You are on page 1of 15

American Water Works Association

ANSIIAWA C104lA21.4-95
(Revision of ANSVAWA C104/A21.4-90)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD


FOR
CEMENT-MORTAR LINING
FOR DUCTILE-IRON PIPE AND FITTINGS
FOR WATER

Administrative Secretariat

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION

Cosecretariat
AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION
Effmtive date: Jan. 1, 1996.
First edition approved by AWWA Board of Directors Jan. 28,1985.
This edition approved Jan. 22, 1995.
Approved by American National StandardsInstitute Aug. 10, 1995.

AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION


6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
AWWA Standard
This document is an American Water Works Association(AWWA) standard. It is not a specification.
AWWA standards describe minimum requirements and do not contain all of the engineering and
administrative information normally containedin specifications. The AWWA standards usually con-
tain options that must be evaluated by the user of the standard. Until each optional feature is
specified by the user, the product or service is not fully defined. AWWA publication of a standard
does not constitute endorsement of any product or product type, nor does AWWA test, certify, or
approve any product. The use of AWWA standards is entirely voluntary. AWWA standards are
intended to represent a consensus of the water supply industry that the product described will
provide satisfactory service. When AWWA revises or withdraws t h i s standard, an official notice of
action w l be placed on the first page of the classified advertising section of Journal AWWA. "he
i
action becomes effective onthe first day of the month following the month of Journal AWWA publi-
cation of the official notice.

American National Standard


An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope
and provisions. An American National Standard isintended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the
consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any
respect preclude anyone, whether that person has approved the standard or not, from manufactur-
ing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the stan-
dard. AmericanNational Standards are subject to periodicreview, and users are cautioned to
obtain the latest editions. Producers of goods made in conformity with an American National Stan-
dard are encouraged to state on their own responsibility in advertising and promotional materials
or on tags or labels that the goods are produced in conformity with particular American National
Standards.

CAUTION NOTICE: The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approval date on the front
cover of this standard indicates completion of the ANSI approval process. This American National
Standard may be revised or withdrawn a t any time. ANSI procedures require that action be taken
to reaffirm, revise, orwithdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication.
Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

calling or writing the AmericanNational Standards Institute, 11 W. 42nd St., NewYork, NY


10036; (212) 642-4900.

Copyright O 1995 by American Water Works Association


printed in USA

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
~~

A W W A C104/A23.4 95 m 0783350 0 5 0 2 8 3 8 5 8 8 m

Committee Personnel
Subcommittee 4, Coatings and Linings, which reviewed and developed this re-
vision, had the following personnel at the time:

Troy F. Stroud, Chair


--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Kenneth W. Henderson, Vice-Chair

Consumer
Members
General Interest Members
F.L. Kartman M.G. Hoover
E.T. Knudsen Jr. Harold KennedyJr.
Dale Russom D.A. Lincoln
P.J. Schreiber R.L. Scarpa
C.R. Schwenker W.H. Smith

Producer Members
D.R. Charko
Howard Fabing
Steven Farkas
A.M Horton
Olin Jackson
P.L. Robertson
P.A. Selig

AWWA Standards Committee Ml,DuctileIron Pipe and Fittings, which re-


viewed and approved this standard, had the following personnel at the time of approval: '

Ed Knudsen Jr., Chair


Phil Selig, Vice-Chair
Ed Baruth, Secretary

Consumer Members
G.S. Allen,* Council Liaison,Avatar Utilities Inc., Coral Gables,Fla.
R.E. Hargraves, Indiana-American Water Company Inc., Greenwood, Ind.
E.T. Knudsen Jr., City of St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, Fla.
T.C. Moreno, Bexar Metropolitan Water District, San Antonio, Texas
P.J. Schreiber, San Jose Water Company, San Jose, Calif.
C.R. Schwenker, Fairfax County Water Authority, Merrifield, Va.
G.A. Seibel, Tualatin Valley Water District, Beaverton, Ore.
A.M. Tinkey, St. Louis County Water Company, St. Louis, Mo.
D.L. Tippin, TampaWater Department, Tampa, Fla.

