) u(t ) u (t )] u

x y
xy (t ) y (t )
+[ + + by (t ) v(t ) v(t )] v d
x y (7-8)

+
Sp
{[ x (t )nx + xy (t )n y px (t )] u

+[ xy (t )nx + y (t )n y p y (t )] v} dA = 0

( Gauss-Green )


[ x x + y y + xy xy + u u + v v + u u + v v]d
(7-9)
(bx u + by v)d + ( px u + p y v)dA = 0
Sp

7.1.2

7.1.2(1)

qte (t ) = [u1 (t ) v1 (t ) w1 (t ) ... un (t ) vn (t ) wn (t )]


T
(7-10)

u e ( , t ) = N( ) qte (t ) (7-11)

N ( )

(7-11)()

e ( , t ) = [ ]u e = [ ]N( )qte (t ) = B( )qte (t )



e ( , t ) = D e = D B( ) qte (t ) = S( ) qte (t )
(7-12)
u e ( , t ) = N( ) q te (t )
e ( , t ) = N( ) q
u te (t )

(7-12)(7-9)
T
= M eq
te (t ) + Ceq te (t ) + K eq te (t ) Pte (t ) q te (t ) = 0 (7-13)

q t (t )
e

239

te (t ) + Ceq te (t ) + K eq te (t ) = Pte (t )


M eq

te + Ce q te + K e q te = Pte
M eq (7-14)

M e = e N T Nd (7-15)

C e = e N T Nd (7-16)

K e = e BT DBd (7-17)

Pte = e NT bd + NT pdA (7-18)


Sp

M e (mass matrix)

t + Cq t + Kqt = Pt


Mq (7-19)

n n

qt = qte , Pt = Pte
e =1 e =1
n n n (7-20)
M = M , C = C , K = K
e e e
e =1 e =1 e =1

n

c(static case)

(7-19)
Kq = P (7-21)

d(undamped system)

= 0 (7-19)

t + Kqt = Pt
Mq (7-22)

e(free vibration of undamped system)

= 0 Pt = 0 (7-19)

240

t + Kqt = 0
Mq (7-23)

(free vibration)

qt = q eit (7-24)

(7-23),
^ ^
( 2 M q + K q)ei t = 0 (7-25)

e it

(K 2 M )q = 0 (7-26)

(K 2 M) = 0 (7-27)

(eigen equation) (natural circular frequency)rad/sec

f =
2 (Hz) (7-26)

(eigen vector) q (mode)

7.1.3

(7-17)
(7-15)

(7-16)

7.1.3(1)


(1)

q e = [u1 u2 ]
T

x x
N = (1 )
l l
(7-15)

u1 u2

Al 2 1 u1
M e = e N T Nd = (7-28)
6 1 2 u2

241

A l consistent

mass matrix

(2)


(lumped mass matrix)
u1 u 2

1 0 u1
Al

M =e
(7-29)
0 1 u 2
2

7.1.3(2)

(1)
v1 1 v2 2

156 22l 54 13l v1

Al 22l 4l 2 13l 3l 2 1
M =
e (7-30)
420 54 13l 156 22l v2
13l 3l 2 22l 4l 2 2

A l

(2)

v1 1 v2 2

1 0 0 0 v1

Al 0 0 0 0 1 (7-31)
M =
e

2 0 0 1 0 v2
0 0 0 0 2

7.1.3(3)

(1)

242

u1 v1 u 2 v 2 u 3 v3

2 0 1 0 1 0 u1

0 2 0 1 0 1 v1

At 1 0 2 0 1 0 u 2
Me = (7-32)
12 0 1 0 2 0 1 v 2
1 0 1 0 2 0 u
3
v
0 1 0 1 0 2 3

A t

(2)

u1 v1 u 2 v 2 u 3 v3

1 0 0 0 0 0 u1

0 1 0 0 0 0 v1

Al 0 0 1 0 0 0 u2
Me = (7-33)
3 0 0 0 1 0 0 v2
0 0 0 0 1 0 u
3
v
0 0 0 0 0 1 3

7.1.3(4)

(1)
u1 v1 u 2 v2 u 3 v3 u 4 v4

4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 u1

0 4 0 2 0 1 0 2 v1

2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 u 2

At 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1 v2 (7-34)
M =
e

36 1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 u 3

0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2 v3

2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0 u4

0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4 v4
A t

(2)

243

u1 v1 u 2 v2 u 3 v3 u 4 v4

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 u1

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 v1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 u 2

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 v2
At (7-35)
Me =
4 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 u 3

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 v3

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 u4

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 v4

7.2
ANSYS 7.2(1) (GUI)

7-2 ()

7-1

7-1

E = 4 x 109 psf
l1 = 4.5 ft
g = 32.2 ft/sec2

W= 3220 lb
l2 = 5.5ft
m = W/g = 100 lb-sec2/ft

k1 = 2400 lb/ft
r=4ft
k2 = 2600 lb/ft

7-2(b)

(a) (b)
7-2

244

()

2
I zz = m r r 4ft I zz =1600 lb-sec2-ft
()
2D 2-D Elastic Beam Elements (BEAM3)
Spring-Damper Elements (COMBIN14)
Structural Mass Element (MASS21)

X
Y
p<*GET >()
q<*GET >
7-2

7-2 ANSYS

Reference 7.2(1) ANSYS

f1 , Hz 1.0981 1.0981 1.000


f2 , Hz 1.4406 1.4406 1.000
Reference7.2(1). Thomson W T. Vibration Theory and Applications, 2nd Printing, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965,
181

(GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname:
VehicleRun OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Beam: 2d
elastic 3 Apply Library of Element Combination: Spring-damper 14 Apply
Library of Element Structural Mass: 3D mass 21OK Element Types Type
2 COMBIN14 OptionsK3 2-D longitudinalOK Element Types Type
3 MASS21 OptionsK3 2-D w rot inert OK Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real ConstantsAdd/Edit/Delete... Add Type 2
COMBIN14 OK Real Constants Set No. : 1 1 , K:2400( k1 =
2400) Ok( Real constants ) Add Type 1 BEAM3 OK Real Constants Set
No. : 2 2 AREA:10, IZZ:10, HEIGHT:10() Ok Add
Type 3 MASS21 OK Real Constants Set No. : 3 3 , MASS:100IZZ:1600(
) Ok Add Type 1 BEAM3 OK Real Constants Set No. : 4 4
AREA:10, IZZ:10, HEIGHT:10() Ok Add Type 2
COMBIN14 OK Real Constants Set No. : 5 5 , K:2600( k2 =

245

2600) Close ( Real Constants )


(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Elastic
Linear Isotropic input EX: 4E9, PRXY:0.3() OKDensity ()
DENS:0, OK
(6)

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number
1XYZ Location in active CS000 Apply 4
0104.51010101000OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes Type 2
COMBIN14 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 12 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes MAT,1
TYPE,1 Beam3REAL,2 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 23
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes Type 3
MASS21 REAL,3 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 3
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes Type 1
BEAM3 REAL,4 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 34
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes Type 2
COMBIN14 REAL,5 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 45
(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply -Structural DisplacementOn Nodes
15 OK Lab2: UXUY( XY ) Apply 3
OK Lab2: UX ( X ) OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis ModalOK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Options [MODOPT] Block Lanczos, No. of modes to extract: 5
Expand mode shapes: Yes, Number of modes to expand:0 OK Block Lanczos Method
Start Freq0.001 End Freq100 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
(9)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc List Results Detailed summary
(10)

246

ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 7.2(2) ()

ANSYS 7.2(1) GUI

!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,MODAL !
MP,EX,1,4E9 ! 1
MP,DENS,1,0 ! 1
MP,PRXY,1,0.3 ! 1
ET,1,BEAM3 ! 1()
ET,2,COMBIN14,,,2 ! 2()
ET,3,MASS21,,,3 ! 3(), KEYOPT(3)=3
R,1,2400 ! No.1 k1 = 2400
R,2,10,10,10 ! No.2()
R,3,100,1600 ! No.3MASS=100, IZZ=1600 KEYOPT(3)=3
R,4,10,10,10 ! No.4()
R,5,2600 ! No.5 k2= 2600
N,1 ! 1
N,2,,1 ! 2
N,3,4.5,1 ! 3
N,4,10,1 ! 4
N,5,10 ! 5
TYPE,2 !
E,1,2 ! ()
MAT,1 ! No.1
TYPE,1 ! No.1
REAL,2 ! No.2
E,2,3 ! ()
TYPE,3 !
REAL,3 ! No.3
E,3 !
TYPE,1 !
REAL,4 ! No.4
E,3,4 ! ()
TYPE,2 !
REAL,5 ! No.5
E,4,5 ! ()
D,1,UX,,,5,4,UY ! 1 5 UX UY
D,3,UX ! 3 UX
FINISH !

247

/SOLU !
MODOPT,LANB,5,0.001,100 ! LANB 5 0.001 100
SOLVE !
*GET,FREQ1,MODE,1,FREQ ! 1 FREQ1
*GET,FREQ2,MODE,2,FREQ ! 2 FREQ2
*STATUS !
!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%%

7.3
ANSYS 7.3(1) (GUI)

F f i , i=1,2,3
7-3

7-3

E = 30 x 106 psi l = 100 in 0 =0.00543228

= 0.00073 lb-sec2/in4 A = 0.00306796 in2

7-3

7-3


3D(Tension-only or Compression-only Spar ElementsLINK10)

X
Y
p
q

248

< PSTRES,ON >


r
s
t<*GET >()< ETABLE
>
7-4

7-4 ANSYS

Reference 7.3(1) ANSYS

F, lb 500. 500. 1.000


Stress, psi 162,974. 162,974. 1.000
f1 , Hz 74.708 75.094 1.005
f2 , Hz 149.42 151.29 1.012
f3 , Hz 224.12 229.68 1.025
Reference 7.3(1). Thomson W T. Vibration Theory and Applications, 2nd Printing, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc , 1965,
264

(GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname
String: String Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Link : 3D Bilinear
10 Ok Element Types Type 1 LINK10 OptionsK3Tension only OK
Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete... Add Type 1
LINK10 OK Real Constants Set No. : 1 1 , AREA: 306796E-8 (), ISTRN:
543248E-8 Ok Close ( Real Constants )
(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic IsotropicEX: 30e6 Note OKDensity () DENS:73e-5,
OK
(6)

ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number
1XYZ Location in active CS000 Apply Node number14XYZ Location in active CS
10000 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Nodes Fill between Nds 1
14 OK OK

249


ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 12
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Copy Elements Auto Numbered
OK Total number of copies: 13 OK
(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
Pick All OK Lab2: All DOF() OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis StaticOK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type Soln controls Basic Calculate
prestress effects OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK Yes
(9)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab: STRS,
Results data item: By sequence number, LS LS1 OK Close
ANSYS Utility Menu:Parameters Get Scalar Data Result data, Elem table data OK
Name of parameter to be defined: STRSS ; Element number N: 13 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: TimeHist PostproDefine Variables Add Reaction forces List of items: 1
Ok Item,Comp Data item: Struct force FX OK close
ANSYS Main Menu: TimeHist PostproStore Data
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar Data Result data, Time-hist vars OK
Name of parameter to be defined: FORCE ; Variable number N: 2, Data to be retrieved: Maximum val Vmax
OK
(10)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis Modal OK Close(warning)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type Analysis Options [MODOPT] Block Lanczos, No. of
modes to extract: 3 Expand mode shapes: Yes, No. of modes to expand:3 [PSTRES]: Yes OK OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads delete Structural Displacement On Nodes
2 13 OK UX OK 2 13 UX
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads delete Structural Displacement On Nodes
2 13 OK UY OK 2 13 UY
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK Yes
(11)
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar Data Result data, Modal results OK
Name of parameter to be defined: FREQ1 ; Variable number N: 1 ,Data to be retrieved: Frequency FREQ
OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar Data Result data, Modal results OK
Name of parameter to be defined: FREQ2 ; Variable number N: 2 ,Data to be retrieved: Frequency FREQ
OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar Data Result data, Modal results OK
Name of parameter to be defined: FREQ3 ; Variable number N: 3 ,Data to be retrieved: Frequency FREQ
OK
ANSYS Utility MenuList Status Parameters All Parameters

250

(12)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 7.3(2) ()

ANSYS 7.3(1) GUI

!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_3(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !
PSTRES,ON !()
ET,1,LINK10 ! 1()
KEYOPT,1,3,0 !KEYOPT(3)=0
R,1,306796E-8,543248E-8 !(306796E-8)(543248E-8)
MP,EX,1,30E6 !(1 )
MP,DENS,1,73E-5 !(1 )
N,1 ! 1
N,14,100 ! 14
FILL ! 2 13
E,1,2 ! 1 2
EGEN,13,1,1 ! 13
D,ALL,ALL !
FINISH !
/SOLU !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
ETABLE,STRS,LS,1 ! LINK10 , STRS, LS 1
*GET,STRSS,ELEM,13,ETAB,STRS ! STRS, 13
FINISH !
/POST26 !
RFORCE,2,1,F,X ! 1 x 2
STORE !
*GET,FORCE,VARI,2,EXTREM,VMAX ! 2 FORCE
/SOLU !
ANTYPE,MODAL !
MODOPT,SUBSP,3 ! 3
MXPAND,3 ! 3
PSTRES,ON ! ()
DDELE,2,UX,13 ! 2 13 UX
DDELE,2,UY,13 ! 2 13 UY
SOLVE !
*GET,FREQ1,MODE,1,FREQ ! 1 FREQ1
*GET,FREQ2,MODE,2,FREQ ! 2 FREQ2
*GET,FREQ3,MODE,3,FREQ ! 3 FREQ3
*STATUS !

