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Arabic

The Arabic script evolved from the Nabataean Aramaic script. It has been used since the 4th
century AD, but the earliest document, an inscription in Arabic, Syriac and Greek, dates
from 512 AD. The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th
century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid
ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were introduced, but are only
generally used to ensure the Qur'an was read aloud without mistakes.

There are two main types of written Arabic:

1. Classical Arabic - the language of the Qur'an and classical literature. It differs from
Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All
Muslims are expected to recite the Qur'an in the original language, however many
rely on translations in order to understand the text.

2. Modern Standard Arabic - the universal language of the Arabic-speaking world


which is understood by all Arabic speakers. It is the language of the vast majority of
written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc.

Each Arabic speaking country or region also has its own variety of colloquial spoken Arabic.
These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry, cartoons and
comics, plays and personal letters. There are also translations of the Bible into most
varieties of colloquial Arabic.

Arabic has also been written with the Hebrew, Syriac and Latin scripts.

Notable Features

Type of writing system: abjad

Direction of writing: words are written in horizontal lines from right to left, numerals
are written from left to right

Number of letters: 28 (in Arabic) - some additional letters are used in Arabic when
writing placenames or foreign words containing sounds which do not occur in
Standard Arabic, such as /p/ or /g/. Additional letters are used when writing other
languages.

Used to write:
Arabic, Azeri, Baluchi, Bosnian, Dari, Hausa, Kabyle, Konkani, Kashmiri, Kazakh,
Kurdish, Kyrghyz, Malay, Mandekan, Morisco, Pashto, Persian/Farsi, Punjabi,
Rajasthani, Shabaki, Sindhi, Siraiki, Tatar, Tausg, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur

Most letters change form depending on whether they appear at the beginning,
middle or end of a word, or on their own. (see below)

Letters that can be joined are always joined in both hand-written and printed Arabic.
The only exceptions to this rule are crossword puzzles and signs in which the script is
written vertically.

The long vowels /a:/, /i:/ and /u:/ are represented by the letters 'alif, y' and ww
respectively.

Vowel diacritics, which are used to mark short vowels, and other special symbols
appear only in the Qur'an. They are also used, though with less consistency, in other
religious texts, in classical poetry, in books for children and foreign learners, and
occasionally in complex texts to avoid ambiguity. Sometimes the diacritics are used
for decorative purposes in book titles, letterheads, nameplates, etc.

Arabic script

Arabic consonants
The transliteration of consonants used above is the ISO version of 1984. There are various
other ways of transliterating Arabic.

This chart shows how the letters change in different positions


Arabic vowel diacritics and other symbols
Downloads

Download an Arabic alphabet chart in Word or PDF format

Arabic numerals and numbers

These numerals are those used when writing Arabic and are written from left to right. In
Arabic they are known as "Indian numbers" ( arqa-m hindiyyah). The term 'Arabic
numerals' is also used to refer to 1, 2, 3, etc.

The first set of numbers are Modern Standard Arabic. The second set are Egyptian Arabic
and the third set are Moroccan Arabic.

The Arabic language

Arabic is a Semitic language with about 221 million speakers in Afghanistan, Algeria,
Bahrain, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait,
Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Palestinian West Bank & Gaza,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, UAE,
Uzbekistan and Yemen.

There are over 30 different varieties of colloquial Arabic which include:

Egyptian - spoken by about 50 million people in Egypt and perhaps the most widely
understood variety, thanks to the popularity of Egyptian-made films and TV shows
Algerian - spoken by about 22 million people in Algeria

Moroccan - spoken in Morocco by about 20 million people

Sudanese - spoken in Sudan by about 19 million people

Saidi - spoken by about 19 million people in Egypt

North Levantine - spoken in Lebanon and Syria by about 15 million people

Mesopotamian - spoken by about 14 million people in Iraq, Iran and Syria

Najdi - spoken in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan and Syria by about 10 million people

For a full list of all varieties of colloquial Arabic click here (format: Excel, 20K).

Source: www.ethnologue.com

Sample Arabic text

Sample Arabic text (with diacritics)

Transliteration

Yladu jam'u n-nsi arran mutaswna f l-karmati wa-l-uqq. Wa-qad wuhib 'aqlan
wa-amran wa-'alayhim an yu'mila ba'uhum ba'an bi-ri l-ikh'.
Lesson 4

Arabic Vowel Marks (Tashkeel or Harakat)

As you should have guessed; the words from last lesson's example were as follows:
The first was "DISK" and the second was "TELEPHONE"...... Now, let's go on with
the the lesson:

In Arabic there are three kinds of vowels:

1. The three vowel letters, which are (Alef, Waw and Ya') and are used for
long vowels (You should be familiar with them by now).
2. The "Hamza" which will be explained in the last lesson.
3. The vowel marks which are used for short vowels. They are called
"Tashkeel" in Arabic and they are explained in this lesson (They are also
known as Harakat.. just a different name by some references).

To make short vowels distinct from long ones when words are read, the Arabic
script uses vowel marks to do so. This is implemented by writing the marks over or
under a letter. Let's write the letter "Seen " with the four different vowel marks
applied to it:

Applied to the letter


The Mark's Name Pronounced as..
(Seen)

Fat-ha Sa
Dhamma Su

Kas-ra Si

Sukoon S

Let's take a look at how a "Tashkeel" is applied to letters:

1. The "Fat-ha" is an accent mark (a short slanting line over the letter). It is put
over a letter when a short sound of "A" is supposed to be pronounced after
the letter.
2. The "Dhamma" is a small letter "Waw" over a letter. It is put over a letter
when a short sound of "U" is supposed to be pronounced after the letter.
3. The "Kasra" is a short slanting line under the letter. It is put under a letter
when a short sound of "i" is supposed to be pronounced after the letter.
4. The "Sukoon" is a small circle over the letter. It is put over a letter when no
sound should be pronounced after the letter.

Notes :
In Arabic the the words (Fat-ha, Dhamma, Kasra & Sukun) originally have the
following meanings:
Fat-ha means "an opening".
Dhamma means "a closing".
Kasra means "a breaking".
Sukoon means "Static".

These meanings refer to the shape of the mouth. For example, you open your
mouth wide when you say the sound of the Fat-ha (which is "A"), and you
close your mouth when you say the sound of the "Dhamma" (which is "U"),
and your mouth is static when you say a letter that have a "Sukoon" put on
top of it. I just wanted you to know this because I think it could help you
understand how "Tashkeel" works.

Using the Tashkeel is not obligatory when writing in Arabic, but it is most
helpful in some cases (The words are read with the right pronunciation -
without writing Tashkeel- by convention and the context of the sentence).

Vowel marks are very important in Arabic. The word's meaning may differ
completely if a vowel mark applied to one letter is changed. Take a look at
these examples:

write books gold went



Vowel marks play a major role in grammar in Arabic (oh! Just forget grammar
for now!!! Maybe later!!!!).
About the "My name" from previous lesson, I think that it should be written
(FADY) in English because in Arabic it ends with the letter "Ya' "which is a "Y"
in English, but if the name was to be written in Arabic with a "Kasra" at the
end instead of the letter "Ya' " then it will be "Fadi" with an "I" at the end
(what we are talking about here is the difference between the pronunciation
of the letter "Ya' " and the "Kasra", and this is true for the letter "Alef" and a
"Fat-ha" and for the letter "Waw" and the "Dhamma"). Anyway I think that I
first learnt to write my name in non-Arabic alphabets in French..... ( just
forget it !!!).
There are two other marks used in Arabic script and they represent an extra letter,
they are:

1 - Shadda:
"Shadda" represents the doubling of a letter and it is a small shape that looks like
the letter "Seen" and is put over the letter. For example, the following is the word
"Qissah" (which means "Story" by the way) notice the "Shadda" over the letter
"Sad":

Notes :
When a shadda is applied to a letter and the "Tashkeel" is also written, the
tashkeel is put over or
under the shadda itself
not the letter.

Notice the two dots over the last letter at the end of the word "Qissah"
above. It looks like a "Ha' " but in fact it is not a "Ha' " but the other form of
the letter "Ta' " (it is called "Ta' Marbootah" which means "Tied Ta' " from its
tied shape. It looks like a "Ha' " because it is pronounced as one in general
(The word above is pronounced "Qissah"), but when other letters (suffix) are
added at the end of the word (for grammatical reasons) the letter "Ta' " is
written in its ordinary form. let's look at the word "Qissatuna" (which means
"Our Story") after adding the letters "NA" at the end of the word which is a
pronoun:

I know that this is confusing but I just wanted to give you an idea
about the "Ta' Marboota" to understand its concept for a start.

2 - Tanween :
The "Tanween" is pronouncing the letter "Noon" at the end of a word (This is also
grammar, so just have a general idea for now!!). It has three forms very similar to
the "Tashkeel" but it is only put over or under the last letter of a word. The
following table show the "Tanween" for the letters "Alef", "Ba' " and "Ta' ":

The letters Pronunciation

AN

BON

TIN

Hamza

Download Print Save Viewing Arabic Text NEW: Arabic Store

Now, you should be wondering about the letter "Hamza" that was the last letter in
the table back in lesson 1, well.. this lesson is all about it:
The "Hamza" is one of the three kinds of vowels in Arabic (vowel marks were
explained in the previous lesson). It may be the most complicated subject in Arabic
scripting, I think that it needs a tutorial on its own (even some Arab natives can't
get it right in dictation in some cases). Anyway I'll try to make it as easy as possible
giving only the basics, so here we go:

First, the "Hamza" is the pronunciation of "U" as in "UGH" (that was the first
appropriate word that came to my mind) where ever it is used in a word, this means
that the word should be cut at the "Hamza" and an "U" should be pronounced
whenever it appears. Let's have an example on this:

Click to listen to the word:

This word is pronounced as "Sa - Al" (Which means "Asked") this means that you
should cut the word when you pronounce it into two parts. You pronounce the part
before the "Hamza" then you pronounce the second part as a new word (There is
no similar case in English. You may consider the word above as two separate words
when they are pronounced).

There are four forms of the "Hamza" which is decided by the "Tashkeel" of the
"Hamza" itself and the "Tashkeel" of the letter that comes just before it whether it is
a "Fat-ha", "Dhamma", "kasra" or "Sukun". The following table has an example for
each form of the four forms:

Audio The example Pronunciation

Mar-aa

lu-u-lu-u
Bi-er

Dif-e

Notes:

When the "Hamza" comes at the beginning of the word, it is always written
over an "Alef " or under it depending on the "Tashkeel" of the "Hamza" itself,
if it was "Fat-ha" or "Dhama" then the "Hamza" is written over the "Alef". If
the "Tashkeel" was "Kasra" then the "Hamza" Is written under the "Alef". The
following word "Ana" (which means "me") is written like this :

Click to listen to the word:

The word "Eeman" (which means "faith") is written as follows:

Click to listen to the word:

You should have noticed from that table above that the "Hamza" is written in
four different cases depending on the "Tashkeel" of the "Hamza" itself and
the "Tashkeel" of the letter just before it. I think that this is what you need to
know as a beginner. If you want to learn the rules of writing the "Hamza "
then ask me and I'll send them to you via email.
Some sources don't consider "Hamza" neither a letter nor a vowel mark, it
may be in a category of its own!!!
By now you should have learned all the basics of Arabic language script and some
words and sentences, and you should be able to read or write some Arabic words.
Now, what is left for you to do is learn Arabic vocabulary and some grammar to be
able to create sentences. These tasks need more than a simple on-line tutorial, they
need some time and work from you! For vocabulary, I highly recommend getting an
Arabic electronic dictionary.

If you have any questions on something included in this tutorial (or not !!) just send
me a message and I'll be happy to answer them as soon as possible. If you have
any thoughts, questions or ideas just
tell me about them.

ARABIC ALPHABET- NAMES

In this lesson we will learn the Arabic Alphabet In-Sh-Allh (God Willing). The

lesson is designed to teach the names of all the alphabets. Click on the letters to

hear how the letter names are pronounced.

Please note that some of these letters are very similar to English letter sounds e.g.:

/B/ is very close to the letter 'B' in the English language, this is a useful way to

remember the sounds of the letters. However many letters have no equivalent

sounds in English e.g.: /ayn/, and some letters have subtle but important

differences in pronunciation, e.g.: /H/ which is pronounced with a lot more

emphasis in the throat than the letter 'H' in English.

In Arabic, it is preferred to use the 'tanween' ('un') to clarify the pronunciation -

especially on the final letter of a word. We have used the tanween in the sounds
below. For example - instead of /B/ we have said 'B-un'. The letter name is still

/B/ but we have used the 'un' to clarify the pronunciation.

Finally, please note that the Arabic script is read from right to left. Please read the

letters below starting from the right and reading each letter to the left.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

Arabic Character

/Jm/ /Th/ /T/ /B/ /Alif/ Letter Name

j th t b a Letter Sound

Arabic Character

/R/ /Dhl/ /Dl/ /Kh/ // Letter Name

r dh d kh h Letter Sound
Arabic Character

/d/ /d/ /Shn/ /Sn/ /Zy/ Letter Name

d s sh s z Letter Sound

Arabic Character

/F/ /Ghayn/ /ayn/ /Z/ // Letter Name

f gh ` Z t Letter Sound
Arabic Character

/Nn/ /Mm/ /Lm/ /Kf/ /Qf/ Letter Name

n m l K q Letter Sound

Arabic Character

/Y/ /Ww/ /H/ Letter Name

y w h Letter Sound

ARABIC SHORT VOWEL-MARKS OVERVIEW

In Arabic, there are 3 short vowel-marks. We shall learn the long vowel-marks in a

later lesson In-Sh-Allh (God willing). The short vowel-marks enable the letter to

make a sound in a similar way to the English language. In the same way a word

cannot be made in the English language without one of the 5 vowels (a, e, i, o or u),

in Arabic one cannot make a word without a vowel being used.


We will cover the 3 vowel-marks in Arabic below In-Sh-Allh (God willing). The

vowel-marks are the marks below or above the letter /Dl/ in the examples below.

The letter / Dl/ has been used to give you an idea of where the vowel is placed.

The Single Vowel-Marks:

The single vowel-marks are the basic vowel-marks which add a sound similar to that

of a, i or u in the English language to the letter. Please click on the letters with the

vowel-marks to hear the pronunciation.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

Arabic Character

/ammah/ /Kasrah/ /Fatah/ Vowel Name

u i a Vowel Sound

The 'u' in put The 'i' in sit The 'a' in /ba/ English word with similar sound

The Double Vowel-Marks:

The double vowel-marks signs are an extension of the single vowel-marks. The

double vowel signs add the '-n' sound to the single vowel. Please see the letters
below. The /Dl/ has been used to enable us to see the position of the double vowel

sign which is called /tanwn/. /Tanwn/ refers to the double form of any vowel, the

specific name of the double vowel sign e.g.: double /Fatah/ (Fatatn) is also given

below as this is unique for each vowel. Click on the letters with the vowel-marks to

hear the pronunciation.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

Arabic Character

/ammatn/ /Kasratn/ /Fatatn/ Vowel Name

'un' 'in' 'an' Vowel Sound

The 'on' in dragon The 'in' in sin The 'an' in ran English word with similar sound

In the next lesson we are going to practice each letter we have covered with each

short vowel and long vowel, In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

SHORT VOWEL MARKS- FATAH


In the following 3 lessons, we will learn the Short vowel-marks pronunciation In-

Sh-Allh (God willing). This lesson will also help us to revise the letters we have

already learnt in the previous lessons.

The /Fatah/ is the short diagonal stroke above the letter. Please click on the letters

to hear how they will sound with the /Fatah/.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

SHORT VOWEL MARKS- KASRA

The /Kasrah/ is the short diagonal stroke below the letters. Please click on the letters

to hear how they will sound with the /Kasrah/.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

ORT VOWEL MARKS- DAMMA

The /ammah/ is the letter which is similar in shape to the Arabic character /ww/

which we learnt earlier. It is placed above the letter. Please click on the letters to

hear how they will sound with the /ammah/.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

SHORT VOWEL MARKS- FATATAIN

In the following 3 lessons, we will learn the doubled forms of the three vowel-marks,

In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing). These differ in pronunciation from the normal vowel-

marks in that there is an added '-n' sound e.g. whilst the /Fatah/ makes the 'a'

sound, the Fatatain makes the 'an' sound.

In this lesson we will cover the /Fatatain/ which makes the 'an' sound In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). The /Fatatain/ is written as two /Fatah's/ above the letter. Please

click on the letters to hear how they will sound with the /Fatatain/.

Unlike the /Kasratain/ and the /ammatain/, the /Fatatain/ has to be followed by

Alif in the Arabic writing. Therefore we connect an /Alif/ after each of the letters

below when it is signed with /Fatatain/, as in the following table:

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

SHORT VOWEL MARKS- KASRATAIN

In this lesson we will cover the /Kasratain/ which makes the 'in' sound In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). The /Kasratain/ is represented by two /Kasrah's/ below the letter.

Please click on the letters to hear how they will sound with the /Kasratain/.

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation


SHORT VOWEL MARKS- AMMATAIN

In this lesson we will cover the /ammatain/ which makes the 'un' sound In-Sh-

Allh (God willing). The /ammatain/ is represented by a /ammah/ with a slight

inward 'tail' and is written above the letter. Please click on the letters to hear how

they will sound with the /ammatain/.


Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

THE LONG VOWEL MARKS- ALIF AL-MADD

In the following 3 lessons, we shall cover the long vowel-marks In-Sh-Allh (God

willing). The long vowel-marks are basically a combination of:

o The single vowel.


o A letter used to lengthen the sound of the vowel.

The /Alif al-madd/ is the long vowel lengthening the sound of the /Fatah/ from 'a'

into 'aa'. We have not covered the joining of letters yet, so just read the letters

lengthening the sound. We shall cover the way the letters change shape when

joining in a later lesson In-Sh-Allh (God wiling).

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

THE LONG VOWEL MARKS- YAA AL-MADD

/Yaa al-Madd/ is the long vowel lengthening the sound of the /Kasrah/ from 'i' into

'ee'. We have not covered the joining of letters yet, so just read the letters

lengthening the sound, and we shall cover the way the letters change shape when

joining in a later lesson In-Sh-Allh (God wiling).

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

THE LONG VOWEL MARKS- WAAW AL-MADD

/Waaw al-Madd/ is the long vowel lengthening the sound of the /ammah/ from 'u'

into 'oo'. We have not covered the joining of letters yet, so just read the letter

lengthening the sound, and we shall cover the way the letters change shape when

joining in a later lesson In-Sh-Allh (God wiling).

Click on Letters to hear pronunciation

SUKUUN AND SHADDAH

In this lesson we will cover one more diacritical mark (i.e. a mark added to a letter

to indicate a special pronunciation) in the Arabic language called the /Sukn/ In-

Sh-Allh (God wiling). The /Sukn/ is in the shape of a circle and is written above a

letter to show that there is no vowel on the letter. Hence, we emphasise the letter by

stopping in our pronunciation of it. This will require us to join letters. Although we

have not covered the rules relating to joining of letters (covered in a later lesson).

We will use simple words to demonstrate the usage of the /Sukn/.

Please click on the words to hear how they are pronounced. This is a good

opportunity for you to learn how to read basic Arabic words. Please don't worry if

you find it difficult to read the words by putting the letters together. We will go over

reading words in more detail later In-Sh-Allh (God wiling). At this stage focus on

the principle of the /Sukn/ and try your best to read the words.
Click on Letters to hear pronunciation


Arabic Word

Nose From House Mosque Translation

/Anfon/ /Min/ /Baytun/ /Masidun/ Transliteration

We will now cover the /Shaddah/ In-Sh-Allh (God wiling). The /Shaddah/ is a

diacritical mark written above a letter to show that the letter has been doubled and

therefore increases in emphasis. Once again, please don't worry if you find joining

the letters and vowel-marks or reading difficult. Try your best to join the sounds and

letters at this stage and pay attention to the sound of the letter which has the

/Shaddah/ on it.

Arabic Word

Bear Duck Cat Translation


/Dubbun/ /Baun/ /Qiatun/ Transliteration

ARABIC ALPHABET- JOINED FORM

The joining of the Arabic Alphabet can be a difficult subject to master. The reason for

this is that the way a letter joins depends on:

o The letter being used (e.g.: /Alif/, /Baa/ etc.) as different rules apply to

different letters.

o The position of the letter in the word (i.e. beginning, middle or end).

o Unique letters - i.e. there are 6 letters which do not join to any other letter

(but can be joined to) - this is covered below.

As there are so many different scenarios to remember, it is easier to remember the

patterns. The table below shows every scenario, i.e.: how each letter will be written

in the beginning, middle and end of a word as well as an example of its joined form

and the shape of the letter by itself (as we learnt earlier).

The most common patterns you will find below are:

o All letters are written in their full form if they occur at the end of a word,

some may slightly change shape.

o Most letters do join to other letters in front of them, however, there are six

letters which do not join to any letter after them, these letters are:

o There are groups of letters which have similar shapes in individual (i.e. as

learnt earlier). These groups are also similar in joined form (e.g. /B/, /T/

and /Th/). The only difference in these letters is the number or positions of

dots around the letter.

By Itself Joined End Middle Beginning Letter

/Alif/

/B/

/T/

/Th/
/m/

//

/Kh/

/Dl/

/Dhl/

/R/

/Zy/

/Sn/
/Shn/

/d/

/d/

//

/Dh/

/ayn/

/Ghayn/

/F/
/Qf/

/Kf/

/Lm/

/Mm/

/Nn/

/H/

/Ww/

/Y/
Whilst it is important to make an effort to look at the forms above, it is sometimes

easier to look for the patterns rather than each individual letter. For example, the

following groups of letters are very similar in their joined forms, in most cases the

only difference is the position or number of dots used in the letters:

o /B/, /Taa/ and /Th/

o /m/, /Ha/ and /Kh/

o /Sn/ and /Shn/

o /d/ and /d/

o // and /Dh/

Finally, to master the different forms of joining will take some time and it is

important to practice writing whilst learning the Arabic language to become familiar

with the script. This will come with practice In-Sh-Allh (God willing), so it is not

necessary to have mastered all the letters joining forms before moving on. Please

move on to the next lesson after you have familiarised yourself to a reasonable level

of the joined forms above. In the next lesson we will use some examples to practice

and familiarise ourselves with the joined form of letters In-Sh-Allh (God willing

ARABIC READING PRACTICE 1

In this lesson we will practice some examples that we covered earlier. Please read

from right to left. The first column shows the letters individually. To hear the sound

of each letter which forms the word, click on the letter. To hear the full word

pronounced, click on the word in the column Final Form.


Pay careful attention to how letters are joined. Remember letters can have different

shapes depending on whether they are in the beginning, middle or end of a word.

Final Form Changed Form

(i.e. how the (i.e. to see how each


Meaning Letters on their own
letters will look letter has changed -

when joined) joined form)

He Sat.

He wrote.

He drank.

He went out.

He opened.

He understood.

We will continue practicing joining letters and reading in the next lesson In-Sh-

Allh (God wil

ARABIC READING PRACTICE 2

In this part we will continue practising joining letters and reading, In-Sh-Allh (God

willing).

Final Form
Changed Form
(i.e. how the letters
Meaning (i.e. to see how each letter Letters on their own
will look when
has changed - joined form)
joined)

He went.

He took.

Pen

Boy

Man

Camel

In this lesson we have covered some very basic words in Arabic to practise joining

the letters and the sounds that they make. In the next lesson we will practice some

more words which will include long vowel-marks, /Sukn/ and /Shaddah/ which we

covered in earlier lessons In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

ARABIC READING PRACTICE 3

In this lesson we will continue practising joining letters and reading, In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). We will also practice reading words with:

o /Sukn/ - We should pronounce the letter sound with no vowel sound i.e.

/Sukn/ acts like a stop.


o /Shaddah/ - We should increase emphasis on the letter which has the

/Shaddah/.

o Long vowel-marks - As we learnt in previous lessons there are 3 long vowel-

marks; these lengthen the sound of the single vowel-marks.

Final Form
Changed Form
(i.e. how the letters
Meaning (i.e. to see how each letter Letters on their own
will look when
has changed - joined form)
joined)

Mosque



Star


Cat

Bed


Key

Donkey

We shall continue practising reading more words in the next lesson. Remember, the

more practice you do, the better your Arabic will be Insha'Allah (God will

ARABIC READING PRACTICE 4

In this part we will continue practising joining letters and reading, In-Sh-Allh (God

willing).

Changed Form

Meaning Final Form (i.e. to see how each letter Letters on their own

has changed - joined form)

Rich

Chair


Teacher

Sharp

City

Lazy



We shall continue reading one more group of words in the next lesson In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). The words in the next lesson will be more difficult, however, the Arabic

Language course will start with basic words so please try to familiarise yourself with

the principles of reading the Arabic text as there will be an opportunity to practice

further in the Arabic Language course

ARABIC READING PRACTICE 5

In this lesson we will continue practising joining letters and reading, In-Sh-Allh

(God willing).
Changed Form

Meaning Final Form (i.e. to see how each letter has Letters on their own

changed - joined form)

Nurse

Farmer

Spoon

Iron (for ironing)



Coffee

You have now completed the Arabic Reading Course. If you feel you need more

practice before moving on to the Arabic Language Course then please revise the

lessons where you feel you need improvement. In the Arabic Language Course the

lessons begin with very basic words so if you have grasped the ability to read the

Arabic script in this course then you should find the Arabic Language Course easier

to understand In-Sh-Allh (God willing). Please click here to move on to the Arabic

Language Course.

Introduction -

Please read the sentences below. After completing the sentences we shall go over

the rules for this lesson.

In Part 1 of Lesson 1 we learn how to use the pronoun which means 'This'

(called the demonstrative pronoun in grammar). /Hdh/ is pronounced but is

written without the first /alif/. The second word is the noun (object) being referred

to, e.g.: means house.


Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

. .
. .

This is a book This is a mosque This is a door This is a house

Arabic has no word which is equal to the English word "is" which is referred to as a

copula in grammar. We can see this rule demonstrated above where we see the

words for and the noun/predicate


being referred to without any

copula. i.e.
If read literally this sentence would read "This a

mosque", however, the word "is" can be implied in this sentence so that it reads

"This is a mosque".

There is no word in Arabic corresponding to "a" in English as in: "This is a book". The

n-sound, i.e. the /tanwn/ (doubled vowel sign) at the end of the Arabic noun

(kitbu-n, baitu-n, masidu-n) is the Arabic indefinite article corresponding to the

English "a/an".
Please click on the button for part 2 below to move onto the next section where we will

practice this principle further In-Sh-Allh (God-willing

Lesson 1

This is -
...

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued...

In-Sh-Allh (God-willing), we will continue practicing with some more examples of

using the phrase /hdh/ which means 'This is'.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.
. . .

This is a pen. This is a chair. This is a key.

. .

This is a bed. This is a desk.

We have learnt how to say 'This is' using the phrase /hdh/. Now, we will learn how

to say 'What is this?' to ask a question followed by the answers to the questions In-

Sh-Allh (God-willing). Please click on part 3 below to proceed.

