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Para FMAT

Unas poquitas integrales que encontre por ahi

por Picosenotheta . .bueno y que esperan , a bajar y trabajar y suerte en los controles

801 EJERCICIOS
RESUELTOS
DE

INTEGRAL
INDEFINIDA
INDICE
INTRODUCCION ............................................................................................................................................. 5
INSTRUCCIONES............................................................................................................................................ 6
ABREVIATURAS DE USO FRECUENTE................................................................................................... 7
IDENTIFICACIONES USUALES ................................................................................................................. 7
IDENTIDADES ALGEBRAICAS .................................................................................................................. 7
IDENTIDADES TRIGONOMETRICAS....................................................................................................... 8
FORMULAS FUNDAMENTALES.................................................................................................................10
CAPITULO 1...................................................................................................................................................12
INTEGRALES ELEMENTALES ................................................................................................................12
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS .............................................................................................................12
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ......................................................................................................................20
RESPUESTAS..............................................................................................................................................21
CAPITULO 2...................................................................................................................................................29
INTEGRACION POR SUSTITUCION........................................................................................................29
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS .............................................................................................................29
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ......................................................................................................................39
RESPUESTAS..............................................................................................................................................41
CAPITULO 3...................................................................................................................................................59
INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES TRIGONOMETRICAS .......................................................................59
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS .............................................................................................................59
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ......................................................................................................................66
RESPUESTAS..............................................................................................................................................67
CAPITULO 4...................................................................................................................................................77
INTEGRACION POR PARTES...................................................................................................................77
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS .............................................................................................................77
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ......................................................................................................................88
RESPUESTAS..............................................................................................................................................89
CAPITULO 5.................................................................................................................................................111
INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES CUADRATICAS...............................................................................111
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS ...........................................................................................................111
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ....................................................................................................................116
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................117
CAPITULO 6.................................................................................................................................................126
INTEGRACION POR SUSTITUCION TRIGONOMETRICA .................................................................126
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS ...........................................................................................................126
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS: ...................................................................................................................135
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................137
CAPITULO 7.................................................................................................................................................154
INTEGRACIN DE FUNCIONES RACIONALES..................................................................................154
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS ...........................................................................................................154
EJERCICICOS PROPUESTOS..................................................................................................................162
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................163
CAPITULO 8.................................................................................................................................................188

2
INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES RACIONALES D SENO Y COSENO...............................................188
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS ...........................................................................................................188
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ....................................................................................................................195
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................195
CAPITULO 9.................................................................................................................................................199
INTEGRACION DE FUNCONES IRRACIONALES ...............................................................................199
EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS ...........................................................................................................199
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS ....................................................................................................................203
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................203
EJERCICIOS COMPLEMENTARIOS ........................................................................................................208
RESPUESTAS............................................................................................................................................210
BIBLIOGRAFIA ............................................................................................................................................242

3
A Patricia. / A Ana Zoraida.

A los que van quedando en el camino,

Compaeros de ayer,

De hoy y de siempre.

4
INTRODUCCION

El libro que os ofrecemos, no es un libro auto contenido, sino un instrumento


de complementacin, para la prctica indispensable en el tpico relativo a las
integrales indefinidas. En este contexto, el buen uso que se haga del mismo
llevar a hacer una realidad, el sabio principio que unifica la teora con la prctica.

El trabajo compartido de los autores de 801 ejercicios resueltos es una


experiencia que esperamos sea positiva, en el espritu universitario de la
activacin de las contrapartes, en todo caso ser el usuario quien de su veredicto
al respecto, ya sea por medio del consejo oportuno, la crtica constructiva o la
observacin fraterna, por lo cual desde ya agradecemos todo comentario al
respecto.

Nos es grato hacer un reconocimiento a la cooperacin prestada por los


estudiantes de UNET: Jhonny Bonilla y Omar Umaa.

5
INSTRUCCIONES

Para un adecuado uso de este problemario, nos permitimos recomendar lo


siguiente:
a) Estudie la teora pertinente en forma previa.
b) Ejercite la tcnica de aprehender con los casos resueltos.
c) Trate de resolver sin ayuda, los ejercicios propuestos.
d) En caso de discrepancia consulte la solucin respectiva.
e) En caso de mantener la discrepancia, recurre a la consulta de algn
profesor.
f) Al final, hay una cantidad grande de ejercicios sin especificar tcnica
alguna. Proceda en forma en forma anloga.
g) El no poder hacer un ejercicio, no es razn para frustrarse. Adelante
y xito.

6
ABREVIATURAS DE USO FRECUENTE

e: Base de logaritmos neperianos.


: Logaritmo natural o neperiano.
og : Logaritmo vulgar o de briggs.
sen : Seno.
arcs e n : Arco seno.
cos : Coseno.
arc cos : Arco coseno.
arc co s : Arco coseno.
g : Tangente.
arc tg : Arco tangente.
co g Cotangente.
arc co tg Arco cotangente.
sec : Secante.
arc sec : Arco secante.
cos ec : Cosecante.
arc sec : Arco cosecante.
exp : Exponencial.
dx : Diferencial de x.
x: Valor absoluto de x.
m.c.m: Mnimo comn mltiplo.

IDENTIFICACIONES USUALES

s e n n x = (s e n x) n s e n 1 x = arcs e n x
n x = ( x) n og n x = ( ogx) n
ogx = og x

IDENTIDADES ALGEBRAICAS

1. Sean a, b: bases; m, n nmeros naturales.


a m a n = a m+ n (a m ) n = a mn
am mn (ab) n = a nb n
= a , a 0
an
( a)
n m m
a an a n = n am = n
= , b 0
b bn

an =
1 a 0 = 1, a 0
an

7
2. Sean a, b ,c: bases; m, n nmeros naturales
( a b ) = a 2 + 2ab + b2 ( a b ) = a3 3a 2b + 3ab2 + b3
2 3

(a b) = a 4 4a 3b + 6a 2b 2 4ab3 + b 4 a 2 b 2 = (a + b)(a b)
4

a 2 n b 2 n = (a n + b n )(a n b n ) a 3 b3 = (a b)(a 2 ab b 2 )
(a + b + c) 2 = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 2(ab + ac + bc)

3. Sean b, n, x, y, z: nmeros naturales


x
og ( xyz ) = ogb x + ogb y + ogb z ogb = ogb x ogb y
y
ogb x = n ogb x
n
1
ogb n x = ogb x
n
ogb 1 = 0 og bb = 1

e = 1 exp x = x = x
ex = x e x = x
exp( x) = x

IDENTIDADES TRIGONOMETRICAS
1.
1 1
sen = cos =
cos ec s ec

s e n 1
g = g =
cos co g
s e n + cos 2 = 1
2
1 + g = sec 2
2

1+ co g 2 = cos ec 2 cos cos ec = co g

cos g = s e n

2.
(a)
s e n( + ) = s e n cos + cos s e n s e n 2 = 2s e n cos
1 cos 1 cos 2
sen = s e n2 =
2 2 2

s e n( ) = s e n cos cos s e n

8
(b)
1 + cos
cos( + ) = cos cos s e n s e n cos =
2 2
1 + cos 2 cos( ) = cos cos + s e n s e n
cos 2 =
2
cos 2 = cos s e n 2 = 1 2s e n 2 = 2 cos 2 1
2

(c)
g + g 2 g
g ( + ) = g 2 =
1 g g 1 g 2
1 cos 2 g g
g 2 = g ( ) =
1 + cos 2 1 + g g

1 cos s e n 1 cos
g = = =
2 1 + cos 1 + cos s e n

(d)
1 1
s e n cos = [s e n( + ) + s e n( )] cos s e n = [s e n( + ) s e n( )]
2 2
1 1
cos cos = [ cos( + ) + cos( ) ] s e n s e n = [ cos( + ) cos( ) ]
2 2
+ +
s e n + s e n = 2s e n cos s e n s e n = 2 cos sen
2 2 2 2
+ +
cos + cos = 2 cos cos cos cos = 2s e n sen
2 2 2 2

(e)
arcs e n(s e n x) = x arc cos(cos x) = x
arc g ( gx) = x arc co g (co gx) = x
arc sec(sec x) = x arc co sec(co sec x) = x

9
FORMULAS FUNDAMENTALES

Diferenciales Integrales
1.- du =
du
dx 1.- du = u + c
u
2.- d (au ) = adu 2.- adu = a du
3.- d (u + v) = du + dv 3.- (du + dv) = du + dv
4.- d (u n ) = nu n 1du u n +1
4.- u n du = + c (n 1)
n +1
du du
5.- d ( u ) = 5.- = u +c
u u
6.- d (e ) = e du 6.- eu du = eu + c
u u

7.- d (a u ) = a u adu au
7.- a u du = +c
a
8.- d (s e n u ) = cos udu 8.- cos udu = s e n u + c
9.- d (cos u ) = s e n udu 9.- s e n udu = cos u + c
10.- d ( gu ) = sec 2 udu 10.- sec 2 udu = gu + c
11.- d (co gu ) = cosec2 udu 11.- cosec 2 udu = co gu + c
12.- d (sec u ) = sec u gudu 12.- sec u gudu = sec u + c
13.- d (co sec u ) = co sec u co gudu 13.- co sec u co gudu = co sec u + c
du du
14.- d (arcs e n u ) = 14.- = arcs e n u + c
1 u 2
1 u2
du du
15.- d (arc cos u ) = 15.- = arc cos u + c
1 u2 1 u2
du du
16.- d (arc gu ) = 16.- = arc gu + c
1+ u2 1+ u2
du du
17.- d (arc co gu ) = 17.- = arc co gu + c
1+ u2 1+ u2
18.- d (arc sec u ) =
du du arc sec u + c; u > 0
18.- =
u u2 1 u u 2 1 arc sec u + c; u < 0
du du arc co sec u + c; u > 0
19.- d (arc co sec u ) = 19.- =
u u2 1 u u 2 1 arc co sec u + c; u < 0

10
OTRAS INTEGRALES INMEDIATAS

sec u + c
1.- gudu = 2.- co gudu = s e n u + c
cos u + c
sec u + gu + c
4.- co sec udu = co sec u co gu + c
3.- sec udu = u
gu 2 + 4 + c

5.- s e n hudu = cos u + c 6.- cos udu = s e n hu + c
7.- ghudu = cos u + c 8.- co ghudu = s e n u + c
9.- sec hudu = arc gh(s e n hu ) + c 10.- co sec hudu = arc co gh(cos hu ) + c
u
arcs e n + c
du a 12.-
du
= u + u2 a2 + c
11.- =
a u
2 2
arcs e n u + c u a2 2

a
1 u
arc g + c ua
du a a 14.-
du
=
1
+c
13.- 2 =
u +a 2 u a
2 2
2a u+a
1 arc co g u + c
a a
1 u
arc cos + c
du 1 u du a a
15.- = +c 16.- =
u a u2 2 a a + a2 u2 u u a
2 2
1 arc sec u + c
a a
u 2 a2
17.- u 2 a 2 du = u a2 u + u2 a2 + c
2 2

u 2 a2 u
18.- a u du =
2 2
a u + arcs e n + c
2

2 2 a
e (a s e n bu b cos bu )
au
19.- e au s e n budu = +c
a 2 + b2
e au (a cos bu + b s e n bu )
20.- e cos budu =
au
+c
a 2 + b2

Realmente, algunas de estas integrales no son estrictamente inmediatas; tal como


se ver mas adelante y donde se desarrollan varias de ellas.

11
CAPITULO 1

INTEGRALES ELEMENTALES

El Propsito de este capitulo, antes de conocer y practicar las tcnicas


propiamente tales; es familiarizarse con aquellas integrales para las cuales basta
una transformacin algebraica elemental.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

1.1 .- Encontrar: e x xdx


2

Solucin.- Se sabe que: e x = x 2


2

x4
Por lo tanto: e xdx = x xdx = x dx = + c
x2 2 3

4
x 4
x n +1
Respuesta: e x xdx = + c , x dx = n + 1 , n 1
2
n
Frmula utilizada:
4
1.2 .- Encontrar: 3a 7 x 6 dx
Solucin.-
x7
3a x dx = 3a x dx = 3a +c
7 6 7 6 7

7
x7
Respuesta: 3a 7 x 6 dx = 3a 7 +c, Frmula utilizada: del ejercicio anterior.
7
1.3.- Encontrar: (3 x 2 + 2 x + 1)dx
Solucin.-
(3x + 2 x + 1)dx = (3x + 2 x + 1)dx = 3x dx + 2 xdx + dx
2 2 2

x3 x2
= 3 x 2 dx + 2 xdx + dx = 3 +2 + x + c = x3 + x 2 + x + c
3 2
Respuesta: (3 x 2 + 2 x + 1)dx = x3 + x 2 + x + c
1.4.- Encontrar: x(x + a )( x + b)dx
Solucin.-
x(x + a)( x + b)dx = x x + (a + b) x + ab dx = x + ( a + b ) x + abx dx
2 3 2

= x 3dx + (a + b) x 2 dx + abxdx = x dx + (a + b) x dx + ab xdx


3 2

x4 x3 x2
= + (a + b) + ab + c
4 3 2

12
x 4 (a + b) x3 abx 2
Respuesta: x(x + a)( x + b)dx = + + +c
4 3 2
1.5.- Encontrar: (a + bx 3 ) 2 dx
Solucin.-
(a + bx ) dx = (a + 2abx + b x )dx = a dx + 2abx dx + b x dx
3 2 2 3 2 6 2 3 2 6

x4 x7
= a 2 dx + 2ab x3dx + b 2 x 6 dx = a 2 x + 2ab
+ b2 + c
4 7
4 2 7
abx b x
Respuesta: (a + bx3 ) 2 dx = a 2 x + + +c
2 7
1.6.- Encontrar: 2 pxdx
Solucin.-
1 1 2
x2 2 2 px 3
= = = + = +c
1
2
2 pxdx 2 px dx 2 p x dx 2 p c 2

2 3
3
2 2 px x
Respuesta: 2 pxdx = +c
3
dx
1.7.-Encontrar: n
x
Solucin.-
1 1+ n 1+ n
+1
1 n n n
dx x x nx
n
x
= x n
dx =
1
+c =
1 + n
+c =
n 1
+c
+1
n n
1+ n
dx nx n
Respuesta: n = +c
x n 1
1 n
1.8.- Encontrar: (nx) n
dx
Solucin.-
1 n 1 n 1 n 1 n 1 n 1 n 1
1
(nx) n
dx = n n
x n
dx = n n
x n
dx = n n
x n dx
1 1
1 n 1+1 1 n 1 n 1 1 n 1 1 n + n 1
xn xn +1
= =n +c = n +c = n nx + c = n x +c = n xn + c = n nx n + c
n n 1 1
n n n n n
1 1
1+1
n n

1 n
Respuesta: (nx) n
dx = n nx + c
1.9.- Encontrar: (a 3 x 3 )3 dx
2 2

Solucin.-
x 3 )3 dx = a ( ) ( ) ( x ) ( x ) dx
3 2 2 3
(a 3 a x 3 + 3a
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 3 2 3 3 3

13
= (a 2 3a 3 x x 2 )dx = a 2 dx 3a 3 x 3 dx + 3a 3 x 3 dx x 2 dx
4 2 2 4
+ 3a 3 x
4 2 2 4
3 3

5 7
x3 x 3 x3
= a dx 3a x dx + 3a x dx x dx = a x 3a + 3a 3 +c
2 4 2 2 2 4 2 2 4
3 3 3 3 3

5 7 3
3 3
4 5 2 7
9a 3 x 3 9a 3 x 3 x 3
= a2 x + +c
5 7 3
4 5 2 7
2 2 9 a 3 x 3 9a 3 x 3 x 3
Respuesta: (a x ) dx = a x
3 3 3 2
+ +c
5 7 3
1.10.- Encontrar: ( x + 1)( x x + 1)dx
Solucin.-
( x + 1)( x x + 1)dx = ( x x ( x ) 2 + x + x x + 1)dx
5 5
x2 2x 2
= ( x x + 1)dx = ( xx + 1)dx = ( x + 1)dx = x dx + dx = + x+c = + x+c
1 3 3
2 2 2

5 5
2
5
2x 2

Respuesta: ( x + 1)( x x + 1)dx = + x+c


5
( x 2 + 1)( x 2 2)dx
1.11.- Encontrar:
3 2
x
Solucin.-
( x 2 + 1)( x 2 2)dx ( x 4 x 2 2)dx x4 x2 2
3 2
x
= x3
2 = x3
2 dx 2 dx
x3
2 dx
x3
10 4 2
+1 +1 +1 13 7 1
x3 x3 x3 x 3
x 3
x 3

= x dx x dx 2 x dx = 2
2 = 2 +c
10 4
3 3 3
10 4 2 13 7 1
+1 +1 +1 3
3 3 3 3 3

13 7 3 13 3 7
x 3 x3 x x x4 3 x x2 3 x
=3 3 6x 3 + c = 3 3 63 x + c = 3 3 63 x + c
1

13 7 13 7 13 7
( x + 1)( x 2)dx 3 x 3 x
2 2 4 2

Respuesta: = 6 3 x + c
3 2
x 13 7
(x x )
m n 2
1.12.- Encontrar: dx
x
Solucin.-
( x m x n )2 ( x2m 2 xm xn + x2n ) ( x2m 2 xm xn + x2n )
x
dx =
x
dx =
x1/ 2
dx

x 2 m 1/ 2+1 2 x m+ n +1/ 2 x 2 n +1/ 2


= ( x 2 m 1/ 2 2 x m+ n 1/ 2 + x 2 n 1/ 2 )dx = + +c
2m 1/ 2 + 1 m + n + 1/ 2 2n + 1/ 2
4 m +1 2 m + 2 n +1 4 n +1 4 m +1 2 m + 2 n +1 4 n +1
x 2 2x 2 x 2 2x 2 4x 2 2x 2
= + +c = + +c
4m + 1 2m + 2n + 1 4n + 1 4m + 1 2m + 2n + 1 4 n + 1
2 2 2

14
2 x2m x 4 x m+n x 2 x2n x
= + +c
4m + 1 2m + 2 n + 1 4n + 1

( x m x n )2 2 x2m 4 x m+n 2 x2n


Respuesta: dx = x + +c
x 4m + 1 2m + 2 n + 1 4n + 1
( a x )4
1.13.- Encontrar: dx
ax
Solucin.-
( a x )4 a 2 4a ax + 6 xa 4 x ax + x 2
ax
dx = ax
dx

a2 4a ax 6ax 4 x ax x2
= 1 dx ax dx + (ax) 12 ax
dx dx + (ax) 12 dx
(ax) 2
= a 2 a 2 x 2 dx 4adx + 6aa 2 xx 2 dx 4 xdx + a 2 x 2 x 2 dx
1 1 1 1 1 1

x 2 dx 4a dx + 6a x dx 4 xdx + a x

=a
3 1 1 2 1 3
2 2 2 2
dx
1 +1 1 3 +1
x 2
x 2 +1
x1+1 12 x 2
=a 4ax + 6a 4 +a +c
3 1
2 2
1 1 1+1 3
+1 +1 +1
2 2 2

1 3 5
x 2
x 2
x2 12 x 2
=a 4ax + 6a 4 +a +c
3 1
2 2
1 3 2 5
2 2 2

5
12 x 2
= 2a x 4ax + 4a x 2 x + 2a +c
3 1 1 3 2
2 2 2 2

5
( a x )4 2 x3
Respuesta: dx = 2a x 4ax + 4a x 2 x + +c
3 1 1 3 2
2 2 2 2

ax 5 xa
dx
1.14.- Encontrar: 2
x 10
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 xa
Sea: a = 10 , Luego: 2 = 2 = +c
x 10 x a 2
2a x+a
1 x 10 10 x 10
= +c = +c
2 10 x + 10 20 x + 10
dx 10 x 10
Respuesta: = +c
x 10 20
2
x + 10
dx
1.15.- Encontrar:
x +72

dx dx 1 x
Solucin.- Sea: a= 7 , Luego: = 2 = arc g + c
x +72
x +a 2
a a

15
1 x 7 7x
arc g +c = arc g +c
7 7 7 a
dx 7 7x
Respuesta: = arc g +c
x +7 2
7 a
dx
1.16.- Encontrar:
4 + x2
Solucin.-
dx dx
Sea: a = 2 , Luego: = = x + a2 + x2 + c
4+ x 2
a +x
2 2