*Liaison,nonvoting

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
General Interest Members
E.E. Baruth,* Standards EngineerLiaison, AWWA, Denver, Colo. (AmAl
KM. Bell, Underwriters Laboratories
Northbrook,
Inc., Ill. (UL)
Joseph Goss,? Whitman & Howard Corporation,
Wellesley,
Mass.
(NEWWA)
K.W. Henderson,
Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, N.Y. (AWWA)
M.G.
Hoover,
HYA Consulting
Engineers, Pasadena, Calif. (AWWA)
M.B. Horsley,
Black & Veatch, Kansas City, (AWWA)
Mo.
Blake Jeffcoat, CHBM
Montgomery,
Inc.,
Hill Ala. (AWWA)
Kennedy
H. Jr., Harold
KennedyAssociates, Eastland, Texas (AWWA)
J.E. McClelland, McClelland Consulting Engineers Inc., Little Rock, Ark. (AWWA)
E.W. Misichko: Underwriters Laborat&es,-Northbrook, Ill.
R.L. Scarpa, Metcalf & Eddy Inc., Hialeah, Fla.
W.H. Smith, W.H. Smith & Associates Inc., Flora, Ill.

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Producer Members
David Cleveland, Union Foundry Company, Anniston,Ala.
L.R. D m , United States Pipe & Foundry Company, Birmingham, Ala.
Steven Farkas,Griffin Pipe Products Company, Lynchburg, Va.
B.A. Heltoqt American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
Jim Jones: Tyler Pipe Industries, Tyler, Texas
Olin Jackson, Tyler Pipe Industries, Tyler, Texas
C.M. Luna, McWane Cast IronPipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
P.I. McGrath Jr.,t United States Pipe & Foundry Company,
Birmingham, Ala.
P.L. Robertson, Specification Rubber Products, Alabaster, Ala.
PA. Selig, American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Birmingham, Ala.
Dennis Shumard, EBAA Iron Company, Eastland, Texas
T.F. Stroud, Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association, Birmingham, Ala.

*Liaison,nonvoting
+Alternate

iv

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Contents

All AWWA standards follow the general format indicated subsequently. Some variations from this
format m y be found in a particular stardurd.

SEC. PAGE SEC. PAGE

Foreword 4 Requirements
I Introduction........;.............................. vi 4.1 Cement ............................................... 2
IA Background ....................................... vi 4.2 Sand .................................................... 3
1.B History ............................................... vi 4.3 Water .................................................. 3
1.C
Acceptance ....................................... vii 4.4 Mortar ................................................ 3
II Special Issues ................................. viii 4.5 Surface of Pipe and Fittings
I1.AUse of Seal Coat ............................ viii for Lining ......................................... 3
1I.BLining of Pipelines in Place .......... viii 4.6 Method of Lining ............................... 3
III Use of This Standard .................... viii 4.7 Thickness of Lining ........................... 3
1II.A Purchaser Options and 4.8 Determination of Thickness ............. 4
Alternatives ............................... viii 4.9 curing ................................................ 4
to Standard .............. Lining Quality ...................................
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

IILBModification viii 4.10 4


IV MajorRevisions ................................ ix 4.11 Seal Coat ............................................ 4
V Comments ......................................... ix
5 Verification
Standard 5.1 Testing of Sand .................................. 5
5.2 Testing of Seal Coat .......................... 6
1 General
1.1 scope................................................... 1 6 Delivery ............................................ 6
1.2 Purpose ............................................... 1
1.3 Application ......................................... 1 Tables
1 Minimum Thickness of Linings
2 References ........................................ 2 for Pipe and Fittings ......................... 3
2 Requirementsfor Sand Tested
3 Definitions ....................................... 2 With Standard Sieves ....................... 5

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
Foreword
This foreword is forinformtwn only and is not part of ANSIJAWWAC104 jA21.4.
I. Introduction
IA. Background. The first cast-iron water mains were not lined but were in-
stalled in the same condition in which they came from the molds following cleaning.
After many years it became evident that the interior of the pipe could be affected by
certain types of water. The first lining used to combataggressive waters was a
hot-dipbituminous lining that protected the pipe satisfactorily, except in areas
where water penetrated the pinholes in the bituminous lining, wherein tubercula-
tion ensued. The needfor a better lining to combat tuberculation led to experiments
with cement mortar as alining material.
Cement-mortar linings prevent tuberculation by creating a high pH at the pipe
wall and ultimately by providing a physical barrier t o the water. Cemenhmortar
linings are also smooth, whichresults in high flow coefficients.
In 1922,the first ment-mortar-lined, cast-iron pipe was installed in the water