Continued
In this part of lesson 1 we will learn the phrase which means "What's

this". We shall then answer the questions with the phrase we learnt in the earlier

parts, i.e. /hdh/ .

We will also learn the phrase ..... which means "Is this...?", for example

which means "Is this a house?.

In addition, we will learn the words for Yes and No in Arabic to answer these

questions. The word for Yes in Arabic is , and the word for No in Arabic is .

As we have already learnt, the Arabic script is read from right to left, please read the

sentences below from right to left.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

.
This is a house. What is this?

This is a shirt. What is this?

No, this is a pen. Is this a key?

Yes, this is a house. Is this a house?

No, this is a chair. Is this a bed?


.

This is a star. What is this?

In the next parts we will learn the phrase which means "Who is this?"

followed by some more sentences to revise what we have learnt in this lesson, In-

Sh-Allh (God willing

Exercise

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this

lesson so far.

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the

correct option for each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to

see the correct answers and to obtain your mark.

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the

earlier parts of lesson 1 to learn the meanings if necessary.

Question 1 Question 2

Question 3 Question 4

Question 5 Question 6

Exercise

We will continue to test the knowledge that we have learnt so far in this part of the

lesson In-Sh-Allh (God willing).


Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the

correct option for each question below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to

see the correct answers and to obtain your mark.

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the

earlier parts of lesson 1 to learn the meanings if necessary.

Question 2

Question 1

Question 4
Question 3


Exercise

We have practiced reading words and learning phrases and grammar. However, it is

very important to learn how to write Arabic while you are learning the

language. Please read the sentences below and write them down on a piece of

paper. You have already learnt what the sentences below mean in the earlier parts of

the lesson so try to remember what they mean also.

In Arabic, more experienced readers do not require the vowel-marks or diacritical

marks to read the word. We have started lesson 1 showing all the vowel-marks, for

example (house) where we can see the /fatah/, /sukn/ and

/ammah/. However, with experience, we know from a combination of the letters

used and the context of the sentence what the word actually means. Below, the

words will appear without vowel-marks or diacritical marks (e.g. /sukn/, /fatah/,

/kasrah/ etc). Hence, the word will be written in Arabic as .

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.
Read and Write :

. . .

. .

In the next part of this lesson we will learn the phrase which means

"Who is this?" followed by some more sentences to revise what we have learnt in this

lesson, In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

Lesson 1

This is -
...
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Who is this? -

In this section we shall cover the phrase which means 'Who is this?'. We

shall then answer the questions and learn some more words, In-Sh'-Allh (God

willing).

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

This is a doctor. Who is this?


.

This is a boy. Who is this?

This is a student. Who is this?

This is a man. Who is this?

This is a merchant. Who is this

Lesson 1

This is -
...
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued

In this section we shall cover a number of the phrases we have already learnt and

we shall learn some new vocabulary.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

This is a dog. What is this?

.
This is a cat. What is this?

This is a donkey. What is this?

This is a horse. What is this?

This is a rooster. What is this?

This is a camel. What is this?

Lesson 1
This is -
...

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Revision

In this section we shall cover a number of the phrases we have already learnt and

we shall learn some new vocabulary In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

.
Low Bandwidth

This is a teacher. Who is This?


.
Low Bandwidth

No, this is a toilet paper (handkerchief). Is this a shirt?

In the next part of this lesson we will practice writing and reading skills, In-Sh'-

Allh (God willing). Please write out the following words below including their

translation. It is important to practice writing in the duration of this course and to be

able to read without translations. If you are unsure what the words below mean,

please revisit the previous sections of this lesson, all the words below have already

been covered earlier.

You will also notice that the words below do not have vowel-marks, i.e. /ammah/,

/kasrah/ and /fatah/. The vowel-marks have been deliberately omitted because

when you read Arabic in normal literature, vowel-marks are seldom used. The

context and your experience of words will enable you to read the word properly. The

words below should be apparent without the vowel-marks as we have covered them

several times already.

Read and Write :


()

( ).

( )

( ).

() ()

. .

( ). ()
.

)( )(

. .

You have now completed lesson 1. To summarise, the areas we have covered are:

o The Demonstrative Pronoun - 'This is'

o The particle as in ... i.e. 'Is This a...?'

o The word which means 'what' as in - 'What is this?'

o The words for Yes and No - and respectively.

o The word which means 'who' as in - 'Who is this?'


o Several new words - these have to be memorised as vocabulary is very

important to learn the Arabic language. The following table shows the new

words that we learnt so far in this lesson:

Vocabulary Revision

This (this is)


Home

Door
Mosque

Book
Key

Chair
Pen

Desk
Bed

Shirt
Star

Doctor
Boy

Student
Man

Merchant
Teacher

Handkerchief
Dog

Cat (masculine)
Donkey

Horse
Rooster

Camel
Yes

No

If you feel confident with the lesson covered, please move on to the next lesson

where we will cover the Demonstrative Pronoun which means 'That is. The

next lesson is a short and relatively straightforward lesson, In-Sh'-Allh (God

willing). Please click on next lesson button below to go to lesson two.

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). LESSON 2


That is.... - ...

Part
1
2

Introduction -

In Part 1 of Lesson 2 we learn the noun which means 'That' (called a

demonstrative pronoun in grammar). /dhlika/ is used to refer to objects that are

further away whereas /hdh/ is used to refer to objects that are closer.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

That is a star. What is That?



This is a mosque and What is this and what is

that is a house. that?

This is a horse and that What is this and what is

is a donkey. that?

No, that is a cat. Is that a dog?


.

That is a bed. What is That?

This is a teacher and Who is this and who is

that is an imam. that?

LESSON 2

That is.... - ...

Part
1
2

Continued
In-Sh'-Allh (God willing), we will continue practising the demonstrative pronoun

/dhlika/ which refers to objects that are further away.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.

Picture Answer Question

That is a rock. What is That?



.
What is this and what is that?

This is sugar and that is milk.

Please read the words below and then write them down on a piece of paper. Once

again, this will enable you to practice writing Arabic which is a very important part of

learning the language.


Read and Write :

. .

Vocabulary Revision

English Translation Arabic


Milk

Sugar

Rock

Imam (Muslim Prayer Leader)


Please move onto the next lesson where we cover the use of the definite article (i.e.

'the').

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.


We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn about the definite article which corresponds to the

word 'The' in the English Language (known as the definite article in grammar as it

refers to a specific object).

Take particular note of the change in the vowel ending when a word is changed to its

definite form, i.e. the /tanwn/ (double vowel) which represents indefinite form e.g.

(a house) has been changed to a single /ammah/. It is hence also important to

remember that a word can never take /alif lm/ at the beginning and /tanwn/ at the

same time (i.e. it can never be both indefinite and definite at the same time).

Remember to always start reading the examples below from right to left. The first

example below will illustrate the change from indefinite form (e.g. a house) to

definite form (e.g. the house).

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be pronounced.
:
: : :

The mosque: A mosque The book: A book The pen: A pen The house: A house

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Continued

We will study some practical sentences using the definite article which

corresponds to 'the' in the English language In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing).


Please click on the words to hear speech

Picture Answer Question

The pen is broken.


.

The door is open.


.

The boy is sitting and the



teacher is standing.

.
We shall continue with some more practical sentences, please make an effort to

memorise the words and common sentence structures.

Please click on the words to hear speech.

Picture English Arabic


The book is new and the

.
pen is old.

The donkey is small and



the horse is big.

The chair is broken.

The handkerchief is dirty.


.

The water is cold.


.

The moon is beautiful.


.


The house is near and the


.
mosque is far away.

The stone is heavy and the



paper is light.

The milk is hot.


.

The shirt is clean.


LESSON 3

Definite Article
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)
The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Read and write the following words again with

the correct endings". In each of the words below simply type the word again using

the keyboard (as above) with the vowel-marks and punctuation, e.g. /masid/ =

masidun/ as below:


=

Remember: a word can be either definite (with /alif lm/ but not /tanwn/) or

indefinite (with no /alif lm/ but with /tanwn/). The proper pronunciation (and hence

answers) can be heard by clicking on the speaker image by the sentences, but

please don't click on these until you have attempted to complete the exercise so that

you may benefit In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise
In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.


For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Read and write". In each of the sentences below

simply type the words again using the keyboard as in the previous questions and

including the vowel-marks which have been omitted. Once again, upon completing

the exercise you can click on the speakers by each sentence to hear the correct

pronunciation and hence answers.

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).


Fill in the blanks in the questions below by using one of the possible options in the

top section (below). Click on the question you would like to answer (this will be

highlighted), then click on the correct option from the blocks above the questions

area to complete the answer you will find the blank in the question is replaced with

your selected option. Upon completing all the questions, click on the Mark button to

see the correct answers and obtain your mark.

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with the words given". For each

of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below - e.g. for the first

question, click on the question and type as below (include vowel-marks).

The words to use to complete the sentences are:

Once again - by clicking on the speakers you can hear the correct answer to the

question. Please do not do this until you have attempted the exercise.
..... .....

..... .....

..... .....

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise
In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.


For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with a suitable word". For each

of the questions below, type out the full sentence starting with the word in the

bracket followed by the word noted. E.g. for the first question, click on the question

and type as below (include vowel-marks). Once again, the sound has been included

(click on the speaker icon by the sentence to hear the sound) but once again please

only listen to the sentences after doing the exercises.

......... .........
(The pen) (The handkerchief)

......... .........
(The mosque) (The water)
......... .........
(The teacher) (The moon)

......... .........
(The stone) (The student)

......... .........
(The bed) (The house)

The Moon and Sun Letters -


In this section we will learn some new vocabulary and we shall also learn the rules

relating to the sun and moon letters. The most important point to understand with

this rule is that it governs the spoken (pronunciation) Arabic and not the written

word.

Arabic has 28 letters. Of these 14 letters are called Solar Letters, and the other 14

are called Lunar letters. In the articulation (speaking) of the Solar letters, the tip or

blade of the tongue is involved as in t, n, r, s, etc. The tip or blade of the tongue

does not play any part in the articulation of the Lunar Letters as in b, w, m, k etc.
When /alif-lm/ al is prefixed to a noun beginning with a Solar letter, the l of al

is assimilated (joined) to the Solar Letter, e.g. al-shamsu (the sun) is pronounced

/ash-shamsu/.

No change takes place in writing


. The assimilation is indicated by the

/shaddah/ on the first letter of the noun after al.

No such assimilation takes place with the Lunar Letters, e.g. /al-qamaru/ (the moon)

is pronounced /al-qamaru/ . Here are some more examples of the assimilation

of the l of al to the Solar Letters (don't worry about the meanings of the words

yet):

o /al-namu/ becomes /an-namu/.

o /al-raulu/ becomes /ar-raulu/.

o /al-dku/ becomes /ad-dku/.

o /al-samaku/ becomes /as-samaku/.

Note that the a of al is pronounced only when it is not preceded by another

word. If it is preceded by a word it is dropped in pronunciation, though it remains in

writing, e.g. /wal-baitu/. Here the a is dropped and the phrase is pronounced /wal-

baitu/ not /wa al-baitu/. To indicate this omission in pronunciation, this sign: ( )

is placed above the /alif/.

The initial vowel (a, i, or u) which is omitted when preceded by a word is called

/hamazatu l-wasl/.
We have learnt that the /tanwn/ is the indefinite article, and it is to be translated as

a e.g.: means a house. This rule does not apply to adjectives like

"open", and "broken".

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).


Choose a word from column that can be used to complete the sentence in column

. Click on a word in column that you would like to answer (this will be highlighted)

then click on its suitable complement in column . Upon completing all possible

questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and obtain your mark.

) ( ()

The sentence above means "Match the words in with those in

Please write the following answers with a pen and paper joining the letters. It is

important that you practice your writing skills in the duration of this course to master

the language In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).

( ) ()
LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Continued...

The sentence above means "The Moon and The Sun Letters". See section 7 (which

should have already been covered) if you do not already understand the rules

relating to the sun and the moon letters. Remember, this rule affects the
pronunciation of the word and not the written form. Please listen carefully to the

pronunciation. Pay attention to how in the Sun Letters , the


/lm/ of /alif-lm/ is assimilated to the first letter in pronunciation. The table below

covers each letter in the Arabic alphabet along with an example of a word which

starts with that letter under the relevant column depending on whether it is a sun or

moon letter.

The Sun Letters The Moon Letters

:)( :)(

:)( :)(

:)( :)(
():
():

(): ():

(): ():


(:) ():


(:) ():


(:) ():


(:) ():

(:) (:)
:)( :)(

:)( :)(

:)( :)(

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise

The sentence above says: "Read and write the words keeping in mind the rules

pertaining to the Solar and Lunar Letters". Once again, please write the words below

with a pen and paper and read the words prior to clicking on them below to hear the

correct pronunciation. As these words have already been covered before, the vowel-

marks and diacritical marks (e.g. /fatah/, /kasrah/, /ammah/, /sukn/ etc) have

not been used over the letters. This is the way standard Arabic is written and it is

important to get used to this.

EXERCISE:

LESSON 3

Definite Article

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Revision -

Vocabulary Revision

Sweet

Sick

Shop

Rich

Tall

Poor

Short

Apple

Cold

Hot

Sitting

Standing

New

Old

Near

Far Away

Clean

Dirty

Small

Big

Light

Heavy

Paper

Water

Beautiful

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).


Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following things:

o The rules for using prepositions (the words used to connect two or more

words or sentences) and the four most common prepositions (Click on the

Arabic words to hear the correct pronunciation of that word).

English Arabic English Arabic


In
On

From
To

o The rule for the use of interrogative expressions - i.e. the sentences used to

ask the questions, and some of the interrogative (questioning) words like:

English Arabic English Arabic

Where
Is

What
Who

o Some of the Personal pronouns - e.g.:

English Person Gender Arabic


1st

I (person Masculine/Feminine

speaking)

2nd

You (person being Masculine



spoken to)

2nd

You (person being Feminine



spoken to)

3rd

He
(person being
Masculine

spoken about -

i.e. not present)

3rd

She
(person being
Feminine

spoken about -

i.e. not present)


o The difference between the masculine and the feminine words and their

punctuation and the three ways of changing a masculine noun to the

feminine.

English Arabic Symbol Arabic

By adding /ta marbta/


By adding /alif maqra/


By adding /alif mamdda/



o The difference between the nominal sentences (starting originally- with a

noun) and the verbal sentences (starting originally- with a verb):

The Nominal Sentence The Verbal Sentence

Grammatical term
/Al umla tul Ismiyya/ /Al umla tul Filiyya/

Arabic

. .

Transliteration /Ahmadu dhahaba ilal miati/ /Dhahaba Ahmadu ilal miati/

Literally Reading Ahmad went to the university Went Ahmad to the university
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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
The Cases

An important part of learning any language is to learn the grammar. Grammar is the stud

form sentences. For example, we may learn that:

o A word is written differently in the past tense as compared to the future tense.

o A word referring to a person may be different depending on the gender (male or

called.

o A sentence starting with a verb (action word - e.g. run, eat, drink) has different

with a noun (object, place or thing - e.g. cat, door, man).

Whilst the examples above are simple, one has to make an effort to understand gramma

part of the language and becomes more complicated later on - in particular relating to ver

to focus on the rules - e.g. what happens in each circumstance and over time the te

become easier (both in Arabic and English) - In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).

This should be balanced with an effort to increase your vocabulary and general understa

goal will be to help you to take the rules gradually and understand how they relate to

begin to understand the language In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing).

Cases of the nouns in the Arabic Language:

o A noun in Arabic grammar has three 'cases' which are called nominative, accusative

cover the Arabic terms for these a bit later).

o Something will cause a word to be in one of these 'cases'. For example, wher

subject noun, the noun will be in nominative case.

o There will be a consequence of a word being in a certain 'case'. In each of these


word will change to a different vowel - e.g. if the noun is in genitive case as a res

letter of that noun will change from a /ammah/ to a /kasrah/ (this is assuming th

the same vowel in which case no change will occur).

o See below for a summary of the cases and the signs used for each of these cases:

A word being in the nominative case will end (originally) with a /ammah/ o

A word being in the accusative case will end (originally) with a /fatah/ or /f

A word being in the genitive case will (originally) end with a /kasrah/ or /kas

o At this stage it is important to understand the principle that there are causes of a

case and consequences of a word being in a certain case - i.e. the change in the for

o The rules of what causes a word to be in each case and what consequences arise in

and repeated throughout the course, there are many such rules and these are an im

Arabic language. Below you will find a summary of the terms used for each of the c

Case Arabic term Arabic term (Transliteration) Consequen

A word in this c

Nominative
Hlat-ur-raf (originally) in a /

,/ammata

A word in this c

Accusative
Hlat-un-nab (originally)

/fatah/,/fata

A word in this c

Genitive
Hlat-ul-arr (originally)

/kasrah/,/kasr

In the next part of the lesson we will learn about some prepositions used commonly in t

Allh (God willing). We will also learn the rules for their application.

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Lesson 4

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The Prepositions -

In this lesson we will learn about some of the prepositions, In-Sh'-Allh (God willing). A

shows the relation of one word to another. For example, "....the key is in the car...."

table....".

Some of the most common prepositions are:

Preposition (English) Preposition (Arabic)

In

On

From

To

We will also learn about the rule applied for the use of prepositions in Arabic Language. Th

for the use of prepositions:

1. A preposition ( - called /harf ul arr/ in Arabic) is a single letter or

nouns, or a verb and a noun to form a sentence. As above this is generally showing

another. It always precedes a word and never follows the word.

2. A preposition always comes before a noun and it does not come before a verb.

3. The noun following a preposition is changed from nominative case to genitive cas

letter of the word will be changed from a /ammah/ or /ammatain/ to a /kasrah/ o

4. The noun followed by a preposition is called /Marr/ which means th

change in its case (from nominative to genitive case) as mentioned in the previous

Lets look at an example (please read from right to left):


Phrase (preposition before word) Word without preposition Preposition

In the house The house In

We can see here that the preposition has caused the last letter of to change to.

5. When a proposition precedes an indefinite noun (e.g. "a house"), the noun is affec

learnt earlier, a noun which is indefinite takes two /ammahs/ (ammatain) and is

The two /ammahs/ change to two /kasrahs/ (kasratain) when a preposition com

examine the example as above with relation to an indefinite noun:

Phrase (preposition before word) Word without preposition Preposition

In a house A house In
Some more examples can be found below.

Picture: Phrase with preposition Phrase without prepositio

In a kitchen A Kitchen

To a mosque A Mosque

From a house A house


On a book A book

In this part of the lesson we will study some practical sentences using the preposition

relating to prepositions.

In Arabic language when it is required to make a noun definite, is added to that noun

previous lessons about the solar and the lunar letters.

However when a preposition comes before a definite word the /alif/ - i.e. "a" sound - of

pronounced. Please note that the "a" of "al" is pronounced only when it is not preceded b

"al" is preceded by any word the letter "a" is dropped and hence not pronounced.

So we will read the sentence as /Fil Baiti/ and not /Fee Al baiti/ but this rule is applicable i

writing the sentence - i.e. the /alif/ will still be written but not pronounced in spoken langu

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be prono

Picture Translation Transliteration Arab

The moon is in the


/Alhillu fis Sam-i/

sky.
.

To the door /Ilal bbi/


From the teacher /Minal muddarrisi/



/Almiftu alal
The key is on the book
kitbi/
.

We shall continue with some more practical sentences, please make an effort to memor

sentence structures.

Please click on the words to hear speech.

Picture Translation Arabic


A horse in the farm

The man is from India.


.

The lion is on a rock.

The boy is in the garden.

In the next part of the lesson we will go over some interrogative expressions (i.e. e

questions) covering the areas you have learnt in this lesson In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).

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Lesson 4

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The Interrogation -

In this part of lesson 4 we will learn about the formation of the interrogative (questioning

(God-Willing).

We know that "Interrogative expression is the term used to refer to a group of word

question (e.g. Where is the book? What is on the book? Is the key on the book? Who

interrogative expressions and the words which are used to ask a question are called the

we cover below:

Interrogative Article

Where?
...

What?
...

Is?
...
Who?
...

Take a look of the following examples of interrogative expressions:

Picture Translation Transliteration Arab

Where is the key? /Ainal miftu?/



/Mdh alal
What is on the book?
kitbi?/


/A miftun alal
Is a key on the book?
kitbi?/

Who is in the kitchen? /Man fil mabakhi?/


/Mdh alal
What is on the rock?
aari?/

The following are the rules governed for the use of the interrogative articles (i.e. words us

as where?, what? etc.):

When an interrogative article comes before a noun, it will take the nominative case

changed to a /ammah/ (if it is not already a /ammah/).

Case Rule Arabic

Interrogative Article The definite noun will take one



proceeding a definite noun /ammah/ on its ending letter

Interrogative Article The noun without the definite

proceeding a noun without article will take two /ammahs/ on

definite Article its ending letter


The preposition will not take the


Interrogative Article nominative case when preceded by



preceding a preposition interrogative article - see below for

the reasons for this.

A definite noun preceded by an interrogative article will take one /ammah/ and the in

/ammahs/).

However when a preposition is preceded by an interrogative article, it will not take the

letter will remain with the same ending sound. This is because the preposition is indec

change its ending - this is an important principle - we will learn in Arabic that some rul

over other rules).

Please take a careful look to the ending vowels of the nouns in both the interrogative (que

answering expressions in the text below.

Please click on the words to hear speech, i.e. how the words should be prono
Picture Translation Arabic


Where is Muhammad?

.
Muhammad is in the room.


And where is Yasir?

.
Yasir is in the wash room.


Where is Aminah?

.
Aminah is in the kitchen.

Where is the book?

.
The book is on the desk.



And where is the watch?

.

The watch is on the bed.


Is Muhammad in the wash room?

.
No, but in the room.

Who is in the Kitchen?



Aminah is in the kitchen.
.



What is on the bed?

.

The watch is on the bed.

In the next part of the lesson we will have multiple questions /In-Sh'-Allh/ (God-Willing

of the principles we have learnt so far.

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Lesson 4

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Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .


Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Read and write specifying the vowel ending of th

questions below, type out the full word or the sentence but include the vowel marks whi

ends of the words.

Once again, the sound has been included (click on speaker icon by sentence to hear) but o

to the sentences after doing the exercises.

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Lesson 4

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Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes
Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". In each of the sen

the questions based on the material you have covered in this lesson so far using the k

lesson and including the vowel-marks. Once again, upon completing the exercise you c

each sentence to hear the correct pronunciation and hence answers.



(On the rock) (On the bed)


(Yasir) (Muhammad)


(No, but in the bath room) (Yes, Aminah is in the kitc



(The watch) (The book)

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Lesson 4

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The masculine and the feminine -

In Arabic both living things and inanimate (non-living) things are treated as either masculi

In this part of the lesson /In-Sh'-Allh/ (God willing) we will learn about the masculine a

will also learn how to change a masculine word into a feminine word. There are thre

masculine word to a feminine word when added on the end of a masculine word and they a

English

Symbol of feminine word

Feminine Masculine Feminine


Female student Male student


)(

Left (for feminine words) Left



)(

Noble woman Noble man




)(

It should be remembered that the penultimate (second to last) letter of a feminine word al

Following are some examples to better understand the above mentioned rules:
Picture Translation Transliteration Ara

I am a doctor. /An abbun/


.

I am a female student. /An libatun/


.

You are a male


/Anta mudarrisun/
.
teacher.

You are a lady doctor. /Anti abbatun/


.

He is an engineer. /Huwa muhandisun/


.
She is a female nurse. /Hiya mumarriatun/
.


Aminah is in the
/minatu fil mabakhi/

.
kitchen.

Where are you from? /Min ayna anta/


I am from China. /Ana min-a ni/

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Lesson 4

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Exercise

In this part of the lesson we will have some exercises in order to test your knowledge of w

Choose a word from column that can be used to complete the sentence in column . Clic

that you would like to answer (this will be highlighted) then click on its suitable complement in c

completing all possible questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and obtain

) ( ()

The sentence above means choose a word from column that can be used to complete a


column . To make this task slightly easier we have put English words in brackets in co

that need to be chosen from the Arabic words in column .

Please write the following answers with a pen and paper joining the letters. It is impo

writing skills in the duration of this course to master the language Insha'Allah.
( ) ()

(sick)

(young)

(standing)

(Tall)

(Tall)

(Broken)
(Open)

(Closed)

(New)

(Old)

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Lesson 4

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The Nominal Sentence -


In Arabic language there are two types of sentences:

o The Nominal Sentence meaning /Al umla tul Ismiyya/ - this sentence starts (mostl

o The Verbal Sentence meaning /Al umla tul Feliyya/ - this sentence starts (mostly)

Please read the following carefully and note the difference between the sentences:

The Nominal Sentence The Verbal Sentenc

"Al umla tul Ismiyya" "Al umla tul Feliyy

Arabic

. .

Transliteration /Amadu dhahaba ilal /miati/ Dhahaba Amadu ilal /m

Literally Reading Ahmad went to the university Went Ahmad to the univ

Arabic

.
.

Transliteration Al mudarrisu kharaa min falin Kharaa al mudarrisu min

Literally Reading The teacher went out of a class Went out the teacher of a

Two of the sentences in the above table are the nominal sentences and the other two are

A nominal sentence is called /al umla tul Ismiyya/ and a verbal sentence is called /al uml

A nominal sentence /al umla tul Ismiyya/ follows the following rules:
o It (originally) starts with a noun or a pronoun.

o It has two parts. The first part is the subject of the sentence and is called /Mubt

the predicate and called /Khabar/.

o The subject /Mubtada/ should always be a noun or a pronoun but it is not necessar

to be a noun or a pronoun so it may or may not be a noun.

o Each of the subject /Mubtada/ and the predicate /Khabar/ are originally in the n

letter takes a single /ammah/ if definite (with definite article /al/) and takes t

(without the definite article al).

o /Mubtada/ is the subject of the sentence i.e., it represents a person or thing whic

and the /Khabar/ is the description or the explanation of the /Mubtada/ e.g., w

standing then Muhammad is the subject and "is standing" describes his condition

is the case with Arabic sentences. The subject is highlighted in red below, the

predicate.

Translation Transliteration Arabic

Ahmad is a student /Amadu libun/


.

He is a good student. /Huwa libun ayyidun/


.

Muhammad went out of the /Muhammadun kharaa minal

.
university. miati/

Khalid is in the hospital. /Khlidun fil mustashf/

In the above sentences all the words appearing in red are the /Mubtada/ which must be

remaining parts of the sentences in black are the /khabar/. A /mubtada/ must be in the

originally- single /ammah/ when definite and two /ammas/ when indefinite.

Therefore the subject /Mubtada/ is always a single noun or pronoun, while the predic

following types:

Types of /Khabar/ English Arabic

A Noun

Muhammad is a student.
.
/Ismun/
A nominal Sentence

Ahmad, his father is intelligent.


.
/umla Ismiyya/


A verbal Sentence

Khalid went to the hospital.

/umla Filiyya/

.

An expression with a

preposition
Fatima is in the kitchen.
.

/r wa Marr/

When the /Khabar/, is a nominal sentence (/umla ismiyyah/), a verbal sentence (/umla

phrase ( /r wa marr/) it will not be signed with the main sign of the nomina

/ammatain/) because each word in these structures will be signed according to its

sentence.

