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approval.

The Company/EPC Contractor shall be notified in writing should any previously


unrecorded services or other objects be discovered before or during the work. A description,
dimensions, levels related to reference datum and other relevant details of such services shall
be accurately recorded and supplied to the Company/EPC Contractor. A certificate or permit
shall be obtained from the Company/EPC Contractor, confirming that services have been cut
off and made safe and specifying any services or other facilities adjacent to site including
related safety aspects and measures which must be maintained during the execution of the
work.
In the event that service or facilities are accidentally cut or damaged, they shall be replaced by
the Sub-Contractor at their cost as directed by the Company/EPC Contractor.

5. EARTHWORK FOR ROADS

5.1. GENERAL
Earthworks shall be carried out in accordance with Doc no. 23-99-75-1601, Specification for
Site Preparation and Earthworks.
Existing soil shall be excavated and disposed or backfilled to the levels indicated on the
drawings, watered and compacted to 95% MDD (Maximum Dry Density) to receive subgrade.
The Sub-Contractor shall prepare the existing surfaces under roads, parking areas, paved
areas and structures as showing on the contract drawings and as specified in Specification for
Site preparation and Earthworks No: 23-99-75-1601.

5.2. SUBGRADE
Preparation of subgrade shall be in accordance with Doc no. 23-99-75-1601, Specification for
Site Preparation and Earthworks. After compaction the subgrade surface shall conform to the
grade and typical section shown on the project drawings.

6. ROAD SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES

6.1. GENERAL
Specifications for materials and equipment used in the construction of sub base and base
courses, apart from other types of base courses specified in Section 0 of this Standard
Specifications, apply to Works performed under Section 6.2, Equipment for Sub base and Base
Courses, Section 6.3, Aggregate Sub base and Base Courses as indicated on the Drawings
and as specified herein and/or in the Particular Specifications and included in the Bills of
Quantities.

6.1.1 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF MATERIALS


Materials shall be so stored and handled as to assure the preservation of their quality and
fitness for the Works. Materials even though approved before storage or handling, may again
be inspected and tested prior to use in the Works. Stored material shall be located so as to
facilitate their prompt inspection. All storage sites shall be restored to their original condition at
the Sub-contractor's expense prior to acceptance of the Works.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or
contamination of the various sizes. Stockpiles shall be kept flat and the formation of high cone-
shaped piles shall not be permitted. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates,
Company/EPC Contractor may require the use of baffle-chutes or perforated chimneys. When
trucks are used to construct stockpiles, the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time
with trucks depositing their loads as close to the previous load as possible. The use of tractors
or loaders to push material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile will not
be allowed during the construction of the stockpile and their use shall be limited to leveling the
deposited material only. Stockpiles of aggregate located at permanent asphalt plant sites shall
be separated by bin walls and shall be constructed on asphaltic or concrete floors. Stockpile
locations and procedures at temporary asphalt plant sites shall be as approved by
Company/EPC Contractor.
Intermediate storage of hydrated lime and commercial mineral filler for equipment feeding the
asphalt plant shall be silos of adequate sizes to ensure a minimum of one day's continuous
operation.

6.1.2 INSPECTION, TESTING AND CONTROL OF MATERIALS


In order to ascertain the properties of all materials, the Sub-contractor shall submit for approval
by Company/EPC Contractor, test certificates from an approved testing Laboratory for all
materials intended for incorporation in the work prior to start quarry or pit operations. The Sub-
contractor, at his expense, in the presence of Company/EPC Contractor, shall take
representative samples for such testing and duplicate samples shall be submitted to
Company/EPC Contractor for future reference.
For verification of weights and measures, character of materials and determination of
temperatures used in the preparation of the asphalt mixes, Company/EPC Contractor will at all
times have access to all portions of the mixing plant, aggregate plant, storage yards, crushers
and other facilities used for producing and processing the materials of construction.
Company/EPC Contractor will have authority to take samples and perform tests thereon of any
material supplied to the site from any source whatsoever in order to establish their compliance
with the Specifications and to accept or reject as he deems necessary. Samples shall also be
taken from completed work to determine compliance with the specifications. The frequency of
all sampling and testing shall be in accordance with this Specifications and/or as directed by
Company/EPC Contractor.

6.1.3 UNACCEPTABLE MATERIALS


Materials that do not comply with the requirements of this Specifications shall be rejected and
removed immediately from the site of the Works unless otherwise instructed by Company/EPC
Contractor. No rejected materials, the defects of which have been corrected, shall be used until
approval has been given by Company/EPC Contractor.