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
distribution system of Charleston, S C . The pipe was lined by means of a projectile
drawn through the pipe.Since this initial installation, many improvements have
beenmade in the production of cement-mortar-linedpipe.Cement-mortar-lined
pipes are now centrifugally lined at the foundry t o ensure that the best possible
quality control is maintained and that a uniform thickness of mortar is distributed
throughout the length of the pipe.
I.B. History. From 1922 to 1929, many installations of cement-mortar-lined,
cast-iron pipe were made under various manufacturers' specifications. In 1929,the
American Standards Association (ASA), now the American National Standards Insti-
tute (ANSI),*SectionalCommittee A21 on Cast-Iron Pipe and Fittings, issued a
tentative standard for cement-mortar linings, which was publishedby the American
Water Works Association (AWWA) as a tentative standardin 1932.After many revi-
sions and refinements, the standard was officially adopted by ASA in 1939 under
the designation A21.4,American Standard Specifications for Cement-Mortar Lining
for Cast-Iron Pipe and Fittings.
From 1940 to 1952, considerable research was done to improve the quality of
the cement-mortar lining. The centrifgal process of lining was improved t o provide
the controls and techniquesnecessaryto ensure uniformity of lining thickness
throughout the length of the pipe. Methods of curing cement mortar were investi-
gated, resulting in the recognition that asphaltic seal-coat materials could be used
as a substitute for the moist-curing process. As a result of this research, a revised
edition of the 1939 standard was approved and issuedin 1953.
In 1958, Sectional Committee A21 was reorganized and subcommittees were
established to study each group of standards in accordance with ASA'S review and
revision policy. Subcommittee 4,Coatings and Linings for Cast-Iron Pipe, was or-
ganized to examine the existing ASA A21.4-53,American National Standard Specifi-
cations for Cement-Mortar Lining for Cast-Iron Pipe and F'ittings. The subcommittee
completed its study of A21.4-53and submitted a proposed revision to SectionalCom-
mittee A21 in 1963.The revised third edition was approved and issued in 1964 and

*American National Standards Institute, 11 W.42nd St.,New York, NY 10036.

vi
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
included a reduction in the minimum permissible thickness of lining. This reduction
was based on more than 20 years of research by the Cast Iron Pipe Research Asso-
ciation (CIPRA), now the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (DIPRA),on experi-
mental test lines having cement-mortar linings ranging from V32 to V4 in. (0.79 to
6.35 mm) in thickness and the assurance of uniformity of lining thickness using the
centrifugal lining process. The 1964 revision also required the cement to meet the
requirements of ASTM* CEO, Specification forPortland Cement.
The next revision was issued in 1971. This revision incorporated a standard
test for toxicity of the seal-coat material. The standard was again revised in 1974,
and major changesto the section on lining quality were ina~rporatedinto this revision.
The 1980 revision t o the standard included further changes to the section on
lining quality, clarifying problems with some literal interpretations. Metric conver-
sions of all dimensions and physical requirements were also included, and the pro-
jection method was added as an allowable means of lining pipe and fittings.
In the 1985 edition of the standard, all references to gray cast-iron pipe were
deleted because gray castrimnpipe was no longer being produdin the United States.
The 1990 revision of the standard included no major changes.
I.C. Acceptance. In May 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency
(USEPA) entered into a cooperative agreement with a consortium led by NSF Inter-
national (NSF) to develop voluntary third-party consensus standards and a certifica-
tion program for all direct and indirect drinking water additives. Other members of
the original consortium included the American Water Works Association Research
Foundation (AWWARF) and the Conference of State Health and Environmental
Managers (COSHEM). The American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the
Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA)joined later.
In the United States, authority to regulate products for use in, or in contact
with, drinking water rests with individual states.? Local agencies may choose to
impose requirements more stringent than those required by the state. To evaluate
the health effects of products and drinking water additives from such products, state
and local agencies may use various references, including:
1. An advisory program formerlyadministered by USEPA, Office of Drinking
Water, discontinued onApr. 7, 1990.
2. Specific policies of the state or local agency.
3. Two standards developed under the direction of NSF,ANSI*/NSF 60,
Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals-Health Effects, and ANSI/NSF 61, Drinking
Water System Components-Health Effects.
4. Other references,including AWWA standards, Food Chemicals Calex,
Water Chemicals Codex,** and other standards considered appropriate by the state
or local agency.