In this section we have learnt many principles and rules. Please go over this section a few

learnt are very important for understanding later lessons. Please remember that revision

the learning process and you have to have a foundation to build upon and progress. If th

learning the language will become more difficult. Our goal is to make the learning p

enjoyable one, In-Sh'-Allh (God willing). We will continue revising these principles

everything is not clear or understood at this stage.


In the next part of the lesson /In-Sh'-Allh/ we will take some exercises to test your und

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Lesson 4

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Exercises on the Nominal Sentence -

In this section we will have multiple questions /In-Sh'-Allh/ (God-Willing), to test you

principles we have learnt.

Fill in the blanks in the questions below by using one of the possible options in the top sectio

question you would like to answer (this will be highlighted), then click on the correct option fro

questions area to complete the answer you will find the blank in the question is replaced w

Upon completing all the questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and

enter the answers to the questions below using the keyboard and mark your answers by pre

buttons.

The Arabic sentence above means "Add an appropriate Khabar for every Mubtada from the fo

of the sentences below simply type the Mubtada (subject) followed by the Khabar (predicate

above.




..... .....

At home Sick

..... .....

Open Noble book

..... .....

Hardworking Went to the hospita

..... .....

A kind girl
House of God

..... .....

Went out of the classroom From China

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Lesson 4

Part
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15
16
Exercises on the Nominal Sentence -

In this part of lesson we will have some exercises in order to test your knowledge for what

Choose a word from column that can be used to complete the sentence in column .

that you would like to answer (this will be highlighted) then click on its suitable compl

completing all possible questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and o

)( ()

The sentence above means "Choose a predicate from the column for every subject in

following answers with a pen and paper joining the letters. It is important that you pract

duration of this course to master the language In-Sh'-Allh (God-Welling).

( ) ()
(in the classroo

(Noble)

(standing)

(on the roof)

(went out of the h

(Went to the doc

(fast animal)

(Big)
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Lesson 4

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The Verbal Sentence -

In this part of lesson we will learn The Verbal Sentence In-Sh'-Allh (God-Wellin

Feliyyatun/ in Arabic.

Please read the following sentences carefully:

Verbal Sentence /umla Filiyya/

Arabic
.

Transliteration /ahaba Amadu ilal miati/

Literally Reading Went Ahmad to the university

Arabic

.
Transliteration /Kharaa almudarrisu min falin/

Literally Reading Went out the teacher of a class

The two sentences above are the examples of verbal sentence /umlatun Feliyyatun/.

A verbal sentence is called /umla Feliyya/ and the rules relating to such sentences are:

o It mostly starts with a verb.

o It has three parts.

1. The first part is a word that describes an action. This word is called "Verb" in Eng

Arabic. In English language the verb can be a single word or combination of two

verb /Filun/ is always a single word. A verb generally refers to three times: Past,

the verb is the most important part of the language and therefore it is very impo

verbal sentences to understand

In this part of lesson we will be discussing the masculine verb used to describe

time. This type of verb is called Past Tense in English and /Filun Min/

/Filun Min/ always takes accusative case but no nunation - a single /fatah/

learn the present and future tenses at a later stage In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing

language different types of the verb are used for masculine and feminine

verbs used for feminine subjects later also In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing).


2. The second part of a verbal sentence /umla Feliyya/ is the person or the thing d

the verb. This person or the thing is called Subject of the verb in English and /

"Filun" always takes nominative case - single /ammah/ when it is definite i.e.,

article al - and /ammatain/ when it is indefinite i.e., appearing without the definite

3. The third part of a verbal sentence /umla Feliyya/ is the thing on which the actio

is called the Object in English and /Maflun/ in Arabic language. A /Maflun/ can

Types of Object

/Maflun/

Arabic English

A noun
. Ahmad ate apples

Genitive
Construction
Yasir went out of the sc

.
/rrun wa

Marrun/
. The man went to the h

In the above sentences all the words appearing in red are the /Maflun/ which migh

construction /rrun wa Marrun/.

When a /Maflun/ is a noun it always takes accusative case i.e., it will be originally s

when appearing definite - (i.e. with the definite article al) - and double /fatah/ (fatatai

(i.e. without the definite article al). However when the object /Maflun/ is an expression

Marrun/ then it takes the genitive case as a result of the preposition.

We will have some tests in the next part of the lesson to test your understanding In-Sh-

Part
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
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16

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Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Exercises on the Verbal Sentence -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe
The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions taking help from th

vowel ending of the words. For each of the questions below, type out the full sentence w

again, the sound has been included (click on speaker icon by the sentence to hear) but o

to the sentences after doing the exercises.


( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( )
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Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Exercises on the Verbal Sentence -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles

Allh (God willing).

Fill in the blanks in the questions below by using one of the possible options in the top sect

question you would like to answer (this will be highlighted), then click on the correct option f

questions area to complete the answer you will find the blank in the question is replaced w

Upon completing all the questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and ob

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with a suitable word". For each of the

type out the full sentence below each section, filling the blanks with the words from the lis

sound has been included (click on speaker icon by sentence to hear) but once again p

sentences after doing the exercises.


..... .....

..... .....

..... .....

..... ....

You (feminine) You (masculine

Part
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4
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6
7
8
9
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Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Exercise

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so f

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the corre

below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to obtain

Question 1 Question

What is genitive case in Th


Arabic?

Question 3 Question

The Preposition is Th
called....

Question 5 Question

The interrogative
(questioning) article is
called....

Part
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3
4
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8
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10
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Lesson 4

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Revision -

Vocabulary Revision

English Arabic English Arabic

The university
The school

Japan
China

India
The director

The garden

The farm

The rock

The lion

The class room



The room

The toilet
The wash room

The watch

The kitchen

He went
He went out

On
In

From
To

Is?
Where

I
What

You (Feminine)
You (Masculine)

She
He

Verbal Sentence
Nominal Sentence

Accusative Case

Nominative Case

The Cases
Genitive Case

The bed

Preposition

A loctor
A lady doctor

A female engineer
An engineer

A lady nurse
A mother

The hospital

Nice

Hard working
Intelligent

An apple
Noble Book

Drank
Ate

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th


We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
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6
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8
9
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16

Next Lesson

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following things:

o In part one of this lesson we will learn the expression which shows ownership of on

"The teacher's car". This is called The Possessive Expression in English and /Muf

English: Transliteration: Arabic:

The book of the student /Kitabu libi /


On the desk of the teacher /ala maktabil mudarrisi/

o In Arabic the letter /Alif/ is used in two different ways. One of them is called /Ham

called /Hamza tul Wal/. Hamza tul Qa is the one which is pronounced while Ham

is not pronounced:
Translation: Transliteration: Arabic: Type o

Where are you from /Min aina anta/



He is the teacher's son /Howab nul mudarrisi/

o In Arabic, words normally change their cases with different causes (see Lesson 4-se

indeclinable words which do not change their case with different causes and main

Indeclinable Words /Mabni/


Translation:
This (masculine)

Who

He

o The rule for the use of the vocative particle (the word used to call someone like Oh)

Translation: Transliteration: Arabic:

Oh Muhammad /Yaa Muhammadu/

Oh Allah /Yaa Allahu/



Oh teacher /Yaa Ustadhu/

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

The Possessive Expression -

In this lesson we will cover a new principle which is called the principle of Possessive Expr

Allh (God-Willing). This expression is a type of the Arabic term which is called /Ifa/.
The /Ifa/ literally means (adding or annexing). It means adding one noun to anothe

possession or belonging (one noun being owned or belonging to the other noun e.g. te

following examples showing the difference between the possession and the belonging in th

Possession /Ifa/ Belonging /Ifa/

Arabic English Arabic English

The teachers book


The city of Roma

Muhammads pen
The top of the mountain

This principle is applied when two nouns are joined together to make one structure.

In the possessive expression, one noun is the "possessor" called /Muf Ilaihi/ while th

called /Muf/ in Arabic. For example, if we say the teacher's book, "the teacher" is the

is possessed.

In English this type of expression is constructed with the preposition (of) or using the let

before it i.e., 's. The examples of such type of constructions are:


o The book of Hamid

o Hamid's book.

In Arabic however, the possessed noun (e.g., book) comes before the possessor so it wo

teacher's".

Let us analyze an example below and we will explain how the rules are applied:

o /Kitb -ul-Mudarrisi/

The first part is the possessed noun (called /Muf/ - ) in our example this is

have already discussed. The rules of the possessed noun are:

A. Although /kitb/ is not definite - in other words, 'al' (the) - does not come before the no

means 'the book' and not 'a book' even though al is not written before /kitb/.

B. The possessed noun can be in any case (genitive - with /kasrah/, accusative - with /fa

/ammah/). We do not need to worry about this at the moment, in normal cases it is n

/ammah/ but if preceded by a preposition it takes the genitive case so it ends with a /kas

C. Since the possessed noun is definite therefore it cannot take /tanwn/ i.e., it cannot take d

The second part is the possessor (called /Muf Ilaihi/ ) this is /Al Mu
our example. The possessor can be either:

A. Definite or indefinite (e.g. /Al-mudarrisi/ or /mudarrisin/ - the teacher or a teacher)

B. The possessor is always in genitive case (therefore the last letter originally takes a /ka

Example:

Rule:

English: Arabic:

The book of the student


The Possessed noun /Muf / takes

different cases while the /Muf



On the desk of the
ilaihi/ takes the genitive case only.


teacher

The Muf can be definite (when it


The house's door

is annexed to a definite Muf
ilaihi) and it can be indefinite (when

it is annexed to an indefinite Muf


An Imam of a mosque


ilaihi). In all cases the /Muf/ is

never prefixed with (al)

Carefully read the following text and take a particular look at the vowel endings of the w

Picture Translation Arabic


Saeed: Is this Muhammad's book?

:
Yasir: No, this is Hamid's book

.
:


Saeed: Where is Muhammad's book?

:
Yasir: It is there on the desk

.
:


Saeed: Where is Ammar's notebook?


Yasir: It is on the teacher's desk

Saeed: Whose pen is this?

:
Ali: This is the teacher's pen.

.
:


Saeed: Where is the teacher's bag?

:
Ali: It is under the desk.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Add the first word to the second to make a possessiv

example below.

In each of the sentences below simply type the first word again and add the second wor

as in the previous lessons and include the vowel-marks correctly. The vowels only need t

letters of the /Muf/ and /Muf Ilaihi/and not on all the letters.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Hamza tul Wasl -

In this part of lesson we will learn about a new concept which is the use of letter Alif in A

"Alif" has two types:

o One type of Alif is called "Hamza tul Qa". This type of Alif is always pronounced irr

preceded by some word or letter.

o While the other form of Alif is called "Hamza tul Wal". This form of Alif appears in t

but if preceded by some word or letter it is not pronounced even if written.

Please read the following examples:

Translation: Transliteration: Arabic: Type o

He is the teacher's son /Huwab nul mudarrisi/

.



And the girl's name is /Was mul binti

.

Aminah Aaminatu/

In the above mentioned examples the letter /Alif/ of the words are written but they are n

first example, the letter /alif/ of the word /ibn/ (meaning son) is written yet not pronounc

joined together with letter /wa/ of /howa/ and is pronounced /huwabnu/. This is similar to

word /almudarrisi/, the letter /alif/ is written yet not pronounced and the letters /nn/ of

/lm/ are joined together to become /nul/ and the sentence becomes /huwab-nul mudarri

Similarly in the second example the letter /wa/ is joined with the word /Ism/ whose /alif

pronounced and the word becomes /wasm/ and the /Alif/ of /Albinti/ is written but not pro

/was-mul-binti/. Therefore the sentence becomes /Was-mul-binti Aaminatu/.

Translation: Transliteration: Arabic: Type of Al

I am Ahmad Ana Amadu


.

Where are you from Min aina anti

Who are you Man anta



In these examples the letter /Alif/ of the words Ahmad, /Aina/ and /Anta/ are written and

are merged together. This type of /Alif/ is called /Hamza tul Qa/.

There is no specific rule for recognizing /Hamza tul Qa/ and /Hamza tul Wal but the

articles and the nouns beginning with /Alif/ have /Hamza tul Qa/.

It must be however remembered that when /Hamza tul Wal/ is written in the beginnin

preceded by any letter or word, it is pronounced. It is dropped only when it is preced

/Hamza tul Qa/ is always written and pronounced and is not affected if preceded by any

Please read the following sentences carefully and then click on the words to hear the

should be pronounced.
Pictures: English: Arabic:

Who are you?


I am the son of Abbas


And whose son is he?

.
He is the son of Khalid

The teacher's name is


Saeed

and the engineer's name

is Khalid
.

Ammar's son is a
student


and Yasir's son is a

trader

Where is the son of the

engineer?

He is in the university

In the next part of the lesson we will In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing) learn a new concept w

Articles.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

The Indeclinable Words

In this part of lesson, we will learn a new concept of Arabic Grammar In-Sh-Allh (Go

learned that in Arabic language the words take different cases i.e., nominative (amm
(fatah/fatatain) or genitive (kasrah/kasratain) on their last letter. A word takes single ca

definite article /al/ and double case when it is without the definite article /al/.

There are certain words however which have to indicate their function therefore they do

maintain their vowel ending. The words which do not change their vowel endings in order

called indeclinable words and have to remain unchanged.

The following are few examples of the indeclinable words (we will study this in detail in la

introduction):


Rule Translation

(The Indeclinable

1. Who
.

The interrogative articles are indeclinable 2. Where


.

3. What
.
1. This (masculine)
.

The directing words are mostly indeclinable 2. That (masculine)


.

3. This (feminine)
.

1. On
.

The prepositions are indeclinable 2. In


.

3. To
.

1. He
.

The pronouns are always indeclinable

2. She
.
3. You
.

The indeclinable words do not take different cases for different causes and do not take /ta

Picture: Translation: Arabic:

This is a man
.

Who are you?


Whose bag is this?


This is a duck
.
Where is the lion?

What is on the desk


The teacher is in front of students

Read the following sentences carefully while taking particular care of the vowel endings

Please note that we will introduce sentences related to Islam occasionally within this cour

studying this course. Those students who are not Muslim may find it beneficial to learn

the main religion in the Arab world and indeed many other parts of the world.:

English: Arabic:

Where is the teacher's house?

.
It is far away

The Quraan is the book of Allah (God)


.

The Ka'ba is Allah's (Gods) house


.

The teacher went out of the principal's room

Abbas's car is in the street


.

The door of the mosque is opened


.


Where is the dog?

.

It is under the car


This is the house of Hamid

.
and that is the house of Khalid

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Correct the following expressions" as in the example be

In each of the sentences below simply type the first word again and add the second word

in the previous lessons and include the vowel-marks correctly. Please include the vow

only.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
The vocative particle

In this part of lesson No. 5 we will In-Sh'-Allh (God Willing) learn about the following thi

Vocative Particle: A word that is used for calling someone is called the vocative particle an

or simply . In Arabic language the word used is . The word following th

and it takes (mostly) the nominative case. However it takes only one /amm

indefinite e.g., in order to call a boy it is and not .

Carefully read the following text and take a particular look at the vowel endings of the wor

A Teacher: O teacher
Allah (God): O
:


Allah (God)

A Shaikh: O shaikh
: Abbas: O Abbas
:

: :

Yasir: O Yasir A Man: O Man

: :

A doctor: O doctor Ammar: O Ammar

Ali: O Ali
: Khalid: O Khalid
:

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
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Lesson 5

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o Construction of the Possessive Expressions .

o The rules of constructing expressions using Vocative particle a

words preceded by the vocative particle.

o The indeclinable words which maintain their vowel ending whatever their c

o Pronunciation of
.
Vocabulary Revision

English Arabic English Arabi

The Prophet
The Kabah

The name

The son

The paternal uncle


The maternal uncle

The bag
The car

The road
Closed

Under
There

Above
In front of

Behind
The female teacher

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Next Lesson
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Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following things:

o The feminine demonstrative pronoun and its principles:

English: Transliteration: Arabic:

This is a lady doctor /Hdhihi abbatun/


.

This is a bag /Hdhih aqbatun/


.
In Arabic Language, words can be either masculine or feminine. This does not

necessarily follow a set logic, e.g., whilst we know that the noun "girl" is feminine,

the noun for "beard" is also feminine. This should be understood alongside the rules

of how a word is changed from masculine to feminine that are covered in another

lesson (see Lesson 4 section 7). A few examples of nouns and adjectives which do not

have any of the symbols for the feminine nouns but are still considered to be

feminine are illustrated below:

Translation: Transliteration: Arabic:

The Earth /Al Aru/


A pot /Quidrun/

The hand /Al-yadu/


o In this lesson we will learn the use of one new preposition. We have learnt

that prepositions are the words used to connect two or more words or

sentences (Lesson 4 section 3).


Preposition:

For

Lesson 6

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

This is -

In this part of the lesson we learn how to use the demonstrative pronoun

which means "This in the feminine gender. /Hdhih/ is pronounced but is


written without the first /Alif/. The word following /Hdhih/ is the noun (object)

being referred to and it should be a feminine word. e.g. ( a girl).

When a noun (whether definite or indefinite) is preceded by the demonstrative

pronoun - it takes the nominative case which is represented by a single

/ammah/ in the case of a definite noun and by double ammas in the case of an

indefinite noun.

This is a lady doctor


.

This is a fruit.
.

This is a car.
.
This is a girl.
.

We will also learn differentiating between the two words and with

examples:

.
This is the son of Hamid

.
and this is the daughter of Yasir

.
Hamid's son is sitting

.
and Yasir's daughter is standing

Whose car is this?



This is the car of the principal.

Lesson 6

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:


The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word". For

each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below - e.g. for the

first question, click on the question and type as below (include vowel-marks).
Feminine nouns

In Arabic language words are either masculine or feminine. A masculine word can be

changed to a feminine by adding any of the following three symbols at the end of a

masculine word:

o called T Marbah,

o called Alif Mamddah or

o called Alif Maqrah.

However there are certain Feminine nouns and adjectives which do not have any of

these three signs and are considered Feminine, e.g.,

The earth and the sun


are feminine in Arabic language.

The double members of the body parts are usually feminine while single members

are masculine. i.e., for example, on the human body there are two eyes and

therefore they are considered as feminine, while we have one nose so this part of the

body masculine. We have two hands therefore they are feminine but one face so it is

masculine.
This is a head
. Masculine

This is an eye
. Feminine

This is a nose
. Masculine

This is an ear
. Feminine

This is a tongue
. Masculine

This is a foot
. Feminine
This is a face
. Masculine

This is a hand
. Feminine

Lesson 6

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:


o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.


The Arabic sentence above means "Correct the following sentences as in example".

For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below - e.g. for

the first question, click on the question and type as below (include vowel-marks).

Lesson 6

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

The preposition /li/


In this part of Lesson No. 6 we will learn a new preposition and the principles for its

use In-Sh-Allh (God Willing):

This new preposition is means "for". When a preposition is followed by a noun, it

changes the noun from the nominative case to the genitive case. e.g., when

precedes a noun then it becomes but there are certain words which

do not change their cases with different causes and maintain their vowel endings.

These words are called Indeclinable words. When a preposition precedes an

indeclinable word like meaning who, it will become for whom and not

When this precedes a definite noun like the alif in the beginning of the

word is dropped and the word becomes

On the other hand when this precedes a noun like the Alif in the beginning of

the word is dropped and no lam is added and the word simply becomes meaning

belongs to Allah (God).


Please read the following sentences carefully taking good care of the vowel endings.

English Transliteration Arabic

.
This is for Muhammad Hadha li Muhammadin

.
and that is for Hamid Wa dhalika li Hamidin

Whose bag is this? Liman Hadhihil Haqueebatu?


This bag belongs to Yasir Hadhihil Haqueebatu li Yasirin

All praise belongs to Allah (God) Alhamdu lillah


Lesson 6

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o The Demonstrative Pronoun for the Feminine Articles " "

o The Feminine Nouns without any of the symbols of feminine words.

o
A new preposition " " meaning "For" or "Belongs To".

Vocabulary Revision

The Earth
This (feminine)

The hand
A pot

A car
Fruit

The lady doctor


A girl

A head
The sun

A nose
An eye

A tongue
An ear

A face
A foot

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:


o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh

(God Lesson 7

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following:

o The noun which means "That" and is used for the feminine nouns. This

noun is called a demonstrative pronoun in English Grammar and



in Arabic Grammar. Tilka is used to refer to objects that are further

away in the same way as Hdhih is used to refer to closer objects

representing the feminine nouns. e.g.,

English: Transliteration: Arabic:

That is a lady teacher Tilka Mudarrisatun

That is a bag Tilka aqbatun


.

o When a definite article "al" precedes a solar letter (the letters with which lam

of the definite article "al" is not pronounced), the letter lam of "al" is dropped

and its assimilation is shown by a diacritical mark ' ' which is known as

"Shaddah" e.g.,

Translation Transliteration Arabic


A doctor abbun
Indefinite Noun

The doctor A-abbu


Definite Noun

A fish Samakun
Indefinite Noun

The fish As-samaku



Definite Noun

Lesson 7

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

That is -
In this part of Lesson No. 7 we will learn another pronoun ( which means

that) Tilka is used for the feminine nouns. Tilka follows the same principles as

followed by Dhlika and is used to refer to objects that are further away whereas

hdhihi (this in feminine form) is used to refer to objects that are closer.

The demonstrative pronouns are called


in Arabic language and

have two types:

o The pronouns which refer to the near objects like and meaning

(this for masculine and feminine respectively) are called


and

o The pronouns which refer to the distant objects like and meaning

(that for masculine and feminine respectively) are called


.
Picture: Answer Question:

Who is this?

This is Amina.
.

and who is that?


That is Fatima.
.

This is a lady
.

and she is from Indonesia

.
That is a child
.

and she is from India


.

This is an elder
.

That is a little one (child)


.

What is that?

That is a dog
.

and what is that?



That is an egg
.

What is that?

That is a hen.
.

Is that a hen?

No, that is a duck


.

Lesson 7

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .


Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.

) (

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word".

For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below -

e.g. for the first question, click on the questioLesson 7


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God willing).


Choose a word from column that can be used to complete the sentence in column

. Click on a word in column that you would like to answer (this will be highlighted)

then click on its suitable complement in column . Upon completing all possible

questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and obtain your mark.

) ( ()

The Arabic sentence above means "Choose a word from column 'A' and match it with

an appropriate word from column 'B' ". For each of the sentences, type out the full

sentence using the words below - e.g. for the first question, click on the question and

type as below (include vowel-marks).

( ) ()

(This is a student)

(That is a student)
(This is a teacher)

(That is a doctor)

(This is Aminah)

(That is a window)

(This is a door)

(That is an Engineer)

(That is a spoon)

n and type as below (include vowel-marks).


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Lesson 7

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Exercise

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and
keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

""
The Arabic sentence above means Add the definite article 'al' to the following words adding th

vowel marks

....... .........
The merchant The mother

....... .......
The hen The donkey

....... .......
The Eden (Paradise) The man

....... .........
The window The shirt

....... .......
The news The guest
....... .......
The door The dress

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

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Lesson 7

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o The Demonstrative pronoun for That in the Feminine form

o The use of Shaddah and the dropping of the letter 'lam' of the definite article

'al' when used with solar letters.

Vocabulary Revision

Demonstrative pronouns That (feminine)




A lady
A fish

An egg
A female child

Small
Elder

Heaven
Indonesia

News
A guest

A dress

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.


o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-ALesson

8-

Part
1
2
3
4

Revision

This is a revision lesson in which we will review all the concepts we have learnt so

far. We will have multiple questions on the rules related to demonstrative pronouns


, possessive expression and prepositions

In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing).

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

prepositions In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:


o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.


The Arabic sentence above means "Read the following example then change the

following sentences in the same manner". For each of the sentences, type out the

full sentence using the words below - e.g. for the first question, click on the question

and type as below (include vowel-marks).

llh (God willing).


This doctor is from India This car belongs to the director



That boy is Khalid's son That watch is from Switzerland


This house belongs to the
engineer That handkerchief is dirty
Lesson 8-

Part
1
2
3
4

Continued

The Arabic sentence above means "Read the following example then change the

following sentences in the same manner". For each of the sentences, type out the

full sentence using the words below - e.g. for the first question, click on the question

and type as below (include vowel-marks).


)(

)(


( ) ( )
(Whose pen is this?) (Whose fruit is this?)


( ) ( )
(Whose hen is this?) (Whose house is this?)


( ) ( )
(Whose chair is this?) (Whose cow is this?)

Lesson 8-

Part
1
2
3
4

Continued

The Arabic sentence above means "Translate the following sentences to Arabic as in

example". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words

below - e.g. for the first question, click on the question and type as below (include

vowel-marks).

Ahmad went to England




Khalid went to the hospital This watch is from Germany



this black board is behind the
This door is closed
teacher


This is a knife This window is open

Lesson 8-

Part
1
2
3
4

Vocabulary Revision
In this lesson we have revised all the rules we have studied so far and have learnt

the following new words.

Switzerland

The spoon

The cow

Daughter of the farmer

The farmer

Germany

Closed

Open

A knife

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 9 -
Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Introduction

In this lesson we will In-Sh-Allh learn the following things:

o The formation of a new expression called in Arabic


(called "The Adjective Clause" in English). The Adjective Clause is an

expression formed by two or more words to describe a pronoun.

Adjective Clause



A small boy

The new bag


o A new type of pronoun which shows reference or relation between the nouns.

This pronoun is called a Conjunctive pronoun or Relative pronoun in English

and
in Arabic. If the pronoun refers to a human

being it is to be translated "who" and if it refers to non human beings or an

object it is translated as which (or that).

Relative pronoun

Who (for human beings)


Which / That (for non human beings / objects)
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Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Continued
In this lesson we will learn the formation of a new clause called i

Clause" in English, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing).

In Arabic the adjective (a word describing the noun e.g. red book, large house etc) is

"A-iffah" , and the noun it qualifies is called "Mant or "Al-maw


clause thus formed is called either or . We


the formation of the Adjective Clause.

Following are the rules pertained for the formation of the adjective clause:

o In the English language, when we want to describe a noun we say for example, "

etc. - i.e., the adjective (description) comes before the noun. However in Arabic

description (adjective) comes after the noun, e.g. or


means "Boy good" or "student lazy" but literally it means "Good boy" or "Lazy stud

Translation Transliteration

A dirty handkerchief Mindlun Wasikhun



An intelligent student libatun Dhakiyyatun

o The adjectives that express feelings normally end with (-an) and bear no Tanwn on

English Arabic

Thirsty

Hungry

Full

Angry

Happy

o The adjective always follows the noun which it is describing in gender. The adje
masculine and that of a feminine noun is feminine .e.g.: we say m

meaning A young girl.

Translation Transliteration Arabic

A famous engineer Muhandisun Shahrun

A tasty apple Tuffatun Ladhdhatun


o Both the adjective and the noun are either definite or indefinite. Therefore if th

adjective which is describing the noun will also be definite e.g.

and when the noun is indefinite the adjective will also be indefinite e.g.
Translation Transliteration Arabic

The big city Almadnatu Alkabratu

A poor man Raulun Faqrun


o The adjective also has the same case as the noun i.e., if the noun is in the nomin

also be in the nominative case e.g.,


meaning "The difficult l

accusative case then the adjective will also be in the accusative case and if the

then the adjective will also be in the genitive case e.g.

an ill friend.