251

!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_3(2) %%%%% end %%%%%

7.4

ANSYS 7.4(1) (GUI)

7-4

7-4 E = 0.26GPa = 0.3

= 886kg/m 3

(a) (b)
7-4

SOLID45

X< BSPLIN >

Y(PLANE42)
p SOLID45<EXTOPT>< VEXT> z
q< ANTYPE,2> Lanczos < MODOPT,LANB >
r<SET>
s<PLDI><ANMODE>

(GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS()
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory ( ) Initial
jobname()ModalRun

(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK

(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete Add Structural
solidQuad 4node 42 Apply solid Brick 8node 45OK Close

(4)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic Isotropic:EX:0.26E9(),PRXY:0.3() OK Density:886 OK

252

Material Exit

(5)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS
X,Y,Z location:0,0,0 Apply X,Y,Z location:0.05,0,0 Apply X,Y,Z location:0.0575,0.005,0
Apply X,Y,Z location:0.0475,0.0125,0 Apply X,Y,Z location:0.025,0.00625,0 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Lines Lines Straight Line
1, 2, 5, 1 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Lines Splines With Options
Spline thru KPs 2, 3, 4, 5 OK :XV1:-0.025,YV1:0,ZV1:0
:XV6:-0.025, YV6:-0.00625, ZV6:0 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Areas Arbitrary By Lines
3 OK

(6)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing Mesh Tool global Set Element edge
length:0.00625 OK Mesh Pick All Close Close( Mesh Tool )
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Operate Extrude Elem Ext Opts
Element type number:2 SOLID45 The No. of element divisions:10 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Operate Extrude Areas By XYZ
Offset Pick All Offsets for extrusion in the Z direction:0,0,0.25 OK Close

(7)
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities Elements By Attributes Elem type num
The element type number:1 Unselect Apply

(8)
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities Nodes By Location Z coordinates The Z
coordinate location:0 From Full Apply
ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Displacement On Nodes Pick All All DOF OK By Num/Pick Select All
Cancel()

(9)
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Analysis Type New Analysis Modal OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Analysis Type Analysis Options Block Lanczos
No. of modes to extract: 5 No. of modes to expand: 5 OK OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS File Close OK Yes Yes
Close(Solution is done!).

(10)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Results Summary Close( 7-5)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Read Results First Set
ANSYS Utility MenuPlot Ctrls Animate Mode Shape OK Animation Controller
() Close
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Read Results Next Set
ANSYS Utility MenuPlot Ctrls Animate Mode Shape OK( 7-5)

253

(11)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

7-5

SET 1 2 3 4 5

Hz 14.541 64.509 91.655 137.93 261.76

(a) 1 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 4
7-5

ANSYS 7.4(2) ()

ANSYS 7.4(1) GUI

!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_4(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !
ET,1,PLANE42 ! 1()
ET,2,SOLID45 ! 2()
MP,EX,1,0.26e9 !(1 )
MP,DENS,1,886 !(1 )
MP,PRXY,1,0.3 !(1 )
K, ,,,, ! 1(0,0,0)
K, ,0.05,,, ! 2(0.05,0,0)
K, ,0.0575,0.005,, ! 3(0.0575,0.005,0)
K, ,0.0475,0.0125,, ! 4(0.0475,0.0125,0)

254

K, ,0.025,0.00625,, ! 5(0.025,0.00625,0)
LSTR,1,2 ! 1 2 1
LSTR,5,1 ! 5 1 2
BSPLIN,2,3,4,5,,,-0.025,0,0,-0.025,-0.00625,0, ! B 2,3,4,5 3
AL,1,2,3 ! 1,2,3
ESIZE,0.00625 ! 0.00625
MSHAPE,0,2D ! 2D (key=0)
MSHKEY,0 !(0)
AMESH,all !( 1 )
TYPE, 2 ! 2()
EXTOPT,ESIZE,10,0, ! 10
VEXT,all,,,0,0,0.25,,,, ! z () z 0.25
ESEL,U,TYPE,,1 ! 1 ()
NSEL,S,LOC,Z,0 ! z=0
D,all, , , , , ,ALL, , , , , !
NSEL,ALL !
FINISH !
/SOLU !
ANTYPE,2 !(2)
MODOPT,LANB,5 ! LANB , 5
MXPAND,5, , ,0 ! 5
MODOPT,LANB,5,0,0, ,OFF ! LANB , 5
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
/VIEW, 1 ,1,1,1 !
/ANG, 1
/REP,FAST
SET,FIRST ! 1
SET,NEXT !
SET,NEXT !( 3 )
PLDI, , !
ANMODE,10,0.5, ,0 ! 10 0.5
!%%%% [ANSYS ]7_4(2) %%%%% end %%%%%

7.5

7-1 3-8 = 2700kg/m


3

7-2 710mm 0.254mm 190GPa


3
7920kg/m F =84N ANSYS 7.3(1)

255

7-3 m = 5 10 kg H = 30m
6

inner = 3m out = 6m

= 2.4 103 kg / m3 E = 29GPa ANSYS


(1) 3D

(2)

7-3

7-4

L = 6mH = 3mBc =0.4mBs =0.3m s = 7800kg/m3

Es = 210GPa c = 2500kg/m
3

Es = 29GPa ANSYS

(1)

(2)

7-4

7-5 7-4 ANSYS


(1)

256

(2)

(3)

7-6 7-4 1D ANSYS


7-4 7-5

7-6

7-7 m1 = 32 10 kg
3

m2 = m3 = 5 103 kg l1 = l2 = 6m B = 2.5m H = 1.2m ANSYS

(1) 2D

(2)

7-7

7-8 ANSYS 7.3(1)

257

8.1

(heat transfer)

8.1.1

8.1.1(1)


Fourier (heat transfer theorem) (energy conservation
theorem)(governing equation)

T ( x, y, z , t )

T T T T
( x ) + ( y ) + ( z ) + Q = cT (8-1)
x x y y z z t

( )
kg/m 3 cT (specific heat) ( J/(kg K) ) x y z

xyz (thermal conductivity of material) ( W / ( m K ) ) Q ( x, y , z , t )

(strength of heat source) ( W/kg )


BC(S1)

T ( x, y, z, t ) = T (t ) on S1 (8-2)

BC(S2)
T T T
x nx + y ny + z nz = q f ( t ) on S2 (8-3)
x y z
BC(S3)

T T T
x nx + y ny + z nz = hc (T T ) on S3 (8-4)
x y z

n x n y n z T (t ) S1 q f ( t )

( )
S2 W/m 2 hc (heat transfer

coefficient) W / ( m 2 K ) T (temperature of surrounding medium)t (s )


( )
258

= S1 + S 2 + S 3

8.1.1(2) ()

(initial condition)IC

T ( x, y, z , t = 0) = T0 ( x, y, z ) (8-5)

(8-2)(8-4)(8-5)
I
1 T 2 T T T
min I=
BC S1 , S 2 , S3 )
(

2 x ( ) + y ( ) 2 + z ( ) 2 2( Q cT
x y z
)T d (8-6)
t
T
IC

(8-3)(8-4)
(8-6)
1 T 2 T 2 T 2 T
min I= x ( x ) + y ( y ) + z ( z ) 2( Q cT t )T d

T
( )
BC S12 (8-7)
IC

1
q f TdA + hc (T T ) dA
2 S3
2
S2

()

8.1.2
(steady problem)
T
=0 (8-8)
t
8.1.2(1)

T e ( x, y, z )

T e ( x, y, z ) = N ( x, y , z ) qTe (8-9)

N ( x, y, z ) qT
e

qTe = [T1 T2 Tn ]
T
(8-10)

I
T1 T2 Tn (8-9)(8-7) = 0
qTe

K Te qTe = PTe (8-11)

259

N T N T
N N N N
T

K = e x
e
+ y +z d
x x y y z z
T
(8-12)

+ e hc NT NdA
S3

PTe = e QNT d + e q f NT dA + e hcT NT d (8-13)


S2 S3

(8-11) K T (heat transfer matrix) qT


e e

PT
e

(8-7) C0

8.1.2(2) 3

8-1 3

8-1


T
qTe = Ti Tj Tm (8-14)

4.3.1 3

T e ( x, y, z ) = N iTi + N jT j + N mTm = N qTe (8-15)

N = N i Nj N m (8-16)

1
Ni = (ai + bi x + ci y )
2A
x yj
ai = j = x j ym xm y j
xm ym
1 yj
bi = = y j ym
1 ym
1 xj
ci = = x j + xm
1 xm

260

i, j , m

K T PT
e e


jm BC(S2) gf
jm BC(S3) hc

(8-16) K T PT (8-12)(8-13)
e e

Ti Tj Tm Ti Tj Tm
(8-17)

bi bi bi b j bi bm ci ci ci c j ci cm
x y
K =
e
b j bi bjb j b j bm + c j ci c jc j c j cm
4A 4A
T
bmbi bmb j bmbm cm ci cm c j cm cm

1 T
3 QA i


PTe = QA T j
1 (8-18)
3

1 QA Tm
3
jm BC(S2)

(8-16) BC(S2)(8-3) K T PT (8-12)(8-13)


e e

Ti Tj Tm Ti Tj Tm
(8-19)

bi bi bi b j bi bm ci ci ci c j ci cm
x y
K Te = b j bi b j b j b j bm + c j ci c jc j c j cm
4A 4A
bmbi bmb j bm bm cm ci cm c j cm cm

1
QA Ti
3

PT = QA + q f l T j

e 1 1 (8-20)
3 2

1 QA + 1 q f l T
3 2 m

jm BC(S3)

(8-16) BC(S3)(8-4) K T PT (8-12)


e e

261

(8-13)
Ti Tj Tm Ti Tj Tm Ti T j Tm
(8-21)

bi bi bi b j bi bm ci ci ci c j ci cm 0 0 0
x y 1
K =
e
b j bi bjbj b j bm + c j ci c jc j c j cm + hc l 0 2 1
4A 4A
T
6
bmbi bmb j bmbm cm ci cm c j cm cm 0 1 2

1 T
QA i
3

PTe = QA + h cTl T j
1 1 (8-22)
3 2

1 QA + 1 h cTl T
3
m
2

8.1.3
(1) (2)

(stress of temperature
effect)

8.1.3(1)

T ( x, y, z ) (

) T T ( x, y , z ) T (thermal expansion coefficient)

()

1
x = [ x ( y + z )] + T T
E

1
y = [ y ( x + z )] + T T
E
(8-23)
1
z = [ z ( x + y )] + T T
E
1 1 1
xy = xy , yz = yz , zx = zx
G G G

ij = Dijkl
1
kl + ij0 (8-24)

ij = Dijkl ( kl kl0 ) (8-25)

262

ij0 = [T T T T T T 0 0 0]
T
(8-26)

8.1.3(2)

(8-25), ,
U W = 0

Dijkl kl ij d bi u i d + pi u i dA + Dijkl kl0 ij d = 0 (8-27)


Sp

8.1.3(3)

q e = [u1 wn ]
T
v1 w1 un vn (8-28)

u e = Nq e (8-29)

e = Bq e (8-30)

e = D( e 0 )
= DBq e D 0
= Sq e D T T [1 1 1 0 0 0]
T
(8-31)

N, B, D, S

(8-31)
(8-31)
(8-29)(8-30)()

u e = N q e
(8-32)
e = B qe
(8-29)(8-30)(8-32)(8-27)

q e

K e q e = P e + P0e (8-33)

K e = e B DBd
T
(8-34)

P e = e NT bd + e NT pdA (8-35)
Sp

P0e = e BT D 0 d (8-36)

263

P0 (8-33)
e

P0
e

8.2
ANSYS 8.2(1) 2D (GUI)

2D 8-2 8-1 AB
T0 = 1000 C BC Ta = 0 0 C ( B )
BE

8-1 2D

k = 52.0 W/m-C a = 1.0 m To = 100C

h = 750.0 W/m2-C b = 0.6 m Ta = 0C


d = 0.2 m

2D 2-D Thermal Solid Elements


(PLANE55)ADAPT( 10 )
5%( thermal energy norm)

X< ANTYPE,STATIC >

Y E
p
q 10 5%
r<*GET >
8-2

(a) (b)
8-2 2D

264

8-2 ANSYS

Reference 8.2(1) ANSYS

T, C E 18.3 18.2 0.995

Reference 8.2(1)NAFEMS, The Standard NAFEMS Benchmarks, Rev. No. TSNB, National Engineering
Laboratory, E. Kilbride, Glasgow, UK, 1989, Test No. T4.

(GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname:
thermalRectangle heat Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Thermal OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Thermal Solid:
Quad 4node 55 OK Element Types Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Thermal Conductivity
Isotropic input KXX:52.0() OK Close
(5)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS NPT
Keypoint number1XYZ Location in active CS0,0,0 Apply 4
(0.6,0), (0.6,1.0), (0,1.0), (0.6,0.2) OK Lines Lines Straight Line
1225533441 OKAreas Arbitrary By Line
OK
(6)
ANSYS Utility MenuPlotCtrls Numbering Plot Numbering Control KPOn
LINEOn OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Thermal Temperature
On Keypoints 1 OK( Apply TEMP on Keypoints )Lab2: TEMPVALUE:
100 KEXPNDYes Apply 2 OK( Apply TEMP on Keypoints ) Lab2:
TEMPVALUE: 100KEXPNDYes OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Thermal Convection
On Lines 2L2 OK( Apply CONV on Lines )VALI: 750.0VAL2I: 0.0 OK
On Lines (Main Menu ) 3L3 OK( Apply CONV on Lines )VALI: 750.0
VAL2I: 0.0 OK On Lines (Main Menu ) 4L4 OK( Apply CONV on Lines )
VALI: 750.0VAL2I: 0.0 OK
(7)
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Adaptive Mesh Adaptive Meshing and Solution
NSOL: 10TTARGT: 5; FACMN0.2FACMX1 OK
(8)

ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Nodal Solu ( Contour

265

Nodal Solution Data ) DOF Solution Nodal Temperature OK


E
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities Select Entities
KeyPoints OK Select KeyPoints 5 OK
ANSYS Utility MenuSelect Entities Select Entities
Nodes Attached to KeyPoints OK Select KeyPoints 5 OK
ANSYS Utility MenuNumbering Plot Numbering Control NODEOn OK
30
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Get Scalar Data Get Scalar Data Result data
Nodal resultsOK Get Nodal results Data NameTEMP1; Node number N30Results
data to be retrievedDOF solutionTemperature TEMP OK
ANSYS Utility MenuList Status Parameters All Parameters
(9)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 8.2(2) 2D ()

ANSYS 8.2(1) GUI

!%%%% [ANSYS ]8_2(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !()
ET,1,PLANE55 ! 1()
MP,KXX,1,52.0 !(KXX=52)
K,1 ! 1 (0,0)
K,2,.6 ! 2 (0.6,0)
K,3,.6,1.0 ! 3 (0.6,1.0)
K,4,,1.0 ! 4 (0,1)
K,5,.6,.2 ! 5 (0.6,0.2)
L,1,2 ! 1 2
L,2,5 ! 2 5
L,5,3 ! 5 3
L,3,4 ! 3 4
L,4,1 ! 4 1
AL,ALL !
DK,1,TEMP,100,,1 ! 1 (100), 1
DK,2,TEMP,100,,1 ! 2 (100)
SFL,2,CONV,750.0,,0.0 ! 2 750.0
SFL,3,CONV,750.0,,0.0 ! 3 750.0
SFL,4,CONV,750.0,,0.0 ! 4 750.0
FINISH !
ADAPT,10,,5,0.2,1 !,, 5%, 10 , 0.2,1
/POST1 !()
PLNSOL,TEMP !

266

*GET,TEPC,PRERR,,TEPC ! TEPC
KSEL,,,,5 ! 5
NSLK !
*GET,N1,NODE,,NUM,MAX ! N1
*GET,TEMP1,NODE,N1,TEMP ! N1
ALLSEL,ALL !
*status,parm !
!%%%% [ANSYS ]8_2(2) %%%%% end %%%%%

8.3

ANSYS 8.3(1) (GUI)

8-3 8-3
8-4

(a) (b)
8-3

8-3

x (ENTH)

0oF 1.44 Btu/(hr-in-oF) 0.0 Btu/in3


2643oF 1.54 Btu/(hr-in-oF) 128.1 Btu/in3
2750oF 1.22 Btu/(hr-in-oF) 163.8 Btu/in3
2875oF 1.22 Btu/(hr-in-oF) 174.2 Btu/in3

8-4

x 0.025 Btu/(hr-in-oF) 2875 oF 80 oF


80 oF 0.014 Btu/(hr-in2-oF)
0.054 lb/in3

cT 0.28 Btu/(lb-oF)

8-3

X1 ()

267

Y<MPTEMP/MPDATA> 2 ()
p< ANTYPE,4><SOLCONTROL,ON>
q <node(16,6,0)>
<NSOL>
r 2 < PLVAR >
s< ANTIME >

(GUI)(step by step)
(1) ANSYS
ANSYS InteractiveWorking directory () Initial jobname(
): mold Run
(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: PreferencesThermalOK
(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/DeleteAddSolidQuad 4 node
55OKClose
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Thermal Conductivity
Isotropic KXX:0.025OK Specific Heat C:0.28OK DensityDENS:0.054OK
Material Props window: Material New ModelMaterial ID: 2 OK Isotropic Add
Temperature T1:0, T2:2643, T3:2750, T4:2875, KXX:1.44 at T1, KXX:1.54 at T2, KXX:1.22 at T3,
KXX:1.22 at T4OK Enthalpy Add Temperature
ENTH:0 at T1, ENTH:128.1 at T2, ENTH:163.8 at T3, ENTH:174.2 at T4OK
Material Models Defined windowThermal conduct (iso) Graph OK EnthalpyGraphOK
(to see the material properties vs. temperature) OKU

8-4 8-5

(5)

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS
4 XYZ Apply
4 :1( 0,0,0), 2(2.2,0,0), 3(1,1.2,0), 4(0,1.2,0)OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Areas Arbitrary Through KPs
Pick keypoints 1234() OK

268

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Areas Rectangle By Dimensions


X1: 0.4, X2:2.2, Y1:0.4, Y2:0.8 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Operate Booleans Overlap Areas
Pick All
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Delete Area and Below 3 OK
(6)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Meshing Mesh Tool Smart Sizing 4
Mesh 5 OK (in the picking menu) MeshTool Size Controls Global: Set
NDIV:4( 2 ) OK Mesh 4 OK Close ( MeshTool )
(7)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Thermal Convection
On Lines 3 ( 1,3,4) OK Film coefficient: 0.014, Bulk temperature:
80 OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis Transient OK OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Entities Areas OK 4 OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Everything Below Selected Areas
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Initial Condit'n Define Pick All
Lab: TEMP, Value: 2875 OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Entities Nodes Attached to Areas, all Invert Cancel
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Initial Condit'n Define Pick All
Lab: ALlL DOF, Value: 80 OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Select Everything
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Load Step Opts Time/Frequenc Time-Time Step Time at
end of load step: 4; initial time step size: 0.01 Choose Stepped loading Minimum time step size: 0.001;
Maximum time step size: 0.25 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Load Step Opts Output Ctrls DB/Results File
Every substep OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS File Close OK Close(Solution is
done!).
(9)
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Scalar Parameters : "cntr_pt = node (1.6,0.6,0)"
Accept Close
ANSYS Main Menu: Time Hist Postproc Add Value Nodal Solution DOF Solution
Temperature User-specified label: center picker and press enter: cntr_pt OK OK File
Close
ANSYS Main Menu: Time Hist Postpro Graph Variables NVAR1: 2 OK

269

8-6 8-7

ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Read Results First Set


ANSYS Utility Menu: Plot Ctrls Style Contours Non_uniform Contours V1: 2643 V2:
2750 V3: 3000 OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Plot Ctrls Animate Over Time Number of animination frames: 10
OK Auto Contour Scaling
(10)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 8.3(2) ()

ANSYS 8.3(1) GUI

!%%%% [ANSYS ]8_3(2) %%%%% begin %%%%%


/PREP7 !, ()
ET,1,PLANE55 ! 1()
MP,KXX,1,0.025 ! 1 (KXX=0.025)
MP,DENS,1,0.054 ! 1 (0.054)
MP,C,1,0.28 ! 1 (0.28)
! 2 ()
MPTEMP,1,0,2643,2750,2875,,, !
MPDATA,KXX,2,1,1.44,1.54,1.22,1.22,,, ! 2
MPDATA,ENTH,2,1,0,128.1,163.8,174.2 ! 2
MPPLOT,KXX,2,,,,, ! 2
MPPLOT,ENTH,2,,,,, ! 2
K,1,0,0,0 ! 1 (0,0,0)
K,2,22,0,0 ! 2 (22,0,0)
K,3,10,12,0 ! 3 (10,12,0)
K,4,0,12,0 ! 4 (12,0,0)
A,1,2,3,4 ! 1,2,3,4
RECTNG,4,22,4,8 ! x 4~22,y 4~8
APLOT !
AOVLAP,1,2 !
ADELE,3,,,1 ! 3
!( 1 1)
SMRT,5 ! 5

270

MSHAPE,0,2D !
MSHKEY,0 !
AMESH,5 ! 5
TYPE,1 ! 1
MAT,2 ! 2
REAL ! 1( 1)
ESYS,0 !
AMESH,4 ! 4
SFL,1,CONV,0.014,,80,, ! 1 , 0.014, 80
SFL,3,CONV,0.014,,80,, ! 3 , 0.014, 80
SFL,4,CONV,0.014,,80,, ! 4 , 0.014, 80
SAVE !
FINISH !
/SOLU !
ANTYPE,4 !
SOLCONTROL,ON,0 !
APLOT !
ASEL,S,,,4 ! 4 ()
NSLA,S,1 !
NPLOT !
IC,ALL,TEMP,2875 ! 2875F
NSEL,INVE !( 5 )
/REPLOT !
IC,ALL,TEMP,80 ! 80F
ALLSEL,ALL !
SAVE !
TIME,3 ! 3
AUTOTS,-1 ! log
DELTIM,0.01,0.001,0.25,1 ! 0.01,
!() 0.001 0.25
KBC,1 !
OUTRES,ALL,ALL !
SAVE !
/STAT,SOLU !
/REPLOT !
APLOT !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST26 !
EPLOT !
cntr_pt=node(16,6,0) !(16,6,0) cntr_pt
NSOL,2,cntr_pt,TEMP,,center ! cntr_pt 2 center
PLVAR,2 ! 2
ANTIME,30,0.5, ,0,0,0,0 !30 0.5
FINISH !
!%%%% [ANSYS ]8_3(2) %%%%% end %%%%%

8.4

271

ANSYS 8.4(1) (GUI)

8-8(a) A=0.1
2
in
8-5

8-5

16 x 106 psi
Q = 4000 lb
92 x 10-7 in/in-F

30 x 106 psi
T = 10F
70 x 10-7 in/in-F

(a) (b)
8-8

8-8(b) 2D 2-D Spar (or Truss) Elements


(LINK1) 20in 10in(700F)


