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Torsi / puntir

T P

T = P.L

L

dA

dF rdF = T

r

t = dF/dA

dF= tdA

r(tdA) = T

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 2

timbul pada satu sisi

Teg. geser

1

2/7/2017

tidak terjadi distorsi

Poros terpuntir dg. Sudut puntir, f Tiap bagian tidak datar dan

terjadi distorsi

F sebanding dengan T dan L

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 4

Distribusi regangan geser pada poros

sepanjang L, dengan jari-jari c dan dipuntir

dengan sudut puntir f bisa dijelaskan sbb:

elemen bujursangkar pada permukaannya.

Sebelum torsi dikenakan, lurus (gbr. b)

(gbr. c.)

Timbul regangan geser g

g = sudut antara AB dengan AB

rf cf

g g max

L L

r dan f dalam radian r

g g max

c

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 5

t max Gg max

t Gg r

r Gg G g max

g g max c

c

r r

t G g max t t max

c c

Tegangan geser berubah linier terhadap jarak r dari pusat poros

c1

Untuk poros berlubang : t min t max

c2

t min

t max t max

c c1 c2

berlubang

SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 6

2

2/7/2017

t max 2

T= r(tdA) = r dA

c

t max J

r2dA adalah momen inersia polar =J T

c

Tc

Maka : t max

J

Sehingga kita dapat menghitung t pada sembarang jarak r dari sumbu :

Tr

t

J

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 7

Nilai J

1

Nilai J untuk poros bulat pejal : J c 4

2

untuk poros bulat berlubang :

1 1 1

J c2 4 c14 (c2 4 c14 )

2 2 2

c c

1

c2

Normal Stresses

Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular

to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses

only. Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a

combination of both may be found for other

orientations.

Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis,

F 2t max A0 cos 45 t max A0 2

F t max A0 2

45o t max

A A0 2

Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on

two faces and compressive stress on the other

two.

Note that all stresses for elements a and c have

3-9 the same magnitude

3

2/7/2017

Ductile materials generally fail in

shear. Brittle materials are weaker in

tension than shear.

specimen breaks along a plane of

maximum shear, i.e., a plane

perpendicular to the shaft axis.

specimen breaks along planes

perpendicular to the direction in

which tension is a maximum, i.e.,

along surfaces at 45o to the shaft

axis.

3 - 10

SOLUTION:

Cut sections through shafts AB

and BC and perform static

equilibrium analysis to find

torque loadings

Apply elastic torsion formulas to

find minimum and maximum

stress on shaft BC

Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer

diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm, Given allowable shearing stress

respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid and applied torque, invert the

of diameter d. For the loading shown, elastic torsion formula to find the

determine (a) the minimum and required diameter

maximum shearing stress in shaft BC, (b)

the required diameter d of shafts AB and

CD if the allowable shearing stress in

these shafts is 65 MPa.

3 - 11

Sample

SOLUTION:Problem 3.1

Cut sections through shafts AB and BC

and perform static equilibrium analysis

to find torque loadings

M x 0 6 kN m TAB M x 0 6 kN m 14 kN m TBC

TAB 6 kN m TCD TBC 20 kN m

3 - 12

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2/7/2017

Apply elastic torsion formulas to Given allowable shearing stress and

find minimum and maximum applied torque, invert the elastic torsion

stress on shaft BC formula to find the required diameter

J

2

c24 c14 2 0.0604 0.0454 t max

Tc

Tc

65MPa

6 kN m

J c4 c3

2 2

13.92 10 6 m 4 3

c 38.9 10 m

TBC c2 20 kN m 0.060 m

t max t 2 d 2c 77.8 mm

J 13.92 10 6 m 4

86.2 MPa

t min c1 t min 45 mm

t max c2 86.2 MPa 60 mm t max 86.2 MPa

t min 64.7 MPa t min 64.7 MPa

3 - 13

Recall that the angle of twist and maximum

shearing strain are related,

cf

g max

L

In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear

are related by Hookes Law,

t max Tc

g max

G JG

Equating the expressions for shearing strain and

solving for the angle of twist,

TL

f

JG

If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section

changes along the length, the angle of rotation is

found as the sum of segment rotations

Ti Li

f

i J iGi

3 - 14

Given the shaft dimensions and the applied

torque, we would like to find the torque reactions

at A and B.