*American Society forTesting and Materials, 100Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken,
PA 19428-2959.
?Persons in Canada,Mexico,andnon-NorthAmerican counties shouldcontact the
appropriate authority having jurisdiction.
$American National Standards Institute, 11 W. 42nd St., New York,NY 10036.
Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
NSF International, 3475 Plymouth
**Both publications available from National Academy of Sciences, 2102 Constitution Ave.
N.W., Washington, DC 20418.

vii
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
AWWA C L 0 4 / A 2 1 = 4 95 E 0783350 0502823 945

Various certification organizations may beinvolved in certifjing products in


accordance with ANSINSF 61. Individual states or local agencies have authority t o
accept or accredit certification organizations within their jurisdiction. Accreditation
of certification organizations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Appendix A, Toxicology Review and Evaluation Procedures, to ANSUNSF 61
doesnot stipulate a maximumallowablelevel (MAL) of a contaminant for sub-
stances not regulated by a USEPA final maximum contaminant level (MCL). The
M A L S of an unspecified list of unregulated contaminants are basedontoxicity
testing guidelines (noncarcinogens) and risk characterization methodology (carcino-
gens). Use of Appendix A procedures may not always be identical, depending on the
certifier.
ANSYAWWA ClOUA21.4 does not address additives requirements. Thus, users
of this standard should consult the appropriate state or local agency having jurisdic-
tion in order to
1. Determine additives requirements, including applicable standards.
2. Determine the status of certifications by all parties offering t o certify prod-
ucts for contact with, or treatment of, drinking water.
3. Determine current information on productcertification
II. Special Issues
1I.A. Use of Seal Coat. Cement-mortar linings may be furnished with or with-
out a seal coat (Sec. 4.11.1). The purchaser of cement-mortar-lined pipe or fittings
for use with water that is corrosive to cement, such as very soft water, should deter-
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

mine by using the appropriate test that a lining without a seal coat will not impart
objectionable hardness or alkalinity to the water. The procedure outlined in Sec.
5.2.2.2, modified by the substitution of the water with which the pipe is to be used,
is recommended. The concentration of leachates increases with the aggressiveness of
the water and its residual time in the pipe and is indirectly proportional to the
diameter of the pipe.
1I.B. Lining of Rpelines in Place. This standard doesnotincludeprovisions
for cement-mortar lining of pipelines in place.
III. Use of This Standard. AWWA has no responsibility for the suitability
or compatibility of the provisions of this standard to any intended applicationby any
user. Accordingly, each user of this standard is responsible for determining that the
standards provisions are suitable for and compatible with that users intended
application.
1II.A. Purchaser Options and AZternatives. The following items should be cov-
ered in thepurchasers specifications:
1. Standard used-that is, ANSUAWWA C104A21.4, Standard for Cementr
Mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron Pipe andFittings for Water, of latest revision.
2. Thickness of lining. Two thicknesses of lining are available, and purchas-
ers who require a lining thickness twice the standard thickness have the option of so
specifying (Sec.4.7).
3. Seal coat. The purchaser has the option of specifjing if the cement-mortar
lining is to be furnished with or without a seal coat (Sec. 4.11.1).
1II.B. Modification to Standard. Any modifications to the provisions,defini-
tions, or terminologyin this standard must be provided in the purchasers specification

...
vlll
COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
IV. Major Revisions. Major revisions made t o the standard in this edition
include the following:
1. The format has been changed to current AWWA standard style.
2. Section 4.1 on cement has been expanded to include types of cement other
than portland.
3, The size range covered by the standard has been expanded to include 3-in.
through 64-in (76-mm through 1,600-mm) sizes.
4. Section 4.11 on seal coat has been revised to allow the manufacturer the
option of providing the cement-mortar lining with or without a seal coat unless
otherwise specified. Also, the option of using seal-coat materials other than an as-
phaltic material hasbeen deleted.
V. Comments. If you have any comments or questions about this standard,
please call the AWWA Standards Department, (303) 794-7711 ext. 6283, FAX (303)
795-1440, or write to the department at 6666 W. Quincy Ave., Denver,CO 80235.