X
Y

p<*GET >()
q<*GET >
8-6

8-6 ANSYS

Reference 8.4(1) ANSYS

, psi 19,695. 19,695. 1.000

, psi 10,152. 10,152. 1.000

Reference 8.4(1) Timoshenko S. Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, New
York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1955, 30

(1) ANSYS

272

ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname(


): Links with Temperature Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add link: 2d spar 1
OK Element Types Close
(4)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Real Constants Add Type 1 LINK1 OK Real
Constants Set No. : 1, AREA:0.1 Close ( Real Constants )
(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Isotropic EX: 16E6(), PRXY:0() OK( Define Material Model Behavior )
Structural Thermal expansion Secant Coefficient Isotropic Alpx: 92E-7 OK ( Define
Material Model Behavior ) Material New model Structural Linear Isotropic EX:
30E6, PRXY:0 OK( Define Material Model Behavior )Structural Thermal expansion
Secant Coefficient Isotropic Alpx:70E-7 OK Close
(6)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Settings Reference Temp
TREF:70 OK
(7)

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number:1,
X, Y, Z Location in active CS:-1000 Apply 3 (1000)4 (-10-200)
6 (10-200)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes Fill between Nds
13 OK OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes Fill between Nds
46 OK OK

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes MAT,1
TYPE,1 LINK1REAL,1 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 14 Apply 36 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Elem Attributes MAT:2;
TYPE:1 LINK1; REAL:1 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru
Nodes 25 OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Coupling/ Ceqn Couple DOFs 456 OK
NSET :1Lab: UY OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Nodes
123 OK Lab2: ALL DOF OK
(9)

273

ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment
On Nodes 5 OK LabFY, Value: -4000 OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural Other
Fluence Uniform Fluen BFUNIF80
(10)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Load Step Opts Output Ctrls Solu Printout
Item: Basic quantities , FREQ: Every Nth Step, Value of N:1, OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Load Step Opts Output Ctrls Solu Printout
Item: Elem Nodal Loads , FREQ: Every Nth Step, Value of N:1, OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type New Analysis Static OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Analysis Type Sol'n Controls Basic Number of substeps:1
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS OK Yes Close
(11)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab: Strs_St, Item:
By Sequence number LS LS1 Apply Add Lab Strs_Co, Item: By
Sequence number LS LS1
ANSYS Utility Menu: List Elements Nodes + Attributes MAT=2

ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar DataType of data to be retrieved: Results data; Elem
table data OK Name of parameters to be defined: STRSS_ST; Element number N: STEEL_E; Elem
table data to be retrieved: STRS_ST OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: Parameters Get Scalar DataType of data to be retrieved: Results data; Elem
table data OK Name of parameters to be defined: STRSS_CO; Element number N: COPPER_E; Elem
table data to be retrieved: STRS_CO OK
ANSYS Utility Menu: ListStatusParametersAll Parameters
(12)
ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 8.4(2) ()

ANSYS 8.4(1) GUI

!%%%%%% [ANSYS ]8_4(2) %%%% begin %%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC ! S
ET,1,LINK1 ! 1()
R,1,.1 !
MP,EX,1,16E6 ! 1 ()
MP,ALPX,1,92E-7 ! 1 ()
MP,EX,2,30E6 ! 1 ()
MP,ALPX,2,70E-7 ! 1 ()
TREF,70 !
N,1,-10 ! 1
N,3,10 ! 3

274

FILL ! 1 3 ( 2 )
N,4,-10,-20 ! 4
N,6,10,-20 ! 6
FILL ! 4 6 ( 5 )
E,1,4 ! 1 4
E,3,6 ! 3 6
MAT,2 ! 2
E,2,5 ! 2 5
CP,1,UY,5,4,6 ! 4,5,6
D,1,ALL,,,3 ! 1,2,3
F,5,FY,-4000 ! 5 FY=-4000
BFUNIF,TEMP,80 ! 80 (+10)
FINISH !
/SOLU !
OUTPR,BASIC,1 ! 1
OUTPR,NLOAD,1 ! 1
NSUBST,1 !1
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
STEEL_N = NODE (,,,) !(0,0,0) STEEL_N
COPPER_N = NODE (10,0,0) !(10,0,0) COPPER_N
STEEL_E = ENEARN (STEEL_N) ! STEEL_N
COPPER_E = ENEARN (COPPER_N) ! COPPER_N
ETABLE,STRS_ST,LS,1 !, STRS_ST, LS 1
ETABLE,STRS_CO,LS,1 !, STRS_CO, LS 1
*GET,STRSS_ST,ELEM,STEEL_E,ETAB,STRS_ST
!() STRS_ST , STEEL_E STRSS_ST
*GET,STRSS_CO,ELEM,COPPER_E,ETAB,STRS_CO
!() STRS_CO , COPPER_E STRSS_CO
*STATUS !
!%%%%%% [ANSYS ]8_4(2) %%%% end %%%%

8.5

8-1 k = 170W/m i K

T = 15 C h = 25W/m iK
0 2

q = 5 103 W/mm3

275

8-1

8-2 T0=20 oC

T = 800 C h = 25W/m C
0 2 0

8-2

0
8-3 1.5W/m C

180oC T = 25 C
0

h = 50W/m 2 0 C

8-3

8-4 k = 1.4W/m i K

Tin = 1000 C Tout = 300 C

276

h = 20W/m2 iK

8-4

8-5 k = 170W/m i K

= 2800kg/m3 c = 870J/kgiK 280 C

90 C T f = 280 C
0

h = 30W/m 2 iK

8-5

8-6 20C P = 300 10 N


3

60C
(a) K F

(b)

277

8-6

278

9.1

(elastic-plastic problem)

9.1.1

9.1.1(1)

9-1

9-1

ij

-
(elastic-plastic behavior)(yielding criteria)(plastic flow
rule)(plastic hardening rule)

9.1.1(2)

1
(critical state of stress)
(elastic limit)(plastic yielding)

279

1
8 =
( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
3 (9-1)
1
= ( xx yy ) 2 + ( yy zz ) 2 + ( zz xx ) 2 + 6( xy2 + yz2 + xz2 )
3

8 = yd (9-2)

yd

yd

2 yd
yd = (9-3)
3
(equivalent stress)
3
eq = 8
2
1
= ( 1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 1 3 ) 2
2
1
= ( xx yy ) 2 + ( yy zz ) 2 + ( zz xx ) 2 + 6( xy2 + yz2 + xz2 ) (9-4)
2
(9-2)

eg = yd (9-5)

eg = f ( ij ) (9-6)

ij 2D ( x , y , xy ) (function of

yielding surface)

F ( ij ) = f ( ij ) yd = 0 (9-7)

9-2

280

9-2

2
(potential function)

Q
d pl = (9-8)

d (incremental of plastic strain) (plastic multiplier)
pl

Q (associative plastic flow) Q


Q( ) = F ( ) (9-9)
(loading)(unloading)

F
F = 0 d > 0

F
F = 0 d < 0

F
F = 0 d = 0 (elastic/perfectly plastic

material)(hardening material)


(isotropic hardening)
(kinematic hardening)
()(anisotropic hardening)

281

9-3

9-3

yd = yd ( , ) (9-10)

(plastic work) (yielding surface translation)

(3)

d = Dep d (9-11)

Dep ()

9.1.2

(proportionally loading)

9.1.2(1)

(9-11)

= Dep () (9-12)

D ep ()

K ep (q) q = P (9-13)

K ep (q) = e BT Dep (q) Bd (9-14)



e

K (q) q
ep

9.1.3

9.1.3(1)

282

= Dep (, ) (9-15)

b p ( (t ), b (t ), p(t ))



T Dep () d b (u) d p (u) dA = 0
Sp
(9-16)

u e = N q e
(9-17)
e = B q e

q N B
e

K ep (q) q = P (9-18)

K ep (q) = e BT Dep (q e )Bd



e

q = q e
e

P = e NT bd + e NT pdA
Sp
e e

9.1.4 Newton-RaphsonN-R
(9-13),
z
z Newton-RaphsonN-R
z N-R
Newton-Raphson

9.1.4(1) Newton-RaphsonN-R

Newton-RaphsonN-R(iteration algorithm)

Step1 P

P (1) , P (2) , P (3) , ..... P ( n )

283

Step2

Kep (qi( k ) ) qi( k ) = Pi( k ) (9-19)

(k) k i i (8-18)

Pi( k )

Pi( k ) = Pi(+k1) Pi( k ) (8-20)

Step3 9-4

9-4

Newton-RaphsonN-R(tangent stiffness
matrix)
Newton-Raphsonmodified N-R
9-5

9-5 Newton-Raphson Newton-Raphson

9.2

ANSYS 9.2(1) (GUI)

9-6 Y

284

9-1 F1 = 51,961.5lb
( F2 = 81,961.5lb )

9-1

E = 3 107 psi A = 1in2 l = 100in F1 = 51,961.5 lb


Y = 30,000 psi = 300 F2 = 81,961.5 lb
F1 F2

(a) (b)
9-6

2D 2-D Spar (or Truss) Elements (LINK1)


(
)

p()
q<*GET >
9-2

9-2 ANSYS

Reference 9.2(1) ANSYS

4 F1 , in -0.07533 -0.07534 1.000

, psi -5,650. -5,650 1.000

Reference 9.2(1) Crandall S H, Dahl N C. An Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids, New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc. 1959, 234

(GUI)(step by step)
(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname:

285

ThreeSparRun OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Link: 2d
spar 1 OK Element Types Close
(4)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Add... select Type 1
Link1 OK input Real Constants Set No. : 1, AREA: 1 OK ( Real Constants )
Close ( Real Constants )
(5)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic Isotropic input EX:30e6 () OK ,Nolinear () Elastic Rate
Independent Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Mises Plasticity Bilinear Yield Stss: 30000 OK
Close
(6)
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Scalar Parameters Scalar Parameters Selection
L=100Accept THETA=30AcceptClose
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Angular Units Units for angularDegrees DEG OK
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Scalar Parameters Scalar Parameters Selection
XLOC=L*TAN(THETA)AcceptClose
(7)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS NODE
Node number1XYZ Location in active CS-XLOC0 Apply NODE Node number3X
YZ Location in active CSXLOC0 OK Nodes- Fill between Nds 1 3 OK
Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes OKNodes- In Active CS NODE Node number4XY
Z Location in active CS0-L OK ElementsAuto Numbered Thru Nodes Elements
1 4 Apply 2 4 Apply 3 4 OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Load Step Opts Output Ctrls Solu Printout
Solution Printout Controls FREQ Print frequencyEvery Nth substepValue of N1 OK
(9)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Displacement On Nodes 12 3 OK( Apply U, ROT on Nodes )Lab2: All
DOFVALUE: 0OK
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural
Force/Moment On Nodes 4 OK( Apply F/M on Nodes )Lab: FYVALUE:
-51961.5OK
(10)( F1 )
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Solve Current LS Solve Current Load Step
/STATUS Command OK Close Solution is done
(11) 4Y DEF
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Get Scalar Data Get Scalar Data Result
dataNodal resultsOK Get Nodal results Data NameDEF; Node number N4Reseluts

286

data to be retrievedDOF solutionUY OK


(12)
ANSYS Main MenuFinish
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Analysis Type Sol'n Controls Basic Solution Controls
Time ControlAutomatic time steppingOnNumber of substeps10Write Items to Results File
All solution itemsFrequencyWrite every Nth substepN10OK
(13)
ANSYS Utility MenuPlot Multi-Plots
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 4 OK( Apply F/M on Nodes )Lab: FYVALUE: -81961.5OK
(14)( F2 )
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS Solve Current Load Step
/STATUS Command OK Close Solution is done
(15)
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Analysis Type Sol'n Controls Basic Warning
Solution Controls Time ControlNumber of substeps5FrequencyWrite every Nth substep
N5 OK
(16)
ANSYS Utility MenuPlot Multi-Plots
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 4 OK( Apply F/M on Nodes )Lab: FYVALUE: 0OK
(17)()
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS Solve Current Load Step
/STATUS Command OK Close Solution is done
(18) 2 STRSS
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Element Table Define Table Element Table Data
press Add Define Additional Element Table Items LabSTRS; ItemComp
LS, 1 OK CLOSE Element Table Data
ANSYS Utility MenuParameters Get Scalar Data Get Scalar Data Result
dataElem table dataOK Get Element Table Data NameSTRSS; Element number N
2OK
(19)
ANSYS Utility MenuList StatusParameters All Parameters

(20)
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 9.2(2) ()

ANSYS 9.2(1) GUI

%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]9_2(2) %%%% begin %%%%%%%%


/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !

287

ET,1,LINK1 ! 1()
R,1,1 ! 1
MP,EX,1,30E6 !(1 )
TB,BKIN !
TBTEMP,100 ! 100
TBDATA,1,30000 !( 1 ) 30000
L=100 ! L
*AFUN,DEG !
THETA=30 ! THETA
XLOC=L*TAN(THETA) !
N,1,-XLOC ! 1
N,3,XLOC ! 3
FILL ! 1 3 ( 2 )
N,4,,-L ! 4
E,1,4 $E,2,4 $E,3,4 !($)
OUTPR,,1 !
D,1,ALL,,,3 ! 1,2,3
F,4,FY,-51961.5 ! 4 FY=-51961.5
FINISH !
/SOLU !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
BOT_NODE = NODE (0,-100,0) !(0,-100,0) BOT_NODE
*GET,DEF,NODE,BOT_NODE,U,Y ! BOT_NODE UY DEF
FINISH !
/SOLU !
AUTOTS,ON !
!
NSUBST,10 !10
OUTPR,,10 ! 10
F,4,FY,-81961.5 ! 4 FY=-81961.5
SOLVE !
!
!(ANSYS )
!(ANSYS )
NSUBST,5 !5
OUTPR,,5 ! 5
F,4,FY ! 4 FY=0
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
ETABLE,STRS,LS,1 !, STRS, LS 1
*GET,STRSS,ELEM,2,ETAB,STRS ! STRS , 2 STRSS

288

*status,parm !
%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]9_2(2) %%%% end %%%%%%%%

9.3

ANSYS 9.3(1) (GUI)

9-7(a) 1cm,
9-7(b)
20000 N/cm 2 - 9-3
P

(a)(cm) (b)(N)
9-7

9-3 -
1 2 3 4 5
0 0.004 0.015 0.03 0.08
( N / cm 2 ) 0 80 160 210 280

P - 2D PLANE42
(mkin)


() 9-8
p time

q P
(2 )(3 ) 3
2 3 9-9
Bauschinger
( 2 )

(GUI)(step by step)
(1) ANSYS
ANSYS ANSYS Interactive Working directory Initial jobname
: Beams Run OK
(2)
ANSYS Main MenuPreferences Structural OK
(3)
ANSYS Utility MenuPlotCtrls Window Controls Window Options DATENo Date or

289

Time OK
(4)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete... Add Solid: Quad
4node 42 OK Element Types Close
(5)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Structural Linear
Elastic Isotropic EX: 2E4, PRXY: 0.3 () OK Define
Material Model Behavior Structural NonLinear Inelastic Rate Independent
Kinematic Hardening Plasticity Mises Plasticity Multilinear (Fixed table) Strain 1
4 0.0040.0150.030.08 Curve1 1 4 80160210280
Graph OK Close 9-8
(6)

ANSYS Main Menu Preprocessor Modeling Create Keypoints In Active CS
Keypoints number1XYZ Location in active CS000 Apply
100001001000100 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Modeling Create Areas Arbitrary Through KPs
1234
(7)
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing Mesher Opts Mesher Type : Mapped OK
2D Shape Key : Quad OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing size contrls ManualSize Lines Picked
Lines Ok NDIV 20 Apply Ok NDIV
8 OK
ANSYS Main MenuPreprocessor Meshing Mesh Areas Target Surf
OK
(8)
ANSYS Main Menu: Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On Lines
L4 OK select Lab2: All DOF() OK
(9)
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Analysis
Options Large Displacement SaticNumber of substeps: 8, Max no. of substeps :25 Min no. Of
substeps:2, Frequency Write N number of substeps Where N = 10 OK
(10)
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep:1 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 OK LabFyValue-40 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
ANSYS Utility Menu : Plot Replot
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep: 2 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 OK LabFyValue0 OK

290

ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK


ANSYS Utility Menu : Plot Replot
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep: 3 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 OK LabFyValue40 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
ANSYS Utility Menu : Plot Replot
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep: 4 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 LabFyValue0 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
ANSYS Utility Menu : Plot Replot
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep: 5 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 LabFyValue-40 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
ANSYS Utility Menu : Plot Replot
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Analysis Type Soln Controls Basic Time at
end of loadstep: 6 OK
ANSYS Main Menu : Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment On
Nodes 26 LabFyValue0 OK
ANSYS Main MenuSolution Solve Current LS OK
(11)
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Read Results Last Set
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape Def + Undeformed
OK
ANSYS Main MenuGeneral Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Element solu Plastic
Strain Equivalent plastic strain OK
ANSYS Main MenuTimeHist Postpro Define Variables Add Element
Results OK 2 OK 4 OK ItemComp Data item
Stress, X-direction SX OK Define Time-History Variables Add Element Results OK
2 OK 4 OK ItemComp Data item Strain-plastic,
X-dirn EPPL X OK Close
ANSYS Main MenuTimeHist Postpro Settings Graph Single Variable No.
3 OK
ANSYS Main MenuTimeHist Postpro Graph Variables Nvar1 2
OK P (SX) 9-9
ANSYS Utility MenuFile Exit Save Everything OK

ANSYS 9.3(2) ()
ANSYS 9.3(1) GUI

291

9-8 9-9 P (SX)

!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]9_3(2) %%%% begin %%%%%%%%


/PREP7 !
/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
!=====
FORCE=40 !
LTH=100 !
THK=10 !
EXX=20000 !
sts1=80 !
!=====-
stn1=sts1/exx
sts2=160
stn2=0.015
sts3=210
stn3=0.03
sts4=280
stn4=0.08
mp,ex,1,EXX
mp,nuxy,1,0.3
tb,mkin,1 !
tbtemp,,strain
tbdata,,stn1,stn2,stn3,stn4 !
tbtemp,,
tbdata,,sts1,sts2,sts3,sts4 !
TBPLOT, mkin,1 !
!=====
ANTYPE,STATIC !
ET,1,PLANE42 ! 1( PLANE42)
K,1,0,0,0 ! No.1
K,2,LTH,0,0 ! No.2
K,3,LTH,THK,0 ! No.3

292

K,4,0,THK,0 ! No.4
A,1,2,3,4 ! 4 No.1
LESIZE,1, , ,20, , , , ,1 ! 1 20 ()
LESIZE,3, , ,20, , , , ,1 ! 3 20 ()
LESIZE,2, , ,8, , , , ,1 ! 2 8 ()
LESIZE,4, , ,8, , , , ,1 ! 4 8 ()
MSHAPE,0,2D !
MSHKEY,1 !
AMESH,1 ! No.1
DL,4, ,ALL, ! 4
FINISH !
!=====
/SOLU !
nlgeom,on !
outres,all,-10 ! 10
nsubst,8,25,2 ! 8 25 2
NP=NODE(100,5,0) !(100,5,0) NP
!
time,1 ! 1( 1 )
F,NP,FY,-FORCE ! NP FY=-FORCE
solve !
time,2 ! 2( 1 )
F,NP,FY,0 ! NP FY=0
solve !
time,3 ! 3( 1 )
F,NP,FY, FORCE ! NP FY=FORCE
solve !
time,4 ! 4( 1 )
F,NP,FY,0 ! NP FY=0
solve !
time,5 ! 5( 1 )
F,NP,FY,- FORCE ! NP FY=-FORCE
solve !
time,6 ! 6( 1 )
F,NP,FY,0 ! NP FY=0
solve !
!=====
/post1 !
set,last ! .
PLDISP,2 !
PLESOL,nl,epeq !
FINISH !
!=====
/post26 !
KEY= NODE (10,0,0) !(10,0,0) KEY

293

ELM = ENEARN (KEY) ! KEY ELM


ESOL,2,ELM,KEY,S,X, ! ELM KEY SX 2
ESOL,3,ELM,KEY,EPPL,X, ! ELM KEY EPPL 3
XVAR,3 ! 3
PLVAR,2 ! 2
FINISH !
!%%%%%%% [ANSYS ]9_3(2) %%%% end %%%%%%%%

9.4

9-1 z ( = 0.5 ) Mises

1 1
( xx yy ) 2 + xy2 = s2
4 3

9-2
1
8 = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 )
2 2 2

3
1 , 2 , 3 8

s 8

9-3 9-3(a)

P P1 = 20
9-3(b)

P2 = 10 P3 = 30 P uP

(a) (b)
9-3

9-4

A = 1, E = 1, L = 2

F1 = 2, F2 = 4, F3 = 6 P v

294

9-4

9-5 H = 100 mm
9-5(b) P = 24N P

(a) (b)
9-5

295

[1] Zienkiewicz O C and Cheung Y K, The Finite Element Method in Structural and Continuum Mechanics,
London: McGraw-Hill 1967.
[2] Zienkiewicz O C, The finite element methods, from intuition to generality, Applied Mechanics Reviews, 1970,
23(2).
[3] Courant R, Variational methods for the solution of problems of equilibrium and vibrations, Bulletin of
American Mathematical Society, 1943, 49, 1-23
[4] Turner M J, Clough R W, Martin H C and Topp L J, Stiffness and deflection analysis of complex structures,
Journal of Aeronautical Sciences, 1956, 23:805-824.
[5] Clough R W. Thoughts about the origin of the finite element method. Computers & Structures, 2001,
79:2029-2030
[6] Clough R W. Early history of the finite element method from the view point of a pioneerInternational Journal
for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2004, 60:283287
[7] Argyris J H, Energy Theorems and Structural Analysis, London: Butterworth, 1960 ( Aircraft Enginnering,
1954 Oct- 1955 May )
[8] 195410(3),259.
[9] 1980.
[10]Siefkes T. Upfront CAE in the rail industry - Promises, Challenges and Lessons Learnt. Keynote Presentations,
European HyperWorks Technology Conference 2007
[11]Clemen G. HyperWorks applications in aerospace. Technical session 8: Safety, European HyperWorks
Technology Conference 2007
[12]Astier V. A finite element model of the shoulder for many applications: trauma and orthopaedics. Technical
session 9: Biomechanics, European HyperWorks Technology Conference 2007
[13]Hutton D V()Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis()2007
[14]Cook R D()( 4 )2007
[15]2005
[16]Kattan P I()MATLAB ()2004
[17] ()1979.
[18] 2001.
[19] Zienkiewicz O C(). 1 ( 5 )
2008
[20]Moaveni S()ANSYS ( 3 )2008
[21] Wst A. Optimization techniques in the development of a lower bumper stiffener for pedestrian protection.
Technical session 1: Optimization, European HyperWorks Technology Conference 2007
[22]. . 2004
[23] Babuska I and Dorr M R, Error estimates for the combined h and p versions of finite element method. SIAM J.
Numer. Analysis, 1981, 37,257-277
[24] Oden J T et al. Toward a universal h-p adaptive finite element strategy. Computer Methods in Applied
Mechanics and Engineering, 1989, 77:,113-180
[25] Chandrupatla T R().( 3 )2006

296

A MATLAB

A.1 MATLAB

MATLAB A-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5) MATLAB
(6) MATLAB

A-1 MATLAB

(1)(function)

(2) load
>>load E:\matlabFEM\FEM2D\node.txt
(3)%
(4)MATLAB
;
>>x=[1 2 3 4];
(5) help MATLAB help

A.2 MATLAB M

MATLAB Current Directory


MATLAB

297

M
save load+

dir
MATLAB M
M .m MATLAB
MATLAB M M
MATLAB
MATLAB
MATLAB MATLAB exist('
') MATLAB DebugRun( F5 )

A.3

MATLAB format long


A-1

A-1
x=1/6
format short 0.1667
format long 0.166666666666667 14
format rat 1/6
format bank 0.17
format short e 1.6667e-001
format long e 1.666666666666667e-001 14
format hex 3fc5555555555555
format + + +-
format compact

MATLAB disp x = [1 2 3 4 5]

>>x=[1 2 3 4]; %
>>disp(x) % x
12345
>> disp('Results')
Results
'
MATLAB fprintf
\n \t
>>x=10; % x
>> fprintf('The value of x is %g \n', x) % x
The value of x is 10