= x + 4 + x2 + c
dx
Respuesta: = x + 4 + x2 + c
4+ x 2

dx
1.17.- Encontrar:
8 x2
Solucin.-
dx dx x
Sea: a = 8 , Luego: = = arcs e n +c
8 x2 a2 x2 a
x x
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n +c
8 2 2
dx 2x
Respuesta: = arcs e n +c
8 x2 4
dy
1.18.- Encontrar:
x +92

Solucin.-
1
La expresin: acta como constante, luego:
x +9 2

dy 1 1 y
x2 + 9 = x 2 + 9 dy = x2 + 9 y + c = x 2 + 9 + c
dy y
Respuesta: 2 = 2 +c
x +9 x +9
2 + x2 2 x2
1.19.- Encontrar: dx
4 x4
Solucin.-
2 + x2 2 x2 2 + x2 2 x2
4 x4
dx =
4 x4
dx
4 x4
dx

2 + x2 2 x2 dx dx
= dx dx =
(2 x 2 ) (2 + x 2 ) (2 x 2 ) (2 + x 2 ) 2 x2 2 + x2

16
dx dx x
Sea: a = 2 , Luego: = arcs e n x + a2 + x2 + c
a2 x2 a2 + x2 a
x x
= arcs e n x + ( 2) 2 + x 2 + c = arcs e n x + 2 + x2 + c
2 2
2 + x2 2 x2 x
Respuesta: dx = arcs e n x + 2 + x2 + c
4 x 4
2
1.20.- Encontrar: g 2 xdx
Solucin.-
g xdx = (sec x 1)dx = sec xdx dx = gx x + c
2 2 2

Respuesta: g 2 xdx = gx x + c
1.21.- Encontrar: co g 2 xdx
Solucin.-
co g xdx = (cos ec x 1)dx = cos ec xdx dx = co gx x + c
2 2 2

Respuesta: co g 2 xdx = co gx x + c
dx
1.22.- Encontrar:
2x2 + 4
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 dx 1 1 x 2 2x
2 x 2 + 4 = 2( x 2 + 2) = 2 x 2 + 2 = 2 2 arc g 2 + c = 4 arc g 2 + c
dx 2 2x
Respuesta: = arc g +c
2x + 4
2
4 2
dx
1.23.- Encontrar: 2
7x 8
Solucin.-
dx dx dx 1 dx
7 x 2 8 = 2 8 = 7 ( x 2 ( 8 )2 = 7 x 2 ( 8 )2
7( x ) 7 7
7
1 1 x 87 1 x 87 7 7x 8
= +c = +c = +c
7 2( 7 ) 8
x+ 7 8
8 x+ 7 8
14 8 7x + 8
14
7
1 7x 2 2 14 7x 2 2
= +c = +c
4 14 7x + 2 2 56 7x + 2 2
dx 14 7x 2 2
Respuesta: = +c
7 x 8 56
2
7x + 2 2
x 2 dx
1.24.- Encontrar:
x2 + 3

17
Solucin.-
x 2 dx 3 dx dx
x2 + 3 = (1 x2 + 3)dx = dx 3 x 2 + 3 = dx 3 x2 + ( 3)2
1 x 3x
= x3 arc g + c = = x 3 arc g +c
3 3 3
x 2 dx 3x
Respuesta: = x 3 arc g +c
x +3
2
3
dx
1.25.- Encontrar:
7 + 8x2
Solucin.-
dx dx 1
7 + 8 x2 = ( 8 x)2 + ( 7)2 = 8 8x + 7 + 8x + c
2

dx 2
Respuesta: = 8x + 7 + 8x2 + c
7 + 8x 2 4
dx
1.26.- Encontrar:
7 5x2
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 5
7 5x 2
=
( 7) ( 5 x)
2 2
=
5
arcs e n x
7
+c

dx 5 35 x
Respuesta: = arcs e n +c
7 5x 2 5 7
(a x b x ) 2 dx
1.27.- Encontrar:
a xb x
Solucin.-
(a x b x ) 2 dx ( a 2 x 2a x b x + b 2 x ) a2x 2 a xb x b 2x
a xb x = a xb x
dx = a xb x a xb x
dx dx + a x b x dx
( a / b) 2x + (b / a ) + c
x x x x
ax bx a b
= x dx 2dx + x dx = dx 2 dx + dx =
b a b a
a

b
b a
(a / b) (b / a ) (a / b) (b / a )
x x x x

= 2x + +c = 2x +c
a b b a a b a b
ax bx
x x
=
b a
2x + c
a b
a 2 x b2 x

(a x b x ) 2 dx a b
x x
Respuesta: = 2x + c
a xb x a b

18
x
1.28.- Encontrar: s e n 2 dx
2
Solucin.-
x
1 cos 2
x 2 1 cos x 1 1
sen dx = dx = dx = dx cos xdx
2

2 2 2 2 2
x senx
= +c
2 2
x x senx
Respuesta: s e n 2 dx = +c
2 2 2
dx
1.29.- Encontrar: ;(0 < b < a )
( a + b) + ( a b ) x 2
Solucin.-
dx dx
Sea: c 2 = a + b, d 2 = a b, ; luego = 2
( a + b) + ( a b) x 2
c + d 2 x2
dx 1 dx 1 1 x 1 dx
2 c2 2 = d 2 c 2 2 = d 2 c arctg c + c = cd arctg c + c
d 2 +x +x d
d d d
1 a bx 1 ab
= arctg +c = arctg x+c
a +b a b a+b a b
2 2 a+b

dx 1 a b
Respuesta: = arctg x+c
( a + b) + ( a b) x 2
a 2 b2 a+b
dx
1.30.-Encontrar: ;(0 < b < a )
( a + b) ( a b ) x 2
Solucin.-
dx dx
Sea: c 2 = a + b, d 2 = a b, Luego: = 2
( a + b) ( a b) x 2
c d 2 x2
x c
=
dx 1
= 2
dx
= 2
1 1
d + c = 1 dx c + c
c 2
d c 2
d 2c x+ c 2cd dx + c
d 2 2 x2 x2 d
d d d
1 a bx a + b
= +c
2 a b2 2
a bx + a + b
dx 1 a bx a + b
Respuesta: = +c
( a + b) ( a b ) x 2
2 a 2 b2 a bx + a + b
1.31.- Encontrar: ( a 2 x ) 1dx
0


Solucin.-

19
( a )
1dx = (a 0 1)dx = (1 1)dx = dx dx = 0dx = c
2x 0

Respuesta: ( a 2 x ) 1dx = c
0

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS
Mediante el uso del lgebra elemental, o algunas identidades trigonomtricas,
transformar en integrales de fcil solucin, las integrales que se presentan a
continuacin.

1.32.- 3x5 dx 1.33.- (1 + e) x dx 1.34.- (1 + gx)dx


1.35.- cos 2 2x dx 1.36.- (1 + x )3 dx 1.37.- (1 + x )0 dx
1+ x
1.39.-
dx
1.40.-
dx
1.38.- 2
dy
1+ 3
x
5 x 2
x2 5
dx dx dx
1.41.- 1.42.- 1.43.-
x +5 2 x +5
2
x 5
2

1.44.- (s e n 2 x + cos 2 x 1)dx 1.45.- x (1 x )dx 1.46.- ( g 2 x + 1)dx


dx dx dx
1.47.- 1.48.- 1.49.-
x 12
2
x + 12
2
x 12
2

dx dx dx
1.50.- 1.51.- 1.52.-
x 2 + 12 12 x 2 x x 2 12
dx dx dx
1.53.- 1.54.- 1.55.-
x 12 x 2 x 12 + x 2 8 2x2
1.56.-
dx
1.57.-
dx 1.58.- x 2 10dx
2 x2 8 2 x2 + 8
1.59.- x 2 + 10dx 1.60.- 10 x 2 dx 1 cos 2 x
1.61.- dx
s e n2 x
1.62.- 1 s e n 2 xdx 1.63.- 1 cos 2 xdx 1.64.- (2 x 3x )0 dx
1.65.- (20 30 ) n dx
1.66.- gx
sen x
1.67.-
dx
dx 3 x
cos x
1.68.- 3
4 x 2 dx 1.69.- x 2 34 dx 1.70.- x 2 + 34 dx
dx dx dx
1.71.- 1.72.- 1.73.-
x 3 x 2
x x 3 2
x x2 + 3
1.74.- s e n 3 x dy 1.75.- u dx 1.76.- exp( x)dx
1.77.- e x dx x 2 1.79.- 11 x 2 dx
2

1.78.- dx
2x
1.80.- x 2 11dx 1.81.- x 2 + 11dx 1.82.- (e x )dx

20
1 + x + x 3
0 dx
1.85.-
1.83.- dx 1.84.- ( g x + sec x 1)dx
2 2
3x 2 1
1 x
1.86.- (co g s e n )dx 1.87.-
dx
1.88.-
dx
1 + 3x 2 1 3x 2
dx dx dx
1.89.- 1.90.- 2 1.91.- 2
1 + 3x 2 3x + 4 3x 1
dx dx dx
1.92.- 1.93.- 1.94.-
x 3x2 1 x 1 + 3x 2 x 1 3x 2
1.95.- 1 3 x 2 dx 1.96.- 1 + 3 x 2 dx 1.97.- 3 x 2 1dx
1.98.- (3 x 2 1)dx
0 n
1.99.- (3 x 2 1) dx 1.100.- (3 x 2 1) du
1.101.- exp( 1.102.- (e 1.103.- (e 2 + e + 1) x dx
2 x 1
x
3 )dx 2
)dx
1+ g 2x 1.105.- exp( 1 + x )dx 1.106.- 27 x 2 dx
1.104.- 2
1dx
sec x
1.107.- x 2 27 dx 1.108.- x 2 + 27 dx 1.109.-
dx
3x x2 1
dx dx dx
1.110.- 1.111.- 1.112.-
2x 1 x2 5x x2 + 1 3x 9 x2
1.113.-
dx
1.114.-
dx (1 x ) 2
1.115.- dx
4 x x 2 + 16 5 x x 2 25 x2
1.116.- (1 + x + x) 2 dx 1.117.- (1 x + x) 2 dx 1.118.- (1 + x) 4 dx
1 cos x 1 s e n x
1 + x2
1.119.- e 2
dx 1.120.- exp 2 dx 1.121.- e 3
dx
x
1.122.- (1 + x 3 x )0 dx 1.123.- e
(1+ x )2
2
dx

RESPUESTAS
3 x 5+1 x6 x6
1.32.- 3 x5 dx = 3 x 5 dx = +c =3 +c = +c
5 +1 6 2
1.33.- (1 + e) x dx
ax (1 + e) x
Sea: a = 1 + e, Luego: (1 + e) dx = a dx = x
+c = x
+c
a (1 + e)
1.34.- (1 + gx)dx = dx + gxdx = x + sec x + c
1 + cos x 1 1 1 1
1.35.- cos 2 2x dx = dx = dx + cos xdx = x + s e n x + c
2 2 2 2 2

21
1.36.- (1 + x )3 dx = (1 + 3 x + 3( x 2 ) + x3 )dx = dx + 3 x + 3 xdx + x 2 dx
3

x2 2 52 x2 2
= x + 2x 2 + 3 + x + c = x + 2 x x + 3 + x2 x + c
3

2 5 2 5
1.37.- (1 + x ) dx = dx = x + c
0

1+ x
1+ x
1+ x
1.38.- 2
dy = 2
dy = 2
y+c
1+ 3
x
1+ 3
x
1+ 3
x

dx
1.39.-
5 x2
dx dx x 5x
Sea: a = 5 , Luego: = = arcs e n + c = arcs e n +c
5 x2 ( 5) 2 x 2 5 5
dx dx
1.40.- = = x + x2 5 + c
x 52
x ( 5)
2 2

dx dx
1.41.- = = x + x2 + 5 + c
x +52
x 2 + ( 5) 2
dx
1.42.-
x +52

dx 1 x
Sea: a = 5 , Luego: = arc g +c
x + ( 5)
2 2
5 5
5 5x
= arc g +c
5 5
dx dx 1 x 5 5 x 5
1.43.- = 2 = +c = +c
x 52
x ( 5) 2
2 5 x+ 5 10 x+ 5
1.44.- (s e n 2 x + cos 2 x 1)dx = (1 1)dx = 0dx = c
2 32 x2
1.45.- x (1 x )dx = ( x x)dx = xdx xdx = x + c
3 2
1.46.- ( g x + 1)dx = sec xdx = gx + c
2 2

dx dx 1 x 12 1 x2 3
1.47.- = 2 = +c = +c
x 12
2
x ( 12) 2
2 12 x + 12 4 3 x+2 3
3 x2 3
= +c
12 x+2 3
dx
1.48.-
x + 12
2

dx 1 x
Sea: a = 12 , Luego: = arc g +c
x + ( 12)
2 2
12 12

22
1 x 3 3x
= arc g +c = arc g +c
2 3 2 3 6 6
dx dx
1.49.- = = x + x 2 12 + c
x 2 12 x ( 12)
2 2

dx dx
1.50.- = = x + x 2 + 12 + c
x 2 + 12 x + ( 12)
2 2

dx
1.51.-
12 x 2
dx dx
Sea: a = 12 ,Luego: =
12 x 2
( 12) 2 x 2
x x 3x
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n + c = arcs e n +c
12 2 3 6

dx dx 1 x 1 x
1.52.- = = arc sec +c = arc sec +c
x x 2 12 x x 2 ( 12) 2 12 12 2 3 2 3
3 3x
= arc sec +c
6 6
dx dx 1 x
1.53.- = = +c
x 12 x 2
x ( 12) x
2 2 12 12 + 12 x 2
3 x
= +c
6 12 + 12 x 2
dx 3 x
1.54.- = +c
x 12 + x 2 6 12 + 12 + x 2
dx dx 1 dx 1 x 2 x
1.55.- = = = arcs e n + c = arcs e n + c
8 2x 2
2(4 x )2
2 4 x 2
2 2 2 2
dx dx 1 dx 1
1.56.- = = = x + x2 4 + c
2 x2 8 2( x 4)
2
2 x 4
2
2
2
= x + x2 4 + c
2
dx dx 1 dx 1
1.57.- = = = x + x2 + 4 + c
2x + 8
2
2( x + 4)
2
2 x +4
2
2
2
= x + x2 + 4 + c
2
x 2 10
1.58.- x 2 10dx = x 2 ( 10)2 dx = x 10 x + x 2 10 + c
2 2

23
x 2
= x 10 5 x + x 2 10 + c
2
x 2
1.59.- x 2 + 10dx = x + 10 + 5 x + x 2 + 10 + c
2
x 10 x
1.60.- 10 x 2 dx = ( 10) 2 x 2 dx = 10 x 2 + arcs e n +c
2 2 10
x 10 x
= 10 x 2 + 5arcs e n +c
2 10
1 cos 2 x s e n2 x
1.61.- dx = s e n 2 x dx = dx = x + c
s e n2 x
1.62.- 1 s e n 2 xdx = cos 2 xdx = cos xdx = s e n x + c
1.63.- 1 cos 2 xdx = s e n 2 xdx = s e n xdx = cos x + c
1.64.- (2 x 3x )0 dx = dx = x + c
1.65.- (20 30 ) n dx = (0) n dx = 0dx = c
sen x
1.66.- gx dx = ( gx gx ) dx = 0dx = c
cos x
dx 3x
1.67.- x = 3x dx = +c
3 3
x 3 3 x
1.68.- 34 x 2 dx = ( 23 ) 2 x 2 dx = 4 x 2
+ 4
arcs e n 3 + c
2 2 2
x 3 3 2 x
= x 2 + arcs e n +c
2 4 8 3
x 2 3 34
1.69.- x 2 34 dx = x 2 ( 23 ) 2 dx = x 4 x + x 2 34 + c
2 2
x 2 3 3
= x 4 x + x 2 34 + c
2 8
x 2 3 3
1.70.- x 2 + 34 dx = x 2 + ( 23 ) 2 dx = x + 4 + x + x 2 + 34 + c
2 8
dx dx 1 x
1.71.- = = +c
x 3 x2 x ( 3) 2 x 2 3 3 + 3 x2
3 x
= +c
3 3 + 3 x2
dx 1 x 3 3x
1.72.- = arc sec +c = arc sec +c
x x 3
2
3 3 3 3
dx 3 x
1.73.- = +c
x x +3
2 3 3 + x2 + 3

24
1.74.- (s e n 3 x )dy = s e n 3 x dy = (s e n 3 x ) y + c
1.75.- u dx = u dx = u x + c
x2
1.76.- exp( x)dx = xdx = +c
2
x3
1.77.- e x2
dx = x dx = + c
2

3
x 2 x 2 x 2 1 1
1.78.- dx = dx dx = dx dx = dx dx =
2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2 x
1
1 1 x2 2
dx x 2 dx =
1
= x +c = x 2x 2 + c
1

2 2 1
2 2
x 11 x x 11 11x
1.79.- 11 x 2 dx = 11 x 2 + arcs e n +c = 11 x 2 + arcs e n +c
2 2 11 2 2 11
x 2 11
1.80.- x 2 11dx = x 11 x + x 2 11 + c
2 2
x 2 11
1.81.- x 2 + 11dx = x + 11 + x + x 2 + 11 + c
2 2
3
x2 2
1.82.- (e )dx = xdx = x 2 dx = 3 + c = x x + c
x 1

2 3
0
1 + x + x 3
1.83.- dx = dx = x + c
1 x
1.84.- ( g 2 x + sec2 x 1)dx = 0dx = c
dx dx 1 dx 1
1.85.- = = = x + ( x 2 13 ) + c
3x 1 2
3 ( x 13 )
2
3 ( x 3)
2 1 3
3
= x + ( x2 13 ) + c
3
1.86.- (co g s e n )dx = (co g s e n ) dx = (co g s e n ) x + c
dx dx 3
1.87.- = = x+ 1
3 + x2 + c
1 + 3x 2
3 1
3 +x 2 3
dx dx 1 dx 1 x
1.88.- =
3
= = arcs e n 1 + c
1 3x 2
3 1
3 x 2 1
3 x 2
3 3

3
= arcs e n 3 x + c
3
dx dx 1 dx 1 1 x 3
1.89.- = 1 = 1 = 1 arc g 1 + c = arc g 3x + c
1 + 3x 2
3( 3 + x ) 3 3 + x 3 3
2 2
3
3

25
dx 1 dx 1 1 x 3 3x
1.90.- = 2 4 = 2 arc g 2 + c = arc g +c
3x + 4 3 x + 3 3 3
2
3
6 2

dx 1 dx 1 1 x 1
3 3x 1
1.91.- = 2 1= 3
+c = +c
3x 1 3 x 3 3 2 3
2 1
x+ 1
3
6 3x + 1
dx dx 1 dx 1 1 x
1.92.- = = = arc sec +c
x 3x 2 1 3x x 2 1 3 x x2 1 3 1 1
3 3 3 3
= arc sec 3x + c
dx 1 dx 1 1 x
1.93.- = = +c
x 1 + 3x 2
3 x 3+x
1 2
3 1 1
+ 1
+ x2
3 3
3

x
= +c
1
3
+ 1
3 + x2

dx 1 dx x
1.94.- = = +c
x 1 3x 2 3 x 13 x 2 1
3
+ 1
3 x2
x 1
x
1.95.- 1 3x 2 dx = 3 1
3 x 2 dx = 3 1
3 x 2 + 3 arcs e n +c
2 2
1
3

x 1
= 3 1
3 x 2 + arc s e n 3x + c
2 6
x 1 1

1.96.- 1 + 3x 2 dx = 3 + x 2 dx = 3 3 + x 2
+1
3
3
x + 13 + x 2 +c
2 2
x 1 1
= 3 3+ x +
2
x + 13 + x 2 + c
2 6
x 2 1 1
1.97.- 3x 2 1dx = 3 x 2 13 dx = 3 x 3 x + x 2 13 + c
2 6
1.98.- (3 x 2 1)dx = 3 x 2 dx dx = x3 x + c
0
1.99.- (3x 2 1) dx = dx = x + c
n
1.100.- (3 x 2 1) du = (3 x 2 1) n du = (3 x 2 1) n u + c
3
x 1 1 1x2 2 3
1.101.- exp( 3
x
)dx = dx = x 2 dx = +c = x 2 +c
3 3 3 32 9
2x 1 1 x2 1
1.102.- (e )dx = dx = xdx dx = x + c
2 x 1
2

