You are on page 1of 11

2/7/2017

Torsi / puntir

Tegangan pada beban puntir


T P

T = P.L
L

dA
dF rdF = T
r
t = dF/dA
dF= tdA

r(tdA) = T
Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 2

r(tdA) = T Pada torsi timbul tegangan geser

Tegangan geser tidak hanya


timbul pada satu sisi

Teg. geser

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 3

1
2/7/2017

Deformasi pada poros bulat

Tiap bagian tetap datar dan


tidak terjadi distorsi

Poros terpuntir dg. Sudut puntir, f Tiap bagian tidak datar dan
terjadi distorsi
F sebanding dengan T dan L
Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 4

Distribusi regangan geser


Distribusi regangan geser pada poros
sepanjang L, dengan jari-jari c dan dipuntir
dengan sudut puntir f bisa dijelaskan sbb:

Kita lihat silinder diameter r dan perhatikan


elemen bujursangkar pada permukaannya.
Sebelum torsi dikenakan, lurus (gbr. b)

Setelah dikenai puntiran terdeformasi


(gbr. c.)
Timbul regangan geser g
g = sudut antara AB dengan AB

rf cf
g g max
L L
r dan f dalam radian r
g g max
c
Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 5

Tegangan pada daerah elastis


t max Gg max
t Gg r
r Gg G g max
g g max c
c
r r
t G g max t t max
c c
Tegangan geser berubah linier terhadap jarak r dari pusat poros
c1
Untuk poros berlubang : t min t max
c2
t min
t max t max

c c1 c2

Poros pejal PorosHeru


berlubang
SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 6

2
2/7/2017

Sebelumnya kita dapatkan persamaan r(tdA) = T

Substitusi t ke pers. sebelumnya :


t max 2
T= r(tdA) = r dA
c
t max J
r2dA adalah momen inersia polar =J T
c
Tc
Maka : t max
J
Sehingga kita dapat menghitung t pada sembarang jarak r dari sumbu :

Tr
t
J
Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 7

Nilai J
1
Nilai J untuk poros bulat pejal : J c 4
2
untuk poros bulat berlubang :

1 1 1
J c2 4 c14 (c2 4 c14 )
2 2 2

c c
1
c2

Poros bulat pejal Poros bulat berlubang

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 8

Normal Stresses
Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular
to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses
only. Normal stresses, shearing stresses or a
combination of both may be found for other
orientations.
Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis,
F 2t max A0 cos 45 t max A0 2
F t max A0 2
45o t max
A A0 2

Element a is in pure shear.


Element c is subjected to a tensile stress on
two faces and compressive stress on the other
two.
Note that all stresses for elements a and c have
3-9 the same magnitude

3
2/7/2017

Torsional Failure Modes


Ductile materials generally fail in
shear. Brittle materials are weaker in
tension than shear.

When subjected to torsion, a ductile


specimen breaks along a plane of
maximum shear, i.e., a plane
perpendicular to the shaft axis.

When subjected to torsion, a brittle


specimen breaks along planes
perpendicular to the direction in
which tension is a maximum, i.e.,
along surfaces at 45o to the shaft
axis.
3 - 10

Sample Problem 3.1


SOLUTION:
Cut sections through shafts AB
and BC and perform static
equilibrium analysis to find
torque loadings
Apply elastic torsion formulas to
find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC
Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer
diameters of 90 mm and 120 mm, Given allowable shearing stress
respectively. Shafts AB and CD are solid and applied torque, invert the
of diameter d. For the loading shown, elastic torsion formula to find the
determine (a) the minimum and required diameter
maximum shearing stress in shaft BC, (b)
the required diameter d of shafts AB and
CD if the allowable shearing stress in
these shafts is 65 MPa.
3 - 11

Sample
SOLUTION:Problem 3.1
Cut sections through shafts AB and BC
and perform static equilibrium analysis
to find torque loadings

M x 0 6 kN m TAB M x 0 6 kN m 14 kN m TBC
TAB 6 kN m TCD TBC 20 kN m

3 - 12

4
2/7/2017

Sample Problem 3.1


Apply elastic torsion formulas to Given allowable shearing stress and
find minimum and maximum applied torque, invert the elastic torsion
stress on shaft BC formula to find the required diameter

J

2
c24 c14 2 0.0604 0.0454 t max
Tc

Tc
65MPa
6 kN m
J c4 c3
2 2
13.92 10 6 m 4 3
c 38.9 10 m
TBC c2 20 kN m 0.060 m
t max t 2 d 2c 77.8 mm
J 13.92 10 6 m 4
86.2 MPa
t min c1 t min 45 mm

t max c2 86.2 MPa 60 mm t max 86.2 MPa
t min 64.7 MPa t min 64.7 MPa
3 - 13

Angle of Twist in Elastic Range


Recall that the angle of twist and maximum
shearing strain are related,
cf
g max
L
In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear
are related by Hookes Law,
t max Tc
g max
G JG
Equating the expressions for shearing strain and
solving for the angle of twist,
TL
f
JG
If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section
changes along the length, the angle of rotation is
found as the sum of segment rotations
Ti Li
f
i J iGi

3 - 14

Statically Indeterminate Shafts


Given the shaft dimensions and the applied
torque, we would like to find the torque reactions
at A and B.
From a free-body analysis of the shaft,
TA TB 90 lb ft

which is not sufficient to find the end torques.