Translation Case Arabic


This is a new teacher Nominative
.

The pen is in the small bag Genitive

The old book is at home Nominative


.

The water is in a broken glass Genitive


.

Picture English Arabic

America is a big country


.

This is the new fan

Ahmad entered into a vast building

A sparrow is a beautiful bird


.

This is a crowded road


.

The clean room


.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Place an appropriate adjective in the blank space including t

of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below.

....... ......
(English is a difficult language) (Ahmad is a rich mercha

....... .......
(I am a new teacher) (Muhammad is a good doc

....... .......
(Cairo is a vast city) (The apple is a tasty fru

....... .........
(Arabic is an easy language) (Are you a lazy student
....... .......

(Iman is a hard-working student) (The sparrow is a beautiful

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

who -
A relative pronoun is a pronoun which refers or relates to some noun preceding it e.g., if w

English Arabic

This is Muhammad who has passed


This is the door which is in front of the mosque



This is the cat that has sat


In the above sentences, the nouns Muhammad, door and cat are called antecedents and

that refer to them respectively. In Arabic however all these three words (who, which and

single word

Translation Transliteration


Allah who has created Allh al-ladh khalaqa al

.
humans insn


The student who is in a A-libu al-ladh fi

.
school madrasatin

Picture English Arabic


The beautiful pen which is on a desk

.
belongs to the teacher

The bed that is in Khalid's room is

.
broken


The student who is sitting is from

.
Indonesia

The house which is in front of the


mosque belongs to the Muadhin

.
(person who gives the Adhaan - call

for prayer).


The road that is near the school is

.
crowded

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Place an appropriate noun in the blank including the

of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below.

.......... ...........
(I am an old teacher) (Arabic is an easy langua

....... ........
(This is a broken pen) (Muhammad is a rich merch


....... .......
(Faisal is a lazy student) (The handkerchief is a useful

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.


The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the following blanks with the adjectives which

'Al' to them wherever necessary". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence u

for the first question, click on the question and type as below (include vowel-marks).

............
.......

( ) ( )
Where is the new teacher The elder merchant is in the

............ .......

( ) ( )
(I am an old student) (Who is this boy who went

......

( )
(The book that is on the desk belongs to the
teacher)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Lesson 9 -

Adjective Clause -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:


o The Adjective Clause

o Use of Relative Pronoun


which shows a relation or a reference

Vocabulary Revision

The described noun


The adjective

Described noun
Adjective

Thirsty
Lazy

Full
Hungry

Happy
Angry


The fan
Famous

Bird
Sparrow

Crowded
Road

Passed
That, who, which

Created
Sat

Thing
The humans

Tall
Useful

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.
o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Next Lesson

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Introduction

In this lesson we will In-Sh-Allh learn the following things:

o The Possessive Pronouns (the words used instead of nouns to show possession or o

Possessive Pronoun Example Arabic

Your (masculine) book


)(

Your (feminine) book


)(

His book
)(

Her book
) (

My book
) (
Our book
)(

o Two new words and their cases.

English Arabic

Father

Brother

o In this lesson we will learn the use of a few new prepositions. We have learnt tha

used to connect two or more words or sentences ( Lesson No.4 section 3). Both of the

meaning but are used in different situations

English Arabic

About

Along with / With

/ To have

At/In

o In this lesson we will also learn the use of verbs with the pronouns. We have alrea

the verb in (Lesson No. 4 section 12).

English New form of verb Pronoun Added Simple Ver

You went
You (masculine)

You went
You (feminine)

He went
He

She went
She

I went
I

We went
We

o We will also learn the vowel endings of the masculine nouns that are similar to the f

English Arabic

Hamza

Talha

Usama

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Attached Pronouns -

In this lesson, we will learn a new topic which deals with the pronouns In-Sh-Allh (Go

words used instead of nouns. In Arabic the pronouns are generally of two types

o The Detached Pronouns (


)

o The Attached Pronouns (


)

In English the Attached Pronouns (also called the Possessive Pronouns) are "words whi

relationship) of an object (or person) of something' e.g., if we want to express the pos

say: "this book is hers". Similarly if a person wants to express his possession of a pen,

mine". In Arabic however "The Possessive Pronouns" are suffixes (one or two letters atta
attached to the nouns only. They are not full-fledged words. Lets take some examples to l

Translation Transliteration Arabic

This book is yours (masculine) Hdh kitbuka


This pen is yours (feminine) Hdh qalamuki


This bag is his Hdhihi aqbatuhu


This note book is hers Hdhihi kurrsatuha


This house is mine Hdh bait


Islam is our religion Al Islmu dnuna



Following are some examples to better understand the above mentioned rules:
Pictures English Transliteration Ar

Who are you? Man Anta?

I am a new student An libun addun



from India minal hindi


What is your name? Mas muka?

.
My name is Abbas Ismi Abbasun

And who is that sitting? Wa man hdh allisu?

He is my colleague and Huwa zaml was muhu


his name is Anser, he is anser huwa minal

from Japan. Ybni



This is my pen and its Hdh qalam wa

lawnuhu Amaru
.
colour is red.


Oh Abbas what is your Ma lughatuka ya

mother tongue? abbsu?

My mother tongue is Lughati Urdiyyatun



Urdu and it is an easy wahiya lughatun

language. sahlatun.

And what is Anser's Wa ma hiya lughatu


mother tongue? ansara?

His mother tongue is Lughatuhu Al



Japanese and it is a Yabaniyyatu wahiya

difficult language. lughatun aabatun


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.


)(

The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the following blanks with the appropriate

sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below.

.....
.....
(Muhammad is a doctor and his son is an
(This girl is a student her name
Engineer)

... ...

(Aminah is in the room and her mother is in (This is a great merchant and h
the kitchen) Abdullah)


... ...
(A boy went out of the class and Tahir was
(Ayesha is a doctor and her sister
with him)
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The five nouns -


In this lesson we will learn the following two new words and the rules regarding their use I
Translation Transliteration Arabic

Father Abun

Brother Akhun

The words above belong to a category of five words called


( we will

later lessons In-Sh-Allh). When we want to say "Your book" in Arabic we say

"your father", it would be written as and not . Similar is the case with the wor

is added to it, a letter 'ww' is added as a second last letter and hence the word will becom

When any of these words annexed with pronouns appear in the nominative case (we will

the letter "ww" is added as the penultimate (second to last) letter i.e., o

they appear in genitive case (we will learn more about this later) the letter 'ya' is add

word thus formed is or .


English Arabic Case


Hamid's brother

The father of Muhammad



Nominative Case


Book of my brother

Her father's house



Genitive Case

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Prepositions -

In this lesson we will learn three new prepositions. We have learnt that prepositions are

two or more words or sentences (Lesson No.4 section 3) and (Lesson No.6 section 6). These pre

English Pronunciation Arabic

About an

With Maa

At/In Bi

The preposition means about or from e.g. means (to talk abo
(far from)

The preposition means with, e.g. means the book is with th

The letter means at or in e.g., if we say it means "He is at the un

it means she is in the kitchen.

English Transliteration Arabic


My house is far from the
Bait badun an al masjidi


.
mosque

Ahmad is sitting with Khalid Ahmadu jalisun ma'a Khalidin

With me is a friend Ma'ee sadeequn


.

Khalid is talking about
khlidun yataaddathu an nafsihi

.
himself



My friend in Egypt - his
adq bimira ismuhu amadu

.
name is Ahmed

It must be remembered that " "meaning 'to have' should only be used with the thi

means we have a book. It should not be used with relations and parts of

say 'He has a nose', we should say instead of or


mean

of . The preposition takes a fatah on its ending when used with

meaning "with me". When used with , it takes a kasrah instead of the fatah so it w
and not

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.





The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions with the help of the p

For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below.

(Do you have a pen)

(No, I have a book)


(Do you have a bag?) (Does she have a chair?

(Egg) (Bed)

(Does he have a cat?) (Do you have a paper?

(Dog) (Handkerchief)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
The verb with the pronouns -

In this lesson we will learn about the form of verb when attached with the pronouns In-S

have already learnt two simple verbs in (Lesson No. 4 section 12) which are:

o meaning Went.

o meaning Went out.

Lets see the form of the verb when it is attached to different pronouns:

English New form of verb Pronoun Added Simple Ve

You went
You (masculine)

(masculine)

You went
You (feminine)

(feminine)

He went
He

She went
She

I went
I

We went
We

You went out



You (masculine)

(masculine)

You went out



You (feminine)

(feminine)

He went out
He

She went out


She

I went out

I

We went out

We

Lets take some more examples to understand the rule more clearly:

Picture English Arabic

Ahmad went to Iraq.

Amina went out of the classroom.


.
Where did you go O Ayesha?

Why did you go out of the mosque?

Did Bilquees go to the kitchen?

I went to the hospital.



.

We went out of the university.


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this lesson we will learn about the vowel ending of the masculine nouns resembling

Allh (God-Willing). We have learnt that the feminine nouns have no tanwn on their last le
etc. Similarly there are certain masculine proper nouns that have ( t mar

therefore they also do not have tanwn on their last letter, e.g.:

Lets take some examples to better understand the rule:

Pictures English Arabic

Fatima's husband is Mu'awiya.


.

Khalid went out with Talha.

Your (feminine) car is with Usama.


.
I went to Hamza.
.

In this lesson we will also learn the use of " "as a negative particle In-Sh-Allh (God

the use of " "as an interrogative (questioning) article in (Lesson No. 1 section 3).

Picture English Arabic


Do you have a pen?

.
No, I do not have a pen.

Do you have a bag?



No, I do not have a bag.
.

Who is this child?


This child is the son of Mu'awiya.

Did you go to Khalid?


No, I went to Hanzala

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below.

(Where is your father, oh Tahir?)

(My father is in China)

( ) ( )
(Where did you go O Fatima?) (What is your language O Ab

( ) ( )
(Who is with you O Jamal?) (Is his house near the Unive

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 10 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Revision

In this lesson, we have learnt the following things:

o The Possessive Pronouns "


"

o Two of the Five Nouns "


"

o Three new Prepositions " "

o Pronouns when added to the verbs.

o Vowel ending of masculine proper nouns similar to the feminine nouns i.e., having

letter

Vocabulary Revision -

Your (feminine)
Your (Masculine)

Her
His

Our
My, mine

Brother
Father

With
With / Near

You went
At / In

She went
You went

(feminine)

We went
I went

Religion
Islam

Colour
Colleague

Language/Mother tongue
Red

Iraq
Urdu

Child
Husband

French
Kuwait

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Next Lesson

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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Introduction

In this lesson, we will learn about attaching the pronouns to nouns and prepositions - In-S
English Final Form Pronoun Preposition

In it

(masc.)

In it

(fem.)

We will learn a new form of a new verb and the cases of the parts of a verb

The present verb


I like, I love

We like, we love

He likes, he loves

She likes, she loves

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Pronouns with nouns and prepositions -


Read the following sentences:


Picture English Arabic

This is my house.
.

My house is in front of the mosque.



.

My house is beautiful.
.

In it there is a small garden.


.

This is my room.
.

In it is a big window and a beautiful

.
fan.


This is my bed and this is my chair

.
and this is my desk.


My watch and my pen and my book

.
are on the desk

and my bag is under the desk.

.

This is my brother's room and that

.
is my sister's room.

My brother's room is in front of my

room and my sister's room is in



front of the kitchen.

I have one brother and his name is

Usama, I have one sister and her



name is Sana.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:


o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below.


(Yes, my house is beautiful) (My house is in front of the m


(In it, is a big window and a beautiful fan) (In it, is a small garden


(My brother's room is in front of my room) (My watch and my pen is on th


(My brother's room is in front of my room) (No, the window of my room i



(and my sister's room is in fro
(His name is Usama)
kitchen)
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

The Present Tense -

In this section, we will learn the parts of the verbal sentences and their cases In-Sh-

present form of a verb. We have already learnt that a verbal sentence has three parts ( Les
o ( A verb - the action being performed),

o ( A subject - the person or thing doing the action) and

o ( An object - the thing upon which the action is done).

We have learnt that the verb refers to three tenses (periods):

o Past

o Present

o Future

In this section we will learn about the present form of the verb meaning "Likes or

the verb takes originally - the nominative case, but with a single ammah. It never ta

also learnt in the previous lesson that the object of a verbal sentence takes the accusat

fatah when definite and double fatah (Fatatain) when indefinite. When we say:

(Akbar loves writing)


In this sentence means likes which is a verb, is the subject therefore it

is the object which takes the accusative case. But when we say:

(We love our religion)

The word means "we love", so "love" is the verb and "we" is the subject whereas o

therefore it must take the accusative case. Now if we look at this example carefully we

basically (+ ), so the word take the accusative case, and since it is anne

Muf and cannot take tanwn.

However, when a pronoun is the object of some verb, it does not take accusative case

generally indeclinable therefore they do not change their cases. Lets take some exampl

rule:

Picture English Arabic


I love Allah (God).
.

Khalid likes the Arabic language.

Fatimah likes reading.


.

We love our religion.


.

You love your colleague.


.
That is my father I like him.
.

That is my mother I like her.


.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -
In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Fill in the blanks with the appropriate objects and

endings". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below.

..... .....

( ) ( )
(Hamid likes ...... ) (Fatima likes reading)

..... ........

( ) ( )
(I like ...............) (I like your .............)

.......

( )
(We like our ...........)
Part
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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so f

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the corre
below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to obtain

Question 1 Question

W
What is 'your house' in
Arabic?

Question 3 Question

The word my pen in T


Arabic is

Part
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4
5
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Lesson 11-

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt about annexing the pronouns to the prepositions i.e

prepositions.

Present form of the verb

Vowel ending of the object of the verbal sentence and annexing the object of the verbal se

Vocabulary Revision
In it (masc.)
In it (fem.)

I like, I love
We like, we lov

He likes, he loves
She likes, she lov

Present verb
The reading

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Next Lesson

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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things In-Sh-Allh:


o In the first part of the lesson, we will learn how to have a dialogue in Arabic.

o We will also learn how to convert a masculine verb into a feminine verb (see below

English Arabic Gender (Grammatical Term)


He went

Masculine Verb


She went

Feminine Verb


You (masculine) went

Masculine Verb

You (feminine) went



Feminine Verb

o We will also learn the feminine form of the Relative Pronoun. We have already lear

Relative Pronoun in Lesson 09 section 004. We know that a Relative Pronoun

the reference or relation between the nouns. The Relative Pronoun is called

the Relative Pronoun refers to a human being it is to be translated "who" and if it r

is translated "which / that".

Relative noun

Who (for human beings)


Which/That (for non human beings)

Part
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2
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6
7
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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn how to have a discussion in Arabic In-Sh-Allh (Go

English Transliteration Arabic

:

Sua'ad: Peace be upon you Sud: Assalm-u-

and Allah's (God's) mercy alaiki wa ramatullhi

and His blessings wa baraktuhu



.

:
Al Bintu: Wa alaiki
The girl: Peace be upon you

and Allah's mercy and His


assalmu wa



ramatullhi wa
blessings
baraktuhu
.

How are you, Oh girl? Kaifa luki ya bintu?

:
I am fine and all thanks to Ana bikhairin wal

.
Allah (God) amdulillhi
:

Where are you from? Min aina anti?

I am from Riyadh Ana minar Riyi

What is your name? Mas muki?



:

My name is Aminah Ismi minatu


.
:

Where is your father? Aina abki?


:

My father is here in Madinah Abi hun fil madnatil


:
Munawara munawwarati
.

What does he do? Mdh yafalu?


:

Huwa muwaihun fil


He is a supervisor in the high
madrasatith

school
thnawiyyati

And where is your mother? Wa aina ummuki?


:

:
She is also here. She is a Hiya aian hun. Hiya

abbatun
.
doctor
:

Wa man hdhihil
And who is this young girl
fattullati maaki? A

with you? Is she your sister?
hiya ukhtuki?

:
No. She is the daughter of my
L. Hiya bintu ammi

.
paternal uncle

What is her name? Mas muh?



:

Her name is Fatima Ismuh Fimatu

.
Is she your colleague? A hiya zamlatuki?
:

La, An fil madrasatil




No. I am in the middle school mutawassiati wa hiya fil


and she is in the high school madrasatith

thnawiyyati.

Do you have a sister? A laki ukhtun?


:

No, I do not have a sister La. Ma l ukhtun


.

Do you have a brother? A laki akhun?



Yes. I have an elder brother Naam, l akhun kabrun

and he is a student at the wahuwa libun



university bilmiati


And who is this child with Wa man hdha iflu


you? alladh maaki?

He is my brother's son
Huwabnu akh
.
(nephew)

What is his name? Mas muhu?



His name is Sa'ad Ismuhu Sad


.

Is your mother at home now?
A Ummuki fil baiti

alna?


La. Dhahabat ilal
No. She went to the hospital


mustashf
.

Part
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2
3
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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn the conversion of a masculine verb to the feminine v

For the past tense of a verb i.e. the following rules are applied

English


He went

Masculine Verb

She went


Feminine Verb

You (masculine) went



Masculine Verb

You (feminine) went


Feminine Verb

When a masculine noun is changed to a feminine for the pronoun (e.g. from 'he' to 'sh

letter 'ta' with a sukn is added at the end of the verb that follows i.e., will be chan

However, when the noun is a subject following a verb, and that noun is definite with the a

instead of a 'ta with a sukn a 'ta' with the genitive case (kasrah) is added to the verb i.

instead of .

Lets take some examples to better understand the rule:

Gend
English Arabic Sentence
Ve

Ahmad went to the house



.

Fatima went to the house



.

The young man went out of the class




.

The young lady went out of the class




.
You (masculine) sat on a chair
.

You (feminine) sat on a chair


.


The male teacher stood in front of the

.
black board


The lady teacher stood in front of the

.
black board

The father opened the door


.

The mother opened the door


.

The male student read the lesson



.

The female student read the lesson



.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .


Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Change the subject of each of the following sente

example". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and




(My father entered into the hospital) (The teacher went to the c

(The boy read the Quran) (A student sat on the cha



(The young boy stood in front of the
(Her paternal uncle opened th
blackboard)

Part
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Continued

In this lesson, we will learn the use of the Relative Pronoun for the feminine nouns, In-S

004 we have already learnt about the Relative Pronoun for the masculine nouns. We kno

used to refer or relate to some noun preceding it. The masculine form of the Relativ

translated as 'who' if used for a human being and to 'which or that' if used for the non

feminine form of the Relative Pronoun is with the same meaning as the mascul

feminine objects or persons.

Consider the following examples:

Picture English Arabic

This is Fatima who went out

.

This is the window which is

.
open

This is the bag that is under



the desk

In the above sentences, the nouns: Fatima, the window and a bag, are called Antecedents

and that" refer to them respectively hence they are the Relative Pronouns.

Similar to the word refers to all the three words (who, which and that).

Lets take some more examples of this rule:

Picture English

The car that went out now is mine

The pen which is on the desk belongs to Nasir

That cat which is on the tree belongs to her



The young boy who is near the black board is from


Malaysia

The young lady who went to the market is Fatima


The house which is in the street belongs to the minister

Part
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3
4
5
6
7
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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes
Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

)- (

The Arabic sentence above means "Complete the following sentences with the appropriate

of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and include the vowel

diacritical (incl. vowel) marks have been deliberately omitted below to test your understan

...... ......
(The watch that lies on the desk
(The pen which is in my bag is broken)
the teacher)

.... .....
(The girl who went to the house is Fatima) (The dog that is in the garden
.... ....
(The key that is on the book belongs to (The hen that is on the roof belo
Muhammad) farmer)

.... ..
(The doctor who went out of the
(The nurse who sat down is new)
my father)

Part
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2
3
4
5
6
7
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Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Exercise -

In this part of the lesson, we will test the knowledge that we have learnt in this lesson so f

Choose the correct answer for each of the following questions. Please click on the corre

below. Upon completion, click on the Mark button to see the correct answers and to obtain

In this exercise you will not be given the meaning of sentences, please visit the earlier p

meanings if necessary.

Question 1 Question

The demonstrative noun T


for a feminine noun is

Question 3 Question

How do you say how are


you to a man?
s

Question 5 Question

What is the translation Ho


of the girl went? yo

Part
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2
3
4
5
6
7
8

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 12 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o How to have a dialogue in Arabic

o The conversion of a masculine verb into a feminine verb.

o The use of the feminine Relative Pronoun

Vocabulary Revision

The child
Who, that, which

(fem.)

The young man


Peace be upon you


(Greeting)

The young lady


Peace be upon you



as well

The maternal
How are you

Aunt

Malaysia Supervisor

The minister

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th


We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Next Lesson

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things, In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

o We will learn the plural form of the Demonstrative Pronoun for the masculine and f

Singular / Masculine /
Demonstrative
English Transliteration Plural Feminine Grammat
noun (Arabic)
(Arabic) (Arabic)

This
/Hdh/


(masculine)

These /Huli/


This
/Hdhihi/

(feminine)

These /Huli/

o We will learn the two kinds of plural forms of the nouns and adjectives:
Sound Plural

Singular /
Masculin
English Transliteration Arabic Word Plural
Feminine (A
(Arabic)

A teacher
/Mudarrisun/


(masc.)

Teachers
/Mudarrisna/

(masc.)

A lady teacher
/Mudarrisatun/


(fem.)

Lady teachers
/Mudarristun/

(fem.)

Broken Plural :
Singular / Plural Masculine / Fem
English Transliteration Arabic
(Arabic) (Arabic)

A book /Kitbun/

Books /Kutubun/

A garden /Hadqatun/

Gardens /Hadaiqun/

Part
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3
4
5
6
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8
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10
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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn the plural form of the Demonstrative Pronouns In-

objects that are nearby ("these") and objects that are further away ("those"). In the

already learnt the following demonstrative Pronouns:

o Lesson No. 1 section 1 states that is the Demonstrative Pronoun used to refer to

masculine nouns ("this")

o Lesson No. 6 section 2 states that is the Demonstrative Pronoun used to refer to

feminine nouns. ("this")

The plural form of these Demonstrative Pronouns is the same for the masculine and femini

Demonstrative Singular / Masculine /


English Transliteration Grammat
Pronoun Plural Feminine
(Arabic) (Arabic) (Arabic)

This
/Hdh/


(masculine)

These /Huli/


This
/Hdhihi/

(feminine)

These /Huli/

The plural form of the Demonstrative Pronoun for the close objects is . It is an in

takes a /kasrah/. It must however be remembered that is used only for human be

beings.

Lets take some examples for a better understanding of the rule:


Picture English Arabic

. :

Singular: This is a teacher

:
Plural: These are teachers

.:

Singular: This is a female student

:
Plural: These are female students

.
:

.
Singular: This is an engineer

:
Plural: These are engineers

.
:

.
Singular: This is a lady teacher

:
Plural: These are lady teachers

.:

Singular: This is a farmer

:
Plural: These are farmers

.
.:

Singular: This is a female colleague

:
Plural: These are female colleagues

. :

Singular: This is hard working

:
Plural: These are hard working

Singular: This is a wife


. :
Plural: These are wives
:

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

)(

The Arabic sentence above means "Point to the following nouns using the Demonstrat

objects". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and

..... .....
(This is my sister) (This is my brother)

..... .....
(This is a hotel) (This is a grand daughte

..... .....
(These are lady instructors) (These are teachers)


..... .....
(These are Muslims) (These are lady doctors

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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
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3
4
5
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8
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10
11

Continued

In this section, we will learn the plural form of nouns and Adjectives In-Sh-Allh (God wi

In English, adjectives have no plural form. So when an adjective is used to describe a sing
used to describe the plural noun e.g., if we say "Good boy" for a singular noun then i

"Good boys" for the plural nouns.

In Arabic however even the adjectives have plural form, e.g., when we express the qu

( A good teacher), it will become i.e., Good teach

the noun as well as the adjective becomes plural and both change form.

English and Arabic both have two kinds of plural:

o Sound Plurals

o Broken Plurals

The Sound Plural is the plural form of a word in which the word keeps its original form and

o E.g., For English Nouns

Chair ======> Chairs

School ======> Schools

Girl ======> Girls

o For Arabic Nouns and Adjectives:

======

People fasting ========== A person fasting

======
Female teachers ========== A female teacher

======

Hard workers ========== A hard worker

======

Small things (feminine) ========== A small thing (feminine)

In Arabic, the sound plural is either masculine or feminine. In order to convert a singular

to plural the following steps should be taken:

The /tanwn/ on the last letter of the indefinite word is replaced with the single vowel o

/ammah/ (when in nominative case), single /fatah/ (when in accusative case) and singl

case)

is added at the end of the word if it is in nominative case with a /ammah/ and

accusative with a /fatah/ or genitive case with a /kasrah/.

However if the word is definite, then simply is added at the end of the word if it is in

added if the word is in accusative or genitive case. Please see below - please take n

emphasise the changed and additional letters to make the words into sound plurals:
======

These are fasting ========== This is fasting

======

I saw teachers ========== I saw a teacher


======

I am with Muslims ========== I am with a Muslim

======

The engineers ========== The engineer

=====

Muhammad is with the farmers ===== Muhammad is with the farme


======

I visited the engineers ========== I visited the engineer

Lets take some examples to understand this rule:

Picture English Arabic

This is a Muslim
.

These are Muslims

I saw an inspector
.
I saw inspectors
.

He is with a supervisor
.

He is with supervisors

The person who fasts



The people who fast




I saw the teacher
.

I saw the teachers

I am with the instructor


.

I am with the instructors

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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
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Continued

In order to convert a singular feminine noun or adjective to plural the following steps sho

of the feminine word is replaced with

======

Small things (feminine) ========== A small thing (feminine)


======

With female teachers ========== With a female teacher

======

The female engineers ========== The female engineer

Lets take some examples to understand this rule:

Picture English Arabic

A female instructor is in the house


.

Female instructors are in the house


.
This female student is hard working
.


These female students are hard

.
working

I went with a female engineer


.

I went with female engineers


.

Khalida visited a female scholar


.
Khalida visited female scholars
.

Part
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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.



The Arabic sentence above means "Change the following sentences to the plural as dem

(below)". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and in


(This is a good instructor) (This is a noble wife)


(This is a Muslim nurse) (This is a hard working tea


(I wrote on a big notebook) (This is a good female sch



(I visited a new lady doctor) (Allah likes a person who f

Part
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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
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3
4
5
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11

Continued

The Broken Plural is the plural form of a word in which the original form of the word is cha

it is a change in the word rather than an extension of the word:

o E.g. For English Nouns

Man ======> Men

Woman ======> Women

In Arabic, a word is generally formed on the pattern of three basic letters /fa/

/fa a la/ i.e. , etc.