2 2 2 2
1.103.- (e + e + 1) dx
2 x

26
ax (e 2 + e 1) x
Sea: a= (e 2 + e + 1) , Luego: a x dx = +c = +c
a (e2 + e 1)
1+ g 2x
1.104.- 2
1dx = (1 1)dx = 0dx = c
sec x
x2
1.105.- exp( 1 + x )dx = (1 + x)dx = dx + xdx = x + + c
2
x 27 x
1.106.- 27 x 2 dx = 27 x 2 + arc s e n +c
2 2 3 3
x 2 27
1.107.- x 2 27dx = x 27 x + x 2 27 + c
2 2
x 2 27
1.108.- x 2 + 27dx = x + 27 + x + x 2 + 27 + c
2 2
dx 1 dx 1
1.109.- = = arc secx + c
3x x 2 1 3 x x 2 1 3
dx 1 dx 1 x
1.110.- = = +c
2x 1 x2 2 x 1 x2 2 1 + 1 x2
dx 1 dx 1 x
1.111.- = = +c
5x x + 1 2 5 x x +1 5
2
1 + x2 + 1
dx 1 dx 11 x 1 x
1.112.- = = +c = +c
3x 9 x 2 3 x 9 x 2 33 3+ 9 x 2 9 3 + 9 x2
dx 1 dx 11 x
1.113.- = = +c
4 x x + 16 2 4 x x + 16 4 4
2
4 + x 2 + 16
1 x
= +c
16 4 + x 2 + 16
dx 1 dx 11 x 1 x
1.114.- = = arc sec + c = arc sec + c
5 x x 25 5 x x 25 5 5
2 2 5 25 5
(1 x ) 2
1 2 x + x
1.115.- dx = dx = ( x 2 2 x 2 + x 1 )dx
3

2 2
x x
1 1
x 2 x 2
= x dx 2 x dx + x dx = x 2 + x + c = x 2 + x +c
2 3 1 1 1
2
1 1
2 2
1 4
+ x +c = + + x +c
1
= x 1 + 4 x 2

x x
1.116.- (1 + x + x)2 dx = (1 + x + x 2 + 2 x + 2 x + 2 x 2 )dx
3

= (1 + 2 x 2 + 3x + 2 x 2 + x 2 )dx = dx + 2 x 2 dx +3 xdx + 2 x 2 dx + x 2 dx
1 3 1 3

3 5 3 5
2x 2 x2 x 2 x3 4x 2 x2 x 2 x3
x+ +3 +2 + +c = x+ +3 +4 + +c
3 2 5 3 3 2 5 3
2 2

27
1.117.- (1 x + x) 2 dx = (1 + x + x 2 2 x + 2 x 2 x 2 )dx
3

3 5
4x 2 x2 x 2 x3
= (1 2 x + 3x 2 x + x )dx = x +3 4 + +c
1 3 2
2 2

3 2 5 3
1.118.- (1 + x) dx = (1 + 4 x + 6 x + 4 x + x )dx
4 2 3 4

1
= dx + 4 xdx + 6 x 2 dx + 4 x3 dx + x 4 dx = x + 2 x 2 + 2 x3 + x 4 + x5 + c
5
1 cos x
1 cos x 1 1 1 1
1.119.- e 2
dx =
dx = dx cos xdx = x s e n xdx
2 2 2 2 2
1+ x
2
1+ x 2
1 1
1.120.- exp 2 dx = 2 dx = 2 dx + dx = x 2 dx + dx = + x + c
x x x x
1 s e n x
1 s e n x 1 1 1 1
1.121.- e 3
dx =
dx = dx s e n xdx = x + cos x + c
3 3 3 3 3
1.122.- (1 + x 3 x ) dx = dx = x + c
0

(1+ x )2 (1 + x) 2 1 + 2 x + x2 1 1
1.123.- e 2
dx = dx = dx = dx + xdx + x 2 dx
2 2 2 2
1 x 2 x3
= x+ + +c
2 2 6

28
CAPITULO 2

INTEGRACION POR SUSTITUCION

A veces es conveniente hacer un cambio de variable, para transformar la integral


dada en otra, de forma conocida. La tcnica en cuestin recibe el nombre de
mtodo de sustitucin.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

e x dx
2.1.-Encontrar: 2
x +7
e x dx xdx
Solucin.- Como: e x
= x, se tiene: 2 = 2
x +7 x +7
xdx 1 2 xdx
Sea la sustitucin: u = x 2 + 7 , donde: du = 2 xdx , Dado que: = 2 ,
x +7 2 x +7
2

1 2 xdx 1 du
2 x2 + 7 2 u
Se tiene: = , integral que es inmediata.
1 du 1 1
Luego: = u + c = x2 + 7 + c
2 u 2 2
e x dx 1
Respuesta: 2 = x2 + 7 + c
x +7 2
e x dx
2

2.2.-Encontrar: 3
x +8
e x dx
2
x 2 dx
Solucin.- Como: e = x , se tiene: 3
x2 2
= 3
x +8 x +8
x 2 dx 1 3 x 2 dx
Sea la sustitucin: w = x3 + 8 , donde: dw = 3x 2 dx , Dado que:
x3 + 8 3 x3 + 8
= ,

1 3x 2 dx 1 dw
3 x3 + 8 3 w
Se tiene: = integral que es inmediata.
1 dw 1 1
Luego: = w + c = x3 + 8 + c
3 w 3 3
x2
e dx 1
Respuesta: 3 = x3 + 8 + c
x +8 3
2.3.-Encontrar: ( x + 2) s e n( x 2 + 4 x 6)dx
Solucin.- Sea la sustitucin: u = x 2 + 4 x 6 , donde: du = (2 x + 4)dx
1
Dado que: ( x + 2) s e n( x 2 + 4 x 6)dx = (2 x + 4) s e n( x 2 + 4 x 6)dx , se tiene:
2

29
1 1
=
2 (2 x + 4) s e n( x 2 + 4 x 6)dx = s e n udu , integral que es inmediata.
2
1 1 1 1
Luego: = s e n udu = ( cos u ) + c = cos u + c = cos( x 2 + 4 x 6) + c
2 2 2 2
1
Respuesta: ( x + 2) s e n( x 2 + 4 x 6)dx = cos( x 2 + 4 x 6) + c
2
2.4.-Encontrar: x s e n(1 x )dx 2

Solucin.-Sea la sustitucin: w = 1 x 2 , donde: dw = 2 xdx


1
Dado que: x s e n(1 x 2 )dx = (2 x) s e n(1 x 2 )dx
2
1 1
Se tiene que: (2 x) s e n(1 x 2 )dx = s e n wdw , integral que es inmediata.
2 2
1 1 1 1
Luego: s e n wdw = ( cos w)dw + c = cos w + c = cos(1 x 2 ) + c
2 2 2 2
1
Respuesta: x s e n(1 x )dx = cos(1 x ) + c
2 2

2
2.5.-Encontrar: x co g ( x + 1)dx
2

Solucin.-Sea la sustitucin: u = x 2 + 1 , donde: du = 2 xdx


1
Dado que: x co g ( x 2 + 1)dx = 2 x co g ( x 2 + 1)dx
2
1 1
Se tiene que: 2 x co g ( x 2 + 1)dx = co gudu , integral que es inmediata.
2 2
1 1 1
Luego: co gudu = s e n u + c = s e n( x 2 + 1) + c
2 2 2
1
Respuesta: x co g ( x 2 + 1)dx = s e n( x 2 + 1) + c
2
2.6.-Encontrar: 1 + y 4 y 3 dy
Solucin.-Sea la sustitucin: w = 1 + y 4 , donde: dw = 4 y 3 dy
1
Dado que: 1 + y 4 y 3 dy = (1 + y 4 ) 2 4 y 3 dy
1

4
1 1
Se tiene que: (1 + y 4 ) 2 4 y 3 dy = w 2 dw , integral que es inmediata.
1 1

4 4
3
1 1w 2
1 3 1
Luego: w 2 dw = + c = w 2 + c = (1 + y 4 ) 2 + c
1 3

3
4 4 2 6 6
1
Respuesta: 1 + y 4 y 3 dy = (1 + y 4 ) 2 + c
3

6
3tdt
2.7.-Encontrar:
t +3
3 2

Solucin.-Sea la sustitucin: u = t 2 + 3 , donde: du = 2tdt

30
3tdt
3 2tdt
Dado que: =
t + 3 2 (t + 3) 3
2 1
3 2

3 2tdt 3 du
Se tiene que: 2 = 1 , integral que es inmediata
2 (t + 3)
1
3
2 u3
2
3 du 3 13 3u 3 9 23 9 2
= u du = + = + = + +c
2
Luego: 1
2
c u c ( t 3) 3

2 u 3
2 2 3 4 4
3tdt 9
Respuesta: = (t 2 + 3) 3 + c
2

t +3 4
3 2

dx
2.8.-Encontrar: 1 , a y b constantes.
(a + bx) 3
Solucin.- Sea: w = a + bx , donde: dw = bdx
2
1
dx 1 bdx 1 dw 1 1w3 3 23
Luego: = = = = + = w +c
3
w c
(a + bx) 3 b (a + bx) 3 b w 3 b
1 1 1
b 23 2b
3 2

= (a + bx) + c
3

2b
dx 3 2

Respuesta: = + +c
3
( a bx )
(a + bx) 3 2b
1

arcs e n x
2.9.-Encontrar: dx
1 x2
arcs e n x dx
Solucin.- dx = arcs e n x ,
1 x 2
1 x2
dx
Sea: u = arcs e n x , donde: du =
1 x2
dx 2 3 2
Luego: arcs e n x = u 2 du = u 2 + c = (arcs e n x)3 + c
1

1 x 2 3 3
arcs e n x 2
Respuesta: dx = (arcs e n x)3 + c
1 x 2
3
x
arc g
2.10.-Encontrar: 2 dx
4 + x2
x 1 1 2dx
Solucin.- Sea: w = arc g , donde: dw = ( )dx =
2 1+ ( 2 ) 2
x 2
4 + x2
x
arc g 2
1 x 2dx 1 1 2 1 x
Luego: 2 dx = arc g = wdw = w + c = arc g + c
4 + x2 2 2 4+ x
2
2 4 4 2
x
arc g 2

Respuesta: 2 dx = 1 arc g x + c

4 + x2 4 2

31
x arc g 2 x
2.11.-Encontrar: dx
1 + 4x2
x arc g 2 x xdx arc g 2 x
Solucin.- dx =
1+ 4x 2
1+ 4x 2
1 + 4 x2
2dx
Sea: u = 1 + 4 x 2 , donde: du = 8 xdx ; w = arc g 2 x , donde: dw =
1 + 4x2
xdx arc g 2 x 1 8 xdx 1 2dx
Luego: = arc g 2 x
1 + 4x 2
1+ 4x 2
8 1+ 4x 22
1 + 4x2
1 du 1 1 1 3 1 1
= w 2 dw = u w 2 + c = 1 + 4 x 2 (arc g 2 x) 2 + c
1 3

8 u 2 8 3 8 3
x arc g 2 x 1 1
Respuesta: dx = 1 + 4 x 2 (arc g 2 x) 2 + c
3

1+ 4x 2
8 3
dx
2.12.-Encontrar:
(1 + x 2 ) x + 1 + x 2
dx dx
Solucin.- =
(1 + x 2 ) x + 1 + x 2 1 + x2 x + 1 + x2
1 2x dx
Sea: u = x + 1 + x 2 , donde: du = (1 + ) du =
x + 1+ x 2
2 1+ x 2
1 + x2
dx du
= = u 2 du = 2u 2 + c = 2 x + 1 + x2 + c
1 1
Luego:
1 + x2 x + 1 + x2 u

dx
Respuesta: =2 x + 1 + x2 + c
(1 + x 2 ) x + 1 + x 2
co g ( x)
2.13.-Encontrar: dx
x
dx
Solucin.- Sea: w = x , donde: dw =
x
co g ( x)
Luego: dx = co gwdw = s e n w + c = s e n( x) + c
x
co g ( x)
Respuesta: dx = s e n( x) + c
x
dx
2.14.-Encontrar:
x ( x )3
dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = x , donde: du =
x
2
dx du u 1 1
Luego: = 3 = u 3 du = +c = 2 +c = +c
x( x) 3
u 2 2u 2( x) 2

32
dx 1
Respuesta: = +c
x( x) 3
2( x) 2
1
e x2
2.15.-Encontrar: 3 dx
x
1 2
Solucin.- Sea: w = 2 , donde: dw = 3 dx
x x
1
e x2 1 1 2dx 1 1 1 1 x2
Luego: 3 dx = e x2 3 = e w dw = e w + c = e + c
x 2 x 2 2 2
1
e x2 1 1 x2
Respuesta: 3 dx = e + c
x 2
2.16.-Encontrar: e x2 + 2
xdx
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 2 , donde: du = 2 xdx
1 1 1 1 2
Luego: e x + 2 xdx = e x + 2 (2 xdx) = eu du = eu + c = e x + 2 + c
2 2

2 2 2 2
1
Respuesta: e x + 2 xdx = e x + 2 + c
2 2

2
2.17.-Encontrar: x e dx 2 x3

Solucin.- Sea: w = x 3 , donde: dw = 3x 2 dx


1 1 1 3
Luego: x 2 e x dx = 3x 2 e x dx = e w dw = e x + c
3 3

3 3 3
1 3
Respuesta: x 2 e x dx = e x + c
3

3
2.18.-Encontrar: (e + 1) 2 e x dx
x

Solucin.- Sea: u = e x + 1 , donde: du = e x dx


u3 (e x + 1)3
Luego: (e x + 1) 2 e x dx = u 2 du = + c = +c
3 3
(e x + 1)3
Respuesta: (e x + 1) 2 e x dx = +c
3
ex 1
2.19.-Encontrar: x dx
e +1
e 1
x
ex 1 ex e x e x
Solucin.- x dx = x dx x dx = x dx x dx
e +1 e +1 e +1 e +1 e +1
x x x x
e e e e
= x dx x x dx = x dx dx
e +1 e (e + 1) e +1 1 + ex
Sea: u = e x + 1 , donde: du = e x dx ; w = 1 + e x ,donde: dw = e x dx
ex e x ex e x du dw
Luego: x dx dx = dx x
dx = +
e +1 1+ e x
e +1
x
1+ e u w

33
= u + c1 + w + c2 = e x + 1 + 1 + e x + C = e x + 1 1 + e x + c
ex 1
Respuesta: x dx = (e x + 1)(1 + e x ) + c , otra respuesta seria:
e +1
e 1
x

e x + 1dx = e + 1 x + c
x 2

e2 x 1
2.20.-Encontrar: 2 x dx
e +3
e 1
2x
e2 x e0
Solucin.- 2 x dx = 2 x dx 2 x dx
e +3 e +3 e +3
2 x 2 x
e 2x
e e e 2x
e 2 x e2 x e 2 x
= 2 x dx 2 x dx = 2 x dx 2 x 2 x dx = 2 x dx dx
e +3 e +3 e +3 e (e + 3) e +3 1 + 3e 2 x
Sea: u = e 2 x + 3 , donde: du = 2e 2 x dx ; w = 1 + 3e 2 x ,donde: dw = 6e 2 x dx
e2 x e 2 x 1 2e 2 x 1 6e 2 x 1 du 1 dw
Luego: 2 x dx dx =
2 u 6 w
2 x
dx = dx + 2 x
+
e +3 1 + 3e 2 e +3
2x
6 1 + 3e
1 1 1 1 1 1 3
u + w + c = e 2 x + 3 + 1 + 3e2 x + c = e2 x + 3 + 1 + 2 x + c
2 6 2 6 2 6 e
1 1 e2 x + 3 1 1 1
= e2 x + 3 + 2 x + c = e2 x + 3 + e2 x + 3 e2 x + c
2 6 e 2 6 6

= ( e 2 x + 3) + ( e 2 x + 3) 2 x + c = ( e2 x + 3) ( e 2 x + 3) + c
1/ 2 1/ 6 1 1/ 2 1/ 6 x
6 3
= ( e 2 x + 3)
x
2/3
+c
3
e 1
2x
Respuesta: 2 x dx = ( e 2 x + 3) + c
2/3 x
e +3 3
x +1
2
2.22.-Encontrar: dx
x 1
Solucin.- Cuando el grado del polinomio dividendo es MAYOR o IGUAL que el
grado del polinomio divisor, es necesario efectuar previamente la divisin de
polinomios. El resultado de la divisin dada es:

x2 + 1 2 x2 + 1 2 dx
= ( x + 1) + , Luego: dx = x + 1 + dx = xdx + dx + 2
x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1
Sea u = x 1 , donde du = dx
dx du x 2
Luego: xdx + dx + 2 = xdx + dx + 2 = + x + x 1 + c
x 1 u 2
x +1
2
x 2
Respuesta: dx = + x + x 1 + c
x 1 2
x+2
2.23.-Encontrar: dx
x +1

34
x+2 1 x+2 1 dx
Solucin.- = 1+ , Luego: dx = 1 + dx = dx +
x +1 x +1 x +1 x +1 x +1
Sea u = x + 1 , donde du = dx
du
dx + u = x + u + c =x + x + 1 + c
x+2
Respuesta: dx = x + x + 1 + c
x +1
2.24.-Encontrar: g 5 x sec2 xdx
Solucin.- Sea: w = gx , donde: dw = sec 2 x
( gx) g6x
6
w6
Luego: g x sec xdx = ( gx) sec xdx = w dw =
5 2 5 2
+c =
5
+c = +c
6 6 6
g6x
Respuesta: g 5 x sec 2 xdx = +c
6
2.25.-Encontrar: s e n x sec 2 xdx
1 sen x
Solucin.- s e n x sec 2 xdx = s e n x 2
dx = dx
cos x cos 2 x
Sea: u = cos x , donde: du = s e n x
sen x s e n xdx du u 1 1 1
Luego: dx = = = u 2
du = +c = +c = +c
2
cos x cos x2
u 1 u cos x
Respuesta: s e n x sec 2 xdx = sec x + c
sec2 3xdx
2.26.-Encontrar:
1 + g 3x
Solucin.- Sea: u = 1 + g 3 xdx , donde: du = 3sec 2 3xdx
sec2 3 xdx 1 3sec 2 3 xdx 1 du 1 1
Luego: = = = u + c = 1 + g 3x + c
1 + g 3x 3 1 + g 3x 3 u 3 3
sec 2 3 xdx 1
Respuesta: = 1 + g 3x + c
1 + g 3x 3
2.27.-Encontrar: s e n 3 x cos xdx
Solucin.- Sea: w = s e n x , donde: dw = cos xdx
w4 s e n4 x
Luego: s e n 3 x cos xdx = (s e n x)3 cos xdx = w3 dw = + c = +c
4 4
s e n4 x
Respuesta: s e n 3 x cos xdx = +c
4
2.28.-Encontrar: cos 4 x s e n xdx
Solucin.- Sea: u = cos x , donde: du = s e n x
Luego: cos 4 x s e n xdx = (cos x) 4 s e n xdx = (cos x) 4 ( s e n x) dx = u 4 du

35
u5 cos x5 cos5 x
= +c = +c = +c
5 5 5
cos5 x
Respuesta: cos 4 x s e n xdx = +c
5
sec5
2.29.-Encontrar: dx
cos ecx
1
sec5 5 sen x
Solucin.- dx = cos x dx = dx
cos ecx 1 (cos x)5
sen x
Sea: w = cos x , donde: dw = s e n xdx
sen x dw w4 1 1 1
Luego: dx = = w 5
dw = +c = +c = +c
(cos x) 5
w5
4 4w 4
4 cos 4 x
sec 4 x
= +c
4
sec5 sec 4 x
Respuesta: dx = +c
cos ecx 4
2.30.-Encontrar: e g 2 x sec2 2 xdx
Solucin.- Sea: u = g 2 x , donde: du = 2sec 2 2 xdx
1 1 1 1
Luego: e g 2 x sec2 2 xdx = e g 2 x (2sec2 2 xdx) = eu du = eu + c = e g 2 x + c
2 2 2 2
1
Respuesta: e g 2 x sec2 2 xdx = e g 2 x + c
2
2x 5
2.31.-Encontrar: 2 dx
3x 2
Solucin.- Sea: w = 3x 2 2 , donde: dw = 6 xdx
2x 5 1 3(2 x 5) 1 6 x 15 1 6 xdx 15 dx
Luego: 2 dx = dx = 2 dx = 2 2
3x 2 3 3x 2
2
3 3x 2 3 3x 2 3 3x 2
1 6 xdx dx 1 6 xdx 5 dx 1 6 xdx 5 dx
= 2 5 = 2 2 2 = 2 2
3 3x 2 3( x 3 ) 3 3x 2 3 ( x 3 ) 3 3 x 2 3 x ( 23 ) 2
2 2