6.1.4 SOURCES OF MATERIALS


The materials used in the Works shall meet all quality requirements specified. All materials shall
be tested and approved before use. The Sub-contractor shall notify Company/EPC Contractor

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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of the sources of materials and Company/EPC Contractor will approve the sources prior to
delivery of materials to the Site. Where the source of material does not meet Specification
requirements, the Sub-contractor shall furnish material from other sources. Delivery of materials
produced from commercial manufacturing processes shall be accompanied by the
manufacturer's certification and test report showing the materials comply with the Specification
requirements.
Potable water shall be used for the purposes of mixing and compacting subbase and base
course materials. The use of sea water or brackish water will not be permitted, unless
specifically stated to the contrary.

6.1.5 MEASUREMENT AND SECTION PAYMENT


No separate measurement or payment will be made by Company/EPC Contractor for the work
as described in this Section. All work as specified herein shall be considered as a subsidiary
obligation to the Items included in the Bills of Quantities and specified in other Sections of this
Specifications.

6.2. EQUIPMENT USED FOR SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES


The major equipment to be provided and maintained by the Sub-contractor shall include, but
not by way of limitation, that as described herein, as required to complete the Works and as
directed by Company/EPC Contractor.The Earthwork Equipment shall be used in addition as
follows:

6.2.1 SPREADERS
Spreaders shall be self-propelled and shall be capable of spreading the sub base and base
materials in one operation so as to make it ready for compaction with minimum shaping. The
spreader shall be provided with a screed that strikes off and distributes the material to the
required width and level. The width of each spread shall not be less than a traffic lane wide.
The screed shall be adjustable to the required cross-section. Screed action includes any
practical motion that produces a finished surface texture of uniform appearance.

6.2.2 TRAVEL MIXERS


Travel Mixers shall be of types which are capable of mixing to the full depth of the layer
thickness being processed, by picking up the material, mixing, agitating or otherwise blending
into a homogeneous mass which complies with the required general gradation and other
specifications. Mixers shall be equipped with an accurate depth control device to avoid the
disturbance of previously accepted layers. After mixing, the material shall be deposited by the
mixer in its final position so that prior to compaction no spotting, picking-up or otherwise shifting
the material will be required. Mixers may be equipped with pressure spray bars, which can
supply a uniform distribution of metered water during the mixing process.

6.2.3 CENTRAL MIXERS


A central mixing plant shall be either of an approved drum or pug mill type with a moisture
control system so that the material may be spread without further mixing or processing.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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6.2.4 UNACCEPTABLE EQUIPMENT
The Company/EPC Contractor will have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant
which he deems to be inferior to the quality required and to instruct the removal of such
equipment and to have it replaced by suitable equipment or to alter the method of operation at
any time.
The Sub-contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to
any indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. The Sub-contractor shall not be
allowed to use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of Company/EPC
Contractor, and the Sub-contractor shall undertake to follow sound technical methods of
operation and to engage skilled and trained operators, mechanics and labor to carry out the
Works. The Company/EPC Contractor will have the right to expel any operators, mechanics or
labor and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time he deems such action is
necessary.

6.2.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT.


No separate measurement or payment will be made by Company/EPC Contractor for the work
or equipment as described in this Section. All work and equipment as specified herein shall be
considered as a subsidiary obligation to the Items included in the Bills of Quantities and
specified in other Section of this Specifications.

6.3. AGGREGATE SUB-BASE AND BASE COURSES


Aggregate sub base and base courses shall consist of crushed mineral aggregates or natural
mineral aggregates of the gradation and thickness specified in this Specifications and indicated
on the Drawings. Where the type of aggregate is not specified, it is intended that natural
mineral aggregates shall be used.
The Sub-contractor shall furnish, place and compact aggregate base course for approach slabs
and aggregate subbase course for paved roadways, service roads and parking areas
complying with the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical sections indicated on the Drawings,
as specified herein or as directed by Company/EPC Contractor.
Unless otherwise indicated on the Drawings, specified in the Particular Specifications or
directed by Company/EPC Contractor, all aggregate sub base materials shall comply with the
requirements of Aggregate Sub base (Gradation B) as specified in Section 6.3.4, Types of
Aggregate Sub base and Base Courses, of this Specifications.

