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Hepatitis C, drug-induced hepatitis and chronic hepatitis

Hepatitis
It is characterized by hepatocyte necrosis and inflammation, resulting in reduce
d functional capacity and abnormal liver function test.
Types of hepatitis
Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis drug poiso
ning Chronic Hepatitis
Background
The NANB was identified in the 70's when we had serological tests for HAV and HB
V that allowed for more effective screening of blood donors. It is expected that
the number of cases of hepatitis caused by transfusions decreased after the imp
lementation of the screening procedure, but not achieved the expected results.
Hepatitis non-A, NO-B (Hepatitis C)
It is an inflammation of the liver caused by infection with the hepatitis C viru
s
Causes and Risk Factors
Received a blood transfusion. Received blood, blood products or solid organs fro
m a donor who has hepatitis C. Inject street drugs or shared needles with someon
e who has hepatitis C. Have regular contact with blood on their work (for exampl
e, workers in the health field)
Have or have had sex with multiple partners. Have or have had sex with a person
who has hepatitis C. They share personal items like toothbrushes or razors with
someone who has hepatitis C. They were born to mothers infected with hepatitis C
It identifies two types of NANB hepatitis transmission
Enterica or epidemic transmission (ET-NANB) Transmission by transfusion or intra
venous (PT-NANB)
ET-NANB
It causes a sporadic disease of similar nature to HAV infection. Mild disease wi
th few complications except in pregnant women, which produces a high mortality r
ate. All aspects of the disease are consistent with HAV, except without any dete
ctable serologic evidence of exposure to HAV.
PT-NANB
Similar to HBV infection, in regard to type of transmission and clinical laborat
ory aspects. It is associated with blood transfusion. We know of other mechanism
s of infection, such as via parental drugs.
Symptoms
Jaundice Abdominal pain (upper right abdomen) Fatigue Nausea Vomiting Loss of ap
petite Low fever clay-colored stools dark urine or pale Ascites Generalized itch
ing
Diagnosis
Antibody test for HCV viral load test HCV genotype test liver function tests, li
ver biopsy
Diagnosis
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ALT levels are constantly elevated in approximate
ly two thirds of people with chronic hepatitis C, reflecting ongoing damage to l
iver cells. ALT levels remain normal in one third of people with chronic hepatit
is C, despite having a detectable HCV viral load. Most of these people will live
with HCV infection without suffering problems with the liver.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) AST levels usually are elevated in people with
hepatitis C virus. AST levels are usually lower than ALT levels. But if you deve
lop cirrhosis, AST levels rise more than those of ALT, this is a sign that the l
iver damage is getting worse.
Alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT or GGTP) Usually, th
ese levels remain normal. Can be raised if developed cirrhosis.
Treatment
The method of treatment for this type of hepatitis is the same as that of hepati
tis B: interferon alpha interferon alpha Ribavirin Combination of Interferon Alf
a and Ribavirin Combination of Pegylated Interferon Alfa and Ribavirin
HEPATITIS AND HEPATITIS INDUCED TOXIC PORFARMACOS
What is it?
Inflammatory and necrotic liver cells that can be produced by toxins and a varie
ty of drugs and chemicals. Various toxic substances or therapeutic drugs injure
the liver and result in a process of swelling and necrosis which is called hepat
itis cholestasis.
Drugs and toxins that cause liver damage.
Anesthetic drugs immunosuppressive drugs antibiotic drugs Food Toxins heart drug
s based steroid hormone drugs psychotropic substances and industrial and agricul
tural Analgesics Anticonvulsants.
Symptoms
Fatigue Jaundice Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Headache Di
arrhea Pale Dark urine or clay-colored
Diagnosis
Elevated liver enzymes liver Enlarged abdominal tenderness in the right upper qu
adrant
Treatment
There is no specific treatment for drug-induced hepatitis other than stopping th
e causative drugs.
CHRONIC HEPATITIS
It is defined as inflammation of the liver that lasts more than six months to on
e year
Causes
Hepatitis C is a frequent cause of hepatitis B virus with hepatitis D virus, cau
ses less frequently. The hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis Wilson
's disease causes chronic hepatitis in children and pregnant or toxic hepatitis
induced by drugs
Symptoms
Lack of appetite, fever and tiredness Some slight discomfort in the upper abdome
n or jaundice may not appear
Diagnosis
â ¢ surface antigen of hepatitis B (may be positive) â ¢ Hepatitis C antibody (may b
e positive) â ¢ Hepatitis D antibody (may be positive) â ¢ Tests for lupus or other
autoimmune disease (may be positive) â ¢ Liver Biopsy â ¢ Liver enzymes (slightly hi
gh)
Treatment
No treatment is always needed and depends on the underlying cause of hepatitis.
It should review each case to determine whether treatment would be helpful. New
therapies for chronic viral infections are now able to stop or reverse some live
r damage caused by certain viruses.