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4

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4.1

1 3

( x , y , z)
(r, ) 2

(r,, )

( , , z)


:

m
O O S
n



(tangential unit vector)

(normal unit
vector)





xi xj

x x( )
x( ) a0 a1
x(1) a0 a1 xi a0 ( xi x j ) / 2

x(1) a0 a1 x j a1 ( x j xi ) / 2


x ( ) ( xi x j ) / 2 ( x j xi ) / 2

x i
x( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]
x j

x( ) N( )x e

N( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]


u ( x ( )) a0 a1

u ( x(1)) a0 a1 ui a0 (ui u j ) / 2

u ( x(1)) a0 a1 u j a1 (u j ui ) / 2
u i
u ( x( )) (ui u j ) / 2 (u j ui ) / 2 [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]
u j

u ( x( )) N( )q e

N( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]

x( ) N( )x e N( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]

u ( x( )) N( )q e N( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]


du ( x( )) d ( N( )q e ) dN( ) e
( x( )) q B( )q e
dx dx dx

1 1
B( ) [ e e
]
l l
( x( )) E e ( x( )) E e B( )q e S( )q e

Ee Ee
S( ) [ e e
]
l l



1 1 x2 e
U ( x ( )) ( x( ))dV E ( x( )) ( x( )) Ae dx
e T

2 e 2 x1
1 1 e
U E [B( )q e ] B( )q e Ae (l e / 2) d
e

2 1
1 T 1
U e q e [ (l e / 2)B ( ) E e Ae B( ) d ]q e
T

2 1

1 eT e e
U q Kq
e

1 E e Ae 1 1
K (l / 2)B ( ) E A B( )d e
T
e e e e
1 l 1 1


eT
W q P e
e

P e NT ( )bx dV e NT ( ) px dA
e Sp

N( ) [(1 ) / 2 (1 ) / 2]

P (1) NT ( )bx dV e NT ( ) px dA e NT (1) p x dA


e Sp Sp

1 1 R 1
px dA R 1

S ep 0 0 0

P (2) NT ( )bx dV e NT ( ) px dA e NT (1) px dA


e Sp Sp

0 0 0
px dA F
S ep 1 1 F




( x4 , y4 ) ( x3 , y3 )

P ( x, y ) P ( , )

( x1 , y1 )

( x2 , y2 )




P ( x, y ) P( , )



P ( x, y ) P( , )

x x( , ) x 1 2 3 4

y y ( , ) y 1 2 3 4

xi x(i ,i ) (1 ,1 ) ( 1, 1) (3 ,3 ) (1,1)

yi y (i ,i ) ( 2 ,2 ) (1, 1) ( 4 ,4 ) ( 1,1)

x1 1 21 31 411 x1 1 2 3 4
x x
2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 3 4

x3 1 23 33 433 x3 1 2 3 4
x4 1 2 4 34 4 4 4 x4 1 2 3 4


1 1 1 1 1 x1 1 1 1 1 1 y1

2 1 1 1 1 1 x2 2 1 1 1 1 1 y2

3 4 1 1 1 1 x3 3 4 1 1 1 1 y3
4 4
1 1 1 1 x4 1 1 1 1 y4

x 1 2 3 4 N1 x1 N 2 x2 N 3 x3 N 4 x4

y 1 2 3 4 N1 y1 N 2 y2 N 3 y3 N 4 y4

1 1
1 4 (1 )(1 )
N N 3 (1 )(1 )
4

N 1 (1 )(1 ) 1
N 4 (1 )(1 )
2 4 4


x1
y
1
x2

x N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 y 2

y 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4 x3
y 3

x4
y
4
x( , ) N( , ) x e



( x3 , y3 )
(1,1) (1,1)
( x4 , y4 )

( x2 , y2 )
( x1 , y1 ) (1, 1) (1, 1)

u ( x( , ), y ( , )) u ( , ) 1 2 3 4

v( x( , ), y ( , )) v( , ) 1 2 3 4
ui u (i ,i ) (1 ,1 ) ( 1, 1) (3 ,3 ) (1,1)

vi v (i ,i ) ( 2 ,2 ) (1, 1) ( 4 ,4 ) ( 1,1)


u1 1 21 31 411 u1 1 2 3 4
u u
2 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 3 4