1 dw 5 dx 1 5 dx
2
3 w 3 x ( 3) 3
2 2
= w + c1 2
3 x ( 23 ) 2
; Sea: v = x , donde: dv = dx

1 5 dv
Adems: a = 2 ; se tiene: w + c1 2 2
3 v a
3
3
1 5 1 va 1 5 1 x 2
= 3x 2 2 + c1 + c2 = 3x 2 2 3
+C
3 3 2a v+a 3 3 2 2 3 x+ 2
3
1 5 3x 2 1 5 3x 2
= 3x 2 2 + C = 3x 2 2 +C
3 32 2 3x + 2 3 2 6 3x + 2

36
2x 5 1 5 3x 2
Respuesta: dx = 3 x 2 2 +C
3x 2
2
3 2 6 3x + 2
dx
2.32.-Encontrar:
x 4 9 2x
dx dx
Solucin.- =
x 4 9 2x x 22 (3 x) 2
3dx
Sea: u = 3 x , donde: du =
x
dx 1 3dx 1 du 1 u
Luego: = = = arcs e n + c
x 2 (3 x)
2 2 3 x 2 (3 x)
2 2 3 2 (u )
2 2 3 2
1 3 x 1
+ c = arcs e n x 2 + c
3
= arcs e n
3 2 3
dx 1
Respuesta: = arcs e n x 2 + c
3

x 4 9 2x 3
dx
2.33.-Encontrar:
ex 1
e x dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = e x 1 , donde: du = ; Tal que: e x = u 2 + 1
2 e 1
x

dx 2du du
Luego: = 2 = 2 2 = 2 arc gu + c = 2 arc g e x + 1 + c
e 1
x u + 1 u + 1
dx
Respuesta: = 2 arc g e x + 1 + c
e 1
x

x2 + 2 x + 2
2.34.-Encontrar: dx
x +1
x2 + 2 x + 2 ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 1 ( x + 1) 2 + 1 ( x + 1) 2 + 1
Solucin.- dx = dx = dx = dx
x +1 x +1 x +1 x +1
1 dx
= (x +1+ )dx = xdx + dx + , Sea: w = x + 1 , donde: dw = dx
x +1 x +1
dx dw x 2
Luego: xdx + dx + = xdx + dx + = + x+ w +c
x +1 w 2
2
x
= + x + x +1 + c
2
x2 + 2 x + 2 x2
Respuesta: dx = + x + x + 1 + c
x +1 2
2x
e
2.35.-Encontrar: dx
ex + 1
Solucin.- Sea: u = e x + 1 , donde: du = e x dx

37
1
u 1
3
e2 x u2 u 2
Luego: dx = 1 du = (u 2 u 2 )du = u 2 du u 2 du =
1 1
+c
1 1

ex + 1 u2 3
2
1
2
3 1
u 2
u 2

= + c = 23 u 2 12 u 2 + c = (e x + 1)3 2 (e x + 1) + c
3 1
2
3 1 3
2 2

e2 x
Respuesta: dx = 2
3 (e x + 1)3 2 (e x + 1) + c
e +1
x

2 x dx
2.36.-Encontrar:
4x x
dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 4 x , donde: du = ; adems: 4 x = (2 2 x) = 2 + 2 x
x
u = 2 + 2x 2x = u 2
2 x dx u 2 2 du
Luego: = du = du du = du 2 = u 2 u + c
4x x u u u
= 4 x 2 [ ( 4 x)] + c
2 x dx
Respuesta: = 4 x 2 [ ( 4 x) ] + c
4x x
2.37.-Encontrar: x(3 x + 1)7 dx
w 1
Solucin.- Sea: w = 3x + 1 , donde: dw = 3dx ; adems: w 1 = 3x x =
3
w 1 7 dw 1 1
Luego: x(3 x + 1)7 dx = w = ( w 1) w7 dw = ( w8 w7 )dw
3 3 9 9
9 8
1 1 1w 1w 1 1
= w8 dw w7 dw = + c = w9 w8 + c
9 9 9 9 9 8 81 72
1 1
= (3x + 1)9 (3x + 1)8 + c
81 72
(3x + 1)9 (3 x + 1)8
Respuesta: x(3 x + 1)7 dx = +c
81 72
x2 5x + 6
2.38.-Encontrar: dx
x2 + 4
x2 5x + 6 2 5x
Solucin.- dx = 1 + 2
x +4
2
x +4
x 5x + 6
2
2 5x dx xdx
Luego: dx = (1 + 2 )dx = dx + 2 2 5 2
x +4
2
x +4 x +4 x +4
Sea: u = x + 4 , donde: du = 2 xdx ; Entonces:
2

x 5 du x 5 x 5
= x + arc g =x + arc g u + c = x + arc g x 2 + 4 + c
2 2 u 2 2 2 2
x 5x + 6
2
x 5
Respuesta: dx = x + arc g x 2 + 4 + c
x +4
2
2 2

38
EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS
Usando Esencialmente la tcnica de integracin por sustitucin, encontrar las
siguientes integrales:
2.39.- 3x e x dx adx 4t + 6
2.40.- 2.41.- dt
ax 2t + 1
1 3x xdx ax b
2.42.- dx 2.43.- 2.44.- dx
3 + 2x a + bx x+
3t 2 + 3 x2 + 5x + 7 x4 + x2 + 1
2.45.- dt 2.46.- dx 2.47.- dx
t 1 x+3 x 1
b
2 x bdy
2.48.- a + 2.49.- dx 2.50.-
dx ( x + 1) 2 1 y
xa
2.51.- a bxdx 2.52.-
xdx x + x
2.53.- dx
x +1 2
x
2.54.-
dx x3 dx y2 5 y + 6
2.55.- 2 2.56.- dy
3x 2 + 5 a x2 y2 + 4
6t 15 3 2x 3x + 1
2.57.- dt 2.58.- 2 dx 2.59.- dx
3t 2 2 5x + 7 5x2 + 1
xdx xdx ax + b
2.60.- 2 2.61.- 2 2.62.- 2 2 dx
x 5 2x + 3 a x + b2
xdx x 2 dx x 2 dx
2.63.- 2.64.- 2.65.-
a4 x4 1 + x6 x6 1
x arc g 3x arc g ( 3x )
2.66.- dx 2.67.-
arcs e n t
dt 2.68.- dx
1 + 9 x2 4 4t 2 9 + x2

2.69.-
dt 2.70.- ae mx dx 2.71.- 423 x dx
(9 + 9t 2 ) t + 1 + t 2

2.72.- (et e t )dt 2.73.- e ( x +1)


2.74.- (e a e a )2 dx
2 x x
xdx
a2x 1
1
dx
2.75.- dx 2.76.-
ex
dx 2.77.- 5 x

ax x2 x
2.78.- x7 x dx 2.80.- e x a be x dx
2
et dt
2.79.-
et 1
2.81.- (e a + 1) 3 e a dx
x 1 x
dx a x dx
2.82.- x 2.83.- ;a > 0
2 +3 1 + a2 x
e bx et dt 2.86.- cos dx
x
2.84.- dx 2.85.-
1 e2bx 1 e 2t 2
2.87.- s e n(a + bx)dx 2.88.- cos x
dx
2.89.- s e n( x)
dx
x x
2.90.- (cos ax + s e n ax) 2 dx 2.91.- s e n xdx
2
2.92.- cos 2 xdx

39
2.93.- sec 2 (ax + b)dx 2.94.- cos g 2 axdx 2.95.-
dx
s e n ax
dx dx xdx
2.96.- 2.97.- 2.98.-
3cos(5 x 4 ) s e n(ax + b) cos 2 x 2
x dx dx
2.99.- co g dx 2.100.- g x 2.101.-
a b x g 5x
2
dx cos ax
2.102.-
1
1 dx 2.103.- 2.104.- dx
sen x 2 s e n x cos x s e n 5 ax
2.105.- t s e n(1 2t 2 )dt 2.106.-
s e n 3x
dx 2.107.- g 3 3x sec 2 3x dx
3 + cos 3 x
2.108.-
s e n x cos x gx 2.110.- cos ax s e n ax dx
dx 2.109.- dx
cos x s e n x
2 2
cos 2 x

2.111.- t co g (2t 2 3)dt x3 dx 2.113.- s e n 3 6 x cos 6 xdx


2.112.-
x8 + 5
2.114.- 1 + 3cos 2 x s e n 2 xdx 2.115.- x 5 5 x 2 dx 1 + s e n 3x
2.116.- dx
cos 2 3 x
(cos ax + s e n ax) 2 x3 1 cos ec 2 3xdx
2.117.- dx 2.118.- dx 2.119.-
s e n ax x +1 b a co g 3 x
x3 1 2.121.- xe x dx
2

2.120.- 3 2 + 3x 2
dx 2.122.- dx
x4 4x + 1 2 + 3x 2
g 3 x co g 3x dx 1+ s e n x
2.123.- dx 2.124.- 2.125.- dx
s e n 3x ex x + cos x
sec 2 xdx 2.127.-
dx 2.128.- a s e n x cos xdx
2.126.-
g2x 2 x x 2

x2 2.130.-
xdx 2.131.- g 2 axdx
2.129.- dx
x3 + 1 1 x4
sec 2 xdx 2.133.-
dx 3 1+ x
2.132.- 2.134.- dx
4 g 2 x cos x a x
dx xdx s e n x cos x
2.135.- g x 1 2.136.- 2.137.- dx
x 1 s e n x2 s e n x + cos x
arc gx
+ x (1 + x 2 ) + 1 2.140.- es e n x s e n 2 xdx
2
e x 2 dx
2.138.- 2.139.- 2
1 + x2 x 2
(1 s e n x2 ) 2 5 3x ds
2.141.- dx 2.142.- dx 2.143.-
s e n x2 4 3x 2 e +1 s

d es 2.146.- s e n( 2T t + 0 )dt
2.144.- 2.145.- ds
s e n a cos a e2 s 2

40
2.147.-
arc cos x 2
dx 2.148.-
dx 2.149.- e gx sec 2 xdx
4 x2 x(4 2 x)
s e n x cos x 2.151.- dt
2.150.- dx 2.152.-
2sen x s ecx gx s e n t cos 2 t
2


4
dx
s ec 2 x + 1
arc s e n x + x xdx 2.155.- x(5 x 2 3)7 dx
2.153.- dx 2.154.-
1 x2 x +1
s e n3 x cos xdx
( x + x 2 + 1) 2.157.- 2.158.-
2.156.- dx cos x
dx
1+ s e n2 x
x2 + 1
2.150.- e x + e dx 2.161.- t (4t + 1)7 dt
x
(arcs e n x) 2
2.159.- dx
1 x2
2t 2 10t + 12 et e t
2.162.- dt 2.163.- dt
t2 + 4 et + e t

RESPUESTAS
2.39.- 3x e x dx , Sea: u = x, du = dx, a = 3e
au (3e) x (3e) x 3x e x 3x e x
(3e) dx = (a) du = +c = +c = +c = +c = +c
x u

a (3e) 3 e 3 + e 3 +1
adx
2.40.- , Sea: u = a x, du = dx
ax
adx du
a x = a u = a u + c = a a x + c
4t + 6 2t + 3 2
2.41.- dt , Sea: u = 2t + 1, du = 2dt ; = 1+
2t + 1 2t + 1 2t + 1
4t + 6 2 2 du
2t + 1 dt = 2 1 + 2t + 1 dt = 2 dt + 2 2t + 1 dt =2 dt + 2 u =2t + 2 u + c
= 2t + 2 2t + 1 + c
11
1 3x 1 3x 3
2.42.- dx , Sea: u = 3 + 2 x, du = 2dx ; = + 2
3 + 2x 3 + 2x 2 2x + 3
1 3x 3 11
3 11 dx 3 11 du
3 + 2 x 2 2 x + 3 dx = 2 dx + 4 2 x + 3 = 2 dx + 4 u
= + 2
dx
3 11
x+ 2x + 3 + c
2 4
a
xdx x 1
2.43.- , Sea: u = a + bx, du = bdx ; = b
a + bx a + bx b a + bx
xdx 1 a dx 1 a du 1 a x a
a + bx = b dx b a + bx = b dx b2 u = b x b2 u + c = b b2 a + bx + c

41

+b
ax b ax b a
2.44.- dx , Sea: u = x + , du = dx ; =
x+ ax + b x
a + b
+b
ax b a a a a + b dx
x + dx = x dx = dx x + dx = dx a + b


a a + b du a a + b a a + b
= dx = x u +c = x x+ +c
2
u 2
2

3t 2 + 3 t2 +1 2
2.45.- dt , Sea: u = t 1, du = dt ; = t +1+
t 1 t 1 t 1
3t + 3
2
2 2 3 2
t 1 dt = 3 t + 1 + t 1 dt = 3 tdt + 3 dt + 3 t 1 dt = 2 t + 3t + 6 u + c
3
= t 2 + 3t + 6 t 1 + c
2
x2 + 5x + 7 x2 + 5x + 7 1
2.46.- dx , Sea: u = t 1, du = t + 1 ; = x+2+
x+3 x+3 x+3
x2 + 5x + 7 1 1 x 2

x + 3 dx = x + 2 + x + 3 dx = xdx + 2 dx + x + 3 dx = 2 + 2 x + u + c
x2 x2
= + 2x + u + c = + 2x + x + 3 + c
2 2
x + x +1
4 2
2.47.- dx , Sea: u = x 1, du = dx ;
x 1
x4 + x2 + 1 3 3 dx
x 1 dx = x + x + 2 x + 2 + x 1 dx = x dx + x dx + 2 dx + 3 x 1
2 3 2

x 4 x3 x 4 x3
= + + x2 + 2 + 3 u + c = + + x2 + 2 x + 3 x 1 + c
4 3 4 3
2
b
2.48.- a + dx , Sea: u = x a, du = dx
xa
2 2ab b2
2
b dx dx
x a
+ = x a ( x a)2 dx = a dx + 2ab x a + b ( x a)2
+ + 2 2
a dx a

du du u 1 b2
= a 2 dx + 2ab + b 2 2 = a 2 x + 2ab u + b 2 + c = a 2 x + 2ab x a + c 2.
u u 1 xa
x
49.- dx , Sea: u = x + 1, du = dx
( x + 1) 2
x ( x + 1) 1 x +1 dx dx dx u 1
( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2
dx = dx = ( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2 u u 2
dx = = u
1
+c

42
1
= x +1 + +c
x +1
bdy
2.50.- , Sea: u = 1 y, du = dy
1 y
bdy du
1 y = b u = b u 2 du = 2bu 2 + c = 2b(1 y) 2 + c
1 1 1

2.51.- a bxdx , Sea: u = a bx, du = bdx


3
1 12 1u 2 2 3 3
a bxdx = = + c = u 2 + c = (a bx) 2 + c
3
u du 3
b b 2 3b 2b
xdx
2.52.- , Sea: u = x 2 + 1, du = 2 xdx
x +1 2

1
xdx 1 du 1 12 1 u2
= = u du = + c =( x 2 + 1) 2 + c
1

x +1 2
1
2
u 2 2 2

x + x dx
2.53.- dx , Sea: u = x, du =
x x
x + x x x1/ 2
u2
x x
1/ 2 1/ 2
dx = x dx + dx = x dx + udu = + +c
1/ 2 2
2x
=2 x+ +c
2
dx
2.54.- 2 , Sea: u 2 = 3 x 2 , u = 3 x, du = 3dx ; a 2 = 5; a = 5
3x + 5
dx 1 du 1 1 u 1 1 3x 15 3x
3x 2 + 5 = 3 u 2 + a 2 = 3 a arc tg a + c = 3 5 arc tg 5 + c = 15 arc tg 5 + c
x3dx
2.55.- , Sea: u = x 2 a 2 , du = 2 xdx
a2 x2
x 3dx a 2 xdx xdx a 2 du
a2 x2
= x2 a2 = x2 a2
=
2 u
2
xdx xdx a xdx

x2 a2 x2 a2
= u +c = x2 a2 + c
2 2 2 2
y2 5 y + 6
2.56.- dy , Sea: u = y 2 + 4, du = 2 ydy
y +4
2

y2 5 y + 6 5 y + 2 5 y + 2 ydy dy
y 2 + 4 dy = (1 + y 2 + 4 )dy = dy + y 2 + 4 dy = dy 5 y 2 + 4 + 2 y 2 + 22
y y
= y 5 u + 2 1 arc g + c = y 5 y 2 + 4 + arc g + c
2 2 2 2 2
6t 15
2.57.- 2 dt , Sea: u = 3t 2 2, du = 6tdt ; w = 3t , dw = 3dt
3t 2

43
6t 15 tdt dt tdt dt
3t 2
2
dt = 6 2
3t 2
15 2
3t 2
= 6 2
3t 2
15
( 3t ) 2 ( 2) 2
du 15 dw 15 3 1 w 2
= = u +c
u 3 w ( 2)
2 2
3 2 2 w+ 2
5 6 t 3 2
= 3t 2 2 +c
4 t 3+ 2

3 2x
2.58.- dx , Sea: u = 5 x 2 + 7, du = 10 xdx; w = 5 x, dw = 5dx
5x + 7
2

3 2x dx dx dx 2 du
5 x 2 + 7dx = 3 5 x2 + 7 2 5x 2 + 7 = 3 ( 5x )2 + ( 7)2 10 u
3 dw 1 du 3 1 x 5 1
=
5 w + ( 7) 5 u
2 2
=
5 7
arc g u +c
7 5
3 35 5 1
= arc gx 5x2 + 7 + c
35 7 5
3x + 1
2.59.- dx , Sea: u = 5 x 2 + 1, du = 10 xdx; w = x 5, dw = 5dx
5x + 1
2

3x + 1 xdx dx xdx dx
5 x2 + 1dx = 3 5 x2 + 1 + ( x 5)2 + 12 = 3 5 x 2 + 1 + ( x 5)2 + 12
1
3 du 1 dw 3 u2 1
= + = + w + w2 + 1 + c
10 u 5 w + 1 10 1 2
2 2
5
3 1
= 5x2 + 1 + x 5 + 5x2 + 1 + c
5 5
xdx
2.60.- 2 , Sea: u = x 2 + 5, du = 2 xdx
x 5
xdx 1 du 1 1
x2 5 = 2 u = 2 u + c = 2 x 5 + c
2

xdx
2.61.- , Sea: u = 2 x 2 + 3, du = 4 xdx
2x + 3
2

xdx 1 du 1 1
2x2 + 3 = 4 u = 4 u + c = 4 2x + 3 + c
2

ax + b
2.62.- 2 2 dx , Sea: u = a 2 x 2 + b 2 , du = 2a 2 xdx; w = ax, dw = adx
a x +b 2

ax + b xdx dx a du b dw
a 2 x 2 + b2 dx = a a 2 x 2 + b2 + b a 2 x 2 + b2 = 2a 2 u + a w2 + b2
1 b 1 w 1 1 ax
= u+ arc g + c = a 2 x 2 + b 2 + arc g + c
2 a b b 2 a b

44
xdx
2.63.- , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
a x4 4

xdx xdx 1 du 1 u
a x
= =
2 = arcs e n 2 + c
( a 2 )2 u 2 2 a
4 4
( a 2 )2 ( x2 )2
1 x2
= arcs e n 2 + c
2 a
2
x dx
2.64.- , Sea: u = x3 , du = 3x 2 dx
1+ x 6

2
x dx x 2 dx 1 du 1 1
1 + x6 = 1 + ( x3 )2 = 3 1 + u 2 = 3 arc g u + c = 3 arc gx + c
3

x 2 dx
2.65.- , Sea: u = x3 , du = 3x 2 dx
x 16

2
x dx x 2 dx 1 du 1 1
x 1
6
=
(x ) 1
3 2
= = u + u 2 1 + c = x3 + x 6 1 + c
3 u 1 3
2 3
x arc g 3x 3dx
2.66.- dx , Sea: u = 1 + 9 x 2 , du = 18 xdx; w = arc g 3 x, dw =
1+ 9x 2
1 + 9 x2
x arc g 3x xdx arc g 3x 1 du 1
1 + 9 x2 dx = 1 + 9 x 2 1 + 9 x 2 dx = 18 u 3 w 2 dw
1