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
American Water Works Association

ANSllAWA C104lA21.4-95
(Reviion of ANSVAWA Cl 04/A21.4-90)

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD FOR

CEMENT-MORTAR LINING FOR


DUCTILE-IRON PIPE AND FITTINGS
FOR WATER

SECTION 1: GENERAL
Sec. 1.1 Scope
This standard covers shop-applied,cement-mortar linings specified in the
ANSI*/AWWA ClOO/A21 series of standards for ductile-iron pipe and ductile-iron
and gray-iron fittings for water and is intended to be used as a supplement to those
standards.
Sec. 1.2 Purpose
The main purpose of this standard is to provide the minimum requirements for
shop-applied, cement-mortar linings for ductile-iron pipe and ductile-iron and gray-
iron fittings for water, including requirements for cement, sand, water, and mortar;
surface of pipe and fittings for lining; method and thickness of lining; and curing.
Sec. 1.3 Application
This standard can be referenced in specifications for shop-applied, cement-mor-
tar liningsforductile-ironpipe and fittings for water. The stipulations of this
standard apply when this document has been referenced and only to shop-applied,
cement-mortar linings for ductile-iron pipe and ductile-iron and gray-iron fittings
for water.

*American NationalStandards Institute, Inc., 11W. 42nd St., New York, NY 10036.

1 --`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
2 AWWA C104/A21.4-95

SECTION 2: REFERENCES
This standard references the following documents. In their latest editions, they
form a part of this standard t o the extent specified within this standard. In any case
of conflict, the requirements of this standard shallprevail.
WS*-Mold &'Core Test Handbook, 2nd ed., 1989.
ASTM C4oStandard Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates
for Concrete.
ASTM C117-Standard Test Method for Material Finer Than 75-pn (No. 200)
Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing.
ASTM C11S"Standard Terminology Relating to Dimension Stone.
A S T M ? C15oStandard Specification for Portland Cement.
ASTM D75"Standard Practices for Sampling Aggregates.
ASTM Ell-Standard Specification for W W l o t h Sieves for Testing Purposes.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR),$Title 21, Part 175.300.
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. A P H A , g
AWWA, and WEF.**Washington, D.C. (19th ed., 1995).

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SECTION 3: DEFINITIONS
The following definitionsshall apply in this standard:
1. Manufacturer: The party that manufactures, fabricates, or produces mate-
rials or products.
2. Purchaser: The person, company, or organization that purchases any ma-
terials or work t o be performed.

SECTION 4: REQUIREMENTS
Sec. 4.1 Cement
Thecementused for cement-mortar lining shall meet the requirements of
ASTMC150 unless other types of cement are specified. The analysis and physical
test records of each shipment shall be retained for reference for one year. The type
of cement selected shall be left to the option of the manufacturer.

*American Foundrymen's Society,Golf and Wolf Roads, Des Plaines, IL 60016-2277.


?American Society forTesting and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken,
PA 19428-2959.
$Available h m Superintendent of Documents,US Government Printingoffice, Washington,
Dc 20402.
$American Public Health Association, 1015 15th St. N.W., Washington DC 20005.
**WaterEnvironment Federation, 601 Wythe St.,Alexandria, VA 223141994.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
CEMENT MORTAR 3

Sec. 4.2 Sand


The sand used in cement-mortar lining shall bewell graded, from fine to
coarse; shall consist of inert granular material having hard, strong, durable, un-
coated grains; and shall meet the test requirements of Sec. 5.1.
Sec. 4.3 Water
The water used for the mortar shall be potable water that is free from objec-
tionable quantities of any impurities that might reduce the strength, durability, or
other desirable qualities of the mortar.
Sec. 4.4 Mortar
Mortar for the lining shall be a mixture composed of cement, sand, and water.
Admixtures may be used, provided the linings meet all requirements of this stan-
dard. The cement mortar shall contain not less than one part of cement to two parts
of sand, by volume.
Sec. 4.5 Surface of Pipe and Fittings for Lining
The surface t o be lined shall be free from projections of iron or other materials
that may protrude through the lining.
Sec. 4.6 Method of Lining
4.6.1 Lining of pipe and fittings. pipe shall be lined by a centrifugal process or a
projection method. Fittings shall be lined by a projection method or by hand application.
4.6.1.1 Waterways and sockets. The waterway surfaces of pipe and fittings shall
be completely coveredwith the specified mortar. The socketsshall be free of mortar.
4.6.2 Repair of defective or damaged areas of linings. Defective or damaged
areas of linings may be patched by cutting out the defective or damaged lining to
the metal so that the edges of the lining not removed are perpendicular to the pipe
wall or slightly undercut. A stiff mortar shall be prepared in accordance with Sec.
4.4.The cutout area and the adjoining lining shall be thoroughly wetted. The mortar
shall be applied to the cutout area and troweled smooth with the adjoining lining.
After any surface water has evaporated, but while the patch is still moist, it shall be
cured as specified in Sec. 4.9.
Sec. 4.7 Thickness of Lining
4.7.1 Standard thickness. The thickness of linings for pipe and fittings, as d e
termined in Sec. 4.8,shall not be less than shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Minimum thickness of linings for pipe and fittings