u3 1 23 33 433 u3 1 2 3 4
u4 1 2 4 3 4 4 4 4 u4 1 2 3 4

1 1 1 1 1 u1

2

1 1 1 1 1 u2


1 3 4 1 1 1 1 u3
1 1 1 1 v1
4 1 1 1 1 u4
2 1 1 1 1 1 v2

3 4 1 1 1 1 v3
4
1 1 1 1 v4


u ( x( , ), y ( , )) 1 2 3 4 N1u1 N 2u2 N 3u3 N 4u4

v( x( , ), y ( , )) 1 2 3 4 N1v1 N 2v2 N 3v3 N 4v4

1 1
1 4 (1 )(1 )
N N 3 (1 )(1 )
4 u 1
v
N 1 (1 )(1 ) 1
N 4 (1 )(1 )
2 4 4
1
u 2

u ( x( , ), y ( , )) N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N4 0 v2

v( x( , ), y ( , )) 0 N1 0 N2 0 N3 0 N 4 u 3
v3

u( x( , ), y ( , )) N( , )q e u 4
v
4

x( , ) N( , ) x e

u( x( , ), y ( , )) u( , ) N( , )q e

1 1
1 4 (1 )(1 )
N N3
4
(1 )(1 )

N 1 (1 )(1 ) 1
N 4 (1 )(1 )
2 4 4


u )) q (B, ) q ( , )
( x( , ), y ( ,N e
( , ) e


0 N i
x x

B( , ) 0
N1 0 N 2 0 N 3 0 N 4 0
0 N 0 N 0 N 0 N
N
i

?
y 1 2 3 4 y


y x
1 1
1 4 (1 )(1 )
N N 3 (1 )(1 )
4

N 1 (1 )(1 ) 1
N 4 (1 )(1 )
2 4 4


N i N i x N i y
x y


N i N i x N i y
x y
N i x y N i Ni
x x

N J Ni x y
N i x y i
y
y J
N i x y
N i
x J*
1 1
N J J
i N i J
y


K e B ( x( , ), y ( , )) DB( x( , ), y ( , ))tdxdy
T
e
S
1 1 1 1
B ( , )DB( , )t J d d
T
F( , ) J d d
1 1 1 1

P e N bdV e N pdA Pbe Ppe


T T
e
Sp

1 1
P
T
e
b
N b J td d
1 1
1
P N ptCd
T
e
p


1
1/ 2
x 2 y 2
C

J 0


180o
30o-150o


x( , ) N( , )x e

u( x, y ) u( , ) N( , )q e
8 3


u( x, y ) u( , ) N( , )q e

x y z


x y z
J

x y z

B( , , ) N( , , )

1 1 1
K e B DBdV
T T
e
B DB J d d d
1 1 1

P e N bdV e N pdA Pbe Ppe


T T
e
Sp
1 1 1
Pb e N bdV
T T
e
N b J d d d
1 1 1

1 1
Pp e N pdA
T T
e
N pCdd

Sp 1 1

2 1/ 2
y z y z z x z x 2
x y x y
2

C


4.2


Newton-cotes
Gauss-Legendre






1 1 1
K e B DB dV
e eT e

eT
B DB e J d d d
1 1 1


n
f ( )d Ai f (i )
b

a
i 1

n



b
f ( )d ,
I ( ),
a

n (i , i 1, 2,..., n) ( ) f ( )
,
( i ) f (i ) (i 1, 2,..., n)
( )
f ( ),
b b
I f ( )d ( )d
a a

:
( ),
f ( ) ?



n i (i 1, 2,..., n),
( ) Lagrange ,
n
( )= lin 1 ( ) f (i ) a0 a1 L an 1 n 1
i 1

lin 1 ( ) ( n 1) Lagrange

ln 1
( )

n
, l
j n 1
( j )
1 ,i j
i

j 1
j i
i j
i
0 ,i j
( i ) f (i )
( ) f ( ),

b n
l
b b
I f ( )d ( )d i
n 1
( ) f ( i )d
a a a
i 1

l n-1
n n
( )d f (i ) Ai f (i )
b
n 1
i


a
i 1 i 1


Newton-cotes
n i (i 1, 2,..., n)

Newton-cotes

Newton-cotes n-1

ba
f (a) f (b)
b
n=1 a
f ( x)dx
2
b ba ab
Simpson n=2 a f ( x)dx
6
f ( a ) 4 f (
2
) f (b )


Gauss-Legendre
n
n
f ( )d Ai f (i )
1

1
i 1





n
2n-1
2n-1
n