2(arc g 3 x) 2
3 3
1 1w2 1
= u +c = 1+ 9x
2
+c
18 33 18 9
2
arcs e n t dt
2.67.- dt , Sea: u = arcs e n t , du =
4 4t 2
1 t2
3
arcs e n t 1 arcs e n t 1 arcs e n t 1 1 u 2
1 3
4 4t 2
dt =
2 1 t 2
dt =
2 1 t2
dt = udu =
2 2 3
+c = u 2 +c
3
2
1
= (arcs e n t )3 + c
3
arc g ( 3x ) 3dx
2.68.- dx , Sea: u = arc g 3x , du =
9+ x 2
9 + x2
arc g ( 3x ) 1 1 u2 1 2 arc g ( 3x ) 2
9 + x2 dx =
3
udu =
3 2
+ c =
6
u + c =
6
+c
dt dt
2.69.- , Sea: u = t + 1 + t 2 , du =
(9 + 9t 2 ) t + 1 + t 2 1+ t2
1
1 dt 1 du 1 u 2 2 2
= = = +c = u +c = t + 1+ t 2 + c
3 (1 + t 2 ) 3 u 3 1 3 3
t + 1+ t2 2

45
2.70.- ae mx dx , Sea: u = mx, du = mdx
a u a a
ae dx = a e mx dx =
mx
e du = eu + c = e mx + c
m m m
2.71.- 42 3 x dx , Sea: u = 2 3x, du = 3dx; a = 4
1 u 1 au 4 2 3 x
4 dx = 3
2 3 x
a du = + c = +c
3 a 3 4
2.72.- (et e t )dt , Sea: u = t , du = dt

(e e t )dt = et dt e t dt = et dt eu dt = et + eu + c = et + e t + c
t

2.73.- e ( x +1)
Sea: u = x 2 1, du = 2 xdx
2
xdx ,
1 u 1 1 1
e xdx = e x 1 xdx =

( x 2 +1)
e du = eu + c = e ( x +1) + c = x2 +1 + c
2 2

2 2 2 2e
2 x 2 dx 2 x 2dx
2.74.- (e a e a ) 2 dx , Sea: u = , du = ; w = , dw =
x x

a a a a
(e a e a ) dx = (e a + 2e a e a + e a )dx = e a dx + 2 dx + e a dx
x x 2 2x x x 2 x 2x 2 x

a u a a a a 2x a 2x
=
2 e du + 2 dx e w dw = eu + 2 x e w + c = e a + 2 x e a + c
2 2 2 2 2
a 1
2x
2.75.- dx , Sea: u = 2x , du = dx2 ; w = 32x , dw = 32dx
x
a
a 1
2x
a 2 x dx dx
ax a x a x = a 2 dx a 2 dx = a 2 dx a 2 dx
2 x x x x
=
3x
dx
3x x 3x
2 w 2 aw au 2a 2 a 2 2 a 2
= a dw + 2 a du =
x
u
+2 +c = +2 +c = ( + a 2)+c
3 3 a a 3 a a a 3
1
ex 1 dx
2.76.- 2 dx , Sea: u = , du = 2
x x x
1
e x

x 2 dx = e du = e + c = e x + c = e + c
u u 1
x

dx dx
2.77.- 5 x , Sea: u = x , du =
x 2 x
dx 2 5u 25 x
5 = 2 5u du = +c = +c
x

x 5 5
2.78.- x7 x dx , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
2

2
1 u 1 7u 1 7x
=
2
= + = +c
x2
x 7 dx 7 du c
2 7 2 7
et dt
2.79.- , Sea: u = et 1, du = et dt
et 1

46
et dt du
et 1 = u = u + c = e 1 + c
t

2.80.- e x a be x dx , Sea: u = a be x , du = be x dx
3
1 1u 2 2 3 2
e a be dx = udu = + c = u 2 + c = (a be x ) 2 + c
x x 3

b b 2
3 3b 3b
x
ea
2.81.- (e a + 1) 3 e a dx , Sea: u = e a +1
, du =
x 1 x x
dx
a
3a(e a + 1) 3
4 x 4
au 3
(e + 1) e dx = e + 1e dx = a u du = 4 + c = +c
x 1 x 3 xa x 1
a 3 a a 3

4
3
dx
2.82.- x , Sea: u = 2 x + 3, du = 2 x 2dx
2 +3
dx 1 3dx 1 2x + 3 2x 1 2x + 3 1 2x 1 1 du
2x + 3 3 2x + 3 3 2x + 3
= = dx =
3 2 +3
x
dx
3 2 +3
x
dx = dx
3 3 u
1 1 1 1 1 2 +3
x

= x u +c = x u +c = x +c
3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2
a x dx
2.83.- , Sea: u = a x , du = a x adx; a > 0
1+ a 2x

x
a dx a x dx 1 du 1 1
1 + a 2 x 1 + (a x )2 = a 1 + u 2 = a arc gu + c = a arc ga + c
= x

e bx
2.84.- dx , Sea: u = e bx , du = be bx dx
1 e2bx
e bx e bx 1 du 1 du 1 u 1
1 e2bx dx = 1 (ebx )2 dx = b 1 u 2 = b (1)(u 2 1) = 2b u + 1 + c
1 e bx 1
= bx +c.
2b e +1
et dt
2.85.- , Sea: u = et , du = et dt
1 e 2t

t
e dt et dt du
1 e 2t
=
1 (e ) t 2
=
1 u 2
= arcs e n u + c = arcs e n et + c

x x dx
2.86.- cos dx , , du = Sea: u =
2 2 2
x x
cos 2 dx = 2 cos udu = 2 s e n u + c = 2 s e n 2 + c
2.87.- s e n(a + bx)dx , Sea: u = a + bx, du = bdx
1 1 1
s e n(a + bx)dx = b s e n udu = b cos u + c = b cos(a + bx) + c

47
dx dx
2.88.- cos x , Sea: u = x , du =
x 2 x
dx
cos x
x
= 2 cos udu = 2s e n u + c = 2s e n x + c

dx dx
2.89.- s e n( x) , Sea: u = x, du =
x x
dx
s e n( x) x = s e n udu = cos u + c = cos x + c
2.90.- (cos ax + s e n ax) 2 dx , Sea: u = 2ax, du = 2adx

(cos ax + s e n ax) dx = (cos ax + 2 cos ax s e n ax + s e n ax)dx


2 2 2

= (1 + 2 cos ax s e n ax)dx = dx + 2 cos ax s e n axdx = dx + s e n 2axdx


1
= x cos 2ax + c
2a
2.91.- s e n 2 xdx , Sea: u = 2 x, du = 2dx
1 cos 2 x 1 1 1 1 1 1
sen xdx = dx = dx cos 2 xdx = dx cos udu = x s e n u + c
2

2 2 2 2 4 2 4
1 1
= x s e n 2x + c
2 4
2.92.- cos 2 xdx , Sea: u = 2 x, du = 2dx
1 + cos 2 x 1 1 1 1 1 1
cos xdx = dx = dx + cos 2 xdx = dx + cos udu = x + s e n u + c
2

2 2 2 2 4 2 4
1 1
= x + s e n 2x + c
2 4
2.93.- sec 2 (ax + b)dx , Sea: u = ax + b, du = adx
1 1 1
sec (ax + b)dx = a sec udu = gu + c = g (ax + b) = + c
2 2

a a
2.94.- co g axdx ,
2
Sea: u = ax, du = adx
1 1 1 1
co g axdx = a co g udu = a (cos ec u 1)du = a cos ec udu a du
2 2 2 2

co gu u co gax a x co gax
= +c = +c = x+c
a a a a a
dx
2.95.- , Sea: u = x a , du = dx a
s e n ax
dx
s e n ax = cos ec ax dx = a cos ecudu = a cos ecu co gu + c
= a cos ec x a co g x a + c

48
Sea: u = 5 x , du = 5dx
dx
2.96.- ,
3cos(5 x 4 ) 4
dx 1 1 1
3cos(5 x 4 ) = 3 sec(5 x 4 )dx = 15 sec udu = 15 sec u + gu + c
1
= sec(5 x 4 ) + g (5 x 4 ) + c
15
dx
2.97.- , Sea: u = ax + b, du = adx
s e n(ax + b)
dx 1 1
s e n(ax + b) = cos ec(ax + b)dx = a cos ecudu = a cos ecu co gu + c
1
= cos ec(ax + b) co g (ax + b) + c
a
xdx
2.98.- , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
cos 2 x 2
xdx 1 1 1
cos2 x2 = x sec x dx = 2 sec udu = 2 gu + c = 2 gx + c
2 2 2 2

x x dx
2.99.- co g dx , Sea: u = , du =
a b a b a b
x x
co g a b dx = (a b) co gudu = (a b) s e n u + c = (a b) s e n a b + c
dx dx
2.100.- g x , Sea: u = x , du =
x 2 x
dx
g x x = 2 gudu = 2 sec u + c = 2 sec x + c
dx
2.101.- , Sea: u = x , du = dx
g 5x 5 5
dx
g x = co g 5x dx = 5 co gudu = 5 s e n u + c = 5 s e n x 5 + c
5
2
1
2.102.- 1 dx , Sea: u = x 2, du = 2dx
sen x 2
2
1
s e n x 2 1 dx = (cos ecx 2 1) dx = (cos ec x 2 2 cos ecx 2 + 1)dx
2 2

1 2
= cos ec 2 x 2dx 2 cos ecx 2dx + dx = 2
cos ec 2udu cos ecudu + dx
2
1
= co gu 2 cos ecu co gu + x + c
2
1
= co gx 2 2 cos ecx 2 co gx 2 + x + c
2

49
dx
2.103.- , Sea: u = 2 x, du = 2dx
s e n x cos x
dx dx
s e n x cos x = 1 s e n 2 x = 2 cos ec2 xdx = cos ecudu = cos ecu co gu + c
2
= cos ec 2 x co g 2 x + c
cos ax
2.104.- dx , Sea: u = s e n ax, du = a cos axdx
s e n 5 ax
cos ax 1 du 1 u 4 u 4 s e n 4 ax 1
s e n 5 ax a u 5 a 4
dx = = + c =
4a
+ c =
4a
+c =
4a s e n 4 ax
+c

2.105.- t s e n(1 2t 2 )dt , Sea: u = 1 2t 2 , du = 4tdt


1 1 1
t s e n(1 2t )dt = s e n udu = cos u + c = cos(1 2t 2 ) + c
2

4 4 4
s e n 3x
2.106.- dx , Sea: u = 3 + cos 3x, du = 3s e n 3xdx
3 + cos 3x
s e n 3x 1 du 1 1
3 + cos 3xdx = 3 u = 3 u + c = 3 3 + cos 3x + c
2.107.- g 3 3x sec 2 3x dx , Sea: u = g ( x 3 ), du = 13 sec2 ( x 3 )dx
3u 4 3 g 4 ( x 3 )
g 3x sec 3x dx = 3 u du = +c = +c
3 2 3

4 4
s e n x cos x
2.108.- dx , Sea: u = cos 2 x, du = 2s e n 2 xdx
cos 2 x s e n 2 x
1 1
s e n x cos x s e n x cos x 1 s e n 2 x 1 du 1 u 2 u2
cos2 x s e n 2 x dx = cos 2 x dx = 4 cos 2 x = 4 u = 4 12 + c = 2 + c
cos 2 x
= +c
2
gx
2.109.- dx , Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx
cos 2 x
gx
3
u2 2 3 2 3
cos2 x = = = + c = u 2 + c = g 2x + c
2 1
dx gx sec xdx u 2
du
3 3 3
2
2.110.- cos ax s e n ax dx , Sea: u = 2 x , du = 2dx
a
1 a a a
cos ax s e n ax dx = 2 s e n 2ax dx = 4 s e n udu = 4 cos u + c = 4 cos 2ax + c
2.111.- t co g (2t 2 3)dt , Sea: u = 2t 3 3, du = 4tdt
1 1 1
t co g (2t 3)dt = co gudu = s e n u + c = s e n(2t 2 3) + c
2

4 4 4

50
x 3 dx
2.112.- , Sea: u = x 4 , du = 4 x3 dx
x +5
8

3
x dx x3 dx 1 du 1 1 u 5 x4
x8 + 5 ( x 4 )2 + ( 5)2 4 u 2 + ( 5)2 4 5
= = = arc g
5
+ c =
20
arc g
5
+c

2.113.- s e n 3 6 x cos 6 xdx , Sea: u = s e n 6 x, du = 6 cos 6 xdx


1 3 1 u4 u4 s e n4 6x
s e n 6 x cos 6 xdx =
6
= + = + = +c
3
u du c c
6 4 24 24
5 + 3cos 2 x
2.114.- 1 + 3cos 2 x s e n 2 xdx , Sea: u = , du = 3s e n 2 xdx
2
1 + cos 2 x 3 + 3cos 2 x
1 + 3cos x s e n 2 xdx = 1 + 3( 2 ) s e n 2 xdx = 1 + 2 s e n 2 xdx
2

5 + 3cos 2 x
3
1 1 1u 2 2 3
= s e n 2 xdx = u 2 du = +c = u 2 +c
2 3 3 3 9
2
3
2 5 + 3cos 2 x 2
= +c
9 2
2.115.- x 5 5 x 2 dx , Sea: u = 5 x 2 , du = 2 xdx
5(5 x 2 ) 5
6 6
1 15 1u5 5 65
x 5 x dx = 2 u du = 2 6 + c = 12 u + c = 12 + c
5 2

5
1 + s e n 3x
2.116.- dx , Sea: u = s e n 3x, du = 3dx; w = cos u, dw = s e n udu
cos 2 3x
1 + s e n 3x dx s e n 3x 1 1 senu
cos2 3x dx = cos2 3x + cos2 3xdx = 3 s ec udu + 3 cos2 u du
2

1 1 dw 1 1 1 1 1 1
= s ec 2udu 2 = gu + + c = gu + + c = g 3x + +c
3 3 w 3 3w 3 3cos u 3 3cos 3x
(cos ax + s e n ax) 2
2.117.- dx , Sea: u = ax, du = adx
s e n ax
(cos ax + s e n ax) 2 cos 2 ax + 2 cos ax s e n ax + s e n 2 ax
s e n ax
dx = s e n ax
dx

cos 2 ax cos ax s e n ax s e n 2 ax
= dx + 2 dx + dx
s e n ax s e n ax s e n ax
1 s e n 2 ax
= dx + 2 cos axdx + s e n axdx
s e n ax
dx
= + 2 cos axdx
s e n ax
1 2
= cos ecaxdx + 2 cos axdx = cos ecudu + cos udu
a a

51
1 2 1 2
= cos ecu co gu + s e n u + c = cos ecax co gax + s e n ax + c
a a a a
x3 1
2.118.- dx , Sea: u = x + 1, du = dx
x +1
x3 1 2 2
x + 1 dx = ( x x + 1 x + 1)dx = x dx xdx + dx x + 1 dx
2 2

du x3 x 2
= x 2 dx xdx + dx 2 = + x 2 x +1 + c
u 3 2
2
cos ec 3xdx
2.119.- , Sea: u = b a co g 3 x, du = 3a cos ec 2 3 xdx
b a co g 3 x
cos ec 2 3 xdx 1 du 1 1
b a co g 3x = 3a u = 3a u + c = 3a b a co g 3x + c
x3 1
2.120.- dx , Sea: u = x 4 4 x + 1, du = (4 x3 4)dx
x 4x + 1
4

x 1
3
1 (4 x3 4)dx 1 du 1 1
x4 4 x + 1 4 x4 4 x + 1 = 4 u = 4 u + c = 4 x 4 x + 1 + c
= 4
dx

2.121.- xe x dx , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx


2

1 u 1 1 2
xe
x2
dx = e du = eu + c = e x + c
2 2 2
3 2 + 3x2
2.122.- dx , Sea: u = x 3, du = 3dx; a = 2
2 + 3x 2
3 2 + 3x 2 (2 + 3x 2 ) 2
1
dx
2 + 3x 2 dx = 3 ( 2)2 + ( 3x)2 2 + 3x 2 dx
1

(2 + 3x 2 )
2
3 3dx 3 3dx
(2 + 3x 2 ) 2 dx
1
dx =
3 ( 2) + ( 3 x)
2 2
2 + 3x 2
3 ( 2) + ( 3 x)
2 2

3 du du dx
(2 + 3 x 2 ) 2 dx = 3 2
1
=
3 (a) + (u ) (a ) + (u )
2 2 2
( 2) 2 + ( x 3) 2
du 1 du 3 u 1
= 3 = arc g u + a2 + u2 + c
(a ) + (u )
2 2
3 a +u
2 2 a a 3
3 x 3 3
= arc g x 3 + 2 + 3 + x2 + c
2 2 3
g 3 x co g 3x
2.123.- dx , Sea: u = 3x, du = 3dx; w = s e n u, dw = cos udu
s e n 3x
s e n 3 x cos 3 x

g 3 x co g 3 x dx cos 3 x
s e n 3x dx = s e n 3x
cos 3x s e n 3x dx =
cos 3x s e n 2 3xdx

52
cos 3x 1 1 cos u 1 1 dw
= sec 3xdx 2
dx = sec udu 2
du = sec udu 2
s e n 3x 3 3 sen u 3 3 w

1 1 w1 1 1
= sec u + gu + c = sec 3x + g 3 x + +c
3 3 1 3 3s e n 3x
dx x dx
2.124.- , Sea: u = , du =
ex 2 2
dx dx 2 2
e x = (e x ) 12 = e 2 dx = 2 e du = 2e + c = 2e 2 + c = e x 2 + c = e x + c
x u u x

1+ s e n x
2.125.- dx , Sea: u = x + cos x, du = (1 s e n x)dx
x + cos x
1+ s e n x du
x + cos x dx = u = u + c = x + cos x + c
sec 2 xdx
2.126.- , Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx
g x2
2

sec 2 xdx du
g x2 2
=
u 2
2
= u + u 2 2 + c = gx + gx 2 2 + c

dx dx
2.127.- , Sea: u = x, du =
x x 2
2
dx dx du u 1 1 1
x 2
x
=
x( x) 2
= u 2
=
1
+c = +c =
u x
+c

2.128.- a s e n x cos xdx , Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx


u
as e n x
a
a cos xdx = a du = +c = +c
sen x u

a a
x2
2.129.- dx , Sea: u = x3 + 1, du = 3 x 2 dx
x +13

( x 2 + 1) 3 ( x 2 + 1) 2
2 2 2 2
x dx x 2 dx 1 du 1 u 3 u3 3

x3 + 1 = ( x3 + 1) 13 = 3 u 13 = 3 2 + c = 2 + c = 2 + c = 2 + c
3
xdx
2.130.- , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
1 x 4

xdx xdx 1 2 xdx 1 2 xdx 1


1 x 4 = 1 ( x2 )2 = 2 1 ( x 2 )2 = 2 1 (u)2 = 2 arcs e n u + c
1
= arcs e n x 2 + c
2
2.131.- g 2 axdx , Sea: u = ax, du = adx

53
1 1
g axdx = (sec ax 1)dx = sec2 axdx dx = sec 2 udu dx = gu x + c
2 2

a a
1
= gax x + c
a
sec 2 xdx
2.132.- , Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx
4 g 2 x
sec 2 xdx du u gx
4 g x 2
=
2 u2
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n
2 2 2
+c

dx
2.133.- , Sea: u = x , du = dx
cos x a a a
dx
cos x a = sec x a dx = a secudu = a sec u + gu + c = a sec x a + g x a + c
3 1+ x dx
2.134.- dx , Sea: u = 1 + x, du =
x x
1+ x 3(1 + x) 3
4 4 4
3
u3 3u 3
x dx = u 3 du = 4 + c = 4 + c = +c
1

4
3
dx dx
2.135.- g x 1 , Sea: u = x 1, du =
x 1 2 x 1
dx du
g x 1 x 1 = 2 gu u = 2 sec x 1 + c = 2 cos x 1 + c
xdx
2.136.- , Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
s e n x2
xdx 1 du 1 1
s e n x 2 = 2 s e n u = 2 cos ecudu = 2 cos ecu co gu + c
1
= cos ecx 2 co gx 2 + c
2
s e n x cos x
2.137.- dx , Sea: u = s e n x + cos x, du = (cos x s e n x)dx
s e n x + cos x
s e n x cos x du
s e n x + cos xdx = u = s e n x + cos x + c
earc gx + x (1 + x 2 ) + 1 dx 2 xdx
2.138.- , Sea: u = arc gx, du = ; w = (1 + x 2 )d , dw =
1+ x 2
1+ x 2
1 + x2
earc gx + x (1 + x 2 ) + 1 earc gx dx x (1 + x 2 )dx dx
1+ x 2
= 1+ x 2
+ 1+ x 2
+
1 + x2
1 dx 1 w2 2 (1 + x 2 )
= eu du + wdw + = e u
+ + arc gx + c = e u
+ + arc gx + c
2 1 + x2 2 2 4

x 2 dx
2.139.- 2 ,
x 2

54
x 2 dx 2 dx 1 x 2
x2 2 = (1 + x2 2 )dx = dx + 2 x2 2 = x + 2 2 2 x + 2 + c
2 x 2
= x+ +c
2 x+ 2
1 cos 2 x
2.140.- es e n x s e n 2 xdx , Sea: u = , du = s e n 2 xdx
2

