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Translation methods
The major cause of dispute has always been about whether to
translate freely or literally. Up to the 19th century, it was the spirit and
the general sense of the whole text that was favored by translators
rather than the meaning of individual words. Then, on the turn of the
nineteenth and the twentieth century, focus shifted and it suddenly
became important to translate every single word. Modern theories
offer us more than one solution.
2. Word-for-word translation
Called the interlinear translation where the TL is immediately below
the SL words. With this method the translator preserves the SL word
order and words are translated as single units and out of context.
Modern computer programs are based on this method. This method
may be of use as a pretranslation or as a means of understanding the
SL text but should never be regarded as a final version
3. Interlinear translation

4. Literal translation
It should be regarded as a pretranslation procedure which is used to
convert SL grammatical constructions to their nearest TL equivalents
whereas lexical units are translated singly and out of context.
5. Faithful translation
This method is used to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of
the original but within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures.
Culture specific words and similar fixed phrases are replaced by
appropriate TL constructions. However, any other characteristic of the
SL text that the original unique and special is preserved in the TL and
the translation thereby faithfully represents all the intentions and
textrealisations of the SL writer.
6. Semantic translation
In comparison to faithful translation, semantic translation is more
flexible and less dogmatic. Furthermore, it makes certain concessions
to the readership by disobeying particular grammatical or lexical rules
in the SL because they are different or inappropriate in the TL.
Semantic translation allows the translator a certain level of
individuality and freedom of choice when making decisions about
certain expressions. With this method the translator is focused on the
meaning whereby he is trying to make translation sound as natural as
possible. If necessary, the translator can sacrifice a certain poetic
device, word-play or other form of expressive use of language in the SL
if it cannot fit the translation because it either does not exist in the TL
or makes it sound awkward.
7. Adaptation
This is probably the freest form of translation and it is better not to be
used for official documents as may be miles away from the original.
The translator can bend the rules to the extent that most of the
original is sacrificed if the meaning, the intention, the atmosphere, the
tone are supposed to be transferred into the TL. It is mainly used for
popular literature, films, theatrical performances, and its basic
intention is to make the translation sound and seem as funny, sad,
ironic satirical or as poetic as the original and if the SL has to be
altered completely, it will be.
8. Free translation
Some authors say it is not a translation at all but rather a free
reproduction of the original in a form that suits the translator best. By
means of this method the translator tries to represent both the content
and the meaning of the SL without the form of the original so it may
actually be regarded as a paraphrase of SL rather than the translation.
9. Idiomatic translation
It is also referred as natural. The main characteristic of this method is
that it reproduces the message of the original but tends to disregard
some specific nuances of the original. Some translators may even
insert structures, such as colloquialism or idiomatic expressions that do
not exist in the SL text because they want to make the translation
sound as natural as possible.
10.Communicative translation
This method is focused on the meaning of the context whereby the
translator makes sure that content and language are shaped in such a
way that the readership can easily accept and comprehend it. It is
usually applied when translating clichs, proverbs and idioms. Bearing
in mind that we are interested in translation from a practical and real
life point of view, and if we want to fulfill two main aims of such
translations, those of accuracy and economy, the best choice regarding
an appropriate method of translation will be combination of semantic
and communicative translation. The reasons why we should opt for
those two are the following:
i. Specific language characteristics
ii. Focus is on the message
iii. Culture specific terms
iv. Semantic and communicative translation is accurate and precise
and they pass the message even though they seem
overtranslated or undertranslated.
v. The most important aspect of these two methods is the
pragmatic impact and if combined properly, the translation will
be interpretative enough as based on the semantic aspect and
explicit enough as based on the communicative aspect of each
of these 2 methods.
11.Additional translation procedures
Even though combination of semantic and communicative translation
is the best method to apply, there are situation in real practice when
they will not be enough.
Translator use: Back translation, Accepted translation, contextual
recreation, sub-text translation, shift or transposition, notes and other
additions too.
12.Back translation
Even though some authors refer back translation as a form of test to
be used in literal translation, this procedure may be applied in its most
general sense to validate the accuracy of our own translation or
somebody elses. What you do is take either a complete translation or
just part of it and translate it back to the SL in order to see how much
the TL text differs from the original .Any structure that seems to
deviate from the original to the extent that it border inaccuracy, can be
identified and corrected.
13.Accepted translation
This procedure refers to some transparent institutional terms that are
translated literally in several European countries and are accepted as
such. Although the TL cultural equivalent for these terms may have a
broader function and although some of these terms may be
misleading, an accepted translation is still the best possible choice for
concepts, such as Senate, radicalism or realism as any other form of
translation might not meet the pragmatic function of a particular
context
14.Contextual recreation
This procedure is also known as re-creative translation and it is usually
not recommended for an entire text. However, if all other types of
translation prove inaccurate and insufficient, a translator will have to
try contextual translation for smaller units, that is translate between
the words, and find solutions which might be completely different from
the SL text but unavoidable since no other procedure will do the magic
and make translation comprehensible for the readers.
15.Sub-text translation
This procedure originated in the plea of many translators to preserve
accuracy of meaning and intention as expressed by the SL text. IN
practice this procedure is somewhat similar to contextual recreation
with the difference that it is more applicable for the translation of
literary texts and less for translations of official documents, especially
since accuracy in official texts is not negotiable. Sometimes, however,
in a court judgment or transcript of a procedure, as they are mainly
renderings of indirect speech, that is interpretations of words detached
in time and space, the translator might have to translate between the
words i.e. offer a limited and controlled amount of sub-text in the
translation for the sake of accuracy.
16.Shift or transposition
This particular type of translation procedure is recommended and
necessary when the translator faces a grammatical structure that
either does not exist in TL or does not fit the context of the translation.
In fact, this is the only translation procedure concerned with grammar,
and comparative linguistic research is being conducted continuously so
as to find all the subtle and obvious intersections between two
languages. In practice this means that the translator will have to
change a singular noun into plural form, paraphrase the emphatic
do, substitute a modal with finite verb phrase, use the past tense for
the present perfect tense, convert a complex sentence into two or
more simple sentences, avoid gender-specific lexemes, substitute a
noun phrase with a clause
17.Notes and other additions