From a free-body analysis of the shaft,

TA TB 90 lb ft

The problem is statically indeterminate.

Divide the shaft into two components which

must have compatible deformations,

TA L1 TB L2 LJ

f f1 f2 0 TB 1 2 TA

J1G J 2G L2 J1

LJ

TA 1 2 TA 90 lb ft

L2 J1

3 - 15

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SOLUTION:

Apply a static equilibrium analysis on

the two shafts to find a relationship

between TCD and T0

Apply a kinematic analysis to relate

the angular rotations of the gears

Find the maximum allowable torque

Two solid steel shafts are connected on each shaft choose the smallest

by gears. Knowing that for each shaft

6 Find the corresponding angle of twist

G = 11.2 x 10 psi and that the

for each shaft and the net angular

allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi,

rotation of end A

determine (a) the largest torque T0

that may be applied to the end of

shaft AB, (b) the corresponding angle

through which end A of shaft AB

rotates.

3 - 16

SOLUTION:

Apply a static equilibrium analysis on Apply a kinematic analysis to relate

the two shafts to find a relationship the angular rotations of the gears

between TCD and T0

rBf B rCfC

M B 0 F 0.875in. T0 rC 2.45 in.

fB fC fC

M C 0 F 2.45in. TCD rB 0.875in.

TCD 2.8 T0 f B 2.8fC

3 - 17

Find the T0 for the maximum Find the corresponding angle of twist for each

allowable torque on each shaft shaft and the net angular rotation of end A

choose the smallest

fA / B

TAB L 561lb in. 24in.

J ABG 0.375 in. 4 11.2 106 psi

2

0.387 rad 2.22o

TABc T 0.375in. 2.8 561lb in. 24in.

t max 8000 psi 0 TCD L

fC / D

J AB 0.375in.4

2

J CDG 0.5 in. 4 11.2 106 psi

2

T0 663lb in.

0.514 rad 2.95o

TCD c 2.8 T0 0.5 in.

t max

J CD

8000 psi

0.5 in.4

2

f B 2.8fC 2.8 2.95o 8.26o

3 - 18

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Principal transmission shaft Determine torque applied to shaft at

performance specifications are: specified power and speed,

- power P T 2fT

- speed P P

T

2f

Designer must select shaft

material and cross-section to Find shaft cross-section which will not

meet performance specifications exceed the maximum allowable

without exceeding allowable shearing stress,

shearing stress. t max

Tc

J

J 3 T

c solid shafts

c 2 t max

J

4 4

c2 2c2

c2 c1

T

t max

hollow shafts

3 - 19

Stress Concentrations

The derivation of the torsion formula,

Tc

t max

J

assumed a circular shaft with uniform

cross-section loaded through rigid end

plates.

The use of flange couplings, gears and

pulleys attached to shafts by keys in

keyways, and cross-section discontinuities

can cause stress concentrations

Experimental or numerically determined

concentration factors are applied as

Tc

t max K

J

3 - 20

Plastic Deformations

With the assumption of a linearly elastic material,

Tc

t max

J

If the yield strength is exceeded or the material has

a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve, this

expression does not hold.

Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material

properties. Application of shearing-stress-strain

curve allows determination of stress distribution.