298

A.4

>> x=5 %
x=
5

>>y=0:20:100 %
y=
0 20 40 60 80 100
>>z=10:-2:0 %
z=
10 8 6 4 2 0

>> A=[5 1 3; 8 3 4;2 6 9] % 3X3


A=
5 1 3
8 3 4
2 6 9

>> s='matrix operation' %


s=
matrix operation
>>[p,q]=size(s) %()
p=
1
q=
16
>>s(6) % 6 ()
ans =
x

A.5

A-2

A-2 MATLAB
x=7, y=6
+ x+y 13
- x-y 1
* x*y 42
/ (x+y)/2 6.5

299

^ x^2 49

MATLAB
A-3

A-3 MATLAB

+ +
- -
* .*
/ ./
^ .^


>>A=[1 2 3 4 5];
>>B=[2 4 6 8 10];
>>C=B+A
C=
3 6 9 12 15
>> D=B.*A %
D=
2 8 18 32 50
>>E=B./A %
E=
2 2 2 2 2
>>F=[A(1:3) B(3:5)] %
F=
1 2 3 6 8 10

MATLAB A-4

A-4 MATLAB
A B
+ A+B
- A-B
* A*B
A
inv inv(A)
det() det(A)
eig() eig(A)
\ A\B

300


4 x1 + 2 x2 + 6 x3 = 4

x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 8 (A-1)
8 x1 + 6 x2 + 2 x3 = 2


>>A=[4 2 6;1 2 3;8 6 2] % 3X3
A=
4 2 6
1 2 3
8 6 2
>>B=[4;8;2] % 3X1
B=
4
8
2
>>x=A\B % A*x=B x
x=
-2.6111
3.3889
1.2778
>>INV_A=inv(A) % A
INV_A =
0.1944 -0.4444 0.0833
-0.3056 0.5556 0.0833
0.1389 0.1111 -0.0833
>>y=inv(A)*B % A*y=B y=inv(A)*B
y=
-2.6111
3.3889
1.2778
>>[v,lamda]=eig(A) % A ,v , lamda
v=
-0.6388 -0.4912 0.6004
-0.2893 -0.2874 -0.7997
-0.7129 0.8223 -0.0063
lamda =
11.6023 0 0
0 -4.8752 0
0 0 1.2729

A.6 MATLAB

301

MATLAB Mass=[1102 115 99 106 103 95 97 102 98


96] MATLAB A-5

A-5 MATLAB

Sum sum(Mass) 1013
mean mean(Mass) 101.3
max Max(Mass) 115
Min sin(Mass) 95
std std(Mass) 5.93
sort sort(Mass) 95 96 97 98 99 102 103 106 115
pi 3.141 592 653 589 7 pi 3.1415926535897
tan tan(pi/4) 1
cos tos(pi/2) 0
sin sin(pi/2) 1

MATLAB A-6

A-6 MATLAB
sqrt(x) x
factorial(x) factorial (5) =(5) (4) (3) (2) (1) =120

acos(x)
asin(x)
atan(x)

exp(x) ex
log(x) x 0
log10(x) 10
log2(x) 2


>>Weight = [1020 1015 990 1060 1030 950 975 1020 980 960]; %
>> Weight_Average=mean(Weight) %
Weight_Average =
1000.00
>> Weight_Standard_Deviation=std(Weight) %
Weight_Standard_Deviation =
34.5607

A.7

MATLAB A-7

302

A-7 MATLAB

<
<=
==
>
>=
~=


for/end
x 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5 4.0 y = x3+2 1017.625
29.0044.875 66.00 MATLAB
>>x = 2.0; %
>>for i = 1:1:5 %,,
y = x^3+2; %
disp ([x y] ) % x y
x = x + 0.5; %
end

2 10
2.5000 17.6250
3 29
3.5000 44.8750
4 66

while/end
>>x = 2.0; %
>>while x<=4.0 % x
y = x^3+2; %
disp ([x y] ) % x y
x = x + 0.5; %
end

2 10
2.5000 17.6250
3 29
3.5000 44.8750
4 66

if/else
65824087805965777259
60 MATLAB
>>scores = [65 82 40 87 80 59 65 77 72 59] ; %()

303

>>for i=1:1:10 %,,


if scores ( i ) > 60 %(>60)
fprintf ('\t %g \t \t \t \t \t PASSING\n', scores(i)) ; %(>60)
else
fprintf ('\t %g \t \t \t \t \t FAILING\n', scores(i)) %(<60)
end
end

65 PASSING
82 PASSING
40 FAILING
87 PASSING
80 PASSING
59 FAILING
65 PASSING
77 PASSING
72 PASSING
59 FAILING

A.8

[ xi , yi ] i =1,2,",n

y = c0 x n + c1 x n 1 + c2 x n 2 + c3 x n 3 + " + cn (A-2)

MATLAB polyfit(x,y,n)

(c0 , c1 , c2 , c3 ," , cn )

[ xi , yi ] i =1,2,",n A-8

A-8

xi 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

yi 4.8 7.6 9.6 12.8 15.6

(A-2) n=1 MATLAB


>>format compact %
>>x = [1:0.5:3]'; % x
>>y = [4.8 7.6 9.6 12.8 15.6]'; % y
>>Coefficients= polyfit ( x,y,1) % c0 c1

304

Coefficients =
5.3600 -0.6400
>>f = polyval(Coefficients,x) %
f=
4.7200
7.4000
10.0800
12.7600
15.4400
>>table = [x y f y-f] %,,
table =
1.0000 4.8000 4.7200 0.0800
1.5000 7.6000 7.4000 0.2000
2.0000 9.6000 10.0800 -0.4800
2.5000 12.8000 12.7600 0.0400
3.0000 15.6000 15.4400 0.1600
>>plot(x,y,'o',x,f,'-') %( o)(-)
>>axis([1 3 4 20]) %
A-2

A-2 ( o)(-)

c0 = 5.36, c1 = 0.64

y = 5.36 x 0.64 (A-3)

A.9

A-9 MATLAB

305

f1 ( x) = x 2 5 x + 6

f 2 ( x) = x 3
(A-4)
f3 ( x) = ( x + 5) 2
f 4 ( x) = 5 x y + 2 x y

A-9 MATLAB

sym F1x = sym('x^2-5*x+6') F1x = x^2 - 5 *x+ 6
F2x = sym ('x-3') F2x = x - 3
F3x = sym( '(x+5) ^2') F3x = (x+5)^2
F4x =sym('5*x-y+2*x-y') F4x = 5*x-y+2*x-y
factor factor(F1x) (x - 2) * (x - 3)
simplify simplify(F1x/F2x) x-2
expand expand(F3x) x^2+10*x+25
collect collect(F4x) 7*x-2*y
solve solve(F1x) x= 2 x= 3
ezplot(f,min,max) min max ezplot(F1x,0,2 ) F1x

A.10

2D MATLAB plot (xy)


x y plot(xys)
s A-10
plot(x,y, 'k * -')MATLAB o
MATLAB

A-10 MAILAB
s s s
b -
g o
r x x -.
c + --
m *
y s
k d
v
^
<
>

A-3
>>x = 1:0.5:3; % x
>>y = [4.8 7.6 9.6 12.8 15.6]; % y

306

>>plot(x,y,'o') %( o)

z = f ( x) = (15 5x) (10 3x) x (A-5)

MATLAB A-4
>> x = 0:0.1:5; %()
>> z= (15-5*x).*(10-3*x ).*x; %,()
>> plot (x,z) % x z
>> title('z as a function of x' ) %
>> xlabel ('x(cm)') % x
>> ylabel ('z(cm^3)') % y
>> grid minor %

A-3 A-4

A.11

A.5 MATLAB

10 x1 x2 + 2 x3 = 10

2 x1 + x2 3 x3 = 8 (A-6)
5 x1 2 x2 + 2 x3 = 7

solve solve
solve (eqnl,eqn2,.,eqnn) MATLAB
>> eql='10*x1-x2 +2*x3=10'; % 1
>> eq2='2*x1+x2-3*x3=8'; % 2
>> eq3='5*x1-2*x2+2*x3=7'; % 3
>> [ x1, x2, x3] = solve(eql,eq2,eq3) %
x1 =
49/39
x2 =
-128/39
x3 =

307

-38/13
>>vpa([x1;x2;x3]) %
ans =
1.2564102564102564102564102564103
-3.2820512820512820512820512820513
-2.9230769230769230769230769230769

Moaveni S()ANSYS ( 3 )
2008

308

B ANSYS

ANSYS (GUI)
(step by step)log
APDL

ANSYS

B-1 1

F1 F2 R1 R2 B-1

ANSYS
bar

B-1

E = 30 106 psi l = 10in a = 7in b = 4in F1 = 2 F2 = 1000lb

(a) (b)

B-1


X

Y ANSYS
p
q
r</ESHAPE>()
s<ETABLE><PLLS>
t< PRRSOL >

309

B.1 (GUI)(step by step)

(1) ANSYS
ANSYS Interactive change the working directory into yours input Initial jobname:
bar Run

(2)
ANSYS Main Menu: Preferences select Structural OK

(3)
Main Menu Preprocessor Element Type Add/Edit/Delete Defined Element
Types, Add Library of Types: Structural Link, 2D spar 1, Element type reference number [1] OK

(4)
Preprocessor Material Props Material Models Material Models Available
Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic EX [30E6]
() , PRXY[0] () OK X

(5)
Preprocessor Real Constants Add/Edit/Delete Defined Real Constant-Sets , Add
Choose element type : Type 1 Linl1 OK Real Constant Set No.[1] ( 1 ), AREA [1] (
) OK Close
(6)
step1 1 (x=0, y=0, z=0)
Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number [1],
XYZ Location in active CS, [0][0][0] OK
step2 2 (x=0, y=4, z=0)
Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number [2],
XYZ Location in active CS, [0][4][0] OK
step3 3 (x=0, y=7, z=0)
Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number [3],
XYZ Location in active CS, [0][7][0] OK
step4 4 (x=0, y=10, z=0)
Preprocessor Modeling Create Nodes In Active CS Node number [4],
XYZ Location in active CS, [0][10][0] OK

(7)
step1 ( 1 2 )
Preprocessor Modeling Create Elements Auto Numbered Thru Nodes
1 2 OK
step2 ( 3 1)
Preprocessor Modeling Copy Elements Auto Numbered
1 OK I TIME[3] , NINC[1] OK

(8) ()
step1 ( 1 4 1 4
3)

310

Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement


On Nodes 14 OK
Lab2 , All DOF OK
step2 ( 2 FY=-5000)
Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment
On Nodes 2 OK Lab: FY , VALUF:[-5000] OK
step3 ( 3 FY=-1000)
Preprocessor Loads Define Loads Apply Structural Force/Moment
On Nodes 3 OK Lab: FY , VALUF:[-1000] OK

(9)
Main Menu Solution Solve Current LS OK
Solution is done! Close X/ STATUS Command

(10)
(a)
ANSYS Main Menu: General Postproc Plot Results Deformed Shape select Def +
Undeformed OK
(b)()( 0.5 )
Utility Menu PlotCtrls Style Size and Shape ESHAPE, [9]ON, SCALE:[0.5] OK
(c)( UY)
Main Menu General Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Nodal Solu DOF Solution,
Y-Component of Displacement OK
(d)(PNG bar001.png) B-2
B-3
Utility Menu PlotCtrls Hard Copy To file [9]Color, [9]PNG, [9]Reverse Video, [9]Portrait,
Save to: [bar001.png] OK

B-2 (UY) B-3

(11)
(a)
()
step1 I
Main Menu General Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab:[bar_I], By sequence
num: [SMISC,1] OK Close
step2 J
Main Menu General Postproc Element Table Define Table Add Lab:[bar_J], By sequence

311

num: [SMISC,1] OK Close


step3
Main Menu General Postproc Plot Results Contour Plot Line Elem Res LabI:[ bar_I],
LabJ:[ bar_J], Fact:[1] OK
Utility Menu PlotCtrls Hard Copy To file PNG
(10) word PNG 0-3
(b)

Utility Menu List Results Element Solution Element Solution: Miscellaneous Items,
Summable data (SMISC,1):[1] OK OK

PRINT SUMMABLE MISCELLANEOUS ELEMENT SOLUTION PER ELEMENT


***** POST1 ELEMENT SUMMABLE MISCELLANEOUS RECORD LISTING *****
LOAD STEP= 1 SUBSTEP= 1
TIME= 1.0000 LOAD CASE= 0
ELEM SMIS1
1 -600.00
2 -100.00
3 900.00
MINIMUM VALUES
ELEM 0
VALUE -600.00
MAXIMUM VALUES
ELEM 0
VALUE 900.00
1 -6002 -1003 900
vm1-3