Unlike in English, the broken plural is very widely used in Arabic. There are more than tw

plural. For example "A word falls into one of a number of 'patterns'. Once we know the

belongs to, we know how the word will change in plural form. This is done by mapping e

singular form to it's plural form and may involve adding letters to the word in the process.
We will cover what we mean by pattern and how we are using the middle column (belo

(God willing). Some of these patterns are given below:

Plural Pattern Singular

(Stars)
(A star)

(Books)
(A book)

(Mountains)
(Mountain)

(Pilgrims)
(A pilgrim)

(Pens)
(A pen)

(Colleagues)
(A colleague

(Doctors) (A Doctor)

(Brothers)
(Brother)

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Change the following words to the plural on the patter

each of the words below, type out the full word in its plural form and include the vowel ma

( ) ( )
(Short) (Young boy)

( ) ( )
(New) (Name)


( ) ( )
(Student) (Tall)

( ) ( )
(Guest) (Son)

( ) ( )
(Merchant) (Man)

( ) ( )
(Boy) (Old man)

( ) ( )
(Big/Elder) (Uncle)

( ) ( )
(Rich) (Poor)

( ) ( )
(Brother) (Farm)

( ) ( )
(Friend) (Husband)

Part
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3
4
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6
7
8
9
10
11

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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
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11

Continued

There are no specific rules or patterns for the formation of the Broken Plural of the femin

feminine nouns are mostly sound plurals. However some of the Broken Plurals of the fem

but they have no specific patterns:

Picture Plural Singular


(Girls) (A girl)

(Sisters) (Sister)

(Young ladies) (Young lady)

(Women)

-Plural from a (Woman)

different root

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Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.


o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Give plural of the following words". For each of the

sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.

(Girl) (Sister)



(A Muslim female) (Lady doctor)


(A doctor) (A husband)


(A wife) (A young girl)


(Elder) (Tall)


(New) (Brother)


(Big/Elder) (Tall)


(Woman) (New)

Part
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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 13 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
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8
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10
11
Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o The plural form of the Demonstrative Pronoun for the masculine and feminine noun

o Sound Plural.

o Broken Plural.

Vocabulary Revision

The plural
The singular

Sound plural
These

Lady teachers
Teachers (masc.)

Books
Broken plural

Female students
Gardens

Farmers
Engineers

Grand daughter
Wives

Lady instructors
Hotel

Lady doctors
Muslims

Person who fasts


Good

Hard working
People who fast

An investigator
Small

Supervisor
Investigators

Hard working
Instructors

(females)

Female scholars
Female scholar

Mountain /
\ Star / Stars
\
Mountains

Pen / Pens
\ Pilgrim / Pilgrims
\

Brother / Brothers
\ Doctor / Doctors
\

Young man /
\ Short
\
young men

Name / Names

\
New
\
Student / Students
\ Tall
\

A guest / Guests Son / Sons


\

Merchant /
\ Man / Men
\
Merchants

Boy / Boys
\ Learned man /
\
Learned Men

Elder / Elders
\ Paternal uncle /
\
Paternal uncles

Rich
\ Poor
\

Friend / Friends
\ Farm / Farms
\

Woman / Women
\ Husband /
\
Husbands

Sister / Sisters
\ Girl / Girls
\

\
Young lady /
\ The woman / The


Young ladies women

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
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Next Lesson

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
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4
5
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9
10

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things In-Sh-Allh (God willing):
o The plural form of "That" (demonstrative pronoun) for the masculine as well as the

Singular / Masculine /
Gram
English Transliteration Arabic Plural Feminine
T
(Arabic) (Arabic)

That
/Dhlika/


(masculine)

Those /ulika/


That
/Tilka/

(feminine)

Those /ulika/

o We will learn the plural form of the Personal Pronouns for the masculine as well as t

Singular / Mascu

Example English Transliteration Arabic Plural Femi

(Arabic) (Ara

He /Huwa/

(He is tall)


They /Hum/

(They are tall)




His /Hu/

(His house)


Their /Hum/

(Their house)

She /Hiya/

(She is ill)


They /Hunna/

(They are ill)


Her /Ha/

(Her book)


Their /Hunna/

(Their book)

o The plural form of the simple masculine as well as feminine verbs:


Singular / Masculine / Fem
English Transliteration Arabic
Plural (Arabic) (Arabic)

He went /Dhahaba/


They went
/Dhahabu/

(masc. plural)

She went /Dhahabat/




They went
/Dhahabna/

(fem. plural)

o We will learn the use of a new word:

English Arabic

Some

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn the plural form of "That" In-Sh-Allh (God willi

pronoun for the distant objects. In the previous lessons we have already learnt the following d
o Lesson No. 2 section 1 states that ("That") is the demonstrative pronoun used to refer to

away for masculine nouns

o Lesson No. 7 section 2 states that "( That") is the demonstrative pronoun used to refer to

away for feminine nouns.

The plural form of these demonstrative pronouns (i.e. "those") is the same for the masculin

Singular / Masculine /

English Transliteration Arabic Plural Feminine Grammatic

(Arabic) (Arabic)

That
/Dhlika/


(masculine)

Those /ulika/

That

/Tilka/
(feminine)
Those /ulika/

The plural form of the demonstrative pronoun for the distant objects is as above

and always takes a /fatah/ on the last letter. It must however be remembered that

beings and not for non human beings.

Lets use some examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic

.:
Singular: That is a father

. :
Plural: Those are fathers

Singular: That is a mother


. :
Plural: Those are mothers
. :


Singular: Who is that man?

:
Plural: Who are those men?

:
Singular: Where is that girl?

Plural: Where are those girls?


:

.:
Singular: That is a pilgrim

. :
Plural: Those are pilgrims

. :

Singular: That is a nurse

:
Plural: Those are nurses

Part
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10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.


) (

The Arabic sentence above means "Point to the following nouns using the demonstrat

objects". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and in

..... .....
(That is my sister) (That is my brother)

..... .....
(That is a new lady doctor) (Those are merchants)

..... .....
(Those are female teachers) (That is a student)

..... .....

(Those are the mothers of the students) (Those are the fathers of the s

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this section we will learn the plural form of two of the personal and two possessive p

willing):
Singular / Mascu

Example English Transliteration Arabic Plural Femi

(Arabic) (Ara

He /Huwa/

(He is tall)


They /Hum/

(They are tall)




His /Hu/

(His house)


Their /Hum/

(Their house)


She /Hiya/

(She is ill)


They /Hunna/

(They are ill)


Her /Ha/

(Her book)


Their /Hunna/
(Their book)

The plural of both the masculine and the feminine personal as well as possessive pronoun

human beings, e.g.:

======

They are teachers========== He is a teacher

======

Those are students they are from America == That is a student, he is from A

======

They are lady teachers ========== She is a lady teacher

======

Those are students, they are hard working=== That is a student, she is hard
Lets take some more examples for better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic

Singular: He is a
:
.
Muslim

.
:
Plural: They are

Muslims

:
Singular: I have an

elder brother, he is in .
the university

:
Plural: I have elder

brothers, they are in the

university
.
Singular: His father is a .:
doctor

. :
Plural: Their father is a

doctor.

.:
Singular: She is fasting

.:
Plural: They are fasting

Singular: She is a :
student, her house is

near the mosque



.
Plural: They are

students, their house is


:
near the mosque

.

Singular: Her book is in . :


the bag

. :
Plural: Their books are

in the bag

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exercise -

In this section, we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Change the subject of each of the following sen

necessary changes". For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the

demonstrative pronoun and other nouns to plural form and include the vowel marks.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Continued

In this part of lesson we will learn the use of verbs with some more pronouns In-Sh-A

already learnt the use of verbs with the pronouns in (Lesson No. 10 section 7).

Masculi
Singular /
English Transliteration Arabic Femini
Plural (Arabic)
(Arabi

He went /Dhahaba/


They went
/Dhahabu/

(masc. plural)

She went /Dhahabat/




They went
/Dhahabna/

(fem. plural)
English New form of verb Pronoun Simple Verb

He went
He

They went
They (masculine)

She went
She

They went
They (feminine)

Lets take some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic

Singular: He went to the

teacher :

Plural: They went to the


.
teacher

Singular: The student

.
went out with his

colleague

Plural: The students went


:

out with their colleagues

.
:

Singular: The boy sat in .


the restaurant

:
Plural: The boys sat in the

restaurant

.
:

Singular: She stood near .


the door

:
Plural: They stood near

the door

.
:

Singular: She wrote on the .



black board

:
Plural: They wrote on the

black board

:
Singular: Tahir's daughter

sat in the car


.

Plural: Tahir's daughters

sat in the car



:
.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.


The Arabic sentence above means "Change the following sentences to the plural". For eac

the full sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests
Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this part of lesson we will learn a new word: meaning "some". This word

grammatical rules already covered - i.e., it takes double /ammah/ when in nominative ca

accusative case and double /kasrah/ when in genitive case.

Similarly when it is annexed to a pronoun it takes a single /ammah/ if appearing in nom

if appearing in accusative case and single /kasrah/ if appearing in genitive case. Lets tak

understanding of this rule:

Picture English Singular



These women are nurses

Some of them are from



Italy and some of them

.
are from France


These men are pilgrims

Some of them are from



India and some of them

are from China


.

Those boys are students,


some of them are in the

class and some of them




are in the play ground

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions as in the example". Fo

the word to form an appropriate answer to the question, type out the full sentence

include the vowel marks.

)

(

(Christian Muslim)

Answers:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 14 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:


o We have learnt the plural form of the demonstrative pronouns for the distant objec

masculine as well as the feminine nouns

o We have also learnt the plural form of some more personal and possessive pronou

as the feminine nouns ("they "/ "their")

o We have learnt the plural form of the simple masculine as well as feminine verbs (e

Vocabulary Revision

They / Their
They (masculine

and feminine)

They went
They (feminine)

(masculine)

Some
They went

(feminine)

Italy
Visited

Christian /
\
The play ground

Christians

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Next Lesson

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following principles, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing):

o We will learn the plural form of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns (i.e. Yo

masculine nouns.

Singular/

Masculine Gr
Example English Transliteration Arabic
Plural
(Arabic)

(Arabic)


You

/Anta/
(Singular)
You are a



boy

You
/Antum/
Pro

(Plural)
Yo
You are boys


Your
/Ka/

(Singular)

Your book

(P

Your
/Kum/
A

(Plural)
Your (pl) Pro

book Yo

o The plural form of the simple masculine verbs connected to the pronoun:

Singular/

English Transliteration Arabic Masculine (Ar

Plural (Arabic)

You went /Dhahabta/



You all went /Dhahabtum/

o We will also learn the use of a new word:

Categories Examples

Which (Used as Muf)



Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Continued

In this section we will learn the plural form of two more pronouns In-Sh-Allh (God w

learnt the plural form of two of the detached and two possessive pronouns in (Lesson

Singular/

Masculine Gr
Example English Transliteration Arabic
Plural
(Arabic)

(Arabic)


You

/Anta/
(Singular)
You are a



boy

You
/Antum/
Pro

(Plural)
Yo
You are boys


Your
/Ka/

(Singular)

Your book

(P

Your
/Kum/
A

(Plural)
Your (pl) Pro

book Yo

If we use for a singular noun then we use for the plural nouns.

The same rule is applied for the possessive pronoun i.e., if we say ( Your pen) for

then say ( Your pen) for the plural nouns - i.e. the pen belonging to a group of peop

It must however be remembered that the personal pronouns are indeclinable i.e., they

ending with the change of case. So will have the same sukn on its last letter wh
nominative case or accusative case or the genitive case.

Lets take some more examples for better understanding of the rule:

English Transliteration Arabic Pr

Who are you?



/Man Anta/?

(masculine- singular)

/An libun/

I am a student

Where are you from?


/Min Aina Antum/?
(masculine - plural)
/Nanu Mina n/
We are from China

Where is your book? /Aina kitbuka/?



My book is in the bag /Kitbi fil aqba/


What is your language? /Ma lughatukum/

/Lughatun A niyyah/


Our language is Chinese

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes
Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn the conversion of a singular past form of the verb

Allh (God willing). In English the Past form of the verb does not change in plural form.

the park" becomes "We walked to the park". However, In Arabic different letters are add

verb and sometimes even the vowel ending is also changed to change a verb into the plu

only learn to change a singular verb for "you" to the plural verb.

For the past tense of a verb i.e., the following rules are applied

English

You (singular) went


Singular

You (plural) went



Plural

When a singular (masculine) verb is changed to a plural the vowel ending /fatah/ is re

the letter and a letter /meem/ with a /sukn/ on it is added as the last letter so

Gend
English Arabic Sentence
Ve

You (singular) went to the house


.

You (plural) went to the house


.

You went out of the class



.
You (plural) went out of the class

.

Oh boy! You sat on a chair



.


!
Oh boys! You (plural) sat on a

.
chair

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes
Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Read the example and then change the following sent

For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and include th

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Continued

In this lesson, we will learn a new rule related to the /Muf/ and /Muf Ilaihi/ In-Sh-

learnt in Lesson No. 5 section 2 that the /Muf/ is definite even though it doesn't have /al

the adjective of a definite noun is always definite, so when we add an adjective to a /Mu

e.g.:

English Arabic

The new house of the Imam


The boy's broken desk


The opened window of the room


It is important to identify above the adjectives and the /Muf/ and /Muf Ilaihi/.

Similarly when the /Muf Ilaihi/ (possessor) is a possessive pronoun, the adjective of su

is definite e.g.:
English Arabic

His new house


Its opened window


It must be remembered that the adjective of the /Muf/ (i.e. possessed noun) that it

same case as that of /Muf/ i.e.,

If the /Muf/ is in nominative case, the adjective will also take the nominative case e.g.:

English Arabic

The new book of the teacher


If the /Muf/ is in genitive case, the adjective will also take the genitive case e.g.:

English Arabic

The book is on the teacher's new desk

If the /Muf/ is a feminine noun, the adjective should also be feminine, e.g.:

English Arabic

The old bag of the boy

More examples:

Picture English Arabic


This is the old car of the director

The broken pen of the girl


.

The dirty shirt of the father


.

The sparrow on the big apple tree

The vast (spacious) garden of the



house
.



This story is from the old book of the

.
Arabic language

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.


o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Add the appropriate adjective to the following". For

out the full sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.

.......... ..........

(Old) (New)

........... ..........
(Closed) (Open)

......... .........
(Hard working) (Easy)

.......... ...........
(Clean) (Standing)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this lesson we will learn a new word


and the rules for its use In-Sh-Allh

interrogative article - i.e. it is used to ask questions. In Lesson No. 4 section 4 we have alr

of the interrogative articles. However unlike the other interrogative articles,


mean

/Muf/ (possessed), so any word that follows


will be treated as /Muf Ilaihi/ and wi

case with a /kasratain/. E.g.:

English Arabic

Which house is this?



However the word


will take different cases in different situations, i.e.:

o
will take a nominative case with a /ammah/, if it appears as - i.e.

example:
English Arabic

Which school is this?



o
will take a genitive case with a /Kasrah/, if it is preceded by a preposition, e.g.

English Arabic

In which room did you enter?



o will take an accusative case with a fatah/, if it appears as ( the


e.g.:

English Arabic

Which language do you like?




Lets take some more examples of this rule:

Picture English Arabic



Which day is this?

.

It is Saturday


Which month is this?

.
This is the month of Rajab


Which faculty is this?

.
This is the faculty of Commerce

In which school are you?


I am in the primary school



From which country are you?

.
I am from Jordan


Which book do you (all) like?


We like the book of Arabic language
.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip
Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.


:

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )




( ) ( )

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 15 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:


o We have learnt the plural form of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns (You / You

nouns

o The plural form of the simple masculine verbs connected to the pronoun

Vocabulary Revision

Your (all)
You (all)

Which

You (all) went

Chinese

France

French
Singular

Plural
Day

Saturday

Month

Faculty
Commerce

Engineering
Medicine

Primary school Middle school

Jordan
Road

Airport
The Islamic

Law

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.
o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing):

o We will learn the plural form of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns (You / You

nouns.

Singular/

Feminine Gr
Example English Transliteration Arabic
Plural
(Arabic)

(Arabic)



You

Anti


(Singular)

You went (D

Pro
You
Antunna

Yo
(Plural)

You (all)

went


Your

Ki
(Singular)
Your

mother


P
Your
Kunna

Your (all Pro
(Plural)

of your) Yo

mother

o The plural form of the simple feminine verbs connected to the pronoun:
English Transliteration Arabic

You went Dhahabti



You all went Dhahabtunna


o We will also learn the use of two new words:

English Arabic

Before

After

o We will also learn a new verb:

English Arabic
He returned

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued

In this section, we will learn the plural form of two more pronouns In-Sh-Allh (God-Willi

the plural form of some of the personal and possessive pronouns in (Lesson 14 section 4) and
Singular/

Feminine Gr
Example English Transliteration Arabic
Plural
(Arabic)

(Arabic)

You

Anti
(Singular)

You went



(D

Pro
You

Antunna
Yo
(Plural)

You (all)

went

Your

Ki
(Singular)
Your

mother


P
Your
Kunna

Your (all Pro
(Plural)

of your) Yo

mother

If we use for a singular pronoun then we use for the plural pronouns.

The same rule is applied for the possessive pronoun i.e., if we say ( Your book

pronoun, we will then say ( Your (i.e. all of your) book) for the plural pronouns.

It must however be remembered that the personal pronouns are indeclinable i.e., they

ending with the change of case. So will have the same /shaddah/ with a /fatah/ on
it is appearing in the nominative case, accusative case or genitive case.

Lets take some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Translation Transliteration Arabic Pro

Who are you?



Man Anti?

(feminine - singular)

An libatun
.
I am a student

Where are you from?


Min Aina Antunna?
(feminine - plural)
Nanu Mina n
We are from China

Where is your bag? Aina haqbatuki?



My bag is in my room Haqbat f ghurfat


What is your religion? Ma dnukunna?

Dnun al Islmu
.

Our religion is Islam

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Exercise -

In this section, we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .


Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued

In this part of the lesson, we will learn the conversion of a singular

verb to the plural verb In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing). We have already


covered that in Arabic different letters are added at the end of the

original verb and sometimes even the vowel ending is changed. In

this part we will only learn to change a singular verb for "you" to the

plural verb.

For the past tense of a (feminine) verb i.e., the

following rules are applied

English

You (singular) went

.
Singular

You (all) went

.
Plural
When a singular (feminine) verb is changed to a plural the vowel

ending /kasrah/ is replaced with a /ammah/ on the letter and a

letter noon with a /shaddah/ and /fatah/ on it is added as the last

letter so will be changed to .

Gender of
English Arabic Sentence
Verb


You (singular) went from the

.
school

You (all) went from the school



.
You went out of the room
.

You (all) went out of the room


.

Oh girl! You sat on a chair



.



Oh girls! You (all) sat on a

.
chair

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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Flashcards Tests
Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the questio

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:


The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Read the example and then change the followin

For each of the sentences, type out the full sentence using the words below and incl

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Adverbial Time Object -

In this part of the lesson we will learn a new grammatical term, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willi

form of a noun which indicates the time when an action has occurred. This type of nouns

Object - " or "The object of time " . In this part of the le

vowel ending of these words as well as the words following them, In-Sh-Allh (God-

nouns used as Adverbial Time Objects and we will learn two of them in this part of the less

English Arabic
Before

After

These nouns are a type of Object; therefore they always take the accusative case with a /

as /Muf/ (possessed) therefore the nouns following them will take the genitive case e.g.

English Arabic

I entered the house after the prayer



.

I went to the school before Ahmad

Lets take some more examples to understand this rule:


Picture English Arabic


Muhammad entered into the room

.
after a prayer.


Ayesha went to the university before

.
the lesson.



They (fem.) wrote the story after one

.

week.

I went to hospital a month ago.




.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Adverbial Time Object -

In this part of the lesson we will learn a new grammatical term, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willi

form of a noun which indicates the time when an action has occurred. This type of nouns
Object - " or "The object of time " . In this part of the le

vowel ending of these words as well as the words following them, In-Sh-Allh (God-

nouns used as Adverbial Time Objects and we will learn two of them in this part of the less

English Arabic

Before

After

These nouns are a type of Object; therefore they always take the accusative case with a /

as /Muf/ (possessed) therefore the nouns following them will take the genitive case e.g.

English Arabic

I entered the house after the prayer



.

I went to the school before Ahmad

Lets take some more examples to understand this rule:

Picture English Arabic


Muhammad entered into the room

.
after a prayer.


Ayesha went to the university before

.
the lesson.


They (fem.) wrote the story after one

.

week.

I went to hospital a month ago.

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Exercise:

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the princip

Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the question and

keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and use fu

answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with a vowe

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it comes

Do not put the small Alif on words like .


Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answe

For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Answer the following questions". For each of the s

sentence using the words below and include the vowel marks.


Fatima From the faculty of Midic


With my father Yes, we returned from the pla


Before an hour Before a week

After one day After one week

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued

In this part of lesson we will learn a new verb which means returned, In-Sh-Al

like all the other verbs we have learnt so far, takes the /fatah/ and is joined to the pron
the rest of the verbs. We will cover some present tense verbs below, please read the sent

these and we will cover the principles relating to the /Muri/ (present tense) verb later I

Lets examine some examples for this verb:

Picture English Arabic

Khalid returned from school

Aminah is returning from Iran


He (masc.) is returning from the

.
function

I am returning from my village

We are returning from Greece

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Lesson 16 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following:

o We have learnt the plural form of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns ("You

feminine nouns

o The plural form of the simple feminine verbs connected to the pronoun

o We have also learnt two "Adverbial Time Objects" - i.e. "before" and "after".

Vocabulary Revision :

Your (all)
You (all)

(fem.) (fem.)

Before
You (all) went

(fem.)

After
Returned

The carpet

You failed

(fem.)


Adverbial
The week



Time Object

A village
Greece

The hour

A day

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features we

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered in th

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh (G

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Next Lesson

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Flashcards Tests

Lesson 17 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things, In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

o We will learn that there are two groups or types of noun in Arabic that are treate

Irrational nouns. We will learn how to distinguish the type of a given noun:
English Transliteration Arabic

A student /libun/

Students /ullbun/
(Rational)

A book /Kitbun/


Books /Kutubun/

(Irrational)

o We will learn a new pattern of the broken plural:

Plural Pattern Singular



(Mosques) (A mosque)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

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Lesson 17 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
Continued

In this section we will learn about a new form of nouns In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

In Arabic, nouns are divided in two categories that do not exist in the English

Language. In Arabic nouns are either Rational or Irrational.

o Rational Nouns are those which refer to human beings. They are also called

intelligent i.e., . Besides human beings, angels, Jinn (in Islam), the

devil and such are included in this class. Some examples of rational nouns

are (doctor, boy, man) - i.e. .

o Irrational Nouns are those which refer to non human beings. They are also

called non-intelligent i.e., . Irrational nouns refer to non living

objects, animals, concepts and non human beings like trees and plants etc.

Some examples of irrational nouns are: tree, notebook, book - i.e.

In the singular form there is no difference between these two groups, however, there

is a very important difference in the plural form of these two groups. The plurals of

Rational Nouns are treated as Plural, whereas the plurals of irrational nouns are
treated as feminine singular. This concept takes some practice to understand and

we will cover some examples below In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

Below we can see how the pronouns that relate to the singular rational nouns are

changed in plural form, e.g. /Hdh/ (this) becomes (those) in plural

form.

o (this is a boy) if changed to plural will become

(these are boys)

o (he is a man) will become (they are men)

o ( that is a teacher) will become ( those

are teachers)

o (she is a student) will become . (they are

students)

We can compare this to the plural of Irrational Nouns. We can see below that

despite the nouns being plural, the pronouns that relate to these nouns are singular

feminine - this does not change the plural word itself, only how the plural is

treated and includes adjectives - i.e. an adjective following an irrational noun will be

feminine singular:
o (this is a dog) if changed to plural will become

(those are dogs).

o (he is a small donkey) will become

( they are small donkeys)

Lets look at some examples to understand this rule further:

English Arabic

This is a new student, he is from


.
Belgium


These are new students, they are

.
from Belgium

This is a new book, it is from


.
Belgium

These are new books, they are from

.
Belgium

Lesson 17 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Continued

We have already learnt in Lesson 13 section 7 that the Broken Plural is the plural form

of a word in which the original form of the word is changed to a great extent:

o E.g.: Some examples of English nouns as broken plurals are:

Man ======> Men

Woman ======> Women

o In contrast with sound plurals:

Book ======> Books


Door ======> Doors

For Arabic Nouns and Adjectives:

o There are more than twenty patterns of the broken plural for Arabic Nouns

and Adjectives. We have learnt some of them in previous lessons and will

learn one more pattern in this part of lesson In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

Plural Pattern Singular

(Mosques) (A mosque)

Lets take some examples to memorize this pattern:

Picture English Arabic

This is Hamid's note book


.
These are Hamid's note books
.

This is the teacher's desk



.

These are the teacher's desks



.

This hotel is expensive


.

These hotels are expensive



.

Lesson 17 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following:

o The Rational and Irrational Nouns

o A new pattern for the broken plurals

Vocabulary Revision

Irrational
Rational

Dog / Dogs
\ Donkey /
\
Donkeys

Belgium
Note-book /
\
Note-books

Desk / Desks
\ Hotel / Hotels

Expensive
Expensive

(masculine) (feminine)

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.


We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 18

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

o The dual form ( ) of the Arabic Nouns - i.e. the form that relates to

two of something. This is very important within the Arabic language and is

used frequently.

Sing. / Dual /
English Transliteration Arabic Masc. / Fem.
Plural
The teacher (Singular) /Al Mudarrisu/


Two teachers (Dual) /Al Mudarrisni/

(Masc.)

The teachers (Plural) /Al Mudarrisna/


The teacher (Singular) /Al Mudarrisatu/



Two teachers (Dual) /Al Mudarrisatni/

(Fem.)

The teachers (Plural) /Al Mudarristu/


o We will also learn the dual form of the Demonstrative Pronouns for the near

objects for both the masculine and the feminine objects (i.e. these and

those):
English Transliteration Arabic Sing. / Dual / Plural Masc. / Fem.

This (masculine) /Hdh/


These (two) /Hdhni/


These (all) /Huli/


This (feminine) /Hdhihi/


These (two) /Htni/


These all /Huli/


o And we will learn the Dual form of the Personal Pronouns for the third person:
English Transliteration Arabic Sing. / Dual / Plural Masc. / Fem.

He /Howa/

They (two) /Hum/


They all /Hum/


She /Hiya/

They (two) /Hum/


They all /Hunna/


o We will also learn a new interrogative Article in this lesson In-Sh-Allh (God

willing):
English Arabic

How many?

Lesson 18

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the following In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

o The dual form ( ) of the Arabic Nouns - i.e. the form that relates to

two of something. This is very important within the Arabic language and is

used frequently.
Sing. / Dual /
English Transliteration Arabic Masc. / Fem.
Plural

The teacher (Singular) /Al Mudarrisu/



Two teachers (Dual) /Al Mudarrisni/

(Masc.)

The teachers (Plural) /Al Mudarrisna/


The teacher (Singular) /Al Mudarrisatu/



Two teachers (Dual) /Al Mudarrisatni/

(Fem.)

The teachers (Plural) /Al Mudarristu/


o We will also learn the dual form of the Demonstrative Pronouns for the near

objects for both the masculine and the feminine objects (i.e. these and

those):
English Transliteration Arabic Sing. / Dual / Plural Masc. / Fem.