The problem is statically indeterminate.
Divide the shaft into two components which
must have compatible deformations,
TA L1 TB L2 LJ
f f1 f2 0 TB 1 2 TA
J1G J 2G L2 J1

Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,


LJ
TA 1 2 TA 90 lb ft
L2 J1

3 - 15

5
2/7/2017

Sample Problem 3.4


SOLUTION:
Apply a static equilibrium analysis on
the two shafts to find a relationship
between TCD and T0
Apply a kinematic analysis to relate
the angular rotations of the gears
Find the maximum allowable torque
Two solid steel shafts are connected on each shaft choose the smallest
by gears. Knowing that for each shaft
6 Find the corresponding angle of twist
G = 11.2 x 10 psi and that the
for each shaft and the net angular
allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi,
rotation of end A
determine (a) the largest torque T0
that may be applied to the end of
shaft AB, (b) the corresponding angle
through which end A of shaft AB
rotates.
3 - 16

Sample Problem 3.4


SOLUTION:
Apply a static equilibrium analysis on Apply a kinematic analysis to relate
the two shafts to find a relationship the angular rotations of the gears
between TCD and T0

rBf B rCfC
M B 0 F 0.875in. T0 rC 2.45 in.
fB fC fC
M C 0 F 2.45in. TCD rB 0.875in.
TCD 2.8 T0 f B 2.8fC

3 - 17

Sample Problem 3.4


Find the T0 for the maximum Find the corresponding angle of twist for each
allowable torque on each shaft shaft and the net angular rotation of end A
choose the smallest

fA / B
TAB L 561lb in. 24in.


J ABG 0.375 in. 4 11.2 106 psi
2

0.387 rad 2.22o
TABc T 0.375in. 2.8 561lb in. 24in.
t max 8000 psi 0 TCD L
fC / D
J AB 0.375in.4
2


J CDG 0.5 in. 4 11.2 106 psi
2

T0 663lb in.
0.514 rad 2.95o
TCD c 2.8 T0 0.5 in.
t max
J CD
8000 psi
0.5 in.4
2

f B 2.8fC 2.8 2.95o 8.26o

T0 561lb in. T0 561lb in f A f B f A / B 8.26o 2.22o f A 10.48o


3 - 18

6
2/7/2017

Design of Transmission Shafts


Principal transmission shaft Determine torque applied to shaft at
performance specifications are: specified power and speed,
- power P T 2fT
- speed P P
T
2f
Designer must select shaft
material and cross-section to Find shaft cross-section which will not
meet performance specifications exceed the maximum allowable
without exceeding allowable shearing stress,
shearing stress. t max
Tc
J
J 3 T
c solid shafts
c 2 t max
J

4 4
c2 2c2

c2 c1
T

t max
hollow shafts

3 - 19

Stress Concentrations
The derivation of the torsion formula,
Tc
t max
J
assumed a circular shaft with uniform
cross-section loaded through rigid end
plates.
The use of flange couplings, gears and
pulleys attached to shafts by keys in
keyways, and cross-section discontinuities
can cause stress concentrations
Experimental or numerically determined
concentration factors are applied as
Tc
t max K
J

3 - 20

Plastic Deformations
With the assumption of a linearly elastic material,
Tc
t max
J
If the yield strength is exceeded or the material has
a nonlinear shearing-stress-strain curve, this
expression does not hold.
Shearing strain varies linearly regardless of material
properties. Application of shearing-stress-strain
curve allows determination of stress distribution.
The integral of the moments from the internal stress
distribution is equal to the torque on the shaft at the
section,
c c
T rt 2r dr 2 r 2t dr
0 0

3 - 21

7
2/7/2017

Elastoplastic Materials
At the maximum elastic torque,
J Lg Y
TY t Y 12 c3t Y fY
c c