The integral of the moments from the internal stress

distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the

section,

c c

T rt 2r dr 2 r 2t dr

0 0

3 - 21

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Elastoplastic Materials

At the maximum elastic torque,

J Lg Y

TY t Y 12 c3t Y fY

c c

r

(t t Y ) develops around an elastic core ( t t Y )

rY

Lg Y

rY

f

r3 r3

T 23 c3t Y 1 14 Y3 43 TY 1 14 Y3

c c

f3

T 43 TY 1 14 Y3

f

TP 43 TY plastic torque

3 - 22

Residual Stresses

Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a

large enough torque

When the torque is removed, the reduction of stress

and strain at each point takes place along a straight line

to a generally non-zero residual stress

On a T-f curve, the shaft unloads along a straight line

to an angle greater than zero

Residual stresses found from principle of superposition

Tc r t dA 0

tm

3 - 23

J

Example 3.08/3.09

SOLUTION:

Solve Eq. (3.32) for rY/c and evaluate

the elastic core radius

Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist

A solid circular shaft is subjected to a Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle

torque T 4.6 kN m at each end. which the shaft untwists when the

Assuming that the shaft is made of torque is removed. The permanent

t Y 150 MPa

an elastoplastic material with twist is the difference between the

and G 77 GPadetermine (a) the angles of twist and untwist

radius of the elastic core, (b) the

Find the residual stress distribution by

angle of twist of the shaft. When

a superposition of the stress due to

the torque is removed, determine (c)

twisting and untwisting the shaft

the permanent twist, (d) the

distribution of residual stresses.

3 - 24

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Example

SOLUTION: 3.08/3.09

Solve Eq. (3.32) for rY/c and Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist

evaluate the elastic core radius

1 f r fY

r3 rY T 3 Y f

T 43 TY 1 14 Y3 4 3 fY c rY c

c c TY

fY

TY L

3.68 103 N 1.2 m

J 12 c 4 12 25 103 m JG

614 10-9 m 4 77 10 Pa

614 109 m 4 fY 93.4 103 rad

TY c t J

tY TY Y 93.4 103 rad

J c f 148.3 103 rad 8.50o

0.630

TY

15010 Pa 61410

6 9

m 4

f 8.50o

25 103 m

3.68 kN m

1

rY 4.6 3

4 3 0.630

c 3.68

rY 15.8 mm

3 - 25

Example 3.08/3.09

Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle Find the residual stress distribution by

which the shaft untwists when a superposition of the stress due to

the torque is removed. The twisting and untwisting the shaft

permanent twist is the difference

between the angles of twist and

t max

Tc 4.6 103 N m 25 103 m

untwist J 614 10-9 m 4

TL 187.3 MPa

f

JG

4.6 103 N m1.2 m

6.14 109 m4 77 109 Pa

116.8 103 rad

p f f

116.8 103 116.8 103 rad

1.81o

f p 1.81o

3 - 26

Previous torsion formulas are valid for

axisymmetric or circular shafts

Planar cross-sections of noncircular

shafts do not remain planar and stress

and strain distribution do not vary

linearly

T TL

t max f

c1ab2 c2ab3G

shear stress and angle of twist for other

open sections are the same as a

rectangular bar.

3 - 27

9

2/7/2017

Summing forces in the x-direction on AB,

Fx 0 t A t Ax t B t B x

t At A t Bt B t t q shear flow

of the moments due to shear stress

dM 0 p dF pt t ds q pds 2q dA

T dM 0 2q dA 2qA

T

t

2tA

Angle of twist (from Chapt 11)

TL ds

f t

4 A2G

3 - 28

Example 3.10

Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular

cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kip-

in. Determine the shearing stress in each of

the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness

of 0.160 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.120

in. on AB and CD and 0.200 in. on CD and BD.

SOLUTION:

Determine the shear flow through the

tubing walls

Find the corresponding shearing stress

with each wall thickness

3 - 29

Example 3.10

SOLUTION: Find the corresponding shearing

stress with each wall thickness

Determine the shear flow through the

tubing walls

with a uniform wall thickness,

q 1.335 kip in.

t

t 0.160in.

t 8.34 ksi

1.335 kip in.

t AB t AC

A 3.84 in.2.34 in. 8.986in.

2

0.120in.

T 24 kip - in. kip t AB t BC 11.13 ksi

q

2 A 2 8.986in.2

1.335

in.

1.335 kip in.

t BD t CD

0.200in.

t BC t CD 6.68 ksi

3 - 30

10

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11

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