This (masculine) /Hdh/


These (two) /Hdhni/


These (all) /Huli/


This (feminine) /Hdhihi/


These (two) /Htni/


These all /Huli/


o And we will learn the Dual form of the Personal Pronouns for the third person:
English Transliteration Arabic Sing. / Dual / Plural Masc. / Fem.

He /Howa/

They (two) /Hum/


They all /Hum/


She /Hiya/

They (two) /Hum/


They all /Hunna/


o We will also learn a new interrogative Article in this lesson In-Sh-Allh (God

willing):
English Arabic

How many?

Lesson 18

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Dual -

In Arabic, nouns fall into three categories namely

o Singular - which relates to a single noun

o Dual - which indicates two of something

o Plural - which indicates more than two of something


In order to change a singular Arabic noun to the Dual the following steps are

involved:

o Nominative Case:

To change a singular masculine noun to the case of dual the following

changes occur:

The last letter of the word has its vowel replaced with a single

/fatah/ (i.e. replacing /the ammah/ or /dammatain/)

The suffix of is added to the word.

See some examples below:

o will become

o will become

To change a singular feminine noun with nominative case to the Dual,

the following changes occur:

The last letter /t marbah/ is changed to the letter

The last letter (which is now) has its vowel replaced with a

single fatah (i.e. replacing /the amma/ or /dammatain/),


The suffix of is added to the word.

See some examples below:

o will become

o will become

o Genitive and Accusative Case:

To change a singular masculine noun with accusative or genitive case

to the Dual:

A single /fatah/ is added on the last letter instead of the

accusative case with a /fatah/ or genitive case with a kasrah/

The suffix /Ya-Nn/ i.e., a Ya with /Sukn/ and /Nn/ with

a /Kasrah/ is added.

See some examples below:

o will become

o will become
To change a singular feminine noun with accusative or genitive case to

the Dual:

The last letter /t marbah/ is changed to the letter

A single fatah is added on the last letter instead of the

accusative case with a /fatah/ or genitive case with a /kasrah/

The suffix /Ya-Nn/ i.e., a /Ya/ with /Sukn/ and /Nn/

with a /Kasrah/ is added.

See some examples below:

o will become

o will become

Lets look at some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic

A brother in the house


.
Two brothers in the house
.

Two daughters with a teacher


Two daughters with two teachers

A book in the bag


Two books in the two bags

Lesson 18
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

continued

In this part of the lesson we will learn the dual form of the demonstrative pronouns

(i.e. this and that), In-Sh-Allh (God willing). In Arabic language the pronouns also

have dual form. We have already learnt the singular form of masculine and feminine

demonstrative pronouns for the nearby objects in (Lesson 1 section 1) and (Lesson

6_section 2) respectively. We have also learnt the plural form of the demonstrative

pronouns for the nearby objects for both the masculine as well as the feminine nouns

in (Lesson 13 section 2)

In this part of the lesson however, we will learn the dual form of the demonstrative

pronouns for the nearby objects representing the masculine and the feminine nouns,

In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

In order to change the demonstrative pronouns for the near objects (masc. and

fem.) to the Dual form, the following steps are involved:


o To change a demonstrative pronoun for the near object representing a

masculine noun to i.e., Dual form, i.e., a /Nn/ with a /Kasrah/ is

added, e.g.:

will become

o To change a demonstrative pronoun for the near object representing a

feminine noun to i.e., Dual form, the last letter ha is changed

to the letter and a single /Kasrah/ is replaced with a single /fatah/ and

the suffix /Alif-Nn/ i.e., a long vowel /Alif/ and /Nn/ with a /Kasrah/ is

added i.e.,

will become

Lets examine some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic


.
This is a pen

.
These are two pens

.
This is a girl

.
These are two girls

This boy is with your father


These two boys are with your father

.
.
This door is closed


These two doors are closed

Lesson 18

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Continued

In this part of lesson we will learn the dual form of the personal pronouns (he, she).

In Arabic language all types of pronouns have a dual form, not only demonstrative

pronouns. We have already learnt the singular form of masculine and feminine

personal pronouns for the third person (he / she) in (Lesson 4 section 7)
In this part of the lesson we will learn the dual form of the Personal Pronouns for the

third person representing the masculine and the feminine nouns, In-Sh-Allh (God

willing).

In order to change the personal pronouns for the third person representing

masculine and feminine nouns to the Dual form, the following steps are involved:

o To change a personal pronoun for the third person representing a masculine

noun ( ) to i.e., Dual form, the last letter i.e., a /Ww/ with a

/fatah/ is replaced with i.e., /Meem/ with /fatah/ and a long vowel

/Alif/, e.g.:

will become

o To change a personal pronoun for the third person representing a feminine

noun ( ) to i.e., Dual form, the genitive case /kasrah/ of the letter

/ha/ is replaced with the nominative case /ammah/ and the last letter

i.e., a /Ya/ with a /fatah/ is replaced with i.e., /Meem/ with /fatah/ and

a long vowel /Alif/, e.g.:


will become

Lets look at some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture English Arabic

.
He is a student

.
They both are students

.
She is a teacher

.
They are both teachers

This boy is poor, he is an orphan

as well

These two boys are poor, they are


.
both orphans as well

This girl is a student, she is very .


hard working


These two girls are students, they

are both very hard working

Lesson 18
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

How much- How many

In this part of the lesson we will learn a new Interrogative Article, In-Sh-Allh (God

willing). We have already learnt the use of Interrogative Articles in (Lesson 4 section

4).

In this part of the lesson we will learn the rules for the Interrogative Article

meaning (How many?), In-Sh-Allh (God willing). We have previously learnt that

the noun following an interrogative article takes the nominative case i.e., single

/ammah/ if the noun is definite and double /ammah/ if the nouns are indefinite.

However this rule does not apply to the noun following the interrogative article .

The following rules are applied for the use of the interrogative article :
o The noun following the interrogative article is mostly a singular indefinite

noun e.g.:

i.e., How many books do you have?

i.e., How many notebooks are with you?

The noun following the interrogative article always takes an accusative case i.e.,

/fatatain/ double-/fatah/ on the last letter. It must however be remembered that a

masculine indefinite noun takes an /Alif/ along with /tanwn/ in the accusative case but

the feminine indefinite noun ending in the /t marbah/ does not take the /Alif/ -

e.g.:

i.e., How many shirts (masculine noun) are these?

i.e., How many watches (feminine noun) are in your bag?

Lets look at some more examples for a better understanding of the rule:
Picture English Arabic


How many brothers do you

have Oh' Muhammad?

I have one brother


.


And how many sisters do

you have?

I have two sisters


.


How many wheels does a

bicycle have Oh' Hamid?

It has two wheels


.


How many Eid festivals are

there in a year Oh' Baquir?

There are two Eid festivals


:

in a year: they are Eid-ul-

Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha


.

Lesson 18

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:


o The dual form of the Arabic nouns,

o The dual form of the demonstrative pronouns for the near objects (this)

o A new interrogative article to ask "how many?"

Vocabulary Revision

The two
Dual

teachers

These two
The two lady

(masculine) teachers

They (dual)
These two

(feminine)

Two teachers
How many?

The two trees


Two bags

Two lady
Two girls

teachers

Two brothers
Two kitchens

Two boys
Two gardens

The two books


Two keys

Two pens
Two watches

Two note-books
Two doors

\

A ruler / Two A poor man /
\


rulers Two poor men
\
An orphan /
\ A wheel / Two


Two orphans wheels

An Eid festival /

The cycle
Two Eid
\
festivals

Eid-ul-Fitr
Eid-ul-Adha

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.


We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following things, In-Sh-Allh (God Willing):
o We will learn Number Phrase and the rules relating to the use of the numbers

1 to 10 for masculine nouns.

Arabic

English Transliteration

Phrase Number

One book /Kitbun Whidun/


Two pens /Qalamni Ithnni/


Three books /Thalthatu Kutubin/


Four men /Arbaatu Rijlin/




Five boys /Khamsatu Awldin/




Six Riyals (Saudi
/Sittatu Riyltin/


currency)

Seven doors /Sabaatu Abwbin/



Eight stories /Thamniyatu Aibbin/




Nine brothers /Tisaatu Ikhwatin/


Ten Quroosh /aasharatu Qurshin/



Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Number phrase (with one and two)- ) (


In this section we will learn the use of first two numbers in Arabic, In-Sh-Allh

(God Willing).
In Arabic language the phrase comprising of a number and a noun following that

number is called a Number Phrase i.e.,


The number is called /adad/ i.e., and the noun describing that number is

called /Madd/ i.e., the noun that the number is counting.

The number phrase for number "one" and "two" are treated as an Adjective Phrase.

We have already learnt the rules for the Adjective Phrase in ( Lesson 9 section 2)

The nouns for the numbers "one" and "two" always precede the number i.e., they

come before the number, and the number following them is treated as an adjective

of these nouns, i.e..: the number will take the same case as the noun and it will take

the same gender.

Let us take some examples:

o One book will be translated as

o Two chairs will be translated as

In Arabic the numbers (one and two) i.e., - are usually omitted and

the single or the dual form is considered to be sufficient to suggest the meaning of
(one and two) i.e., in order to say one glass it is sufficient to say , and in

order to say two glasses it is sufficient to say . However the words

- are used for emphasis.

Lets take some examples to understand this rule:

Picture Translation Arabic

One pen is on my desk


.

I saw one soldier


.

Ali sat on one chair

.
These are two brothers
.

I visited two friends


.

You stood on two desks

Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -
In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.


For more instructions click here.

) (

The Arabic sentence above means "Write the two numbers, one and two and make

the following words as nouns for these two numbers - once with one and then with

two". In each of the boxes below type the word again followed by the numbers one

and then two (in the next box) using the keyboard (as above) including the vowel-

marks and punctuation. Each word is repeated tw

It must be noted that the dual form of is and not

Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Number phrase (from 3 to 10) -
)(

In this part of the lesson we will learn the Arabic numbers from 3 to 10 and the rules

relating to their use, In-Sh-Allh (God Willing).

In Arabic language, for the numbers 3 to 10, the following rules are applied:

o The number always precedes the noun, i.e., the noun always appears after

the number, e.g., meaning "Three pens"

o The noun should always be in plural form whereas the number always appear

in singular form, e.g., meaning "Four soldiers"

o The number will take different cases according to the situation, but the noun

will always take the genitive case, i.e., meaning "Seven days"

o The noun is mostly indefinite, and hence it takes the double /kasrah/ e.g.,

meaning "Ten people"

o The number of the masculine noun is always feminine with a /t marbah/

as the last letter i.e., whenever there is a masculine noun, the number for

that noun should always be in feminine form e.g., meaning

"5 men".

Let us cover some examples for a better understanding of the rule:


Picture Translation Arabic

In the house, there are three


.
boys.

Ahmad sat with six teachers

Wajid ate nine grapes

Khalida visited eight countries

Nasir opened four doors

In my bag there are five pens

Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -
In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.


For more instructions click here.

The Arabic sentence above means "Write the numbers within the brackets in

words and make the given words as nouns for them". Type out the words and numbers

and include the vowel marks

Lesson 19

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the formation of the number phrase and the rules

relating to its formation


Vocabulary Revision

The number
The number

phrase

One
The numbered

noun

Three
Two

Five
Four

Seven
Six

Nine

Eight

A soldier
Ten

Grapes
\ Countries / A
\
country

Pockets / A
\ Passengers / A
\
pocket passenger

Quarsh / Quroosh

The bus
\
(Qursh = 1/10th of

Riyal)

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).


Lesson 20 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following, In-Sh-Allh (God willing):

o We will learn Number Phrase with the feminine noun as /Madd/:

Arabic

English Transliteration

Phrase Number

One bag /aqbatun Widatun/


Two note books /Kurrsatni Ithnatni/



Three gardens /Thalthu Hadqtin/

Four magazines /Arbau Maalltin/


Five nurses /Khamsu Mumarridhtin/



Six teachers /Sittu Mudarristin/


Seven schools /Sabu Madrastin/


Eight buses /Thamn filtin/


Nine girls /Tisu Bantin/





Ten rooms /ashru Ghurafin/

Lesson 20 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Number phrase -

In this section, we will learn the use of the first two numbers in Arabic, In-Sh-Allh

(God Willing) relating to feminine /Ma'dood/. To recap the rules we learnt in the

previous section:

We have already learnt in the previous lesson that in Arabic language the phrase

comprising of a number and a noun following that number is called a Number Phrase

i.e.,
the number is called /A'adad/ i.e., and the noun
describing that number is called /Ma'adood/ i.e., the noun for that

number.

The number phrase for number "one" and "two" are treated as an Adjective Phrase.

We have already learnt the rules for the Adjective Phrase in (Lesson 9 section 2)

The nouns for the numbers "one" and "two" always precede the number i.e., they

come before the number and are treated as the adjective of that number i.e.:

o The noun will take the same case as the number.

o It will take the same gender.

o It will always be an indefinite noun.

For example:

o One note-book will be translated as

o Two faculties will be translated as

Lets use some more examples to understand this rule:

Picture Translation Arabic


One cow is in the field
.

I have two daughters


.

He read one book


.

She studied two stories


.

The books are in one bag

The boys are in two gardens

Lesson 20 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.
o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:

The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.

) (
The Arabic sentence above means "Write the two numbers, one and two and make

the following words as nouns for these two numbers - once with one and then with

two". In each of the words below simply type the word again with the numbers one

and then two using the keyboard (as above) including the vowel-marks and

punctuation

Lesson 20 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Number phrase -

In this part of the lesson, we will revise the Arabic numbers from 3 to 10 and the

rules relating to their use, In-Sh-Allh (God Willing). In Arabic language, for the

numbers 3 to 10, the following rules are applied, this is revision with examples of

feminine /ma'dood/:

o The number always precedes the noun, i.e., the noun always appears after

the number, e.g.:

o meaning "Three sisters"


o The noun should always be in plural form whereas the number always

appears in singular form, e.g.:

meaning "Four words.

The number will take different cases according to the situation, but the

noun will always take the genitive case, e.g.:

meaning "Seven universities".

The noun is always indefinite, and hence it takes the double /Kasrah/

and no /alif-laam/ e.g.:

meaning "Ten paternal aunts".

o The number of the feminine noun is always masculine .i.e., whenever there is

a feminine noun, the number for that noun should always be in masculine

form e.g.:

meaning "Five women"

Lets use some examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Picture Translation Arabic


I have three note-books
.


She went to five different lady

.
doctors

You sat with six friends

Hameeda visited eight cities

Lesson 20 -
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following:

o We have learnt the Number Phrase with the feminine noun as /Ma'adood/

Vocabulary Revision

Two
One

Four
Three

Six
Five

Eight
Seven

Ten
Nine

\
Two chickens / One Two faculties / One
\

chicken faculty

Two daughters / One


\ Two libraries / One
\
daughter library

Two sisters / One


\ Two lady doctors /
\
sister One lady doctor

Two magazines / One


\ Two stories / One

\

magazine story

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:


o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-Allh

(God willing). Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Introduction

In this lesson we will learn the following In-Sh-Allh (God-willing):

o We will learn about the words which do not have tanwn i.e.: double Vowel

sign in any case. These types of words are called Diptotes in English and

in Arabic. There are many reasons that will

cause a word to fall under the classification of a diptote. Examples are listed

below along with their reason for falling under this classification:

English Reason for not having Tanwn Arabic

Fatima (name) Feminine Proper nouns do not have Tanwn


Hasnaa (name) Feminine Proper nouns do not have Tanwn



Hamda (name) Feminine Proper nouns do not have Tanwn


Hamza (name)
Masculine Proper nouns ending in "T Marbah" do not

have Tanwn

Masculine Proper nouns on pattern of do not have


Anwar (name)

Tanwn
Black
Adjectives on the pattern of do not have Tanwn

Thirsty
Adjectives on the pattern of do not have Tanwn

Pakistan Non-Arabic Proper nouns do not have Tanwn



o Some of the patterns of Broken Plurals do not have Tanwn e.g.:

English Pattern of Broken Plural: Arabic

Doctors

Agents

Mosques

Keys

Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Un-Nunated Nouns -


In this lesson, we will learn about the words which do not have Tanwn .i.e., the

double vowel sign on the last letter, In-Sh-Allh.

In Arabic language most of the nouns and adjectives have Tanwn. However there

are certain cases when the Tanwn is omitted, these include:


o When the noun or adjective is annexed to the definite article : We have

already learnt in (Lesson 3_section 1) that when a noun is annexed to the

definite article then it does not take the double vowel. e.g.:

The word will become

The phrase
if annexed to will be

o When the noun is Muf: We have learnt in (Lesson 5_section 2) that Muf is

definite by position, therefore it cannot take Tanwn. e.g.:

The word if annexed to it will become

o When a noun is preceded by the Vocative Article : We learnt in (Lesson

5_section 7) that when a noun is preceded by the vocative article, the double

vowel sign on the last letter is replaced with a single ammah. e.g.:

The word
- when preceded by the vocative article the

double vowel sign on the last letter is replaced with single ammah, so

it will become

Lets review some examples to revise these rules:

Reason for un-

Picture Translation nunation (removal of Arabic

Tanwn)


'Book' is annexed with
The big book


the definite article


The book of Arabic
Possessive Expression


Language


The husband is in the Annexed to the definite


field article
.


Oh Waheed where did Preceded by Vocative


you go? Article


He is the Dean of the
Possessive Expression

.
University

Oh girls, where is the Preceded by Vocative



food? Article


Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the

principles we have learnt In-Sh'-Allh (God-Willing). To answer the questions:

o Type the complete answer for the following questions by selecting the

question and using the on-screen keyboard or your actual keyboard.

o Use the Shift key to enter characters on the upper portions of the letters and

use full diacritics in your answers e.g. fathah, kasrah, sukn etc.

o Do not use diacritics in the following cases:


The Alif followed by laam ( while the laam itself can be signed with

a vowel)

The laam followed by alif ( while the Alif itself can be signed when it

comes with hamzah).

Do not put the small Alif on words like .

Do not put diacritics on long vowels.

o Upon completion of all questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct

answer and to get your mark.

For more instructions click here.

) (

The Arabic sentence above means Write the reason of un-nunation. For each of

the words. Write the grammatical rule (in Arabic) that has caused the removal of

nunation. The 3 possible reasons are:

o (Annexation of noun in the possessive case)


o (Definite Article)

o (Vocative Particle)


(Oh Muhammad) (The expert doctor)



(The students of the class) (The Lord of the Universe)


(This family is big) (Oh Adam)


(The Arabic magazine) (Creator of the Universe)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Our Native Arabic Tutors are available

Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Diptotes -

In this section we will learn about the Diptotes In-Sh-Allh (God-willing).

In the Arabic language, there are certain nouns and adjectives which never have

Tanwn. These types of nouns and adjectives are called Diptotes in English and

in the Arabic language.



There are different groups but in this lesson we will learn only the following groups of

such words:

o Feminine Nouns: All the feminine proper nouns (i.e. names), suffixed by the

feminine sign or otherwise never have Tanwn. e.g.:

o Masculine Nouns: The masculine proper nouns (i.e. names) with T Marbah

as the ending letter do not take Tanwn. e.g.:


o Masculine Proper nouns on the pattern of : All the masculine proper

nouns (names) which resemble the pattern of never have Tanwn. e.g.:

o Masculine Proper Nouns on any Pattern of verb as: - etc.: All

the masculine proper nouns which resemble these patterns of verb never

have Tanwn. e.g.:

Lets take some examples for better understanding of the rule:

Reason of Un-
Picture Translation Arabic
nunation

Nadia went out of

.
the house



Feminine Proper This is Asma, she is

.
Noun my sister


Maryam ate the

.
food

Masculine Proper



Noun on the pattern The professor's

of name is Ajmal
.
Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Exercise -

In this section we will have multiple questions to test your understanding of the principles we ha

Allh (God willing).

Choose a word from column that can be used to complete the sentence in column . Click on a

that you would like to answer (this will be highlighted) then click on its suitable complement in

completing all possible questions, click on the Mark button to see the correct answer and obtain you



The sentence above means "Distinguish the Nunated and un-nunated nouns and explain the reaso

For each of the sentences in the column ) (there is a matching reason in the column ) (to expl

word in red is un-nunated. The current order of the reasons in column )( is not correct an

the matching reason and write this down - the correct order can be found in the Answers after yo

the question.

Please write the following answers with a pen and paper joining the letters. It is important that

writing skills in the duration of this course to master the language In-Sh-Allh (God-willing). This

vocabulary. To hear the pronunciation of any of the words or vocabulary, click on the word/ sentenc

( ) ()


( )
(Masculine noun on pattern of )

(Sara went to her house)

( )
(Feminine Noun)

(The room's window is big)


( )
(Possessive Expression)

(Ummaya is an intelligent studen

( )
(Masculine Noun with T Marbah as ending letter)

(A boy ate the food)

( )
(Masculine noun on pattern of )

(O' Naseem did you come back from sc



( )
(Vocative particle)

(Ahmad went out with Rashid)

(Definite Article )
( )
(Yazeed is in the class with the teac

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Diptotes -

In this section we will continue learning about the Diptotes In-Sh-Allh.

Some of the other types of the un-nunated nouns are:

o Adjectives on the Pattern of : The adjectives on the pattern of d

sign i.e., they are diptotes. e.g.:


( Thirsty)

( Angry)

(Full)

o The adjectives on the pattern of : All the adjectives on the pattern of

they never take Tanwn. e.g.:

( Red)


( Black)

( White)

o Non Arabic Proper nouns: Most of the non Arabic proper nouns are unnunated an

Tanwn. e.g.:

The Biblical Names: Most of the Biblical names do not take Tanwn e.g., na

i.e.:
etc. because they are not deri

Other Foreign Arabicised Names: All the foreign names which have been A
on them e.g.:

etc.

o Exception to this Rule: However the non Arabic names comprising of three radica

Lets review some examples for a better understanding of the rule:

Reason of
Picture Translation Arab
Unnunation

Adjectives on the I went out of the


Pattern class room and I am

angry

Adjectives on the


Pattern This colour is green
.



Foreign Arabicised Pakistan is a Muslim

.

Nouns country



Ishaq is an
Biblical Noun

.
intelligent student


Foreign Arabicised January is the first

.

Words month of the year

Lesson 21 -
Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Diptotes (continued) -


In this section, we will learn about one more group of the Diptotes, i.e. another type

of the un-nunated noun In-Sh-Allh.

Some of the Patterns of Broken Plurals: There are some patterns of broken plurals

which never take Tanwn i.e., the double vowel sign e.g.:

o i.e., ( Colleagues)

o i.e., ( Rich)

o i.e., ( Mosques)

o i.e., ( Lamps)

Lets take some examples for better understanding of the rule:


Reason of
Picture Translation Arabic
Unnunation

Where are your



colleagues?


Broken Plural on
In the street there are

the Pattern

.
poor people


Many partners went

.
together

Broken Plural on
They are friends
.

the Pattern

These merchants are

.
rich


There are a lot of

.
schools in this village.

Broken Plural on

the Pattern These are beautiful

mosques.
.


These are wooden

.
desks.

Golden keys are for the

.
Broken Plural on house

the Pattern


These handkerchiefs

.
are dirty

Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

The Diptotes (continued) -



In this section, we will learn about one more group of the Diptotes, i.e. another type

of the un-nunated noun In-Sh-Allh.

Some of the Patterns of Broken Plurals: There are some patterns of broken plurals

which never take Tanwn i.e., the double vowel sign e.g.:

o i.e., ( Colleagues)

o i.e., ( Rich)

o i.e., ( Mosques)

o i.e., ( Lamps)

Lets take some examples for better understanding of the rule:

Reason of
Picture Translation Arabic
Unnunation

Broken Plural on Where are your



the Pattern colleagues?

In the street there are

.
poor people


Many partners went

.
together

They are friends


.

Broken Plural on

the Pattern


These merchants are

.
rich

There are a lot of

.
schools in this village.

Broken Plural on

the Pattern These are beautiful

mosques.
.


These are wooden

.
desks.

Broken Plural on

the Pattern Golden keys are for the

house
.

These handkerchiefs

.
are dirty

Lesson 21 -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following:

o We have learnt the plural form of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns

referring to the masculine nouns

o The plural form of the simple masculine verbs connected to the pronoun
Vocabulary Revision

Angry
Thirsty

Mosques
Agents

The farm
Keys

Food
Director


The Lord of the
Expert


Universe

The magazine
The Creator of

the Universe

Filled
Doctors

Black

White

Jacob
Red

Jesus
Isaac

David
Pakistan

Moscow

London

January
Tehran

Loot
Noah

Green
Golden

Wooden

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 22 -
Cases of Diptotes -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Cases of Diptotes -

In this part of the lesson, we will learn the cases of the Diptotes In-Sh-Allh (God

Willing) i.e.,

Unlike the ordinary nouns, "The Diptotes" do not take double vowel mark. Similarly,

Diptotes do not take /Kasrah/ in the genitive case.

We know that the noun takes the genitive case i.e., single /Kasrah/ if it is definite

e.g. and double /Kasrah/ if it is indefinite e.g.


, when

it is in the possessive expression (annexation) or when it is preceded by a


preposition.

However diptotes take /fatah/ instead of a /Kasrah/ if


in genitive case. We have already learnt in the previous lesson i.e., ( Lesson 20 section

4) that Diptotes are those nouns or adjectives which never take /tanwn/ i.e., Double

Vowel Mark. So whenever a diptote noun is preceded by a preposition or is /Muf

Ilaihi/ it will take a /fatah/ instead of a /Kasrah/ - for example - Ahmad's book i.e.,

The same is the case with all the other groups of diptotes we have learnt so far.

Lets take some examples for this rule:

English Transliteration Arabic

Where are you from? /Min aina Anta/?


.

I am from Pakistan /Ana min Bakistan/
What is your name? /Mas muka/?

.

My name is Anwar /Ismi Anwaro/

With whom did you



/Maa man rajata/?
return?


/Rajatu maa Ahar, huwa
I returned with Athar, he

is my friend
adq/
.

/Mdh akalta fil ghadi/?



What did you eat in the

meal?

I ate a fish
.
/Akaltu samakatan/

Talha neither drinks in
/ alatu l yashrabua f

golden nor silver cups.


fanana dhahabiyyatin wal

f fanana fiiyyatin/

Lesson 22 -

Cases of Diptotes -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Cases of Diptotes -

In this section, we will learn the accusative case of diptotes In-Sh-Allh (God

Willing):
Previously we have learnt only one situation when a noun takes the accusative case

and that is:

o When the noun is the object of a verbal sentence i.e.,

o However, since the diptote does not take a /tanwn/, if it is used as the object

of a verbal sentence it will take a single /fatah/ instead of double vowels

e.g.,

Lets review some examples to understand this rule:

Picture Translation Arabic

Yusuf entered buildings


.

The guests went out of hotels




.