6.3.1 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUB BASE AND BASE COURSES


The materials for sub base and base courses shall comply with the requirements as specified in
the standards and code, and shall be approved by the Company/EPC Contractor. The Sub-
contractor shall submit samples of all materials to Company/EPC Contractor for approval prior
to furnishing and placing any materials.
Aggregate shall meet the following requirements:

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Table 6.1 Material Requirements

Test Standard Limits

Sampling AASHTO T002 N/A


Classification AASHTO M145 N/A
Los Angeles Abrasion AASHTO T096 (ASTM C131) 40 max.

Soundness (Sodium) AASHTO T104 12% max.

Soundness (Magnesium) AASHTO T104 (ASTM C88) 15% max.


Sand Equivalent AASHTO T176 (ASTM D2419) 25% min.
Liquid Limit AASHTO T089 (ASTM D4318) 35% max.
Plasticity Index AASHTO T090 (ASTM D4318) 6.0% max.
Sulphate Content BS 1377 0.5% max.
Chloride Content BS 812 1.0% max.
Flakiness Index BS 812 35% max.
Elongation BS 812 35% max.
Specific Gravity AASHTO T100 & T085 2.20 min.
Max Dry Density AASHTO T180D 2.10 gr/cc min.
C.B.R. at 98% of MDD AASHTO T193 (ASTM D1883) 65% min.

Natural Aggregate Sub base and Base Courses shall consist of coarse and fine mineral
aggregates, which have been screened and blended to the various gradations, specified herein
and constructed to the thickness as indicated on the Drawings.
Crushed Aggregate Sub base and Base Courses shall consist of crushed coarse aggregate
and crushed or natural fine aggregate screened and blended in accordance with the gradation
specified herein and constructed to the thicknesses as indicated on the Drawings.

6.3.2 FINE AGGREGATES


Fine aggregate (passing the No.4 sieve) shall consist of natural sand and/or crushed sand and
shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate fractions in proper
proportions, the resultant mixture will meet the gradation specified.
The fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter, clay and other extraneous or
detrimental materials.
The portion of fine aggregates passing the No. 200 sieve shall not exceed 2/3 of the portion
passing the No. 40sieve.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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The material passing the No. 40 sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 35 and the plasticity
index shall not exceed 6.
When the source of fine aggregates does not meet the above requirements, the Sub-contractor
may, with Company/EPC Contractor's approval, add additional fine aggregate and/or filler to
correct the gradation or to change the characteristics of the material passing the No. 40 sieve
so as to meet the Specifications. Such additional material shall be added in a manner, which
ensures a completely homogeneous gradation as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.

6.3.3 COARSE AGGREGATE


Coarse aggregate (retained on the No.4 sieve) shall consist of crushed stone, crushed gravel or
natural gravel and shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate
fractions in proper proportion, the resultant mixture will meet the gradation specified.
When crushed aggregate is required, not less than 50 percent by weight of the particles
retained on the No.4 sieve shall have at least one fractured face. The Flakiness Index of the
crushed aggregate shall not exceed 35 percent.
The percentage of wear of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 40 percent when tested for
resistance to abrasion (AASHTO T096).
The course aggregate shall be hard and durable and free from organic matter, clay and other
extraneous or detrimental materials.
Coarse aggregate shall have a maximum sodium sulphate soundness loss of 12 percent and
magnesium sulphate soundness loss of 15 percent.

6.3.4 TYPES OF AGGREGATE SUB BASE AND BASE COURSES


The combined gradation including fine and coarse aggregates shall conform to the gradation of
Type (A) or (B) or (C) in Table 6.2.
The gradation of materials to be used in the aggregate sub base and base courses as shown in
Table 6.2 indicates the limits within which the material could be accepted. The continuous
smooth gradation of materials used shall be kept within the specified gradation limits and gap
grading shall be avoided. Selection of one of the gradations shown in the table shall be as
indicated on the Drawings and/or in this Specifications. Unless otherwise specified in drawing,
Gradation A shall be used for aggregate sub base and Gradation C shall be used for aggregate
base is specified.
Table 6.2 Gradation Limits for Aggregate Subbase and Base Courses

Percent Passing by Weight


Sieve Size
Gradation A Gradation B Gradation C

50.8 mm - - 100

41.75 mm - 100 75-100

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Percent Passing by Weight
Sieve Size
Gradation A Gradation B Gradation C