Utility Menu List Results Reaction Solution Lab:[All items] OK

PRINT REACTION SOLUTIONS PER NODE
***** POST1 TOTAL REACTION SOLUTION LISTING *****
LOAD STEP= 1 SUBSTEP= 1
TIME= 1.0000 LOAD CASE= 0
THE FOLLOWING X,Y,Z SOLUTIONS ARE IN GLOBAL COORDINATES
NODE FX FY
1 0.0000 600.00
4 0.0000 900.00
TOTAL VALUES
VALUE 0.0000 1500.0
1 6004 900
B-2

(12)

312

ANSYS Utility Menu: File Exit Save Everything OK


B-2
Reference B-1 ANSYS Ratio
R1 , lb 900.0 900.0 1.000
R2 , lb 600.0 600.0 1.000
Reference B-1 Timoshenko S. Strength of Material, Part I, Elementary Theory and Problems, 3rd Edition, New
York:D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1955, 26

B.2 log ( GUI log )

GUI bar.*
bar.log
ansys
bar.log ansys
(bar.db, bar.emat, bar.rst, bar.err, bar.tri) ansys

(bar.db, bar.emat, bar.rst, bar.err, bar.tri) ansys

(1) ANSYS

ANSYSed Interactive change the working directory into yours input Initial
jobname: bar_new() Run

(2) ANSYS ( bar_new) bar.log

ANSYS/Structural U Utility Menu file read input from bar.log() OK

B.3

ANSYS
(.log) Option Utility Menu file read input
from bar.log() OK

!%%%%%%%% bar.log %%%% begin %%%%%%
!----!
!---- ansys 4 4
!---- FINISH fini -------
/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !()
ET,1,LINK1 ! ( 1 LINK1)
R,1,1 !( 1 1)
MP,EX,1,30E6 !()( 1 30E6)
N,1 !( 1 x=0, y=0, z=0)

313

N,2,,4 !( 2 x=0, y=4, z=0)


N,3,,7 !( 3 x=0, y=7, z=0)
N,4,,10 !( 4 x=0, y=10, z=0)
E,1,2 !( 1 2 )
EGEN,3,1,1 ! 3 1
D,1,ALL,,,4,3 ! 1 4 3
F,2,FY,-500 !( 2 FY=-5000)
F,3,FY,-1000 !( 3 FY=-1000)
FINISH !
/SOLU !
OUTPR,BASIC,1 !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
/ESHAPE,0.5 !()( 0.5 )
PLNSOL, U,Y, 0,1.0 !( UY)
ETABLE,bar_I,SMISC,1 ! I
ETABLE,bar_J,SMISC,1 ! J
PLLS, bar_I, bar_J !
PRESOL,SMISC,1 !()
PRRSOL !
FINISH !
!%%%%%%%% bar.log %%%% end %%%%%%

B.4 APDL
APDL ANSYS Parametric Design Language
(1) ( 8 )
Bar_1=4 bar_2=7 bar_L=10
(2)
bar_el=30E6
(3)
bar_a=1
(4)
force1=-500 force2=-1000

APDL (.log)
!%%%%%%%%parameterized log file: bar_para.log %%%% begin %%%%%%
!------$---------
!---begin---
bar_1=4 ! F2
bar_2=7 ! F1
bar_L=10 !
bar_a=1 !
bar_el=30E6 !

314

force_1=-500 ! F1
force_2=-1000 ! F2
!-----end---
/PREP7 !
ANTYPE,STATIC !()
ET,1,LINK1 ! ( 1 LINK1)
R,1,bar_a !( 1 bar_a)
MP,EX,1, bar_el !()( 1 bar_el)
N,1 $N,2,, bar_1 $N,3,, bar_2 $N,4,, bar_L ! 1,2,3,4
E,1,2 !( 1 2 )
EGEN,3,1,1 ! 3 1
D,1,ALL,,,4,3 ! 1 4 3
F,2,FY, force_1 !( 2 FY= force_1)
F,3,FY, force_2 !( 3 FY= force_2)
FINISH !
/SOLU !
OUTPR,BASIC,1 !
SOLVE !
FINISH !
/POST1 !
/ESHAPE,0.5 !()( 0.5 )
! JPEG
JPGPRF,1500,300,1 !
/SHOW,JPEG !
PLNSOL,U,Y,0,1,0 ! file000.jpg
ETABLE,bar_I,SMISC,1 ! I
ETABLE,bar_J,SMISC,1 ! J
PLLS, bar_I, bar_J !
PRESOL,SMISC,1 ! () file001.jpg
!() ansys
PRRSOL !
FINISH !
!%%%%%%%%parameterized log file: bar_para.log %%%% end %%%%%%

315

C
SI
(MPa) (MPa)

E Y u
(Mg/m3)
(GPa)
106C

[2014-T6 2.79 73.1 414 414 172 469 469 290 0.35 23
[6061-T6 2.71 68.9 255 255 131 290 290 186 0.35 24
[ ASTM 20 7.19 67.0 179 669 0.28 12
[ ASTM A-197 7.28 172 276 572 0.28 12
[ C83400 8.74 101 70.0 70.0 241 241 0.35 18
[ C86100 8.83 103 345 345 655 655 0.34 17
[Am 1004-T61] 1.83 44.7 152 152 276 276 152 0.30 26
[ A36 7.85 200 250 250 400 400 0.32 12
[ 304 7.86 193 207 207 517 517 0.27 17
[ L2 8.16 200 703 703 800 800 0.32 12
[Ti-6A1-4V] 4.43 120 924 924 1.000 1.000 0.36 9.4

[ 2.38 22.1 12 0.15 11


[ 2.38 29.0 38 0.15 11
[Kevlar49 1.45 131 717 483 20.3 0.34
[30% 1.45 72.4 90 131 0.34

[ 0.47 13.1 2.1 26 6.2 0.29

[ .3.60 9.65 2.5 36 6.7 0.31





Moaveni S()ANSYS ( 3 )
2008

316

D
SI

3
kg/m J/kgK W/mK
1100 2740 896 221
2110 920 0.74
1920 670 0.029
1000 920
2300 653 1.0
1790@373K 829 1.0@473K
2470 750 1.0@366K
4280 490 1.4
2230 840 1.0@366K
7210 500 47.7@327K
7700@373K 60.4
930 1300 0.13

2050 1840 0.5
7830 500 45.3
690 0.172@323K
550 0.13
750 2390 0.176
430 0.11
Incropera,F.,and Dewitt D., Fundametals of Heat and Mass Ttransfer,4th ed.New York,John Wiley and
Sons,1996.

317

E
SI SI
1mm=0.039 37in 1in=25.4mm
1mm=0.003 28ft 1ft=304.8mm
1cm=0.393 70in 1in=2.54cm
1cm=0.0328ft 1ft=34.48cm
1m=39.3700in 1in=0.025m
1m=3.28ft 1ft=0.3048m
2 2
1mm =1.55E-3in 1in2=645.16mm2
1mm2=1.0764E-5ft2 1ft2=92 903mm2
2 2
1cm =0.155in 1in2=6.4516cm2
1cm2=1.07E-3ft2 1ft2=92.903cm2
1m2=1550in2 1in2=645.16E-4m2
1m2=10.76ft2 1ft2=0.0929m2
1mm3=6.1024E-5in3 1in3=16 387mm3
1mm3=3.5315E-8ift3 1ft3=28.317E6mm3
1cm3=0.061 024in3 1in3=16.387cm3
1cm3=3.5315E-5ft3 1ft3=28 317cm3
1m3=61 024in3 1in3=1.6387E-5m3
1m3=35.315ft3 1ft3=0.028 317m3
1mm4=2.402E-6in4 1in4=416.231E3mm4
1mm4=115.86E-12ift4 1ft4=8.63097E9mm4
1cm4=24.205E-3in4 1in4=41.623cm4
4 4
1cm =1.586E-6ft 1ft4=863 110cm4
1m4=2.40251E6in4 1in4=416.231E-9m4
1m4=115.86ft4 1ft4=8.631E-3m4
1kg=68.521E-3slug 1slug=14.593kg
1kg=2.2046 lbm 1lbm=0.4536kg
3 3
1kg/m =0.001 938slug/ft 1slug/ft3=515.7kg/m3
1kg/m3=0.062 48lbm/ft3 1lbm/ft3=16.018kg/m3
1N=224.809E-3lbf 1lbf=4.448N
1Nm=8.851inlb 1inlb=0.113Nm
1Nm=0.7376ftlb 1ftlb=1.356Nm
2
1Pa=145.0377E-6lb/in 1lb/in2=6.8947E3Pa
1Pa=20.885E-3lb/ft2 1lb/ft2=47.880Pa
1KPa=145.0377E-6Ksi 1Ksi=6.8947E3KPa
1J=0.7375ftlb 1ftlb=1.3558J
1KWhr=3.41214E3Btu 1Btu=2930.71E-6
1w=0.7375 ftlb/sec 1ftlb/sec=1.3558W
1KW=3.41214E3Btu/hr 1Btu/hr=293.07E-6KW
1KW=1.341hp 1hp=0.7457KW
C=5/9(F32) F=9/5C+32

318

A (monotonic convergence)
(element)
Hermite interpolation (numbering of element)
)(stiffness equation of element)
B (stiffness matrix of element)
(elastic-plastic problem)
(semi-bandwidth) (elastic-plastic behavior)
(semi-inverse method) (elastic modulus)
(positive semi-definite) (elastic matrix)
(back stress) (iso-parametric element)
(constitutive equation) (isotropic hardening)
(approximated discretization) (equivalent nodal load)
(proportionally loading) (equivalent stress)
(specific heat) (iteration algorithm)
(boundary condition) (superposition principle)
(numbering scheme) (multilinear isotropic)
(transformation matrix) (multilinear kinematic)
(deformation) (unknown constant)
(deformed body)
(compatibility condition) F
(deformed body)
(deformed force matrix) (penalty approach)
(Poissons ratio) (functional)
(standardization) ()(anisotropic)
(compact structure)
C (incompatible element)
(block matrix)
C0 (C0 element) (Fourier series)
C1 (C1 element)
(parametric element) G
CST (constant strain triangle)
(super-parametric element) Galerkin (Galerkin WRM)
(initial condition) Gauss (Gauss integration)
(treatment of boundary condition) (bar element)
(heat transfer) (truss/frame structure)
(heat transfer theorem) (stiffening)
(heat transfer matrix) (stiffness equation)
(stiffness coefficient)
D (rigid displacement)
(high-order polynomial)
2D natural coordinate (2D ) (high-order element)
3D (3D natural coordinate) (isotropy)
(DAlembert principle) (reciprocal theorem of work)
(bandwidth) (associative plastic flow)
(banded) (moment of inertia)
(unknowns) (inertial force)

319

(generalized Hooke law) (feasibility)


(standard) (3-dimensional problem (3D problem))
(component)
L
H
(Lagrange interpolation)
Hermite (Hermite interpolation) (Lagrange multiplier)
h (h-method) (Lagrangian multiplier algorithm)
h (h-version) (Lagrangian rectangle element)
(temperature of surrounding medium) (assembly of discrete elements)
(circumferential displacement) (discrete structure)
(heat transfer coefficient) (discretized approximation)
(anisotropic hardening) (elastic/perfectly plastic material)
(Hooke law) (continuum structure)
(continuity)
J (beam element)
(base function) (column)
(base function) (critical condition)
(parent element) (critical state of stress)
(reference coordinate) (critically damped case)
(lumped mass matrix) (hexahedron element)
(strain-displacement relationship)
(geometric nonlinear) M
(strain-displacement matrix) (mapping of area)
(weighted residual method) (area coordinate)
(weighted average) (nominal stress)
(loading) (modal analysis)
(shear modulus) (modal damping ratio)
(shear stress) (smooth improving)
(reciprocal theorem of shear stress) (smoothing)
(harmonic response analysis)
(node) N
(nodal numbering)
(nodal force vector) (inner force matrix)
(nodal displacement) (inner node)
(nodal displacement vector) (deflection)
(structural vibration) (energy conservation theorem)
(uncoupling)
(uncoupled equation) P
(analytical method)
(radial normal strain) p (p-method)
(static case) p (p-version)
(hydrostatic pressure) (Pascal triangle)
(local coordinate system) (mapping of partial differential)
(rectangular element) (equilibrium equation)
(adiabatic condition) (2-dimensional problem (2D problem))
(plane strain)
K (plane stress)
(generalization)