2
1 cos 2 x

e s e n 2 xdx = e s e n 2 xdx = eu du = eu + c = es e n x + c
2 2
sen x 2

(1 s e n x 2
) x dx
2.141.- x
2
dx , Sea: u = , du =
sen 2
2 2
(1 s e n 1 2s e n x2 + s e n 2 x2
x 2
)
sen x = dx = cos ec x2 dx 2 dx + s e n x2 dx
2
dx
sen 2 x
2
= 2 cos ecudu 2 dx + 2 s e n udu = 2 cos ecu co gu 2 x 2 cos u + c
= 2 cos ec x
2
co g x
2
2 x 2 cos x
2
+c
5 3x
2.142.- dx , Sea: u = x 3, du = 3dx; w = 4 3x 2 , dw = 6 xdx
4 3x 2

5 3x dx xdx dx xdx
4 3x 2
dx = 5
4 3x 2
3
4 3x 2
= 5
4 ( x 3) 2
3
4 3x2
1
5 du 3 dw 5 u 1w2 5 3 x 3
=
3 2 u
2 2
+
6 w
=
3
arcs e n +
2 2 1
+c =
3
arcs e n
2
+ 4 3x 2 + c
2
ds
2.143.- , Sea: u = 1 + e s , du = e s ds
e +1 s

ds e s ds du
e s + 1 e s + 1 = u = u + c = e + 1 + c
s
=
d
2.144.- , Sea: u = 2a , du = 2ad
s e n a cos a
d d 2
s e n a cos a = 12 s e n 2a = 2 cos ec2a d = 2a cos ecudu
1 1
= cos ecu co gu + c = cos ec 2a co g 2a + c
a a
s
e
2.145.- ds , Sea: u = e s , du = e s ds
e 2
2s

s
e es du
e2 s 2 (es )2 2 ds = u 2 2 = u + u 2 + c
= 2
ds

= e s + (e s ) 2 2 + c = e s + e 2 s 2 + c

55
2 t 2 t
2.146.- s e n( 2T t + 0 )dt , Sea: u = + 0 , du = dt
T T
T T T 2 t
s e n( 2T t + 0 )dt = 2 s e n udu = 2 cos u + c = 2 cos( T + 0 ) + c
arc cos x 2 x dx
2.147.- dx , Sea: u = arc cos , du =
4 x 2 2 4 x2
arc cos x 2 u2 (arc cos x 2 ) 2
4 x2 dx = udu =
2
+ c =
2
+c

dx dx
2.148.- , Sea: u = x, du =
x(4 x) 2
x
dx dx du 1 2+u 1 2 + x
x(4 x) 2
=
x 2 ( x)
2 2
= 2
2 u 2
=
4 2u
+c =
4 2 x
+c

2.149.- e gx sec 2 xdx , Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx

e sec 2 xdx = eu du = eu + c = e gx + c
gx

s e n x cos x
2.150.- dx , Sea: u = s e n 2 x, du = 2s e n x cos xdx
2sen x 4

s e n x cos x s e n x cos x 1 du 1 u
2sen x 4
dx =
2 (s e n x)
2 2
dx =
2 2u 2
= arcs e n
2 2
+c

1 (s e n 2 x)
= arcs e n +c
2 2
s ecx gx
2.151.- dx , Sea: u = sec x, du = sec x gxdx
s ec 2 x + 1
s ecx gx du
s ec 2 x + 1dx = u 2 + 1 = u + u + 1 + c = s ecx + s ec x + 1 + c
2 2

dt
2.152.- , Sea: u = 2t , du = 2dt
s e n t cos 2 t
2

dt dt dt dt
s e n 2 t cos2 t = (s e n t cos t )2 = ( 1 s e n 2t )2 = 4 s e n 2 2t = 4 cos ec 2tdt
2

2
= 2 cos ec 2udu = 2 co gu + c = 2 co g 2t + c
arc s e n x + x
2.153.- dx ,
1 x2
dx
Sea: u = arcs e n x, du = ; w = 1 x 2 , dw = 2 xdx
1 x 2

arc s e n x + x arc s e n x x 1 dw 1 1
1 x 2 dx = 1 x 2 dx + 1 x2 dx = udu 2 w = udu 2 w 2 dw

56
1
u2 1 w 2 (arcs e n x) 2
= +c = 1 x2 + c
2 2 1 2
2
xdx
2.154.- , Sea: t = x + 1 x = t 2 1; dx = 2tdt
x +1
xdx (t 2 1)2tdt t3 2 ( x + 1)3
x +1 t
= = = + = 2 x +1 + c
2
2 (t 1) dt 2( t ) c
3 3
2.155.- x(5 x 2 3)7 dx , Sea: u = 5 x 2 3, du = 10 xdx
1 1 u8 u8 (5 x 2 3)8
x(5 x 3) dx = 10
= + = + = +c
2 7 7
u du c c
10 8 80 80
( x + x 2 + 1) dx
2.156.- dx , Sea: u = ( x + x 2 + 1), du =
x +1
2
x2 + 1
( x + x 2 + 1) ( x + x 2 + 1)
3
u2
x2 + 1
dx =
x2 + 1
dx = udu =
3
+c
2
3
2 ( x + x 2 + 1)

= +c
3
s e n3 x
2.157.- dx , Sea: u = cos x, du = s e n xdx
cos x
s e n3 x s e n 2 x s e n xdx (1 cos 2 x) s e n xdx s e n xdx cos 2 x s e n xdx
cos x dx =
cos x
= cos x
= cos x
cos x
3 5
u 2
u 2

= cos 2 x s e n xdx cos 2 x s e n xdx = u 2 du + u 2 du =


1
+ +c
3 1 3

3 5
2 2
3 5 3 5
2u 2 2u 2 2 cos x 2 2 cos x 2 2 cos3 x 2 cos5 x
= + +c = + +c = + +c
3 5 3 5 3 5
cos xdx
2.158.- ,
1+ s e n2 x
Sea: t = 1 + s e n 2 x s e n 2 x = t 2 1; 2s e n x cos xdx = 2tdt
t
cos xdx t 2 1 dt
1+ s e n2 x = t = t 2 1 = 1+ s e n x + s e n x + c
2

(arcs e n x) 2 dx
2.159.- dx , Sea: u = arcs e n x, du =
1 x2 1 x2
(arcs e n x) 2 u3 (arcs e n x)3
1 x2
dx = u 2 du =
3
+c =
3
+c

2.150.- e x + e dx , Sea: u = ee , du = ee e x dx
x x x

57
e dx = e x ee dx = du = u + c = ee + c
x+ex x x

u 1
2.161.- t (4t + 1)7 dt , Sea: u = 4t + 1 t = , du = 4dt
4
u 1 7 du 1 1 1 u9 1 u8
+ = 4 4 16 = =
16
= +c
7 7 8 7
t (4t 1) dt u (u 1)u du (u u )du
16 9 16 8
(4t + 1)9 (4t + 1)8
= +c
144 128
2t 2 10t + 12
2.162.- dt , Sea: u = t 2 + 4, du = du = 2tdt
t2 + 4
2t 2 10t + 12 t 2 5t + 6 2 5t dt dt
t2 + 4 dt = 2 t 2 + 4 dt = 2 1 + t 2 + 4 dt = 2 dt + 4 t 2 + 4 10 t 2 + 4
dt du
= 2 dt + 4 2 5 = 2t + 2 arc g 2t 5 u + c = 2t + 2 arc g 2t 5 t 2 + 4 + c
t +4 u
et e t
2.163.- t dt ,
e + et
Sea: u = e 2t + 1, du = 2e 2t dt ; w = 1 + e 2t , dw = 2e2t dt
et e t et dt e t dt e 2t dt e 2t dt 1 du 1 dw
et + et et + et et + et e2t + 1 1 + e2t = 2 u + 2 w
dt = =
1 1 1
= ( u + w ) + c = uw + c = (e2t + 1)(1 + e 2t ) + c
2 2 2

58
CAPITULO 3

INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES TRIGONOMETRICAS

En esta parte, sern consideradas las integrales trigonomtricas de la forma:


i) s e n m u cos n udu
ii) g mu secn udu
iii) co g mu cos ec nudu
O bien, formas trigonomtricas reducibles a algunos de los casos ya sealados.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

3.1.-Encontrar: cos 2 xdx


1 + cos 2 x
Solucin.- cos 2 xdx =
2
1 + cos 2 x 1 1 x 1
Luego: cos 2 xdx = dx = dx + cos 2 xdx = + s e n 2 x + c ,
2 2 2 2 4
1
Como: cosh xdx = s e nh x + c
h
1 1
Respuesta: cos 2 xdx = x + s e n 2 x + c
2 4
3.2.-Encontrar: cos 2 xdx
4 1

1 + cos x
Solucin.- cos 2 12 x =
2
1 + cos x
2
1
Luego: cos 4 12 xdx = (cos 2 12 x) 2 dx = dx = (1 + 2 cos x + cos x)dx
2

2 4
1 1 1
= dx + cos xdx + cos 2 xdx , como: cos 2 xdx = 1 x + 1 s e n 2 x + c
4 2 4 2 4
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= dx + cos xdx + cos 2 xdx = x + s e n x + ( x + s e n 2 x) + c
4 2 4 4 2 4 2 4
1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= x + s e n x + x + s e n 2x + c = x + s e n x + s e n 2x + c
4 2 8 16 8 2 16
3 1 1
Respuesta: cos 2 xdx = x + s e n x + s e n 2 x + c
4 1

8 2 16
3.3.-Encontrar: cos xdx3

Solucin.- cos3 xdx = cos x cos 2 xdx , como: cos 2 x = 1 s e n 2 x

59
= cos x cos 2 xdx = cos x(1 s e n 2 x)dx = cos xdx cos x s e n 2 xdx
Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx
u3 s e n3 x
= cos xdx cos x s e n 2 xdx = cos xdx u 2 du = s e n x + c = sen x +c
3 3
s e n3 x
Respuesta: cos3 xdx = s e n x +c
3
3.4.-Encontrar: s e n x3 4 xdx
Solucin.- s e n x3 4 xdx = s e n 4 x s e n 2 4 xdx , como: s e n 2 4 x = 1 cos 2 4 x
= s e n 4 x s e n 2 4 xdx = s e n 4 x(1 cos 2 4 x)dx = s e n 4 xdx s e n 4 x(cos 4 x) 2 dx
Sea: u = cos 4 x, du = 4s e n 4 xdx
1 2 1 1 u3 cos 4 x cos3 4 x
= s e n 4 xdx +
4
u du = cos 4 x + + c = + +c
4 4 3 4 12
cos 4 x cos3 4 x
Respuesta: s e n x3 4 xdx = + +c
4 12
3.5.-Encontrar: s e n 2 x cos3 xdx
Solucin.- s e n 2 x cos3 xdx = s e n 2 x cos 2 x cos xdx = s e n 2 x(1 s e n 2 x) cos xdx
= s e n 2 x cos xdx s e n 4 x cos xdx ; Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx
u3 u5 s e n3 x s e n5 x
= u 2 du u 4 du = +c = +c
3 5 3 5
s e n3 x s e n5 x
Respuesta: s e n 2 x cos3 xdx = +c
3 5
3.6.-Encontrar: s e n 3 x cos 2 xdx
Solucin.- s e n 3 x cos 2 xdx = s e n 2 x s e n x cos 2 xdx = (1 cos 2 x) s e n x cos 2 xdx
= (1 cos 2 x) s e n x cos 2 xdx = s e n x cos 2 xdx s e n x cos 4 xdx
Sea: u = cos x, du = s e n xdx
u3 u5
= s e n x cos 2 xdx s e n x cos 4 xdx = u 2 du + u 4 du = + +c
3 5
cos3 x cos5 x
= + +c
3 5
cos3 x cos5 x
Respuesta: s e n 3 x cos 2 xdx = + +c
3 5
3.7.-Encontrar: s e n 2 x cos5 xdx
Solucin.- s e n 2 x cos5 xdx = s e n 2 x(cos 2 x) 2 cos xdx = s e n 2 x(1 s e n 2 x) 2 cos xdx
= s e n 2 x(1 2s e n 2 x + s e n 4 x) cos xdx

60
= (s e n x) 2 cos xdx 2 (s e n x) 4 cos xdx + (s e n x)6 cos xdx
Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx
u3 u5 u7 s e n3 x s e n5 x s e n7 x
= u 2 du 2 u 4 du + u 6 du =
2 + +c = 2 + +c
3 5 7 3 5 7
s e n3 x s e n5 x s e n7 x
Respuesta: s e n 2 x cos5 xdx = 2 + +c
3 5 7
3.8.-Encontrar: s e n 3 x cos3 xdx
Solucin.- s e n 3 x cos3 xdx = (s e n x cos x)3 dx ; como: s e n 2 x = 2s e n x cos x,
s e n 2x
Se tiene que: s e n x cos x = ; Luego:
2
3
s e n 2x 1 1
= (s e n x cos x) dx =
3
dx = s e n 2 xdx = s e n 2 x s e n 2 xdx
3 2

2 8 8
1 1 1
= s e n 2 x(1 cos 2 2 x)dx = s e n 2 xdx s e n 2 x(cos 2 x) 2 dx
8 8 8
Sea: u = cos 2 x, du = 2s e n 2 xdx
1 1 1 1
= s e n 2 xdx + 2s e n 2 x(cos 2 x) 2 dx = s e n 2 xdx + u 2 du
8 16 8 16
3 3
1 1 u 1 cos 2 x
= cos 2 x + + c = cos 2 x + +c
16 16 3 16 48
1 cos3 2 x
Respuesta: s e n 3 x cos3 xdx = cos 2 x + +c
16 48
3.9.-Encontrar: s e n 4 x cos 4 xdx
4
s e n 2x 1
Solucin.- s e n 4 x cos 4 xdx = (s e n x cos x) 4 dx = dx = s e n 2 xdx
4

2 16
1 1 cos 4 x
2
1 2 1 2
=
16 (s e n 2 2 x) dx =
16 2
dx =
16 4 (1 cos 4 x) dx

1 1 1 1
=
64 (1 2 cos 4 x + cos 2 4 x)dx =
64 dx cos 4 xdx + cos 2 4 xdx
32 64
1 1 1 1 + cos8 x
64
= dx cos 4 xdx + dx
32 64 2
1 1 1 1
=
64 dx cos 4 xdx +
32 128 dx +
128
cos8 xdx
1 1 1 1 3x s e n 4 x s e n 8 x
= x s e n 4x + x+ s e n 8x + c = + +c
64 128 128 1024 128 128 1024
1 s e n 8x
Respuesta: s e n 4 x cos 4 xdx = 3x s e n 4 x + +c
128 8
3.10.-Encontrar: x(cos3 x 2 s e n 3 x 2 )dx ; Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx

61
1 1
x(cos 2 x(cos3 x 2 s e n 3 x 2 )dx = (cos3 u s e n 3 u )du
x 2 s e n 3 x 2 )dx =
3

2 2
1 1 1 1
= cos3 udu s e n 3 udu = cos u cos 2 udu s e n u s e n 2 udu
2 2 2 2
1 1
= cos u (1 s e n 2 u )du s e n u (1 cos 2 u )du
2 2
1 1 1 1
= cos udu cos u s e n 2 udu s e n udu + s e n u cos 2 udu
2 2 2 2
Sea: w = s e n u, dw = cos udu; z = cos u, dz = s e n udu
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 w3 1 1 z3
2 2 2 2
= cos udu w 2
dw s e n udu z dz = s e n u + cos u +c
2 2 3 2 2 3
s e n u s e n 3 u cos u cos3 u 1 1
= + + c = (s e n u + cos u ) (s e n 3 u + cos3 u ) + c
2 6 2 6 2 6
Dado que: s e n u + cos u = (s e n u + cos u )(s e n u s e n u cos u + cos 2 )
3 3 2

O bien: s e n 3 u + cos3 u = (s e n u + cos u )(1 s e n u cos u ) ; Lo que equivale a:


1 1
= (s e n u + cos u ) (s e n u + cos u )(1 s e n u cos u ) + c
2 6
1 1 2s e n u cos u
= (s e n u + cos u ) (s e n u + cos u )(1 )+c
2 6 2
1 1 s e n 2u
= (s e n u + cos u ) (s e n u + cos u )(1 )+c
2 6 2
1 1 1
= (s e n u + cos u ) (s e n u + cos u ) (2 s e n 2u ) + c
2 6 2
1 1
= (s e n u + cos u )(6 (2 s e n 2u )) + c = (s e n u + cos u )(4 + s e n 2u ) + c
12 12
1
= (s e n x 2 + cos x 2 )(4 + s e n 2 x 2 ) + c
12
1
Respuesta: x(cos3 x 2 s e n 3 x 2 )dx = (s e n x 2 + cos x 2 )(4 + s e n 2 x 2 ) + c
12
3.11.-Encontrar: s e n 2 x cos 4 xdx
1
Solucin.- s e n cos = [s e n( ) + s e n( + )] ; Se tiene que:
2
1 1
s e n 2 x cos 4 x = [s e n(2 x 4 x) + s e n(2 x + 4 x) ] = [s e n(2 x) + s e n(6 x) ]
2 2
1 1
= [ s e n 2 x + s e n 6 x ] , Luego: s e n 2 x cos 4 xdx = ( s e n 2 x + s e n 6 x)dx
2 2
1 1 1 1
= s e n 2 xdx + s e n 6 xdx = cos 2 x cos 6 x + c
2 2 4 12
1 1
Respuesta: s e n 2 x cos 4 xdx = cos 2 x cos 6 x + c
4 12

62
3.12.-Encontrar: cos 3x cos 2 xdx
1
Solucin.- cos cos = [cos( ) + cos( + )] ; Se tiene que:
2
1 1
cos 3x cos 2 x = [ cos(3x 2 x) + cos(3 x + 2 x) ] = [ cos x + cos 5 x ] , Luego:
2 2
1 1 1
= cos 3 x cos 2 xdx = [ cos x + cos 5 x ]dx = cos xdx + cos 5 xdx
2 2 2
1 1
= s e n x + s e n 5x + c
2 10
1 1
Respuesta: cos 3 x cos 2 xdx = s e n x + s e n 5 x + c
2 10
3.13.-Encontrar: s e n 5 x s e n xdx
1
Solucin.- s e n s e n = [ cos( ) cos( + )] ; Se tiene que:
2
1 1
s e n 5 x s e n x = [ cos(5 x x) cos(5 x + x) ] = [ cos 4 x cos 6 x ] ; Luego:
2 2
1 1 1
= s e n 5 x s e n xdx = [ cos 4 x cos 6 x ] = cos 4 xdx cos 6 xdx
2 2 2
1 1
= s e n 4x s e n 6x + c
8 12
1 1
Respuesta: s e n 5 x s e n xdx = s e n 4 x s e n 6 x + c
8 12
3.14.-Encontrar: g xdx 4

Solucin.- g 4 xdx = g 2 x g 2 xdx ; como: g 2 = sec 2 x 1 ; Luego:


= g 2 x g 2 xdx = g 2 x(sec 2 x 1)dx = g 2 x sec2 xdx g 2 xdx
s e n2 x 1 cos 2 x
= ( gx) 2 sec2 xdx dx = ( gx ) 2
sec 2
xdx cos2 x dx
cos 2 x
= ( gx) 2 sec 2 xdx sec 2 xdx + dx ; Sea: w = gx, dw = sec 2 xdx
w3 g3
= w2 dw sec 2 x + dx = gx + x + c = gx + x + c
3 3
g3
Respuesta: g 4 xdx = gx + x + c
3
3.15.-Encontrar: sec6 xdx
Solucin.- sec6 xdx = (sec2 x) 2 sec2 xdx ; como: sec 2 xdx = 1 + g 2 x
2
= (sec 2 x) 2 sec 2 xdx = (1 + g 2 x) sec 2 xdx = (1 + 2 g 2 x + g 4 x) sec 2 xdx
= sec 2 xdx + 2 ( gx) 2 sec 2 xdx + ( gx) 4 sec 2 xdx ; Sea: u = gx, du = sec2 xdx