Pipe and Fittings Size, Thickness of Linings,


in. (mm)
* in. (mm)
3-12 76-305 v16 1.6
14-24 356-610 3/32 2.4
30-64 762-1,600 UR 3.2
*Metricconveraionsgiven in this standard are direct conversions of US customary units and are not those specified in
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards.
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
4 AWWA ClOdA21.4-95

4.7.2 Double thickness. Linings with thicknesses twice those specified in


Sec. 4.7.1 shall be furnished if specified by the purchaser.
4.7.3 Taper of linings. Lining thickness may taper to less than the specified
minimum thickness at the ends of the pipe or fitting. The length of the taper shall
be as short as practicable and shall not exceed 2 in. (51 mm) for standard linings or
4 in. (102mm) for double-thicknesslinings.
Sec. 4.8 Determination of Thickness
Lining thickness shall be determined at intervals frequent enough to ensure
compliance. Thicknessshall be determined while the mortar is wet.
Sec. 4.9 Curing
The lining shall be cured in such a manner as to produce a properly hydrated
mortar lining that is hard and durable and will otherwise meet the requirements of
Sec. 4.10.For linings that are not seal coated, provisions must be made for proper
curing of the lining either by maintaining a suitable environment for a sufficient
period of time or by acceleratedcuring methods.
Sec. 4.10 Lining Quality
The lining surface shall be free from ridges, corrugations, or defects that reduce
the thickness of the lining t o less than thespecified thickness.
4.10.1 Cracking, crazing, and loose areas. Longitudinal cracks with lengths equal
to or less than the pipe circumference are acceptable. In pipe larger than 24 in.
(610 mm) in diameter, longer longitudinal cracks are acceptable if it can be demon-
strated to the satisfaction of the purchaser that such cracks will close and heal.*
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Circumferential cracks of any length are acceptable, as is surface crazing. Loose


areas of cement lining in a pipe or fittingare acceptable if the lining is intact.?
4.10.2 Surface uppeurunce. Due to hand finishing, the linings in fittings may
have a surface appearance that M e r s from that of pipe linings.
4.10.3 Field repair. Linings may be repaired in the field in accordance with
Sec. 4.6.2.
Sec. 4.11 Seal Coat
4.11.1 General. Unless otherwisespecified, the manufacturer shall have the
option of providing the cement-mortar lining with or without a seal coat.
4.11.2 Seul-coat characteristics. The seal coat shall be of asphaltic material
and shall adhere to the mortar lining. After drying for at least 48 h, the seal coat
shall have no deleterious effect on the quality, color, taste, or odor of potable water.
4.11.3 Limit of toxic substances.
4.11.3.1 Requirements. The seal-coat materials shall not yieldchloroform-
soluble extractives, correctedforzinc extractives as zinc oleate, in excess of
18 mg/in2 (0.028mg/mm2) of surface exposed or of 50 mg/L by weigbt of the water
capacity of the test container.

*Experience has shown that cracks in interior linings due to mortarshrinkage or


deformation of pipe will close on continuous exposure to water due to swelling of the mortar
and then will subsequently heal. Closing of interior lining cracks can be demonstrated by
having the lined pipe or fitting immersed in water.
tExperience has shown that such linings swell and retightenon continuous contactwith water.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
CEMENT
MORTAR 5

Table 2 Requirements for sand tested with standard sieves

Minimm Thickness
Requirement*
Sieve
of Lining,

100 Percent of Sand Shall 75 Percent of Sand Shall


in. (mm) Sieve Pass No. Pass Sieve No.
v16 (1.6) 12 20
3/32 (2.4) 12 16
v8 (3.2) 12 t
(4.8) 3/16 8 t
Y4 (6.4) 6 t
*Not more than 10 percent, by weight, of any sand shall pass through sieve No. 100.
tNot applicable.