I bought wooden desks

Nasir took the keys of the house

The boy bought a black pen

Lesson 22 -
Cases of Diptotes -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o The declension of the diptotes in the accusative case (as a direct object of the

nominal sentence)

o The declension of the diptotes in the genitive case (after a preposition or in

Ifa expression (annexation))

Vocabulary Revision

Fish
The meal



Golden Paris

London
Jeddah

The guests

Wooden

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 23 -
Noun and its Types

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Noun and its Types


In this part of lesson we will learn the first type of the definite noun i.e., Proper Noun

and its cases In-Sh-Allh.

A proper noun is the name of a specific person, thing or place e.g., Hamid ,

Quran , Madinah . Proper nouns can include the names of countries,

people, states, tribes, rivers or oceans and the mountains. The proper nouns

take the cases similar to the ordinary nouns i.e., Double ammah when in

nominative case, Double Fatah when in accusative case and Double Kasrah when in

genitive case.
However the proper nouns which are Diptotes follow the rule of diptotes that we

have read in previous lessons.

Lets take some examples for this rule:

English Transliteration Arabic

Ahmad is brave Amadu Shuaun


.


Fatima is at the shore Fimatu ala Shi'i al Bar-

.
of the Red Ocean il-Amari


I rubbed the Black
Masatu Al aara al Aswada

.

Stone

I drank the Zamzam


Sharibtu M'a Zamzama
.
Water
This is Tariq Mountain Hdh abalu riqin
.

Lesson 23 -

Noun and its Types


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Pronouns and their Types


In this section we will learn the Pronouns, In-Sh-Allh (God-willing).

In the previous lessons we have learnt that in Arabic language there are two types of

Pronouns namely Attached Pronouns


and Detached Pronouns


.
Similar to the English Language, the Arabic Pronouns are divided by 1st. person ( I /

We), 2nd. person (You) and 3rd. person (He / She / They).

Example: Person Arabic

I / We 1st.

You 2nd.

He / She / They 3rd.



We can see the detached pronouns that we normally use for the different persons

below as well as the attached pronouns which we will cover in more detail below.

Attached Singular / Plural /


Meaning: Gender of person: Arabic: Person:
Pronoun: Dual

I Singular
Masculine or
1st
Feminine
We Plural
Masculine or

Feminine

You Singular Masculine


You Dual Masculine


You Plural Masculine


2nd

You Singular Feminine


You Dual Feminine


You Plural Feminine


He Singular Masculine
3rd
She Singular Feminine

They Dual
Masculine and

Feminine

They Plural Masculine


They Plural Feminine


o The Attached Pronoun for 1st Person Singular is for both masculine and feminine

e.g., (my bag (fem.)) and for Plural it is for both the masculine and

feminine (our religion)

o The Attached Pronouns for 2nd Person are as follows:

2nd Person Singular Male = e.g., meaning "Your house"


2nd Person Singular Female = e.g., meaning "Your book"

2nd Person Dual for both masculine and feminine = e.g.,

meaning "Desk of both of you"

2nd Person Plural masculine = e.g.,


meaning "The

teacher of all of you".

2nd Person Plural feminine = e.g., meaning "The room

of all of you"

o The Attached Pronouns for 3rd Person are as follows:

3rd Person Singular Male = e.g.,


meaning "His ruler"

3rd Person Singular Female = e.g., meaning "Her

kitchen"

3rd Person Dual for both masculine and feminine = e.g.,

meaning "School of both of them"


3rd Person Plural masculine = e.g., meaning "Their play

ground".

3rd Person Plural feminine = e.g., meaning "Their

duty

It must be remembered however that the noun followed by the attached pronoun is

always a definite noun and therefore it does not take a double vowel.

Lets review some examples to understand this rule:

Picture Translation Arabic

.
He is the owner of the house.

.
This is his house

They have come to Egypt


.

These are their hotels.
.

You are a student and Muhammad is



.
your teacher


You and your colleagues have read

.
the book

I am Khalid and China is my country


.


Muhammad and I are colleagues, our


.
houses are near the Masjid

Lesson 23 -
Noun and its Types

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following new words:

Vocabulary Revision

English Arabic English Arabic

The black stone Makkah





Proper Noun
Brave

The beach

The Red Sea

Rubbed
The Zamzam Water

Busy
Book of Allah (God)

Cave of Hira
Son of Mary

Duty
The Holy House

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:


o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 24

Noun and its Types (continued...) -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Introduction
In this lesson, we will learn about the Demonstrative Pronouns

and Relative Pronouns


in detail.

In previous lessons we have learnt the basics of the Demonstrative Pronouns (see

Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 6, Lesson 7|L007_001.html||, Lesson 13, & Lesson 18) and

Relative Pronouns in (Lesson 9, & Lesson 12).

"A Demonstrative Pronoun is a noun that represents the near or the distant object.

o We know that in English "This" is used to point to the near singular object and

"That" is used for the distant object and "These" is used to point towards the

near Plural Objects and "Those" is used for the Distant Objects. However

different nouns are not used for the Dual (in English language) and there is

no difference of gender i.e., the same nouns are used for the masculine as

well as the feminine.

o In Arabic however, different Demonstrative Pronouns are used for singular,

dual and plural objects. Similarly different Nouns are used for the masculine

as well as the feminine.

Demonstrative

English Transliteration Gender/Number Arabic

Nouns


Hdh Masculine/Singular

This

Hdhihi Feminine/Singular

Hdhni Masculine/Dual

These

two
)(
Htni Feminine/Dual

These all Huli


Masculine & Feminine/

Plural

Dhlika Masculine/Singular


That

Tilka Feminine/Singular

Those
)(
Dhnika Masculine/Dual
two
Tnika Feminine/Dual

Those all 'ulika


Masculine & Feminine/

Plural

o Following are the examples for the Demonstrative Pronouns:

Picture English Arabic

This is a book
.

This is a notebook
.

That is a cow
.
These are two books
.

These are two cows


.

These are men


.

Those are guests


.

"A Relative Pronoun is a noun which refers or relates to some noun preceding it".

o The Arabic Relative Pronouns have different forms for singular, dual and

plural as well as for masculine and feminine.

Relative

English Transliteration Gender/Number Arabic

Nouns
Al-Ladh Masculine/Singular

Who/That

Al-Lat Feminine/Singular

Al-ladhni Masculine/Dual


Those two/Who


(dual)

Al-latni Feminine/Dual

Al-ladhna Masculine/ Plural



Those all/Who

(all)

Al-L Feminine/Plural

Lets take some examples of the Relative Pronouns:

English Arabic
This is Muhammad who has passed
.

This is the door which is in front of the mosque

That is the cat that has sat


.


Those are the brothers who went to the

.
University

Lesson 24

Noun and its Types (continued...) -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Demonstrative Pronouns & their types


In this part of lesson we will learn all the Demonstrative Pronouns i.e., singular, dual

and plural for masculine as well as feminine objects, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing).

In the previous section we have already defined the Demonstrative Pronoun as "A

Pronoun which is used to represent a near or distant object".

In Arabic language there are different Demonstrative Pronouns for the dual objects

and they are:

o for dual masculine near object

o for dual feminine near object

o for dual masculine distant object

o for dual feminine distant object.

Lets review some examples of the Demonstrative Pronouns


Picture English Arabic

This is a pen
.

This is a bag
.

These are two books


.

These are two baskets


.

These are doctors


.

These are nurses

That is the road


.

That is a car
.

Those are two boys


.

Those are two broom sticks


.
Those are scholars
.

Those are the lady doctors


.

Lesson 24

Noun and its Types (continued...) -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Relative Pronouns -

In this part of lesson we will learn all the Relative Pronouns i.e., singular, dual and

plural for masculine as well as feminine objects, In-Sh-Allh (God-Willing).


In the previous sections we have already defined the Relative Pronoun as A Pronoun

which refers or relates to some noun preceding it ".

In Arabic language there are different Relative Pronouns for the singular, dual and

plural objects which are illustrated below:

Relative

English Transliteration Gender/Number Arabic

Nouns

Al-Ladh Masculine/Singular

Who/That

Al-Lat Feminine/Singular


Al-Ladhni Masculine/Dual

Those two/Who


(dual)

Al-Latni Feminine/Dual
Al-ladhna Masculine/ Plural

Those all/Who

all

Al-L Feminine/Plural

Lets review some examples to understand this rule:

Picture Translation Arabic

He is the


owner of the

house who

went out of the


.
house.


This is the

student who

won the prize


.
They are the
two students


.
who work hard

in the class

They are those

who cheat in
.
the exam

These are the


two students

(female) who

are hard
.
working

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Lesson 24

Noun and its Types (continued...) -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Revision

In this lesson we have learnt the following things:

o We have learnt all the forms of the Demonstrative Pronouns referring to the

nouns

o All the forms of Relative Pronouns referring to the masculine and the feminine n

Vocabulary Revision
These two
These two

(masculine) (feminine)

Those two
Those two

(masculine) (feminine)

Two Oranges
Two baskets

Two broom
Favourite

sticks

Muslim
Famous

Believers (feminine dual)

Respectful
Faithful

(feminine dual)

who (masculine
Who (feminine

dual) dual)

Who (masculine
Who (feminine

plural) plural)

She won They cheat



Noble (feminine
He sent them

plural)

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional features

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of confusio

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics covered

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-All

Lesson 25

The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Introduction -

In this lesson we will learn the difference between the declinable and the non-

declinable words, In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing).

We will study that the vowel endings in the declinable nouns are changeable

according to the grammatical case and according to the position in the sentence. You

can see a noun like /kitb/ signed with /ammah/ on its end in a certain

situation , and signed with /fatah/ in another situation , and signed

with /kasrah/ in a third situation . This change in the ending of the word

(according to its position in the sentence) means that the word is declinable.

Consider the declension of the noun /kitbun/ in the following examples (please read

from right to left):


Declension Sentence

Explanation

Case Sign English Arabic

The word /kitbun/ is a

predicate, so it is in the
Nominative ammah This is a book.
.
nominative case signed with

ammah on its end

The word /kitban/ is a direct


object, so it is in the accusative
Accusative Fatah I took a book.
case signed with fatah on its
.
end


The word /al kitbi/ is Muf
The color of the
ilaihi, so it is in the genitive case Genitive Kasrah

.
book is beautiful.
signed with kasrah on its end

We will also learn the indeclinable words, i.e. the words which do not change

according to their position in the sentence. The indeclinable words have constant
endings whatever their position in the sentence is. Consider the ending of the

demonstrative noun /dhlika/ in the following three sentences:

Indeclension Sentence

Explanation

Place of (case) Sign English Arabic

Although the word /dhlika/


is a subject in the nominative
Nominative Thats right.

.
case, but it is signed with

fatah as a constant ending.

Fatah
The word /dhlika/ is a direct

object in the accusative case;


Accusative
(always
I know that.
.
it is signed with fatah as a
indeclinable on

constant ending.
the fatah)

Although the word /dhlika/

is a Marur noun in the Genitive I doubt that.



genitive case, but it is signed
with fatah as a fixed ending.
.

Lesson 25

The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Continued...

Any Arabic word is either declinable or indeclinable. The declinable words are the

words that have the feature of changing their endings according to their

grammatical position in the sentence. The indeclinable words are those words

that do not have that feature (i.e. their vowel endings never change whatever

their grammatical position is). Arabic language (like most Semitic languages) is

classified as a declension language. The declension language is the language in

which we distinguish the position of each word by certain signs above or below each
word, while in the non-declension languages (e.g.: English) we guess the position of

each word in the sentence from the word form and the word order in the sentence.

Consider the following two English sentences:

o The man killed the snake.

o The snake killed the man.

In the first sentence, we understand that the killer is the man, while he is the one

killed in the second sentence. We understand this meaning from the word order (i.e.

the doer comes before the direct object).

In Arabic the doer is that which is in the nominative case (i.e. signed originally with

ammah) regardless of its order in the sentence, and the direct object is that which

is in the accusative case (i.e. signed originally with fatah) regardless its order in the

sentence. Consider the following two sentences:

Explanation English meaning Arabic sentence


The killer here is the man because the noun is
The man killed the snake.

.
signed with the ammah (nominative case)

The killer here is the snake because its noun is


The snake killed the man.

signed with the ammah (nominative case)
.
while the man is signed with fatah (direct

object)

This means that you have to learn the declension cases and signs in order to speak

and to understand properly Arabic Language. In these lessons we will help you learn

the different grammatical cases of words and the signs related to each case In-

Shaa-Allaah (God willing).

In spite of this, there are some types of Arabic words which have constant (fixed)

endings, without consideration to their position in the sentence. These are called

the indeclinable words.

Arabic words are divided into three categories: nouns, verbs and articles. The

general rule of the nouns is that they experience declension, so the indeclinable

nouns are an exception to the rule. The general rule of the verbs is one of

indeclension, so a few cases of verbs are declinable. The articles are all indeclinable

(without exception).

In the next part (part 3) we will learn the declinable nouns and in part 4 we will learn

the indeclinable nouns.

The declinable and the indeclinable verbs will be studied in part 6 of this lesson.

And finally the indeclension of the articles we be studied in part 8.

Lesson 25
The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

The declinable nouns


The majority of Arabic nouns are declinable. The general rule of the nouns is that

they experience declension, so the indeclinable nouns are an exception to the rule.

We will learn in this part the rules related to the declinable nouns In-Shaa-Allaah

(God willing).

Any declinable noun has many possible changes (declensions) in its ending according

to its grammatical case and to its position in the sentence. There are many positions

that the noun can occupy in the sentence. There are also many forms that affect the

sign (vowel ending) of the noun. Lets first study the grammatical cases of the noun

and then we can study the different signs of each case.

A. The grammatical cases of the noun:


o To understand the vowel ending of a declinable noun you first have to know

the grammatical case of the noun. The grammatical case of any noun can be

nominative, accusative or genitive depending on the position which the noun

occupies in the sentence. In this language course we learn which nouns are in

the nominative case, which are in the accusative case and which are in the

genitive case.

o Some examples of nouns in the nominative case (which will be studied in later

lessons) are:

The type of noun / position in

Example Will be the sentence which causes it to

Picture detailed in be the nominative case

lesson no.:
English Arabic English Arabic

The teacher The doer (of

explained
Lesson 64 the verbal

the lesson sentence)

.


The subject (of
The cat is
Lesson 58 the nominal


beautiful.
sentence)

The predicate

The stone
Lesson 58
(of the

.
is heavy. nominal

sentence)


The pro-agent
The bag
Lesson 65 (of the passive

.
was stolen.
voice verb)

o Some examples of nouns in the accusative case (that will also detailed in later

lessons):

Will be The type of noun / position in the


Picture Example
detailed in sentence which causes the
lesson no.: accusative case

English Arabic English Arabic


The The direct
teacher
Lesson 66
object (of


explained the verbal

the lesson sentence)


.




Indeed, the The noun of

cat is Lesson 60 /inna/ and its

beautiful.
sisters

The stone The

became

Lesson 59 predicate (of

heavy. the nominal

sentence)

The boy

stayed
Lesson 71 The status

lonely.

o Some examples of nouns in the genitive case (that will also detailed in later

lessons):

The position in the sentence


Example Will be

which causes the genitive case


Picture detailed in

English Arabic lesson no.: English Arabic





The

The noun
teacher

stood in Lesson 76
after the


preposition
the
(Marr)
class.

.

The
This is
annexed
the cat
Lesson 05 noun (al

.
of the
muf
girl.
ilaihi)

From the above mentioned examples we understand clearly that the nouns position

in the sentence determines its grammatical case and the different positions of the

nouns will be the main topics of the coming lessons In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing).

Once we distinguish the nouns position and grammatical case, we can automatically

think about the sign of the ending of the noun. This will be detailed in the next point:
B. The sign of the ending of the declinable noun:

o The nominative noun is originally signed with ammah on its end, the

accusative is originally signed with fatah and the genitive is originally signed

with kasrah. The original signs occur when the noun is in the basic form. If

the noun is not in the basic form (i.e. dual, sound plural etc.) we have to use

the secondary signs. Therefore we will have many signs for each case

(original signs and secondary signs).

o The following table summarizes the ending signs of the nouns according to

the grammatical cases and different reasons for taking the original sign or

secondary sign in each case:



Example

Picture
English
Reason Sign Case

The book
-
Main sign
is beautiful


Nominativ

)(


The two

doctors are

clever
.
Dual

)(

The
employees
-

attended

(came).
.

)(
Sound

masculine

plural



Your

.
father
came.

Five nouns

-

I read the
Main sign
book.

)(
Accusative


I saw the

two

teachers.

Dual

)(

-

These are
not

employees


)(

.

Sound

Long vowel
masculine
plural

-


I do not

have a


moustache

Five nouns
)(


I saw the

clever

female


doctors.

Sound
)(
feminine
plural



In the

book, there

is a
Main sign


beautiful

lesson.

)(

Genitive

-
This is the

house of

the two

Egyptian
Dual

men.
)(

.


I talked to
the -



employees

.

Sound

masculine

plural )(



Long vowel

Go to your


.
brother.

Five nouns

-
This

woman is

from

Damascus.


. )(

diptotes

Please remember that the above mentioned secondary signs and their reasons will

be studied in detail in later lessons In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing). This summary is

supposed to be a guide to the coming lessons and to show you that the declinable

nouns have many forms (of declension) based on many factors.

Lesson 25

The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

The indeclinable nouns


We learnt earlier that the majority of Arabic nouns are declinable and the

indeclinable nouns are an exception to the general rule. We also learnt that the

indeclinable noun is the noun which has a constant (fixed) ending regardless of its

position or grammatical case in the sentence. Following are the types of the

indeclinable nouns:

1. The pronouns
:

o The pronouns are considered nouns in the Arabic grammar, because the

words in Arabic are divided into only three categories; nouns, verbs and

articles. Therefore the pronouns, the demonstratives and the relatives are

subdivisions of nouns.

o All pronouns (detached or attached) are indeclinable. Therefore each pronoun

will remain in its original form irrespective of whether it is in place of

nominative, accusative or genitive.

o We will not study the pronoun divisions in detail right now; this will be

detailed in many lessons (lesson 44 to lesson 48). Here we will learn some
examples which will help us to understand the rules above. Consider the

following examples:

Vowel Sentence

Picture ending of Pronoun

the pronoun English Arabic

Fatah
This is your friend

.
speaking with you


They are

hardworking

Sukn
workers. They

indeed work in the

field (farm).
.

Fatah (for

the attached

form) and He is Omar and

ammah for this is his father

the whom he likes.


.
detached

form

ammah

for the
detached We study our

.
and long lessons.

alif for the

attached

2. The demonstrative pronouns


:
o The demonstratives such as ( this), ( this; for feminine), (

these; for dual masculine), ( these; for dual feminine), (

these; for plural), ( that), ( that; for feminine), ( those; for

dual masculine), ( those; for dual feminine), ( those; for plural)

are considered below. These demonstratives are studied in detail in lesson 24.

o All demonstrative pronouns are indeclinable except for the dual masculine and

feminine forms which are declinable as detailed in the declension of the dual

(lesson 18 and lesson 55). Consider the following examples:

English Arabic

Do you know this? This is Muhammad.


.

I passed by this man yesterday.


.
o In the above mentioned examples we notice that the demonstrative pronoun

(hdh) falls in different positions (direct object, subject, and Murr) but it

still has the same ending (long vowel ).

o More examples:

English Arabic


Do you know these (people)? These are

.
the new employees.

o You will notice that /huli/ above is indeclinable on kasrah on its ending

regardless it grammatical position (direct object or subject as above).

3. Relative pronouns :

o The Arabic relative pronouns such as ( who/which), ( who/which

for feminine), ( who/which for dual), ( who/which for the dual

feminine), ( who/which for plural), ( - who/which for


plural feminine) are considered below. Please note that we have already

learnt the relative nouns in lesson 24.

o All relative nouns are indeclinable except for the dual masculine and feminine

which follow the general declension of the dual nouns (as detailed in lesson 18

and lesson 55). Consider the following examples:

Picture English Arabic


The workers who are in the field

.
are active.

I saw (those) who are in the


.
field.

I passed by (those) who are in


.
the field.
o In the above mentioned examples, the relative noun has a constant

ending (fatah) whether it is in place of nominative (in the first example),

accusative (in the second example) or genitive (in the third example).

4. Interrogative (questioning) nouns



:

o All the interrogative nouns as ( what?), ( who?), ( where?),

( how?) etc. are indeclinable. These will be learnt in lesson 41 and

lesson 42 In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing). Consider the following examples:

Picture English Arabic

Where is Airport street?


Where are you (both) from?



o You may notice that the interrogative (questioning) noun is indeclinable,

as it has a constant ending whether it is in the place of nominative (in the

first example) or in the place of genitive (in the second example).

5. Conditional nouns
:

o The conditional nouns such as ( whoever), ( whatever), (

whenever), ( wherever) etc. are all indeclinable nouns. These will be

learnt in detail in lesson 49 In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing). Consider the

following examples:

Picture English Arabic


Whenever you feel pain, you visit

the doctor.
//ayyna tashuru bil-alami, tadhhab il a-

abb-i//

Wherever Muhammad meets his .


teacher, he greets him.

//aynam yaid muhammadun ustdhahu,

yusallim alayh-i//

o In the above mentioned examples the conditional nouns are indeclinable.

6. Verbal nouns :

o We will learn in lesson 50 that the verbal nouns are the nouns which have the

meaning of verbs and forms of nouns (i.e. they are not conjugated as verbs),

e.g.: ( hush), ( ah, or I feel pain) etc.

o All the verbal nouns are indeclinable. Consider the following examples:
Picture English Arabic


I suffer from this pain

/hi min hdh al-al'ami/

Stop releasing (releasing)


malicious rumors.

/mah an ilqi ash-shiti al-khabthati/

o The verbal nouns in the above mentioned examples are indeclinable, i.e. they

have their own constant ending regardless their position in the sentence.

In addition to the six types of indeclinable nouns mentioned above there are some

indeclinable adverbs (e.g. since), and some allusive nouns that are indeclinable

(e.g.: in such a way).


There are also some nouns which are occasionally indeclinable (i.e. they are

originally declinable, but they are indeclinable in some situations) as follows:

1- The single person addressed by the call (lesson 82), e.g. (oh man).

2- The composite numbers from eleven to nineteen (except the first part of

twelve as it is dual) detailed in lesson 26, e.g.: ( fifteen).

3- The noun of (l) of the generic negation when the noun is singular indefinite

and not annexed (detailed in lesson 61), e.g.: ( No doubt in

this).

With this we end the declinable and the indeclinable nouns. After the exercises we will start

Lesson 25

The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

The declinable and the indeclinable verbs

The general rule is that the verb should be indeclinable and the declinable verbs are

an exception to the rule.

The verbs in Arabic are divided into three types; past, present and imperative.

The past and the imperative verbs are always indeclinable. The present verbs are

generally declinable except for two situations; when the verb is attached to the /nn/

of the feminine plural


or attached directly to the /nn/ of

confirmation (the emphatic suffix); in these two situations the present verb is

indeclinable.

Lets now study each of the three types of verbs:

1- The past verb ( will be studied in detail in lesson 39):

Originally, the past verb is indeclinable with a fatah on its end, e.g.: ( he

wrote he arrived he talked). If the past tense verb is ended with


a vowel, we consider it indeclinable on a virtual (supposed) fatah on its end, e.g.:

he threw, he invited.

When the past verb is attached to a pronoun, it may be indeclinable on another sign

according to the suffixed pronoun as follows:

o Indeclinable on sukn when attached to the following pronouns:

a) The t of the doer :

E.g. I wrote
you (masculine) wrote you

(feminine) wrote you (plural) wrote you (feminine

plural) wrote.

b) The n of the (first person) doers :

E.g.: we wrote.

c) The /nn/ of the feminine third person plural :



E.g.: they (feminine) wrote.

o Indeclinable on ammah when attached to ww of the plural

masculine :

E.g.: they wrote.

Other than the above mentioned situations, the past verb should be indeclinable with

a fatah.

Consider the following examples:

Picture English Arabic


Have you written the

homework, Marwan?

/hal katabta al-wiba ya Marawan?/

.
The employees completed the

work.

/Al-muwahaffn akmal al-amal/


Nurses helped patients much

/al-mumarriatu sad-na al-mar kthran/


The teacher explained the new

.
lesson.

2- The imperative verb ( will be detailed in lesson 40):

The imperative verb is always indeclinable. The imperative verb is to be addressed

only to the second person (i.e. ) . The ending

sign on which the imperative is indeclinable depends on the attached pronoun which

is suffixed to the verb as follows:


o If the imperative is addressed to ( ) it will not be suffixed to a doer

pronoun, so it will be indeclinable on sukn, e.g. write.

o If the imperative is addressed to ( you feminine), ( you both) or

( you plural), it will be indeclinable on the elimination of the final nn

, e.g.: respectively.

o If the imperative is addressed to the feminine plural ( ) it will be

indeclinable on the sukn , e.g.: .


The Arabic grammarians says that in order to memorize these signs of the

indeclension of the imperative you have to match them with the azm case of the

present conjugation (see lesson 36 part 6).

Consider the following examples:

English Transliteration Arabic


Oh Muhammad, write your lesson. Y Muammadu uktub darsaka

Write your lesson, oh Fatimah! Y Fimatu uktub- darsak-i


Write your lesson, oh both of you
Y libn-i uktub- darsakum


[two] students!

Write your lesson, oh students! Y ullb-u uktub- darsakum

3- The present verb :


As a rule the present verb is declinable. Exceptionally, it is indeclinable in two

following situations:

o When it is attached to the /nn/ of the feminine plural .


o When it is attached directly to the /nn/ of comfirmation .

Therefore we will learn the declinable present verb first and then its two indeclinable

cases:

a- The declension of the present verb

(this topic will be detailed in lesson 36)

The present verb is originally declinable, i.e. its vowel ending is changeable

according to its position in the sentence as follows:

o If it is not preceded by an accusative or jussive article, it should be in the

indicative case .

o If it is preceded by an accusative article


as ( to not) it

will be in the accusative case .



o If the present verb is preceded by a jussive article such as (

not dont), it will be in the jussive case .

Consider the following examples:

Notes Translation Example

The present verb is not preceded

by an accusative or jussive

article, so it is regularly in the Will you live in Egypt?





indicative case signed with

ammah on its end.




The present verb is preceded by

an accusative article, so it is in No, I will not live in Egypt but I



the accusative case signed with just want to visit it.

fatah on its end.



The present verb is preceded by

a jussive case, so it is in the Muhammad has not drunk the


.
jussive case signed with sukn milk

on its end.

The present verb is preceded by

a jussive case, so it is in the


Do not stay up long at night.

.
jussive case signed with sukn

on its end.