320

(kinematic hardening)
Q (spectrum analysis)

(singularity) T
(pre-processing)
(tangent stiffness matrix) (eigen equation)
(tangent normal strain) (characterized modeling)
(curvature) (eigen vector)
(function of yielding surface) (eigen value)
(yielding surface translation) (body force)
(yielding criteria) (bulk strain)
(strength)(stiffness) (volume strain)
(weight coefficient) (volume coordinate)

R W

Rayleigh-Ritz (Rayleigh-Ritz principle) (connective node)


(thermal conductivity of material) (work by force)
(thermal expansion coefficient) (load matrix)
(stress of temperature effect) (completeness)
(thermal stress) Lagrange (total Lagrange formulation)
(strength of heat source) (total solution)
(software platform) (representative volume)
-(Rayleigh-Ritz principle) (displacement)
(displacement model)
S (steady problem)
(undamped case)
Serendipity (Serendipity element) (free vibration of undamped system)
(3-node triangular element) (physical coordinate)
(commercial code)
(upper bound) X
(Saint-Venant principle)
(potential function) (spars matrix)
(potential energy) (long beam)
(trial function) (lower bound)
(adaptability) (upper limit)
(convergence) (linear elasticity)
(convergence criterion) (small deformation)
(numerical integration) (compatibility)
(transient heat transfer) (compatible element)
(transient dynamic analysis) (compatibility equation)
(tetrahedron element) (inclined support)
(plastic work) (unloading)
(plastic flow rule) (shape function matrix)
(plastic hardening rule) (virtual work)
(plastic yielding) (principle of virtual work)
(incremental of plastic strain) (virtual displacement)
(plastic multiplier) (virtual stress)
(operator matrix) (admissible displacement)

321

natural discretization
Y natural frequency
(natural circular frequency)
(Jacobian matrix) (natural coordinate)
(sub-parametric element) (adaptive method)
(Young's modulus) DOF (degree of freedom)
(consistent mass matrix) (free vibration)
(strain) (free index)
(strain energy) (home-code)
(virtual strain energy) (damping matrix)
(stress) (damping force)
(stress-displacement matrix) (best approximation)
(stress-strain relationship) (least squares method)
(stress function) (principle of minimum potential energy)
(mapping) (max. tensile stress criterion)
(hardening material) (max. shearing stress criterion)
(Hardware platform) (max. distortion energy criterion)
(finite element method) (mapping of coordinate)
(finite element analysis) (DOF, degree of freedom)
(FEA modeling) (local coordinate)
(formulation of finite element analysis)
(FEA solving)
(FEA code)
(constraint equation)

(sub-domain)(pieces function)
(true solution)
(mode)
(mode superposition)
(global stiffness equation)
(global coordinate system)
(positive definite)
(normal stress)
(reaction force)
(reaction force of support)
(mass matrix)
(neutral layer)
(axisymmetric ring element)
(axisymmetric problem)
(longitudinal free vibration)
(principal direction)
(master node)
(principal stress)
(transformation)
(slope)
(correct solution)
(FEA home-code)

322

completeness()
A component()
adaptability() connective node()
adaptive method() consistent mass matrix()
adiabatic condition() constant strain triangle( CST )
admissible displacement() constitutive equation()
analytical method() constraint equation()
anisotropic hardening() continuity()
anisotropic(()) continuum structure()
approximated discretization() convergence criterion()
area coordinate() convergence()
assembly of discrete elements() correct solution()
associative plastic flow() critical condition()
axisymmetric problem() critical state of stress()
axisymmetric ring element() critically damped case()
curvature()
B
back stress()
D
Banded() 2-dimensional problem(2D problem)()
Bandwidth() 3-dimensional problem (3D problem)()
bar element() DAlembert principle()
base function() damping force()
beam element() damping matrix()
best approximation() deflection )
block matrix() deformation()
body force ) deformed body ()
boundary condition() deformed body()
bulk strain() deformed force matrix()
degree of freedom( DOF)
C discrete structure()
C0 element(C0 ) discretized approximation()
C1 element (C1 ) displacement model()
characterized modeling() displacement()
circumferential displacement() DOF, degree of freedom()
column()
commercial code()
E
compact structure() eigen equation()
compatibility condition() eigen value ()
compatibility equation() eigen vector()
compatibility() elastic matrix()
compatible element() elastic modulus()

323

elastic/perfectly plastic material() hexahedron element()


elastic-plastic behavior() high-order element()
elastic-plastic problem() high-order polynomial()
element() h-method(h )
energy conservation theorem() home-code()
equilibrium equation() Hooke law()
equivalent nodal load() h-version(h )
equivalent stress() hydrostatic pressure()

F I
FEA code() inclined support()
FEA home-code() incompatible element()
FEA modeling() incremental of plastic strain()
FEA solving() inertial force()
Feasibility() initial condition()
finite element analysis() inner force matrix()
finite element method() inner node()
formulation of finite element analysis() iso-parametric element()
Fourier series() isotropic hardening()
free index() isotropy()
free vibration of undamped system() iteration algorithm()
free vibration()
function of yielding surface()
J
functional() Jacobian matrix()

G K
Galerkin WRM(Galerkin ) kinematic hardening()
Gauss integration(Gauss )
generalization()
L
generalized Hooke law() Lagrange interpolation()
geometric nonlinear() Lagrange multiplier()
global coordinate system() Lagrangian multiplier algorithm()
global stiffness equation() Lagrangian rectangle element()
least squares method()
H linear elasticity()
hardening material() load matrix()
Hardware platform() loading()
harmonic response analysis() local coordinate system()
heat transfer coefficient() local coordinate()
heat transfer matrix() long beam()
heat transfer theorem() longitudinal free vibration()
heat transfer() lower bound()
Hermite interpolation(Hermite ) lumped mass matrix()
Hermite interpolation()

324

M P
mapping of area() parametric element()
mapping of coordinate() parent element()
mapping of partial differential() Pascal triangle()
mapping() penalty approach()
mass matrix() physical coordinate()
master node() plane strain()
max. distortion energy criterion() plane stress ()
max. shearing stress criterion() plastic flow rule()
max. tensile stress criterion() plastic hardening rule()
modal analysis() plastic multiplier()
modal damping ratio() plastic work()
mode superposition() plastic yielding()
mode() p-method (p )
moment of inertia() Poissons ratio ()
monotonic convergence() positive definite()
multilinear isotropic () positive semi-definite()
multilinear kinematic() potential energy()
potential function()
N pre-processing()
2D natural coordinate (2D ) principal direction()
3D natural coordinate (3D ) principal stress()
3-node triangular element() principle of minimum potential energy()
natural circular frequency() principle of virtual work()
natural coordinate() proportionally loading()
natural discretization( p-version (p )
natural frequency(
neutral layer()
R
nodal displacement vector() radial normal strain ()
nodal displacement() Rayleigh-Ritz principle(Rayleigh-Ritz )
nodal force vector() Rayleigh-Ritz principle(-)
nodal numbering() reaction force of support )
node() reaction force()
nominal stress() reciprocal theorem of shear stress()
normal stress() reciprocal theorem of work()
numbering of element() rectangular element()
numbering scheme() reference coordinate()
numerical integration() representative volume()
rigid displacement()
O
operator matrix()
S
Saint-Venant principle()
semi-bandwidth()

325

semi-inverse method() temperature of surrounding medium()


Serendipity element(Serendipity ) tetrahedron element()
shape function matrix() thermal conductivity of material()
shear modulus() thermal expansion coefficient()
shear stress() thermal stress )
singularity () total Lagrange formulation( Lagrange )
slope() total solution()
small deformation() transformation matrix()
smooth improving() transformation()
smoothing() transient dynamic analysis()
software platform() transient heat transfer()
spars matrix() treatment of boundary condition()
specific heat() trial function()
spectrum analysis() true solution()
standard() truss/frame structure()
Standardization()
static case()
U
steady problem () uncoupled equation()
stiffening() uncoupling ()
stiffness coefficient() undamped case()
stiffness equation () unknown constant()
stiffness equation of element() Unknowns()
stiffness matrix of element() unloading()
stiffness() upper bound()
strain () upper limit()
strain energy()
strain-displacement matrix()
V
strain-displacement relationship() virtual displacement()
strength of heat source ) virtual strain energy()
strength() virtual stress()
stress function() virtual work()
stress of temperature effect() volume coordinate()
stress() volume strain()
stress-displacement matrix()
stress-strain relationship()
W
structural vibration() weight coefficient()
sub-domain () pieces function () weighted average()
sub-parametric element() weighted residual method()
super-parametric element() work by force()
superposition principle()
Y
T yielding criteria()
tangent normal strain() yielding surface translation )
tangent stiffness matrix() Young's modulus()

326

MATLAB

Bar1D2Node _Stiffness(E,A,L)
Bar1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
Bar1D2Node _Stress(k,u,A)
Bar1D2Node_Force(k,u)

Bar2D2Node_Stiffness(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha)
Bar2D2Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
Bar2D2Node_Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
Bar2D2Node_Forces(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)

Beam1D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,L)
Beam1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
Beam1D2Node_ Strain(x,L,y)
Beam1D2Node _Stress(E,B,u)
Beam1D2Node_Deflection(x,L,u)

Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L)
Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k,i,j)
Beam2D2Node_Forces(k,u)

Triangle2D3Node_Stiffness(E,NU,t,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,ID)
Triangle2D3Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m)
Triangle2D3Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,u,ID)

Quad2D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,h,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,ID)
Quad2D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,p)
Quad2D4Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,xj,yj,xm,ym,xp,yp,u,ID)

Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stiffness(E,NU,xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn)
Tetrahedron3D4Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,m,n)
Tetrahedron3D4Node_Stress(E,NU,xi,yi,zi,xj,yj,zj,xm,ym,zm,xn,yn,zn,u)

Hexahedral3D8Node_Stiffness(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z8)
Hexahedral3D8Node_Assembly(KK,k,i,j,l,m,n,o,p,q)
Hexahedral3D8Node_Stress(E,NU,x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2,x3,y3,z3,x4,y4,z4,x5,y5,z5,x6,y6,z6,x7,y7,z7,x8,y8,z8,u)

ANSYS

ANTYPE,STATIC !( 1)

327

ANTYPE,MODAL !( 2)
ANTYPE,TRANS !( 4)

ET,1,LINK1 !
ET,1,LINK10 !
ET,1,COMBIN14,,,2 !
ET,1,beam3 !
ET,1,PLANE42 !
ET,1,SOLID45 !
ET,1,PLANE55 !

TB,BKIN !
tb,mkin,1 !
TBPLOT, mkin,1 !

CE,1,0,4,UX,1,4,UY,-1 !(No.1): 0=node4_UX*1+node_UY*(-1)


local,11,0,2,0,0,45 ! 4 40
nrotat, 4 ! 4

ADAPT,10,,5,0.2,1 !,, 5%, 10 , 0.2,1


PSTRES,ON !
nlgeom,on !
outres,all,-10 ! 10
nsubst,8,25,2 ! 8 25 2

MODOPT,LANB,5,0.001,100 ! LANB 5 0.001 100


SOLCONTROL,ON,0 !
MODOPT,SUBSP,3 ! 3

/POST1 !
PLDISP,1 !()
PLNSOL, U,Y, 0,1.0 ! Y
PRRSOL !
ETABLE,bar_I,SMISC, 1 !
PLLS,BAR_I,BAR_J,0.5,1 !
NB=NODE(1,0,0) !(1,0,0) (B ) NB
NB_UX=UX(NB) ! NB UX NB_UX
ETABLE,STRS,LS,1 !
*GET,STRSS,ELEM,13,ETAB,STRS ! STRS, 13
*GET,FREQ1,MODE,1,FREQ ! 1 FREQ1
ANMODE,10,0.5, ,0 ! 10 0.5

/POST26 !
RFORCE,2,1,F,X ! 1 x 2
XVAR,3 ! 3

328

PLVAR,2 ! 2

/PLOPTS,DATE,0 !
/ESHAPE,0.5 !()( 0.5 )
JPGPRF,1500,300,1 ! JPEG
/SHOW,JPEG !
*STATUS !

329