63
2 1 2 1
= sec 2 xdx + 2 u 2 du + u 4 du = gx + u 3 + u 5 + c = gx + g 3 x + g 5 x + c
3 5 3 5
2 1
Respuesta: sec6 xdx = gx + g 3 x + g 5 x + c
3 5
3.16.-Encontrar: g 2 xdx3

Solucin.-
g 2 xdx = g 2 x g 2 xdx = g 2 x(sec 2 x 1)dx = g 2 x sec 2 xdx g 2 xdx
3 2 2 2

Sea: u = g 2 x, du = 2sec 2 2 xdx ; Luego:


1 1u 12
g 2 2x 1 1
=
2 udu g 2 xdx =
2 2 2
sec 2 x + c =
4

2 cos 2 x
+c

g 2 2x 1 1
Respuesta: g 3 2 xdx = +c
4 2 cos 2 x
3.17.-Encontrar: g 5 xdx2

1
Solucin.- g 2 5 xdx = (sec 2 5 x 1)dx = sec 2 5 xdx dx = g 5 x x + c
5
1
Respuesta: g 2 5 xdx = g 5 x x + c
5
3.18.-Encontrar: g 3x sec 3xdx
3

Solucin.- g 3 3x sec 3xdx = g 2 3x g 3 x sec3 xdx = ( sec2 3x 1) g 3x sec 3xdx


= (sec 3 x) 2 g 3 x sec 3 xdx g 3 x sec 3 xdx ; Sea: u = sec 3x, du = 3sec 3x g 3xdx
1 2 1
Luego:
3 u du 3 g 3 x sec 3 xdx ; como: d (sec 3x) = 3 g 3x sec 3xdx , se admite:
3
1 2 1 1 1 1 1
3 u du d (sec3 x) = u 3 sec3 x + c = sec3 3 x sec3 x + c
3 9 3 9 3
1 1
Respuesta: g 3 3x sec 3xdx = sec3 3x sec 3x + c
9 3
3.19.-Encontrar: g x sec xdx
3 4
2

Solucin.- g 2 x sec4 xdx = g 2 x(sec2 x) sec 2 xdx = g 2 x(1 + g 2 x) sec2 xdx


3 3 3

= ( gx) 2 sec 2 xdx + ( gx) 2 sec 2 xdx ; Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx
3 7

2 5 2 9 2 5 2 9
Luego: u 2 du + u 2 du = u 2 + u 2 + c = g 2 x + g 2 + c
3 7

5 9 5 9
2 5 2 9
Respuesta: g 2 x sec4 xdx = g 2 x + g 2 + c
3

5 9
3.20.-Encontrar: g x sec xdx
4 4

Solucin.- g 4 x(sec 2 x) sec 2 xdx = g 4 x(1 + g 2 x) sec 2 xdx


= ( gx) 4 sec2 xdx + ( gx)6 sec 2 xdx ; Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx

64
u5 u7 g5x g7 x
Luego: u 4 du + u 6 du = + +c = + +c
5 7 5 7
g5x g7x
Respuesta: g 4 x sec 4 xdx = + +c
5 7
3.21.-Encontrar: co g 3 x co sec 4 xdx
Solucin.- co g 3 x co sec 4 xdx = co g 3 x(co sec2 x) co sec2 xdx
Como: cos ec 2 x = 1 + co g 2 x ; Luego:
co g x(1 + co g 2 x) co sec 2 xdx = co g 3 x co sec 2 xdx + co g 5 x co sec 2 xdx
3

Sea: u = co gx, du = cos ec 2 xdx ,


u4 u6 co g 4 x co g 6 x
Luego: u du u du = + c =
3 5
+c
4 6 4 6
co g 4 x co g 6 x
Respuesta: co g 3 x co sec 4 xdx = +c
4 6
3.22.-Encontrar: co g 3x co sec 4 3xdx
Solucin.- co g 3x co sec 4 3 xdx = co g 3x(co sec 2 3 x) co sec 2 3 xdx

co g 3x(1 + co g 3x) co sec 2 3xdx = co g 3x co sec 2 3xdx + co g 3 3x co sec 2 3xdx


2

Sea: u = co g 3 x, du = 3cos ec 2 3 xdx ; Luego:


1 1 3 u u 2
co g 3x co g 4 3x
4 2

3 3
udu u du = + c = +c
6 12 6 12
co g 2 3x co g 4 3x
Respuesta: co g 3x co sec 4 3xdx = +c
6 12
3.23.-Encontrar: co sec 4 2 xdx
Solucin.- co sec 2 2 x co sec 2 2 xdx = (1 + co g 2 2 x) co sec 2 2 xdx

co sec 2 xdx + co g 2 2 x co sec 2 2 xdx ; Sea: u = co g 2 x, du = cos ec 2 2 xdx


2

1 2 1 u3 co g 2 x co g 3 2 x
Luego: co sec 2 2 xdx
2
u du = co g 2 x + c = +c
2 3 2 6
co g 2 x co g 3 2 x
Respuesta: co sec 4 2xdx = +c
2 6
3.24.-Encontrar: co g 3 x co sec3 xdx
Solucin.- co g 3 x co sec3 xdx = co g 2 x co sec2 x co gx co sec xdx
Como: co g 2 x = co sec 2 x 1 ; Luego: (co sec 2 x 1) co sec 2 x co gx co sec xdx
= (co sec4 x co gx co sec xdx co sec2 x co gx co sec xdx
Sea: u = cos ecx, du = cos ecx co gxdx ;

65
u5 u3 cos ec5 x cos ec3 x
Entonces: u 4 du + u 2 du = + +c = + +c
5 3 5 3
cos ec5 x cos ec3 x
Respuesta: co g 3 x co sec3 xdx = + +c
5 3
3.25.-Encontrar: co g 3 xdx
Solucin.- co g 3 xdx = co g 2 x co gxdx = (cos ec 2 x 1) co gxdx
= cos ec 2 x co gxdx co gxdx ; Sea: u = co gx, du = cos ec 2 xdx
u2 co g 2 x
Luego: udu co gxdx = sen x + c = sen x + c
2 2
co g 2 x
Respuesta: co g 3 xdx = sen x + c
2

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS
Usando esencialmente el mecanismo tratado, encontrar las siguientes integrales:
3.26.- g 2 5 xdx 3.27.- s e n x cos xdx 3.28.-
dx
sec 2 x
3.29.-
cos 2 x
dx 3.30.- cos x s e n xdx 3
3.31.- g 2 3x sec 2 3x dx
cos x
3.32.- g 3 4 x sec 4 xdx 3.33.- s e n 2 6x dx 3.34.-
s e n 2x
dx
sen x
3.35.- (sec x + cos ecx) 2 dx 3.36.- sec3 4x g 4x dx 3.37.- g 4 2 x sec 4 2 xdx
3.38.- s e n 8 x s e n 3 xdx 3.39.- cos 4 x cos 5 xdx 3.40.- s e n 2 x cos 3xdx
3.43.- cos ec 4 3 xdx
4
sec x cos3 x
3.41.- 3.42.- dx
dx s e n4 x
gx
3.44.- ( g 3 3x + g 4 3x )dx 3.45.- co g 3 3x dx 3.46.- co g 4 6x dx

dx cos 2 x dx
3.47.- 5 3.48.- dx 3.49.-
s e n x cos x s e n6 x s e n x cos 4 x
2

3.50.-
dx cos3 x 3.52.- cos3 7x dx
3.51.- dx
cos 6 4 x 1 s e n x
3.53.- s e n 5 2x dx 3.54.- 1 cos xdx 3.55.-
dx
cos ec 4 x
3

3.56.- s e n 3 2x cos5 2x dx 3.57.- s e n 2 x cos 2 xdx 3.58.- s e n 4 x cos 2 xdx


1 cos 2 x cos3 x 3.61.- s e n 3 2 xdx
3.59.- dx 3.60.- dx
1 + cos 2 x sen x
3.62.- s e n 2 2 x cos 2 2 xdx 3.63.- cos 4 xdx 3.64.- g 4 x sec 2 xdx

66
3.65.- g 3 x sec xdx 3.66.- sec6 a d 3.67.- sec xdx
3.68.- co g 2 2 x cos ec 2 2 xdx s e n3 x 3.70.- sec 4 3x g 3xdx
3.69.- dx
cos 2 x
3.71.- sec n x gxdx;(n 0) cos3 x 3.73.-
dx
3.72.- dx
s e n2 x s e n4 x
3.74.- g n x sec 2 xdx;(n 1) 3.75.- s e n 6 xdx 3.76.- s e n 4 axdx
3.77.- s e n n x cos xdx;(n 1) 3.78.- co g n axdx 3.79.- co g 4 3 xdx
3.80.- cos x n s e n xdx;(n 1) 3.81.- g n xdx 3.82.- g 4 xdx
3.83.- cos 2 n +1 xdx

RESPUESTAS
1
3.26.- g 2 5 xdx = (sec 2 5 x 1)dx = sec 2 5 xdx + dx = g 5 x x + c
5
1 1 1
3.27.- s e n x cos xdx = 2s e n x cos xdx = s e n 2 xdx = cos 2 x + c
2 2 4
dx 1
3.28.-
sec 2 x
= cos 2 xdx = s e n 2 x + c
2
cos 2 x cos x s e n 2 x
2
cos 2 x s e n2 x
3.29.- dx = dx = dx dx
cos x cos x cos x cos x
1 cos 2 x dx
= cos xdx dx = cos xdx
cos x
+ cos xdx = 2 cos xdx sec xdx
cos x
= 2s e n x sec x + gx + c
3.30.- cos x s e n 3 xdx = cos x s e n 2 x s e n xdx = cos x (1 cos 2 x) s e n xdx
= cos x s e n xdx cos x cos 2 x s e n xdx = cos 2 x s e n xdx cos 2 x s e n xdx
1 5

1 5
2 3 2 7
Sea: u = cos x, du = s e n xdx ; Luego: u du + u du = u 2 + u 2 + c
2 2

3 7
2 2 2 2
= cos 2 + cos 2 + c = cos3 x + cos 7 x + c
3 7

3 7 3 7
2 2
= cos x cos x + cos x 3 cos x + c
3 7
1
3.31.- g 2 3x sec2 3x dx = ( g 3x ) 2 sec 2 3x dx ; Sea: u = g 3x , du = sec2 3x dx
3
3 ( g 3 ) 3 sec 3 dx = 3 u du = u + c = g 3 + c
x 2 1 2 x 2 3 3 x

3.32.- g 3 4 x sec 4 xdx = ( g 2 4 x) g 4 x sec 4 xdx = (sec2 4 x 1) g 4 x sec 4 xdx


= sec 2 4 x g 4 x sec 4 xdx g 4 x sec 4 xdx ; Sea: u = sec 4 x, du = 4sec 4 x g 4 xdx

67
1 2 1 1 u3 1 sec3 4 x sec 4 x
4 4
= u du du = u + c = +c
4 3 4 12 4
1 cos 2 6x 1 cos 3x 1 1
3.33.- s e n 2 6x dx = dx = dx = dx cos 3x dx
2 2 2 2
1 3
= x s en 3x + c
2 2
s e n 2x 2 s e n x cos x
3.34.- dx = dx = 2 cos xdx = 2s e n x + c
sen x sen x
3.35.- (sec x + cos ecx) 2 dx = (sec 2 x + 2sec x cos ecx + cos ec 2 x)dx
1 1
= sec 2 xdx + 2 sec x cos ecxdx + cos ec 2 xdx = sec 2 xdx + 2 dx + cos ec 2 xdx
cos x s e n x
dx dx
= sec 2 xdx + 2 2 + cos ec 2 xdx = sec 2 xdx + 4
s e n 2x
+ cos ec 2 xdx
2 cos x s e n x
= sec 2 xdx + 4 cos ec 2 xdx + cos ec 2 xdx
= gx + 4 cos ec 2 x co g 2 x co gx + c
2
= gx + 2 cos ec 2 x co g 2 x co gx + c
3.36.- sec3 4x g 4x dx = (sec 2 4x ) sec 4x g 4x dx
Sea: u = sec 4x , du = 14 sec 4x g 4x dx ,
u3 4sec3 4x
Luego: 4 u 2 du = 4 +c = +c
3 3
3.37.- g 4 2 x sec4 2 xdx = g 4 2 x(sec2 2 x) sec 2 2 xdx = g 4 2 x(1 + g 2 2 x) sec 2 2 xdx
= ( g 2 x) 4 sec 2 2 xdx + ( g 2 x)6 sec 2 2 xdx
Sea: u = g 2 x, du = 2sec 2 2 xdx , Luego:
1 1 1 1
= ( g 2 x) 4 2sec 2 2 xdx + ( g 2 x)6 2sec 2 2 xdx = u 4 du + u 6 du
2 2 2 2
5
1u 1u 7
g 2x g 2x
5 7
= + +c = + +c
2 5 2 7 10 14
3.38.- s e n 8 x s e n 3 xdx
1
Considerando: s e n s e n = [cos( ) cos( + )]
2
1
Luego: s e n 8 x s e n 3 x = (cos 5 x cos11x) ; Se tiene:
2
1 1 1 s e n 5 x s e n11x
= (cos 5 x cos11x)dx = cos 5 xdx cos11xdx = +c
2 2 2 10 22
3.39.- cos 4 x cos 5 xdx
1
Considerando: cos cos = [cos( ) + cos( + )]
2

68
1
Luego: cos 4 x cos 5 x = (cos( x) + cos 9 x) ;
2
1
Como: cos( x) = cos x (cos x + cos 9 x) ; entonces:
2
1 1 1
cos 4 x cos 5 xdx = 2 ( cos x + cos 9 x)dx = 2 cos xdx + 2 cos 9 xdx
s e n x s e n 9x
= + +c
2 18
3.40.- s e n 2 x cos 3 xdx
1
Considerando: s e n cos = [s e n( ) + s e n( + )]
2
1
Luego: s e n 2 x cos 3x = [s e n( x) + s e n 5 x]
2
1
Como: s e n( x) = s e n x ( s e n x + s e n 5 x) ; entonces:
2
1 1 1
s e n 2 x cos 3xdx = 2 ( s e n x + s e n 5 x)dx = 2 s e n xdx + 2 s e n 5 xdx
1 1
= cos x cos 5 x + c
2 10
4
sec x
4
1 1
4

3.41.- dx =
4
cos x

sen x
= dx = cos ec xdx = cos ec 2 x cos ec 2 xdx
gx cos x sen x
= (1 + co g 2 x) cos ec 2 xdx = cos ec 2 xdx + co g 2 x cos ec 2 xdx
Sea: u = co gx, du = cos ec 2 xdx
u3 co g 3 x
Luego: cos ec xdx u du = co gx + c = co gx
2 2
+c
3 3
cos3 x cos3 x 1
3.42.- 4
dx = 3
dx = co g 3 x cos ecxdx
sen x sen x sen x
= (co g x) co gx cos ecxdx = (cos ec 2 x 1) co gx cos ecxdx =
2

= cos ec 2 x co gx cos ecxdx co gx cos ecxdx


Sea: u = cos ecx, du = cos ecx co gxdx
u3 cos ec3 x
Luego: u 2 du + du = +u+c = + cos ecx + c
3 3
3.43.- cos ec 4 3xdx = (cos ec 2 3 x) cos ec 2 3 xdx = (1 + co g 2 3 x) cos ec 2 3 x) dx
= cos ec 2 3xdx + co g 2 3 x cos ec 2 3 xdx
Sea: u = co g 3 x, du = 3cos ec 2 3 xdx
1 2 1 1 3 co g 3x co g 3 3x
Luego: cos ec 2 3 xdx
3
u du = co g 3 x u + c = +c
3 9 3 9

69
3.44.- ( g 3 3x + g 4 3x )dx = g 3 3x dx + g 4 3x dx = ( g 2 3x ) g 3x dx + ( g 2 3x ) g 2 3x dx
= (sec 2 3x 1) g 3x dx + (sec 2 3x 1) g 2 3x dx
= sec 2 3x g 3x dx g 3x dx + (sec 2 3x ) g 2 3x dx g 2 3x dx
= sec 2 3x g 3x dx g 3x dx + (sec 2 3x ) g 2 3x dx (sec2 3x 1)dx
= sec 2 3x g 3x dx g 3x dx + (sec 2 3x ) g 2 3x dx sec 2 3x dx + dx
1
Sea: u = g 3x , du = sec 2 3x dx
3
Luego: 3 udu g 3x dx + 3 u 2 du sec 2 3x dx + dx
3 3
= u 2 3 sec 3x + u 3 3 g 3x + x + c = g 2 3x 3 sec 3x + g 3 3x 3 g 3x + x + c
2 2
3.45.- co g 3 dx = (co g 3 ) co g 3 dx = (cos ec 2 3x 1) co g 3x dx
3 x 2 x x

1
= cos ec 2 3x co g 3x dx co g 3x dx ; Sea: u = cos ec 3x , du = cos ec 3x co g 3x dx
3
Luego: 3 (cos ec 3 )( 1 cos ec 3 co g 3 )dx co g 3 dx = 3 udu co g 3x dx
x x x x
3
3u 2
3cos ec 2 3x
= 3 sen 3 + c =x
3 s e n 3x + c
2 2
3.46.- co g 4 6x dx = (co g 2 6x ) co g 2 6x dx = (cos ec 2 6x 1) co g 2 6x dx
= cos ec 2 6x co g 2 6x dx co g 2 6x dx = cos ec 2 6x co g 2 6x dx (cos ec 2 6x 1)dx
= cos ec 2 6x co g 2 6x dx cos ec 2 6x dx + dx
1
Sea: u = co g 6x , du = cos ec 2 6x dx
6
Luego: 6 u du cos ec 2 6x dx + dx = 2u 3 + 6 co g 6x + x + c
2

= 2 co g 3 6x + 6 co g 6x + x + c
dx
3.47.- 5
; Como: s e n 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 ,
s e n x cos x
s e n 2 x + cos 2 x dx cos xdx
Luego: 5
dx = 3
+
s e n x cos x s e n x cos x s e n5 x
s e n 2 x + cos 2 x cos xdx dx cos xdx cos xdx
= 3
dx + 5
= + 3
+
s e n x cos x sen x s e n x cos x sen x s e n5 x
dx
= + (s e n x) 3 cos xdx + (s e n x) 5 cos xdx
s e n x cos x
dx
=
s e n 2x
+ (s e n x) 3 cos xdx + (s e n x) 5 cos xdx

2
= 2 cos ec 2 xdx + (s e n x) 3 cos xdx + (s e n x) 5 cos xdx ()

70
Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx , Luego:
1 1
() = 2 cos ec 2 xdx + u 3 du + u 5 du = cos ec 2 x co g 2 x 2
4 +c
2u 4u
1 1
= cos ec 2 x co g 2 x +c
2s e n x 4s e n 4 x
2

cos ec 2 x cos ec 4 x
= cos ec 2 x co g 2 x +c
2 4
cos 2 x cos 2 x 1
3.48.- 6
dx = dx = co g 2 x cos ec 4 xdx
sen x s e n x s e n4 x
2

= co g 2 x(cos ec 2 x) cos ec 2 xdx = co g 2 x(1 + co g 2 x) cos ec 2 xdx


= co g 2 x cos ec 2 xdx + co g 4 x cos ec 2 xdx
Sea: u = co gx, du = cos ec 2 xdx ,
u3 u5 co g 3 x co g 5 x
Luego: u 2 du u 4 du = +c = +c
3 5 3 5
dx s e n 2 + cos 2 x dx dx
3.49.- 2 4
= 2 4
dx = 4
+
s e n x cos x s e n x cos x cos x s e n x cos 2 x
2

dx dx dx
= sec 4 xdx + 2
= sec 4 xdx + = sec 4 xdx + 4
(s e n x cos x) (
s e n 2 x
)2 s e n2 2x
2
= sec xdx + 4 cos ec 2 xdx = sec x sec xdx + 4 cos ec 2 2 xdx
4 2 2 2