25.4 mm 100 70-100 55-85

19.05 mm 70-100 60-90 50-80

9.53 mm 50-80 45-75 40-70

No. 4 35-65 30-60 30-60

No. 10 25-50 20-50 20-50

No. 40 15-30 10-30 10-30

No. 200 5-15 5-15 5-15

6.3.5 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR SUB BASE AND BASE COURSES

a. FINISHED SUB GRADE LEVELS

Prior to commencing the construction of the sub base and base courses, the Sub-contractor
shall make sure that the sub grade complies with the specifications and is compacted to the
maximum dry density as indicated in Doc no. 23-99-75-1601, Specification for Site
Preparation and Earthworks and that the surface thereof complies with the levels and
slopes indicated in the Drawings. In all cases the approval of Company/EPC Contractor
must be obtained before commencing spreading of material for the sub base and base
courses.
b. SCREENING AND MIXTURE OF THE MATERIALS

Screening shall be required for the materials used in aggregate sub base and base courses.
Screens shall be of the size and number required to remove oversize aggregate and, if
necessary, to separate the materials into two or more fractions so that they may be
combined to meet the required gradation. When conveyor belt samples from the end of the
screening and/or crushing-screening operation yield a product consistently within the
specified gradation, no further mixing shall be required and the material may be loaded and
hauled directly to the road. In the event the material is stockpiled, it shall be stockpiled so as
to prevent segregation.
Mixing of material can be achieved through the use of the central mixing plant or travel
mixer as per Section 6.2, Equipment Used for Aggregate Sub base and Base Courses, of
this Specifications.
Where separate size materials are to be blended to meet the gradation, such blending shall
be as directed by Company/EPC Contractor and shall be accomplished prior to delivery to

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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the roadway. Mixing of separate materials on the roadway by motor grader will not be
permitted by Company/EPC Contractor.
c. SPREADING AND COMPACTING

After carrying out the screening and mixing of aggregate material, samples of the approved
material shall be taken in order to determine the optimum moisture content.
Material shall then be spread on the prepared surface in layers not more than 150mm
compacted thickness to achieve the total thickness as indicated on the Drawings.
Care shall be taken in spreading and compacting the aggregate sub base not to damage
the fabric as specified in Section 13, Geotextile, of this Specifications.
The natural moisture content of materials constituting the sub base and base courses shall
be determined. If the natural moisture content is less than the optimum moisture content,
the necessary amount of water must be added to obtain the optimum moisture content
allowing for the quantity which may be lost by evaporation in the process of raking, leveling
and compacting, depending on atmospheric temperature, quantity of material and the
equipment and plant to be used in this operation, provided that the layer shall be compacted
when the moisture content therein is within -2 and +4 percent of the optimum moisture
content in order to obtain maximum dry density, and the moisture content is uniform in all
parts of the section where the work is being carried out and in the various depths of the
layer thickness.
If the natural moisture content in materials exceeds the optimum moisture content, then the
Sub-contractor shall aerate the material in order to reach the optimum moisture content.
Compaction shall start immediately thereafter, by means of pneumatic and steel rollers or
vibratory rollers and in accordance with the instructions of Company/EPC Contractor.
Compaction shall start with rollers from extreme sides proceeding gradually toward the road
axis. Rolling shall continue until a relative density of not less than 98 percent of the
maximum dry density has been obtained as determined by the Moisture - Density
Relationship Test AASHTO T-180. The CBR of the sub base material shall not be less than
65.
d. MULTI-LAYERS

During the operations of mixing, spreading, compacting and leveling of sub base and base
course material, care shall be taken so that layers already compacted under the layer being
executed are not affected, or that the finished sub grade or base surface is also not
affected. This requirement shall be given special attention in places where equipment
makes turns in going back and forth and any such damage resulting in mixing the various
layers constituting the different sub grades and base courses shall be carefully made good
by the Sub-contractor at his expense and to the satisfaction of Company/EPC Contractor.
If more than one sub base or base course is required for reaching the required thickness
described in the specifications, each such course shall be constructed as specified herein.

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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Where the finished total compacted thickness exceeds 150mm, each layer shall be
executed in composite layers not exceeding 150mm in thickness after compaction unless
otherwise approved by Company/EPC Contractor in writing.