4.11.4 Leaching resistance.


4.11.4.1Requirements. Seal-coated pipe shall impart to the water during any
24-htest period no more than 25 m g 5 of hardness or 25 m g 5 of total alkalinity,
and shall impart no caustic alkalinity.
--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SECTION 5: VERIFICAnON
5.1 Testing of Sand
The sand shall be tested in accordance with the following requirements:
5.1.1 Sampling. The sand to be tested shall be sampled according t o Sec. 4
and Sec. 5, ASTM D75.
5.1.2 Sieve tests. The sand shall be tested with standard sieves, as defined in
ASTM Ell, and shall meet the requirements listed in Table 2. One sieve analysis
shall be performed on each carload of sand delivered. For sand delivered by other
means, one sieve analysis shall be made for each 50 tons (45,360kg).
5.1.3 Colorimetric test. The test for impurities shall be in accordance with
ASTM C40.
5.1.3.1 When using this test, the sand shall not produce a color darker than
required in the standard. However, if it is shown by adequate test that the impuri-
ties causing the color are not harmful to the strengthor other specified properties of
the finished lining, then thesand shall be acceptable.
5.1.3.2 Thecolorimetric tests of sand from an established source of supply
shall be made once every six months. For sand from a new source, these tests shall
be made notless than once a month for a periodof six months.
5.1.4 Decantation test. The sand shall be tested according t o ASTM C117.
5.1.4.1 At the option of the manufacturer, the clay content and sand grain
fineness may be determined by using the American Foundrymen's Society procedure,
described in Sec. 5 of the Mold and Core Test Handbook. By this latter method, the
total percentage finer than No. 200 sieve, as defined in ASTM C119,is equal to the
AF'S percentage of clay plus the percentage passing through the No. 200 sieve,
5.1.4.2 No more than 2 percent of the sample by weight shall be lost in the
decantation test.

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.
AWWA C L 0 4 / A 2 1 * 4 75 P 0783350 0502830 085

6 AWWA GlO4A21.4-95

5.1.4.3The decantation tests of sand from an established source of supply


shall be made once every six months. For sand from a new source, these tests shall
be made not less than once a month for a period of six months.
5.1.5 Test records. The requirements ofSec. 5.1.2,Sec.5.1.3, and Sec.5.1.4
shall be met, and the records shall be retained for reference for one year.
Sec. 5.2 Testing of Seal Coat
5.2.1 Limit of toxic substances.
5.2.1.1 Frequency of test. The seal-coat material shall be tested at sufficiently
frequent intervals to determine whether or not it meets the requirements prescribed
in Sec. 4.11.3.1.
5.2.1.2Method of testing. Theprocedureused in the determination of the
amount of water-extractable substances shall be in accordance with the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) procedure outlinedin Sec. 175.300 of CFR 21.* The seal-
coat material shall be extracted with distilled water at 120F (49C) for24 h.
5.2.2 Leaching resistance.
5.2.2.1 Frequency of tests and records. Leaching tests shall be made at S U E -
ciently frequent intervals t o ensure compliance. The results of one test each month
shall be retained for reference for one year.
5.2.2.2 Method of testing. Seal-coated pipe shall be tested as follows:
5.2.2.2.1 The test specimen shall be at least 6 in. (152 mm) in length, either
cut or isolated by suitable closure pieces. When a cut section is used, it shall be
bedded on end in a shallow pan of molten paraffin. Afterthe p d n has cooled, the
cut section shall be filled nearly to the top with distilled or demineralized water at
room temperature. The top shall be covered with a glass plate and sealed with pe-
troleum jelly. If an isolated section is used, it shall be frlled through a tap in the
closure device with distilled or demineralized water at room temperature.
5.2.2.2.2 In either case, the water in the specimen shall be changed and tested
after 24-h contact on each of three successive days. The method and procedures used
in the determination of hardness and alkalinity shall be those prescribed in
Standard Methods for theExamination of Water and Wastewater.

SECTION 6: DELIVERY
This standard has no applicable informationfor this section.

*Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, part 175.300 (US Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare). Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington,
DC 20402.

--`,```,,`,``,`,,,```````,,`,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

COPYRIGHT 2003; American Water Works Association Document provided by IHS Licensee=Fluor Corporation/2110503105, User=,
05/16/2003 22:03:18 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call
the Document Policy Management Group at 1-800-451-1584.