As you notice in the above mentioned examples, there are three cases for the

present declinable verb; the indicative (nominative), the accusative, and the jussive

case. For each case there is a main sign (vowel ending); the ammah for the

indicative, the fatah for the accusative, and the sukun for the jussive case. These

original signs should be replaced by secondary signs if the verb is attached to some

pronouns (as detailed in lesson 37 named the five verbs). Consider the secondary

signs in the following examples of the so-called five verbs:

Arabic verb in the indicative


Jussive case Accusative case English meaning
case
They (plural) drink

You (plural) drink


They (dual) drink


You (dual) drink


You (feminine) drink


In the above mentioned table we notice that the five verbs are those that are

attached to the pronoun of the plural masculine third person, the plural masculine

second person, the dual third person, the dual second person, and the feminine

second person. In the indicative case they are signed with the firmness of the final

/nn/, and in the accusative and jussive case they are signed with the elimination of

the /nn/. Again we remind you that this will be repeated with more details and

examples in lesson 37 In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing).


b- The indelension of the present verb :

We learnt earlier that the present verb is indeclinable in two situations:

1- The first situation of the indeclinable present verb is when it is attached to the

/nn/ of the feminine plural . In this situation the present verb


will be indeclinable on the sukn regardless ofthe grammatical case or the

preceding articles. Consider the following examples:

Arabic verb in the indicative


Jussive case Accusative case
case

They (feminine) did not write They (feminine) will not write They (feminine) write

You (feminine plural) did not You (feminine plural) will not You (feminine plural) write
write write

o In the above mentioned examples, you may notice the equality of the form of

the present verb in the three cases. This is because it is indeclinable, i.e. it

has a constant ending.

2- The second situation in which the present verb is indeclinable is that when it is

attached directly to the /nn/ of confirmation (emphatic article)

. In this situation the present verb is indeclinable on fatah. This will

be detailed in lesson 97 In-Shaa-Allaah (God willing). Consider the following

examples:

Jussive case Accusative case Arabic verb in the indicative case

. .
.
Do not think that the matter is so I will never go with bad companions. I will visit my friend tomorrow (for

easy. sure)

In the above mentioned examples, you may notice that the present verb is

indeclinable with a fatah (regardless of whether it is in the indicative, accusative or

jussive case).

To apply this rule on the the present verb, the attachment to the emphatic /nn/ has

to be a direct attachment (i.e. without separation). If there is a separating pronoun

in the middle, the verb returns back to its original declension (as detailed in lesson

97).

the declinable and indeclinable verbs

The Declinable and the non-Declinable

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Articles -
All articles In Arabic are indeclinable without any exception.

We cannot study all the Arabic articles in one lesson; rather we will learn each type

of article in its own grammatical topic and lesson. Here we will gain a general idea

about how they are indeclinable.

There is no rule for the vowel ending on which the article is indeclinable (some of

them are indeclinable on fatah, others on sukn, others on long vowel, etc.)

Therefore you have to memorize the vowel ending of each new article you learn. The

following table contains some examples of each type of article and their sign of

indeclension:

Category Sign of indeclension Meaning Article

Sukn From

Preposition

Sukn About

Sukn of long vowel To



Sukn of long vowel On

Sukn of long vowel In


Kasrah With

Kasrah For

Fatah And

Coordinating articles Sukun Or



Sukun Rather, but

Sukun But

Fatah Indeed

Annular article (sisters of /inna/) Fatah If only! (Would that!)



Fatah But

Fatah I hope (it is hoped)


Interrogative Article
Sukun Is?



Fatah Is?

Conditional article
Sukn If


Sukn If

Accusative article
Sukn To



Sukn Will not

Jussive article

Sukn Did not



Answering article

Sukn Yes

Negating article

Sukn of long vowel




No

N.B.: Exceptionally, the vowel ending of some articles may change when followed by

a sukn on the first letter of the following word as in the following examples:
Example

Note

English Arabic

The vowel ending of /minn/ is changed from sukn into


From home

fatah, because the following sound is sukn

The vowel ending of /ann/ is changed from sukn into About the

kasrah, because the following sound is sukn moon

The vowel ending of /Aw/ is changed from sukn into The night or

kasrah, because the following sound is sukn the day

The vowel ending of /hal/ is changed from sukn into Is the square

kasrah, because the following sound is sukn far?

In the above mentioned examples the articles are indeclinable with virtual signs

which were found on the single article before the structure and the vowel ending is

changed (for phonetic reasons).

Lesson 25

The Declinable and the non-Declinable


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Revision -

In this lesson we have learnt the following:

o The declinable nouns which are changeable in their vowel endings according

to their grammatical positions in the sentence.

o The indeclinable nouns which have constant endings regardless their

positions, cases or grammatical functions in the sentence.

o The indeclinable nouns are divided into 6 main categories:

1. Pronouns
.

2. Demonstrative pronouns
.

3. Relative pronouns
.

4. Interrogative nouns

.
5. Conditional nouns
.

6. Verbal nouns
.

o The declinable and the indeclinable verbs.

o Examples of the Arabic articles (many types). We also learnt that all articles

are permanently indeclinable.

o Several new words as summarized in the following table:

Vocabulary Revision

English Arabic English Arabic

Declinable
Indeclinable/structured

Right/true
I doubt

It has been stolen


The snake

Pro-agent
He explained

Damascus
Diptote

The field
Yesterday

I passed by
The employees

Active (pl.)
Conditional nouns

Whenever
Wherever

Hush
The pain

Releasing
Rumors

In a such way
Malicious

Since
The nn of plural feminine

The t of the doer


N of the plural doers


Ww of the third
Emphatic nn


person plural

Bad companions If only





It is hoped that
But

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

Lesson 26

Composite Number (B)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Introduction

We learnt in lesson 19 and lesson 20 the numbers from 1 to ten as applied for

masculine and feminine numbered nouns.

In this lesson we will learn the numbers from 11 to 19 In-Sh-Allh (God willing).

The topics that will be covered include:

o The numbers ( ) "aada ashar" (eleven) and ( )

"ithn ashar" (twelve) in a special section, and the special rules relating to

these numbers.

o After that we will cover the numbers from ( ) "thalthata

ashar" (thirteen) to (
" )tisata ashar" (nineteen).

o We will answer some questions relating to the numbers, such as:


What are the situations in which a number will be masculine or

feminine?

Are numbers declinable or indeclinable?

The ending of the numbered noun


(the name

comes after a number)

Below we will cover some examples. Read the examples carefully and then study

the rules that follow in future sections:

Number With masculine With feminine

"'a aada ashar ustdhan" "'at id ashrata ustdhatan"

Eleven professors came Eleven lady professors came

"Dhahaba ithn ashar muhandisan" "Dhahabat ithnat ashrat muhandisatan"


Twelve engineers went out Twelve lady engineers went out

"ra'aytu ithnai ashara muhandisan" "raaytu ithnatai ashrata muhandisatan"

I saw twelve engineers I saw twelve lady engineers


" aarat thaltha ashrata mudarrisatan"

"fil-fali thalthata shara liban"


Thirteen lady teachers attended

Thirteen students are in the class

" qaratu arbaata ashara kitban" "qaratu arbaa ashrata qiatan"


I read fourteen books I read fourteen stories


"nimtu khamsa ashrata satan"

"raatu bada khamsata ashara yawman"


I slept for fifteen hours

I came back after fifteen days

"dhabatu sitta ashara dkan" "dhabatu sitta ashrata daaatan"

I slaughtered sixteen roosters I slaughtered sixteen hens

"daawtu sabata ashara duan" "allaitu saba ashrata rakatan"


I invoked seventeen supplications I prayed seventeen Rak'ahs

"muammadun indahu thamniyata ashara


"Fatimatu indah thamni ashrata adqatan"
adqan"

Fatimah has eighteen friends


Muhammad has eighteen friends

"hdh a-iflu umruh tisata ashara


"hdh al-waladu umruh tisa ashrata sanatan"
yawman"

This boy is nineteen years old


This child is nineteen days old
o We will also learn the numbers from 20 to 99, which include two parts: (1)

decade numbers (i.e. 20, 30,90) and (2) the other numbers:-

"ra'aytu ishriin baladan" "'a thalathn raulan"

I saw twenty countries Thirty men came

The composite number may include two numbers connected with the ( ) (and):-

"ra'aytu ithnai[n] wa ishrn baladan" "'a widun wa thalthn raulan"

I saw twenty-two countries Thirty-one men came

Lesson 26

Composite Number (B)


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Numbers 11 and 12

In this part we will learn the two numbers " aada ashara" (eleven)

and " ithn ashara" (twelve), as they are similar to each other with the

exception of declension.

Before we consider the gender of the number, we need to understand the gender of

the noun that is being referred to. If the noun is feminine then the number will also

be feminine, likewise with the masculine noun / masculine number. To change the

number " aada" to feminine


"id" we can add the long vowel Alif (alif

maqrah) to the word ending, and change the initial Hamzah to



be signed with kasrah ( ), and to change the sign of the medial (H) from the fatah

to the sukn to become


"id". The number " ithn" can be made

feminine by adding the letter " t" to be " ithnat".

The number should be identical with the numbered noun (that comes after the

number) in gender (masculine and feminine). For example:

'a aada ashara ustdhan

Eleven professors came

o The number here is masculine because the numbered noun after it is

masculine.

o But we say:

'at ida ashrata ustdhatan

Eleven lady professors came.


o The number here is feminine because the numbered noun is feminine.

The same applies to the number " ithn ashara" (twelve). For example:

Dhahaba ithn ashara muhandisan

Twelve engineers went out.

o The number here is masculine because the numbered noun after it is

masculine.

o But we say:

Dhahabat ithnata ashrata muhandisatan

Twelve female engineers went out.

o The number here is feminine because the numbered noun is feminine.

We will now cover the number ( " ) aada ashara" (eleven) in more

detail In-Sh-Allh (God-willing).


The word-ending of the two words " aada" and
"ida" are

"mabniyah", i.e. static or indeclinable in all cases of grammar this means that they

do not change their endings in nominative, accusative or genitive case. Let us look

at some examples below to illustrate this point:

Case: Transliteration: English: Arabic:


Umri aada ashara
The nominative case I am eleven years old.
man


Ra'aytu ida ashrata
The accusative case I saw eleven girls.


bintan

The genitive case


Askunu maa aada I live with eleven


ashara liban students.

We will now cover the number " ithna ashar" (twelve) in more detail In-

Sh-Allh (God-willing).

The two words " ithna" (masc.) and " ithnata" (fem.) are dual nouns. In

the nominative case, we say " ithna" and " ithnata" while in the accusative

and genitive cases we say " ithnai" and " ithnatai":

Case: Transliteration: English: Arabic:


The nominative case a ithna ashara
Twelve students came.
liban

(masculine)

The nominative case at ithnata ashrata Twelve female students

libatan

(feminine) came.


The accusative case Ra'aytu ithnai ashara
I saw twelve students.
liban

(masculine)


The accusative case Ra'aytu ithnatai I saw twelve female

ashrata libatan

(feminine) students.

The genitive case for the number twelve will take the same form as the example in

the table above for accusative case.

Lesson 26

Composite Number (B)


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Numbers from 13 to 19-


In this section we will study the numbers from 13 to 19. These numbers have the

same rules, therefore we will study them in one section In-Sh-Allh (God-willing).

The composite numbers from 13 to 19 e.g. ( " ) thalathata ashara"

(thirteen) - are composed of two parts. The gender of each part depends on the

gender of the noun that is being referred to. The first part is always opposite to

the gender of the noun, and the second part is the same gender as the numbered

noun.

The first part may be feminine ( " )thalathata" (three) or may be masculine

( " )thalatha". The second part may also be feminine (" )ashrata"
(ten) or may be masculine ( " )ashara" (ten). As above, the rule we apply

here is related to the noun (that comes after the number). Here are some examples:

Transliteration: English: Arabic:



There are thirteen students in
Fil-fal thalathata ashara liban


the class.


Thirteen lady teachers attended.
aarat thalathu ashrata


mudarrisatan


Dhabatu sittata ashara diikan I slaughtered sixteen roosters.


This boy (young man) is

Hdha al-waladu umruhu tisa


nineteen years old.

ashrata sanatan

In these examples, the first part of the number is opposite in gender to the

numbered noun, while the second part is similar to it.

Now we will explain the word-ending of the number and the numbered noun.

o The two parts of the composite number for numbers from 13 to 19 e.g.

( " )thalathata ashara" (thirteen) - have a fixed vowel, namely

( )short vowel Fata, at the end of both parts.

o The numbered noun in this case always ends with a ( )short vowel

Fata. Take the following examples:

Fi qaryati saba ashrata ilatan


There are seventeen families in our village.

Fi fali tisata ashara adiiqan

I have nineteen friends in the class.

o [Note that the "n" at the end of ilatan and adiiqan is the ( )Tanwn

(nunation; the root to pronounce the letter N), but both words end with the

short vowel Fata]

Lesson 26

Composite Number (B)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Numbers (20, 30, 40 etc.) -

There are numbers in the Arabic language that are called ( " )alfaah

al-uquud" (20, 30, 40 etc.):

Numbers in letters (accusative or genitive Numbers in letters


Numbers in digits
case) (nominative case)


20

ishriina ishruun


30

thalathiin thalathuun

40

arbaiin arbauun


50

khamsiin khamsuun


60

sittiin sittuun


70

sabiin sabuun

thmnuun
80

thmniin


90

tisiin tisuun

Alfaah al-uquud are declinable, to which the rules of ( )

"amu mudhakkar slim" (regular masculine plural) are applied. They always end

with ( " )-uun" or (" )-iin" according to their position in the sentence. Here

are some examples:

English: Transliteration: Arabic:

Twenty Muslims came a ishruun musliman



The Muslims came a al-muslimuun



The Muslim came a al-muslimu




I saw twenty Muslims Ra'aytu ishriin musliman

I saw the Muslims Ra'aytu al-muslimiin



I saw the Muslim Ra'aytu al-muslima





Askunu maa ishriin
I live with twenty Muslims



musliman

I live with the Muslims Askunu maa al-muslimiin




I live with the Muslim Askunu maa al-muslimi




Sometimes a composite number consists of two numbers connected with (wa and),

such as:

These are twenty-one teachers

Huli widun wa ishruun ustdhan



These are twenty-one lady teachers

Huli ida wa ishruun ustdhatan


I read twenty-five books

Qaratu khamsatan wa ishruun kitban



My friend read twenty-seven stories

Darasa adiiqi saban wa ishriin qissatan


The price of my clothes is fifty-five pounds.

Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin unaihan


I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnataini wa ishriin waraqatan


I have twenty-two garments.

Indi ithnn wa ishriina ilbban

We notice here that the first number before ( ) "wa" (and) is similar to the numbers

1 and 2, as we studied in the previous part. This means that numbers ( )

"wid" (one) and ( " )ithnn" (two) should be masculine or feminine according

to the numbered noun. For example, the numbers in the following sentences are

masculine because the numbered noun in each is masculine:


Huli widun wa ishruuna ustadhan

These are twenty-one teachers.

indi ithnni wa ishruun ilbban

I have twenty-two garments.

The numbers in the following sentences are feminine because the numbered noun in

each is feminine:

Huli ida wa ishruuna ustadhatan

These are twenty-one lady teachers.

Katabtu ad-darsa fi ithnatayni wa ishriin waraqatan

I wrote the lesson in twenty-two papers.


As a revision of lessons 19 and 20 - we have already learnt that the numbers from 3

to 9 should be opposite to the numbered noun, i.e. the first part should be masculine

if the numbered noun is feminine. For example:

Darasa adiiqi saban wa ishriin qiatan

My friend studied twenty-seven stories.

Alternatively, the first part should be feminine if the numbered noun is masculine.

For example:

Thawbi bikhamsatin wa khamsiin unayhan

(I bought) my garment (for) fifty-five pounds.

Note: the numbered noun after the decade numbers is always singular and in the

accusative case (mansb ) (ending, originally, with the short fatah, a).

For example:

Male professor/teacher

Ustdhan


Female professor/teacher

Ustdhatan


Book

Kitban



Story

Qiatan


Pound

unayhan

Paper

Waraqatan


Long garment (for men and women)

ilbban

Lesson 26

Composite Number (B)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Hundreds and thousands

The last lesson in the composite number is the numbers of hundreds and

thousands, as follows:

500 400 300 200 100

khamsumiah arbaumiah thalthmiah miatn miah

1000 900 800 700 600

alf tisumiah thamnimiah sabumiah sittumiah

5000 4000 3000 2000


khamsatu alf arbaatu alf thalthatu alf alfn

9000 8000 7000 6000

tisatu alf thamnitu alf sabatu alf sittatu alf

These numbers are declinable on the short vowels of declension based on their case

e.g.:

o Short fatah a in accusative case

o short kasrah i in genitive case

o short ammah u in nominative case

Sign of declension Sentence and numbers

)(
Ending in short ammah (u) a miatu raulin

One hundred men came.


)(

Raaytu miata raulin

Ending in short fatah (a)

I saw one hundred men.


)(

Dhahabtu maa miati raulin

Ending in short kasrah (i)

I went out with one hundred men.

The short vowels (ammah, fatah and kasrah) appear on the first part of the

composite numbers from 300 (thalthumiah) to 900 (tisumiah), such as ( )

"thalth" (three), ( " ) arba" (four), ( " )khams" (five), (


" )tis"
(nine), etc, and the second part ( " )miah" (hundred) always ends with the short

vowel kasrah "i", for example:

Sign of declension Sentence and numbers


)(

Istamarra al-Islam fi al-andalus akthara min thamni-

Ending in short kasrah (i)


miati min

Islam continued in Andalusia more than eight hundred

years.

)(

Ending in short fatah (a)



Qaratu al-yawma arbaa-miati baytin min ash-shir

I read four hundred lines of verse today.


)(

Haara thalthu-miati raulun ila amriica

Ending in short ammah (u)

Three hundred men emigrated to America.

Numbers 1000 "alf", 2000 "alfn", 3000 "thalthatu alf", etc., have the same rules

of tens numbers 100, 200, 300, etc. For example:

Sign of declension Sentence and numbers

)(

a alfu raulin
Ending in short ammah (u)
One thousand men came.


)(

Raaytu alfa raulin

Ending in short fatah (a)

I saw one thousand men.


)(

Dhahabtu maa alfi raulin

Ending in short kasrah (i)

I went out with one thousand men.


)(

Haara thalthatu alfi raulun ila amriica

Ending in short ammah (u)

Three thousand men emigrated to America.


)(

Ending in short fatah (a)


Qaratu al-yawma thalthata alfi baytin min ash-shir

I read three thousand lines of verse today.


)(

Rtibi aktharu min thalthati alfi unayhin

Ending in short kasrah (i)

My salary is over three thousand pounds.

Note: the numbered noun after numbers of hundreds and thousands is always

singularLesson 26

Composite Number (B)

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Revision -

Vocabulary Revision

Units of Ten
Slaughtered

numbers

My salary
Rooster

Emigrated
Invoked

Rent
Engineer

Line of verse

Club

Died
Family

Attended
Stayed

Live

Floor

Meeting
Pray

War
Rakah

Cow
Paper

Field
Garment

Dictionary
Fasted

Continued

Now that you have covered this lesson, please also try some of the additional

features we have including:

o Discussion Forum Discuss the grammatical topics learnt and any areas of

confusion.

o Vocabulary Flashcards Practice your vocabulary by category.

o Questions Flashcards Practice questions related to the grammatical topics

covered in the lessons.

We will be updating the features above to help you throughout the course In-Sh-

Allh (God willing).

and marr (
( )endinLesson 27
The Maqr, Manq and Mamdd Nouns -

Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Introduction

In this lesson, we will study the nouns that end with vowels In-Sh-Allh (God-

Willing). The vowels are described as weak letters that cannot have diacritic signs

(e.g. ammah, fatah, kasrah, sukn). The importance of this is that these words

do not change in the physical sense in different cases e.g. the word is said to have

an assumed Kasrah even though in reality it has no Kasrah visible.


The weak letters in the Arabic language are ( ) "alif", ( ) "ww", and () "y'". We

will find that some Arabic nouns end with an alif maqrah, and are therefore called

(
" )maqr noun or ism maqr" [a noun ending with a long alif /-
/]. Look at the examples below, pay particular attention to coloured words in the

2nd and 3rd examples which would normally end with a Kasrah on the last letter but

have no vowel mark:



aara Muaf il al-mustashf

Mustafa came to the hospital.


satazru ukht Hud Pars




My sister Huda will visit Paris.

yalisu ab al al-maqh

My father sits at a caf.

Some Arabic nouns end with the letter ( ) (y) /-/ and are called (

" ) manq noun or ism manq" [a noun ending with the long vowel '-

']. The same rule as discussed above regarding diacritical marks applies here.

Notice for example that normally the word in the first sentence below would have a
ammah as it is in the nominative case (as it is the subject of a verbal sentence)

please view the examples below:

aara al-q mubakkira-n

The judge came early.

al-thawbu al-ghl amlu-n

The expensive garment is beautiful.

ismu akh Shd

My brother is called Shadi


There is a third type of noun, which does not end with a vowel but with a ( )

"hamzah" [glottal stop], which is a semi-weak letter. This type of nouns is called

(
" )mamdd noun, or ism mamdd" [a noun ending with a hamzah

( )preceded by a long alif]

al-awwu nahfu-n fi a-ar

Air is clean in the desert.

Ismu ukht asn

My sister's name is Hasn


Hdhih aqbatu-n zarqu

This is a blue bag

We will also learn how we can write the dual and plural of these numerals In-Sh-

Allh (God Willing). For example:

Plural in the Dual in the

Plural in the accusative and accusative and

Dual in the
nominative genitive cases genitive cases

nominative case
case


Type Word









Musafayna Maqr

Musafawna Musafayni Musafayayni Musaf




Qdna Qna Qiyni Qiyayni Q

Manq

Bannni Bannni Bannni Bannayni Mamdd Bann

g with the short kasrah i).


Lesson 27

The Maqr, Manq and Mamdd Nouns -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

The maqr noun -


In Arabic we call a noun that fulfils the following criteria a Maqr noun [a noun

ending with a long fatah '-']:

o The noun ends with the alif Maqrah (e.g. )

o The letter before the alif Maqrah has a fatah on it.


o The noun is a declinable noun (
). Thus, the word (" )al'

is not a maqr noun, because it is a preposition, not a noun. The same also

applies to the word (


) "yas" because it is a verb and the

demonstrative noun ( ) "hdh" because it is an indeclinable noun.

We have learnt that when a word is affected by declension as a result of a certain

rule in grammar, the last letter is normally affected by taking a certain diacritical

mark (e.g. fatah, ammah, kasrah). For example, al al maktabi upon the

table, al maktabi takes a Kasrah on the last letter because it is preceded by a

preposition (ala meaning on).

However, in this lesson we learn that in certain cases there is an assumed

declension i.e we assume that the word is in a certain case but we do not see the

physical Kasrah as the example above shows. This may appear to be a difficult

concept to grasp but it is quite simple i.e. we do not put the normal diacritical

mark on the letter but we assume that it is there.

The diacritical signs of declension are assumed and do not appear on the long Alif of

the maqr noun. For example:

Murtada attended the meeting.




aara Murta al-itima


) (

It is nominative case with an

assumed ammah (not visible)



I saw Murtada in the school.

) ( Raaytu Murta fi al-

Madrasah

It is accusative case with an

assumed fatah

I went with Murtada to the club.

) (

A dhahabtu maa Murta il


It is genitive case with an

al-nd
assumed kasrah

The word Murta is a masculine noun in the nominative case in the first sentence.

The sign of the nominative case is an assumed ammah, because it is the verb doer

i.e. the subject of the verbal sentence.

In the second sentence, the same word is in the accusative case because it is the

object of the verbal sentence i.e. the thing / person upon which the action is done.

In the third sentence the word is in the genitive case. In all of them, the sign of

declension is ( " )muqaddarah" assumed or virtual. This means that the three

signs are not spoken and this is called ( " ) irb taqdr", i.e.

assumed or virtual declension that is, it does not appear on the word-final.
This applies to all maqr nouns. For example:

Picture Sentence

nmat salm mubakkiratan

Salma slept early.

hdhihi ukht layl

This is my sister Layla.

al-baytu huwa maw al-usrah

Home is the shelter of the family.



ismu akh mus

My brother's name is Musa.

Lesson 27

The Maqr, Manq and Mamdd Nouns -


Part
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

The manq noun -


The declinable noun (
)ending with the letter () "y" /-/ preceded

by a short kasrah is called (


" )manq noun". That is, it is a noun

ending with a long y /-/ preceded by a short kasrah, such as s ( ), q

( ), ghl (), etc. These are the same conditions that we described

above in section 2 relating to the Maqr noun.

The diacritical signs of declension only appear when the manq noun is in the

accusative case. For example:

Sentence Transliteration Translation

raytu q-a al-madnah I saw the judge of the city

If the manq noun is in the nominative or genitive cases, the diacritical signs

(ammah in the nominative and kasrah in the genitive cases) do not appear. For

example:
Declension

Sentence Transliteration Translation




The judge of the
a q al-madnah


city came.

Nominative


hdh baytu al-q

This is the


judge's house.

Genitive

The letter ( ) "y" /-/ is always omitted in the manq noun except in the

following three cases:

1- When it is preceded by definite article ( " )al-":


a al-q

The judge came.

2- When it is ( ) "muf" (annexed) (the first part of a construct phrase:

a q al-madnah

The judge of the city came.

3- When it comes in the accusative case with the diacritical sign of short fatah:

Raaytu qiya-n

I saw a judge.

In cases other than the three mentioned above, the ( ) "y" of the manq noun is

omitted, and it is written with tanwn (an un-voweled nn at the end of a noun). For

example:

Nominative Accusative Genitive

Definite,
prefixed with

( ) hdh al-q zara ab al-nd

This is the judge. My father visited the club.


hdh baytu al-q

This is the judge's home.



Annexed

(muf)




Not prefixed

with ( ) hdh q al-madnah ana uibbu ndiya al-shams


marartu bi-nd a-aydi

I passed by the Shooting


This is the city's judge. I love al-Shams Club.
Club.


Indefinite,

without ( ),
hdh qi-n marartu bindi-n kabri-n
and not

raa akh nadiya-n kabra-n


annexed This is a judge. I passed by a big club.

My brother saw a big club.


In column 1 (examples on the nominative), the ammah does not appear on the

word ( " )al q" (the judge) in the first sentence, but we write the letter

( ) "y" because the manq noun is prefixed with the definite (" )al-".

In the second sentence of this column: ( ) the ammah does

not appear on the word ( " )q" (judge), because it is an annexing noun.

In the third sentence of the first column: ( ) "hdh qi-n" (This is a

judge), the y is omitted because the word "q" is indefinite (not prefixed with

( )), and not annexing to another noun.

What has been said about the nominative case in which the diacritical sign ammah

is assumed or virtual is also applied to the genitive case, so the diacritical sign of

kasrah is assumed. The omission of the final-word ( ) "y" /-/ depends on

whether the word is definite, indefinite, or annexed.

The accusative case is the only different case where the diacritical sign fatah

appears on the manq noun. The final-word ( ) "y" /-/ in the manq noun is
always written. This is because the ( ) is omitted when the manq noun is

indefinite, not annexed, or not in the accusative case ending with the short fatah.

But when it ends with the short fatah, the letter ( ) is written, even if the word is

not annexed or indefinite. Consider examples no. (2):


" "

zara ab al-ndiy-a

accusative and definite

My father visited the club.

" "
ra akh ndiya-n kabra-n

My brother saw a big club.


In the accusative and indefinite


an uibbu ndiya al-shams

In the accusative and annexed

I love al-Shams Club.

" "
ra ab ndiya-n kabra-n

My father saw a big club.


In the accusative, indefinite and not annexed