6.3.6 PROTECTION OF SURFACE


The Sub-contractor shall protect the sub base or base course so that it shall be maintained
sound during work progress, after its completion and prior to receiving the bituminous layers or
prior to laying the surface overlay thereon. Any damage caused to the layer if exposed to traffic
or natural conditions resulting in damage to its surface should be made good to the satisfaction
of Company/EPC Contractor.
The sub base and base courses shall not be rolled when the underlying material is soft or
yielding or when the rolling causes a wave-like motion in this course.
When the rolling develops irregularities, the irregular surface shall be loosened, then refilled
with the same kind of material as used in constructing the course and again rolled according to
specifications. Along places inaccessible to rollers, the sub base and base course material shall
be tamped thoroughly with mechanical tampers.
Work on the sub base and base course shall not be permitted during rainy weather.
Hauling equipment may be routed over completed portions of the sub base and base courses
provided no damage results and provided that such equipment is routed over the full width of
the course to avoid rutting or uneven compaction. Company/EPC Contractor have the right to
stop all hauling over completed or partially completed sub base and base courses when in his
opinion such hauling is causing damage.

6.3.7 PREPARING THE SURFACE BEFORE PRIMING


Following the completion of the base course and sub base courses the Sub-contractor shall
perform all maintenance work necessary to keep the course in a condition for priming. The
prime coat shall be applied after preparation of the previously compacted surface, all in
accordance with Section 7.4, Prime Coat, of this Specifications.

6.3.8 TESTING AND ACCEPTANCE OF AGGREGATE SUB BASE AND BASE COURSES
Prior to the application of any prime coat or any other paving course, the aggregate sub base
and/or base course shall have been tested and accepted by Company/EPC Contractor. The
following shall be adhered to in accepting completed aggregate sub base and base courses:
a. REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPACTION

Wherever the degree of compaction is found to be less than the 98 percent specified the
area of sub base or base course involved shall be satisfactorily corrected so that the
minimum specified density is achieved.
b. REGUIREMENTS FOR GRADATION

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
Page 23 of 113
Wherever the gradation is found to be outside the limits specified, the area of sub base
and/or base course involved shall be scarified, removed or otherwise reworked as directed
by Company/EPC Contractor to provide a material within the specified limits.
c. THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS

The total constructed thickness of aggregate sub base or base course used for new
construction, reconstruction or widening of roadways shall not vary more than 8 mm from
the total thickness indicated on the Drawings.
In the event the constructed thickness of the aggregate sub base or base course is 8 mm
more than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the area involved shall be
corrected as directed by Company/EPC Contractor by removing excess material in an
approved manner to provide the required thickness.
In the event the constructed thickness of the aggregate sub base or base course is 8 mm
less than the total thickness indicated on the Drawings, the Sub-contractor shall provide
additional material in the next course (base course or wearing course). In no case shall the
deficiency of the sub base or base course exceed 25 mm.
The aggregate sub base or base course shall be constructed with reference to the level as
indicated on the Drawings, as specified and as approved by Company/EPC Contractor.
In no case shall the total sum thickness of the sub base course, base course and wearing
course be less than the total sum thickness of all courses as indicated on the Drawings.
d. REQUIREMENTS FOR EVENNESS OF SURFACE AND GRADE LEVEL

The final surfaces of the sub base or base course shall be tested by means of a 5 meter
long straight edge; and no rises or depressions in excess of 10mm shall appear on the
Company/EPC Contractor surface; otherwise such areas shall be stripped, corrected and
recompacted to comply with all specification requirements and as approved by
Company/EPC Contractor. Further, the finished surface of the sub base or base course
shall be constructed to within 12 mm of the grade levels with reference to the levels as
indicated on the Drawings
e. MINIMUM TEST REQUIREMENTS

One sample every one thousand (1,000) cubic metres shall be tested from the stockpile for
Grading, Soundness, Loss by Abrasion, Maximum Dry Density, Plasticity Index, Sand
Equivalent and CBR. One in situ density test shall be taken every three hundred (300)
square metres of aggregate subbase or base course laid.

6.3.9 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Measurement for aggregate sub base and base courses will be by square meter and will be
calculated from the top surface area, excluding the tapered edges, the cost of which will be
considered as a subsidiary obligation and included in the rate.
Payment for aggregate sub base and base courses will be made at the rate per square meter
(of thickness indicated) included in the Bills of Quantities which rate shall include, but not by

ProjectNo.:P23001
DOCUMENT TITLE: ADCODOC. NO. 23-99-75-1602
Contract No. 15818.01
REV.: 1 DATE: 19/10/2015
SPECIFICATION FOR ROADS AND PAVING
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