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Environmental Engineering -II October 20, 2016

EXPERIMENT NO.4

DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN WASTE WATER


Table of Contents
4.1 OBJECTIVE........................................................................................................................... 25
4.2 APPARATUS ......................................................................................................................... 25
4.3 REAGENTS ........................................................................................................................... 25
4.4 RELATED THEORY ............................................................................................................. 25
4.4.1 DISSOLVED OXYGEN ............................................................................................. 25
4.4.2 SOURCE OF DO ....................................................................................................... 25
4.4.3 FACTORS EFFECTING DO..................................................................................... 26
4.4.4 THRESHOLD VALUES: ............................................................................................ 26
4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE: .................................................................................. 26
4.5.1 AQUATIC LIFE .......................................................................................................... 26
4.5.2 GAS BUBBLE DISEASE........................................................................................... 26
4.5.3 INDICATOR OF WATER QUALITY ......................................................................... 27
4.5.4 NATURAL STREAM PURIFICATION PROCESSES ............................................. 27
4.5.5 AEROBIC CONDITIONS .......................................................................................... 27
4.5.6 BASIS FOR BOD ....................................................................................................... 27
4.6 PROCEDURE ....................................................................................................................... 27
4.7 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS .......................................................................... 28
4.8 COMMENTS:......................................................................................................................... 28
4.9 REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 28

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Environmental Engineering -II October 20, 2016

4.1 OBJECTIVE
To determine the quantity of dissolved oxygen present in the given waste water
sample

4.2 APPARATUS
DO bottles
Pipette
DO Meter

4.3 REAGENTS
MgSO4
FeCL2
CaCl2

4.4 RELATED THEORY


4.4.1 DISSOLVED OXYGEN
Amount of oxygen dissolved in a body of waste water such as a lake, river, or stream,
is known as Dissolved Oxygen. DO is the most important indicator of the health of a
water body and its capacity to support a balanced aquatic ecosystem of plants and
animals.

UNITS

DO is usually expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or Parts per million (ppm).

4.4.2 SOURCE OF DO
Oxygen gets into water bodies when:

Oxygen from the atmosphere dissolves and mixes into the waste water surface.
Water flowing (streams, rivers and oceans) have high speed, which helps
oxygen from the air to mix.
Photosynthesis in the water bodies
releases oxygen. Algae releases oxygen
during photosynthesis.

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Environmental Engineering -II October 20, 2016

4.4.3 FACTORS EFFECTING DO


The physical factors that influence DO are:

How much oxygen is being produced by biological processes (such as


photosynthesis by plants)
Temperature inversely controls the solubility of oxygen in water; as temperature
increases, oxygen is less soluble
There is a direct relationship between atmospheric pressure and DO; as the
pressure increases due to weather or elevation changes, oxygen solubility
increases.
Salinity also reduces the solubility of oxygen in water.
Stream structure also influences DO concentrations. Atmospheric oxygen
becomes mixed into a stream at turbulent, shallow riffles, resulting in increased
DO levels.
4.4.4 THRESHOLD VALUES:
These values are set by according to the requirement of different specie living in water.

Good
Dissolved Oxygen= 5 mg/l
Fair
2 mg/l < Dissolved Oxygen< 5 Mg/L
Poor
2 mg/l< Dissolved Oxygen

4.5 ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE:


4.5.1 AQUATIC LIFE

Change in the dissolved oxygen levels can cause changes in the types and numbers
of aquatic macro invertebrates, plants and animals living in an ecosystem. Dissolved
oxygen levels change and vary according to the time of day, the weather and the
temperature. A decrease in the dissolved oxygen levels is usually an indication of an
entry of some organic pollutant.

4.5.2 GAS BUBBLE DISEASE

Total dissolved gas concentrations in water should not exceed 110 percent.
Concentrations above this level can be harmful to aquatic life. Fish in waters
containing excessive dissolved gases may suffer from "gas bubble disease"; however,
this is a very rare occurrence. The bubbles block the flow of blood through blood
vessels causing death. External bubbles can also occur and be seen on fins, on skin
and on other tissue

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Environmental Engineering -II October 20, 2016

4.5.3 INDICATOR OF WATER QUALITY

Dissolved oxygen is absolutely essential for the survival of all aquatic organisms (not
only fish but also invertebrates such as crabs, clams, zooplankton, etc.). Moreover,
oxygen affects a vast number of other water indicators, not only biochemical but
aesthetic ones like the odor, clarity and taste.

4.5.4 NATURAL STREAM PURIFICATION PROCESSES

Adequate dissolved oxygen is necessary for good water quality. Oxygen is a


necessary element to all forms of life. Natural stream purification processes require
adequate oxygen levels in order to provide for aerobic life forms. As dissolved oxygen
levels in water drop below 5.0 mg/l, aquatic life is put under stress. The lower the
concentration, the greater the stress. Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 mg/l for a
few hours can result in large fish kills.

4.5.5 AEROBIC CONDITIONS


The DO measurements are vital for maintaining aerobic conditions in natural waters
that receive pollution matter.

4.5.6 BASIS FOR BOD

Determinations of DO serve as the basis of the BOD test. The rate of biological
oxidation can be measured by determining residual dissolved oxygen in a system at
various intervals of time.

4.6 PROCEDURE
Take three samples of waste water
Fill each bottle with waste water sample.
Dilute the sample
Calibrate the DO meter according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Place the probe in the sample bottle.
Set the meter to measure temperature, and allow the temperature reading to
stabilize. Record the temperature
Switch the meter to read dissolved oxygen.

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Environmental Engineering -II October 20, 2016

4.7 OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS

Sample Name Source DO of Sample Temperature oC

4.8 COMMENTS:

4.9 REFERENCES
http://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/bayecosystem/dissolvedoxygen
http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/water
quality/dissolved-oxygen/
http://www.mymobilebay.com/stationdata/whatisDO.htm

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