As the torque is increased, a plastic region


r
(t t Y ) develops around an elastic core ( t t Y )
rY
Lg Y
rY
f
r3 r3
T 23 c3t Y 1 14 Y3 43 TY 1 14 Y3
c c

f3
T 43 TY 1 14 Y3
f

As rY 0, the torque approaches a limiting value,


TP 43 TY plastic torque

3 - 22

Residual Stresses
Plastic region develops in a shaft when subjected to a
large enough torque
When the torque is removed, the reduction of stress
and strain at each point takes place along a straight line
to a generally non-zero residual stress
On a T-f curve, the shaft unloads along a straight line
to an angle greater than zero
Residual stresses found from principle of superposition

Tc r t dA 0

tm
3 - 23
J

Example 3.08/3.09
SOLUTION:
Solve Eq. (3.32) for rY/c and evaluate
the elastic core radius
Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist
A solid circular shaft is subjected to a Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle
torque T 4.6 kN m at each end. which the shaft untwists when the
Assuming that the shaft is made of torque is removed. The permanent
t Y 150 MPa
an elastoplastic material with twist is the difference between the
and G 77 GPadetermine (a) the angles of twist and untwist
radius of the elastic core, (b) the
Find the residual stress distribution by
angle of twist of the shaft. When
a superposition of the stress due to
the torque is removed, determine (c)
twisting and untwisting the shaft
the permanent twist, (d) the
distribution of residual stresses.

3 - 24

8
2/7/2017

Example
SOLUTION: 3.08/3.09
Solve Eq. (3.32) for rY/c and Solve Eq. (3.36) for the angle of twist
evaluate the elastic core radius
1 f r fY
r3 rY T 3 Y f
T 43 TY 1 14 Y3 4 3 fY c rY c
c c TY

fY
TY L
3.68 103 N 1.2 m
J 12 c 4 12 25 103 m JG


614 10-9 m 4 77 10 Pa
614 109 m 4 fY 93.4 103 rad
TY c t J
tY TY Y 93.4 103 rad
J c f 148.3 103 rad 8.50o
0.630
TY
15010 Pa 61410
6 9
m 4
f 8.50o
25 103 m
3.68 kN m
1
rY 4.6 3
4 3 0.630
c 3.68

rY 15.8 mm
3 - 25

Example 3.08/3.09
Evaluate Eq. (3.16) for the angle Find the residual stress distribution by
which the shaft untwists when a superposition of the stress due to
the torque is removed. The twisting and untwisting the shaft
permanent twist is the difference
between the angles of twist and
t max

Tc 4.6 103 N m 25 103 m
untwist J 614 10-9 m 4
TL 187.3 MPa
f
JG
4.6 103 N m1.2 m

6.14 109 m4 77 109 Pa
116.8 103 rad
p f f


116.8 103 116.8 103 rad
1.81o
f p 1.81o
3 - 26

Torsion of Noncircular Members


Previous torsion formulas are valid for
axisymmetric or circular shafts
Planar cross-sections of noncircular
shafts do not remain planar and stress
and strain distribution do not vary
linearly

For uniform rectangular cross-sections,


T TL
t max f
c1ab2 c2ab3G

At large values of a/b, the maximum


shear stress and angle of twist for other
open sections are the same as a
rectangular bar.

3 - 27

9
2/7/2017

Thin-Walled Hollow Shafts


Summing forces in the x-direction on AB,
Fx 0 t A t Ax t B t B x
t At A t Bt B t t q shear flow

shear stress varies inversely with thickness

Compute the shaft torque from the integral


of the moments due to shear stress
dM 0 p dF pt t ds q pds 2q dA
T dM 0 2q dA 2qA
T
t
2tA
Angle of twist (from Chapt 11)
TL ds
f t
4 A2G

3 - 28

Example 3.10
Extruded aluminum tubing with a rectangular
cross-section has a torque loading of 24 kip-
in. Determine the shearing stress in each of
the four walls with (a) uniform wall thickness
of 0.160 in. and wall thicknesses of (b) 0.120
in. on AB and CD and 0.200 in. on CD and BD.

SOLUTION:
Determine the shear flow through the
tubing walls
Find the corresponding shearing stress
with each wall thickness

3 - 29

Example 3.10
SOLUTION: Find the corresponding shearing
stress with each wall thickness
Determine the shear flow through the
tubing walls
with a uniform wall thickness,
q 1.335 kip in.
t
t 0.160in.
t 8.34 ksi

with a variable wall thickness


1.335 kip in.
t AB t AC
A 3.84 in.2.34 in. 8.986in.
2
0.120in.
T 24 kip - in. kip t AB t BC 11.13 ksi
q

2 A 2 8.986in.2
1.335
in.
1.335 kip in.
t BD t CD
0.200in.
t BC t CD 6.68 ksi
3 - 30

10
2/7/2017

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 31

Heru SB Rochardjo - T. Mesin UGM 32

11