= (1 + g 2 x) sec2 xdx + 4 cos ec 2 2 xdx = sec2 xdx + g 2 x sec 2 xdx + 4 cos ec 2 2 xdx
Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx ,
u3
Luego: sec 2 xdx + u 2 du + 4 cos ec 2 2 xdx = gx + 2 co g 2 x + c
3
g3x
= gx + 2 co g 2 x + c
3
dx
3.50.- 6
= sec6 4 xdx = (sec 2 4 x)2 sec2 4 xdx = (1 + g 2 4 x)2 sec2 4 xdx
cos 4 x
= (1 + 2 g 2 4 x + g 4 4 x) sec2 4 xdx
= sec 2 4 xdx + 2 ( g 4 x) 2 sec 2 4 xdx + ( g 4 x) 4 sec 2 4 xdx
Sea: u = g 4 x, du = 4sec 2 4 xdx , Luego:
1 2 1 4 g 4x 1 u3 1 u5 g 4x g 3 4x g 5 4x
sec 4 xdx + 2
+
4
= + + + = + + +c
2
u du u du c
4 2 3 4 5 4 6 20
cos3 x cos3 x(1 + s e n x) cos 3 x(1 + s e n x)
3.51.- dx = dx = dx
1 s e n x 1 s e n2 x cos 2 x
1
= cos x(1 + s e n x)dx = cos xdx + cos x s e n xdx = cos xdx +
2
s e n 2 xdx

71
1
= s e n x cos 2 x + c
4
3.52.- cos3 7x dx = (cos 2 7x ) cos 7x dx = (1 s e n 2 7x ) cos 7x dx
= cos 7x dx s e n 2 7x cos 7x dx
Sea: u = s e n 7x , du = 1 cos 7x dx
7
7u 3 7
Luego: = cos 7x dx 7 u 2 du =7 s e n 7x + c = 7 s e n 7x s e n 3 7x + c
3 3
3.53.- s e n 2 dx = (s e n 2 ) s e n 2 dx = (1 cos 2 ) s e n 2x dx
5 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

= (1 2 cos 2 2x + cos 4 2x ) s e n 2x dx = s e n 2x dx 2 cos 2 2x s e n 2x dx + cos 4 2x s e n 2x dx


1
Sea: u = cos 2x , du = s e n 2x dx , Luego:
2
4u 3 2u 5
= s e n 2x dx + 4 u 2 du 2 u 4 du = 2 cos 2x + +c
3 5
4 cos3 2x 2 cos5 2x
= 2 cos 2x + +c
3 5
3.54.- 1 cos xdx
1 cos 2
Considerando: s e n 2 = , y 2 = x
2
1 cos 2 x
Se tiene: s e n 2 x
2 = ; adems: 1 cos x = 2s e n 2 x
2
2
Luego: 2s e n 2 2x dx = 2 s e n 2x dx = 2 2 cos 2x + c
2
dx 1 cos 23x
3.55.-
cos ec 4 3x 2 dx
= s e n 4 x
3 dx = (s e n 2 x 2
3 ) dx =

1 1 1 1
= (1 2 cos 23x + cos 2 23x )dx = dx cos 23x dx + cos 2 23x dx
4 4 2 4
1 1 1 1 + cos 3 4x
1 1 1
= dx cos 23x dx + dx = dx cos 23x dx + (1 + cos 43x )dx
4 2 4 2 4 2 8
1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= dx cos 23x dx + dx + cos 43x dx = dx cos 23x dx + cos 43x dx
4 2 8 8 8 2 8
2x 4x
3 13 1 3 3 3s e n 3s e n
= x s e n 23x + s e n 43x + c = x 3
+ 3
+c
8 22 84 8 4 32
3.56.- s e n 3 2x cos5 2x dx = s e n 2x s e n 2 2x cos5 2x dx = s e n 2x (1 cos 2 2x ) cos5 2x dx
= s e n 2x cos5 2x dx cos 7 2x s e n 2x dx
1
Sea: u = cos 2x , du = s e n 2x dx
2

72
2u 6 2u 8 u 6 u8 cos 6 2x cos8 2x
Luego: 2 u 5 du + 2 u 7 du = + +c = + +c = + +c
6 8 3 4 3 4
2
s e n 2x 1
3.57.- s e n 2 x cos 2 xdx = (s e n x cos x) 2 dx = dx = s e n 2 xdx
2

2 4
1 1 cos 4 x 1 1 1 x 1
= dx = (1 cos 4 x)dx = dx cos 4 xdx = s e n 4 x + c
4 2 8 8 8 8 32
3.58.- s e n x cos xdx = (s e n x cos x) s e n xdx = (s e n x cos x) 2 s e n 2 xdx
4 2 2 2 2

s e n 2 x 1 cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x
2
1
= dx = s e n 2 x
2
dx
2 2 4 2
1 1 1 1 cos 4 x 1
= s e n 2 2 xdx s e n 2 2 x cos 2 xdx = dx s e n 2 2 x cos 2 xdx
8 8 8 2 8
1 1 1
= dx cos 4 xdx s e n 2 2 x cos 2 xdx()
16 16 8
Sea: u = s e n 2 x, du = 2 cos 2 xdx , luego:
1 1 1 1 1 1 u3
16 16 16
() = dx cos 4 xdx u 2
du = x s e n 4 x +c
16 64 16 3
1 s e n 4 x s e n3 2x
= x +c
16 64 48
1 cos 2 x
1 cos 2 x s e n2 x
3.59.- dx = 2 dx = dx = g 2 xdx = (sec 2 x 1)dx
1 + cos 2 x 1 + cos 2 x cos x2

2
= sec xdx dx = gx x + c
2

cos3 x
3.60.- dx = (s e n x) 2 cos3 xdx = (s e n x) 2 cos 2 x cos xdx
1 1

sen x
= (s e n x) 2 (1 s e n 2 x) cos xdx = (s e n x) 2 cos xdx s e n 2 x cos xdx()
1 1 3

Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx , luego:


2 s e n5 x
() = u 2 du u 2 du = 2u 2
1
+c
3 1

5
3.61.- s e n 3 2 xdx = s e n 2 2 x s e n 2 xdx = (1 cos 2 2 x) s e n 2 xdx
= s e n 2 xdx cos 2 2 x s e n 2 xdx()
Sea: u = cos 2 x, du = 2s e n 2 xdx , luego:
1 u2 1 1 u3 1 u3
() = s e n 2 x +
2 2
du = cos 2 x + + c = cos 2 x + +c
2 2 3 2 6
1 (cos3 2 x)
= cos 2 x + +c
2 6

73
1 cos 4 x 1 + cos 4 x 1
3.62.- s e n 2 2 x cos 2 2 xdx = dx = (1 cos 4 x)dx
2

2 2 4
1 1 1 1 1 + cos8 x 1 1
= dx cos 2 4 xdx = dx dx = dx (1 + cos8 x)dx
4 4 4 4 2 4 8
1 1 1 1 1 x s e n 8x
= dx dx cos8 xdx = dx cos8 xdx = +c
4 8 8 8 8 8 64
1 + cos 2 x
2
1
3.63.- cos 4 xdx = (cos 2 x) 2 dx = dx = (1 + cos 2 x) dx
2

2 4
1 1 1 1
= (1 + 2 cos 2 x + cos 2 x)dx = dx + cos 2 xdx + cos 2 2 xdx
4 4 2 4
1 1 1 1 + cos 4 x 1 1 1
= dx + cos 2 xdx + dx = dx + cos 2 xdx + (1 + cos 4 x)dx
4 2 4 2 4 2 8
1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= dx + cos 2 xdx + dx + cos 4 xdx = dx + cos 2 xdx + cos 4 xdx
4 2 8 8 8 2 8
3 1 1
= x + s e n 2x + s e n 4x + c
8 4 32
3.64.- g x sec xdx
4 2

Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx


u5 g5x
Luego: u 4 du = +c = +c
5 5
3.65.- g 3 x sec xdx = g 2 x gx sec xdx = (sec 2 x 1) gx sec xdx
= (sec 2 x) gx sec xdx gx sec xdx
Sea: u = sec x, du = sec x gxdx
u3 sec3 x
Luego: u 2 du du = u +c = sec x + c
3 3
3.66.- sec6 a d = sec 4 a sec 2 a d = (sec 2 a ) 2 sec 2 a d
= (1 + g 2 a ) 2 sec 2 a d = (1 + 2 g 2 a + g 4 a ) sec 2 a d
= sec 2 a d + 2 g 2 a sec 2 a d + g 4 a sec 2 a d
Sea: u = ga , du = a sec 2 a d , Luego:
1 2 2 1 4 1 2u 3 u 5 1 2 g 3 a g 5 a
a a a
+ + = + + + = + + +c
a 5 a 5
du u du u du u c ga
3 3
sec x( gx + sec x)dx sec x gx + sec 2 x
3.67.- sec xdx = = dx
gx + sec x gx + sec x
Sea: u = sec x + gx, du = (sec x gx + sec 2 x)dx
du
Luego: = u + c = sec x + gx + c
u

74
3.68.- co g 2 2 x cos ec 2 2 xdx
Sea: u = co g 2 x, du = 2 cos ec 2 2 xdx
1 2 u3 co g 3 2 x
Luego: u du = + c = +c
2 6 6
s e n3 x s e n 2 x s e n xdx (1 cos 2 x) s e n xdx s e n xdx
3.69.- dx = = =
cos 2 x
2 2 2
s e n xdx
cos x cos x cos x
Sea: u = cos x, du = s e n xdx ,
1 1
Luego: u 2 du s e n xdx = + cos x + c = + cos x + c = sec x + cos x + c
u cos x
3.70.- sec 4 3 x g 3xdx = sec3 3x(sec 3x g 3x)dx
Sea: u = sec 3x, du = 3sec3 x g 3xdx
1 3 1 u4 u4 sec 4 3 x
3
Luego: u du = + c = + c = +c
3 4 12 12
3.71.- sec n x gxdx = secn 1 x(sec x gx)dx
Sea: u = sec x, du = sec x gxdx , Luego:
un secn x
u du =
n 1
+c = + c, (n 0)
n n
cos3 x cos 2 x cos x (1 s e n 2 x) cos x cos xdx
3.72.- dx =
s e n2 x
2
dx = 2
dx = 2
cos xdx
sen x sen x sen x
1
sen x + c
sen x
dx s e n 2 x + cos 2 x dx cos 2 x
3.73.-
s e n4 x s e n 2 x s e n 4 x dx
= dx = +
s e n4 x
cos 2 x dx
= cos ec 2 xdx + 2 2
= cos ec 2 xdx + co g 2 x cos ec 2 xdx
sen x sen x
1
= co gx co g 3 x + c
3
3.74.- g x sec 2 xdx;(n 1)
n

Sea: u = gx, du = sec 2 xdx


u n +1 g n +1 x
Luego: u du =
n
+c = + c, (n 1)
n +1 n +1
1 2 cos 2 x
3

3.75.- s e n 6 xdx = (s e n 2 x)3 dx = dx


2
1
= (1 3cos 2 x + 3cos 2 2 x cos3 2 x)dx
8
1
= dx 3 cos 2 xdx + 3 cos 2 2 xdx cos3 2 xdx
8

75
5 x s e n 2 x 3s e n 4 x s e n 3 2 x
= + + +c
16 4 64 48
1
3.76.- s e n 4 axdx = (s e n 2 ax) 2 dx = (1 cos 2ax) 2 dx
4
1 1 1
= (1 2 cos 2ax + cos 2 2ax)dx = dx cos 2axdx + cos 2 2axdx
4 2 4
1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1
= x s e n 2ax + ( x + s e n 4ax) + c = x s e n 2ax + s e n 4ax + c
4 4a 4 2 8a 8 4a 32a
s e n n +1 x
3.77.- s e n n x cos xdx = + c, (n 1)
n +1
3.78.- co g n axdx = co g n 2 ax co g 2 axdx = co g n 2 ax(cos ec 2 ax 1)dx
1 co g n 1ax
= co g n 2 ax cos ec 2 axdx co g n 2 axdx = co g n 2 axdx
a n 1
3.79.- co g 3xdx , Haciendo uso del ejercicio anterior:
4

co g 3 3x co g 3 3x
= co g 2 3xdx = (cos ec 2 3 x 1)dx
3 3 9
co g 3 3x co g 3 3x
= cos ec 2 3 xdx + dx = cos ec 2 3 xdx + dx
9 9
co g 3 3x co g 3x
= + + x+c
9 3
cos n +1 x
3.80.- cos x n s e n xdx = + c;(n 1)
n +1
3.81.- g n xdx = g n 2 x g 2 xdx = g n 2 x(sec 2 x 1)dx
g n 1 x
= g n2
x sec xdx g
2 n2
xdx = g n 2 xdx
n 1
g xdx
3
g3x
3.82.- g xdx =
4
g xdx =
2
(sec 2 x 1)dx
3 3
g x
3
g x
3
= sec 2 xdx dx = gx + x + c
3 3
3.83.- cos 2 n +1 xdx = cos 2 n x cos xdx = (cos 2 x) n cos xdx = (1 s e n 2 x) n cos xdx
Sea: u = s e n x, du = cos xdx .El resultado se obtiene, evaluando (1 u 2 ) n por la
frmula del binomio de Newton y calculando cada sumando, cuyas integrales son
del tipo: u n du .
Las frmulas provenientes de los ejercicios 3.78 y 3.81, se denominan frmulas
de reduccin y su utilidad es obvia. Ms adelante, en otros captulos, usted
deducir nuevas frmulas de reduccin.

76
CAPITULO 4

INTEGRACION POR PARTES


Existe una variedad de integrales que se pueden desarrollar, usando la
relacin: udv = uv vdu .
El problema es elegir u y dv , por lo cual es til la siguiente identificacin:
I: Funcin trigonomtrica inversa.
L: Funcin logartmica.
A: Funcin algebraica.
T: Funcin trigonomtrica.
E: Funcin exponencial.
Se usa de la manera siguiente:

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

4.1.-Encontrar: x cos xdx


Solucin.- I L A T E

x cos x
u=x dv = cos xdx

du = dx v = sen x
x cos xdx = x s e n x s e n xdx =x s e n x + cos x + c
Respuesta: x cos xdx = x s e n x + cos x + c
4.2.-Encontrar: x sec 2 xdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

x sec 2 3 x
u=x dv = sec 2 3 xdx

du = dx v = 13 g 3 x
1 1 x g 3x 1
x sec 2 xdx = x g 3 x g 3xdx = sec 3x + c
3 3 3 9
x g 3 x 1
Respuesta: x sec 2 xdx = sec 3x + c
3 9
4.3.-Encontrar: x s e n xdx
2

Solucin.- I L A T E

x2 s e n x

77
u = x2 dv = s e n xdx

du = 2 xdx v = cos x
x s e n xdx = x cos x + 2 x cos xdx , integrando por partes la segunda integral:
2 2

u=x dv = cos xdx


x cos xdx ; du = dx v = sen x
x s e n xdx = x cos x + 2 x s e n x s e n xdx = x 2 cos x + 2 x s e n x + 2 cos x + c
2 2

Respuesta: x 2 s e n xdx = x 2 cos x + 2 x s e n x + 2 cos x + c


4.4.-Encontrar: ( x 2 + 5 x + 6) cos 2 xdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

x + 5 x + 6 cos 2x
2

dv = cos 2 xdx
u = x2 + 5x + 6
1
du = (2 x + 5)dx v = s e n 2x
2
( x + 5 x + 6)
2
1
( x 2 + 5 x + 6) cos 2 xdx = s e n 2 x (2 x + 5) s e n 2 xdx
2 2
Integrando por partes la segunda integral:
I L A T E

2x + 5 s e n 2x
dv = s e n 2 xdx
u = 2x + 5
1
du = 2dx v = cos 2 x
2
1 1
( x + 5 x + 6) cos 2 xdx = s e n 2 x( x 2 + 5 x + 6) (2 x + 5)( 1 2 cos 2 x) + cos 2 xdx
2

2 2
x + 5x + 6
2
1 1
= s e n 2 x + cos 2 x(2 x + 5) cos 2 xdx
2 4 2
x + 5x + 6
2
2x + 5 1
= s e n 2x + cos 2 x s e n 2 x + c
2 4 4
x2 + 5x + 6 2x + 5 1
Respuesta: ( x 2 + 5 x + 6) cos 2 xdx = s e n 2x + cos 2 x s e n 2 x + c
2 4 4
Nota.-Ya se habr dado cuenta el lector, que la eleccin conveniente para el u y el
dv , depender de la ubicacin de los trminos funcionales en la palabra ILATE. El
de la izquierda corresponde al u , y el otro ser el dv .
4.5.-Encontrar: xdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

x 1

78
u = x
dv = 1dx
dx
du = v=x
x
xdx = x x dx = x x x + c = x( x 1) + c
Respuesta: xdx = x( x 1) + c
4.6.-Encontrar: (a 2 + x 2 )dx
Solucin.- I L A T E

(a + x 2 ) 1
2

u = x
dv = 1dx
dx
du = v=x
x
2 x 2 dx 2a 2
(a 2 + x 2 )dx = x (a 2 + x 2 ) = x ( a 2
+ x 2
) x2 + a 2 )dx
(2
a2 + x2
dx 2 a2
= x (a 2 + x 2 ) 2 dx + 2a 2 = x ( a 2
+ x 2
) 2 x + arc g ax + c
x +a
2 2
a
= x (a + x ) 2 x + 2a arc g a + c
2 2 x

Respuesta: (a 2 + x 2 )dx = x (a 2 + x 2 ) 2 x + 2a arc g ax + c

4.7.-Encontrar: x + x 2 1 dx
Solucin.- I L A T E

dv = 1dx
x + x2 1 1
v=x
u = x + x2 1

x x2 1 + x
1+
du = x 2 1 d du = x 2 1 dx du = dx
x + x2 1 x + x2 1 x2 1
xdx
x + x 2 1 dx = x x + x 2 1
x2 1
Sea : w = x 2 + 1, dw = 2 xdx .
1 1 1
Luego: x x + x 2 1 ( x 2 1) 2 2 xdx = x x + x 2 1 w 2 dw
1

2 2
1
1w 2

= x x + x2 1 + c = x x + x2 1 w 2 + c = x x + x2 1 x2 1 + c
1

2 21

Respuesta: x + x 2 1 dx = x x + x 2 1 x 2 1 + c

79
4.8.-Encontrar: 2 xdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

2x 1
u = 2x
dv = 1dx
1
du = 2 x dx v=x
x
1
2 xdx = x 2 x 2 x xdx = x 2 x 2 xdx
x
Por ejercicio 4.5, se tiene: xdx = x( x 1) + c
Luego: 2 xdx = x 2 x 2 [ x( x 1) + c ] = x 2 x 2 x( x 1) + c
Respuesta: 2 xdx = x 2 x 2 x( x 1) + c
4.9.-Encontrar: arc gxdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

arc gx 1
u = arc gx
dv = 1dx
dx
du = v=x
1 + x2
xdx
arc gxdx = x arc gx
1 + x2
Sea: w = 1 + x , dw = 2 xdx
2

1 2 xdx 1 dw 1
Luego: x arc gx = x arc gx = x arc gx w + c
2 1+ x 2
2 w 2
1
= x arc gx 1 + x 2 + c
2
1
Respuesta: arc gxdx = x arc gx 1 + x 2 + c
2
4.10.- x arc gxdx
2

Solucin.- I L A T E

arc gx x 2
u = arc gx dv = x 2 dx
dx x3
du = v=
1+ x 2
3
3
x 1 x 2 dx x3 1 x
x 2 arc gxdx = arc gx = arc gx ( x 2 )dx
3 3 1+ x 2
3 3 x +1

80
x3 1 1 x
= arc gx xdx 2 dx
3 3 3 x +1
xdx 1
Por ejercicio 4.9, se tiene: 2 = x2 + 1 + c
x +1 2
3
x 1 1 x3 x2 1
Luego: arc gx xdx + x 2 + 1 + c = arc gx + x 2 + 1 + c
3 3 6 3 6 6
3 2
x x 1
Respuesta: x 2 arc gxdx = arc gx + x 2 + 1 + c
3 6 6
4.11.-Encontrar: arc cos 2xdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

arc cos 2x 1
u = arc cos 2 x
dv = 1dx
2dx
du = v=x
1 4x2
xdx
arc cos 2 xdx = x arc cos 2 x + 2
1 4 x2
Sea: w = 1 4 x 2 , dw = 8 xdx
2 8 xdx
1
1 1w2
Luego: x arc cos 2 x = x arc cos 2 x w 2 dw =x arc cos 2 x
1
+c
8 1 4 x2 4 4 1
2
1
= x arc cos 2 x 1 4x2 + c
2
1
Respuesta: arc cos 2xdx = x arc cos 2 x 1 4x2 + c
2
arcs e n x
4.12.-Encontrar: dx
x
Solucin.- I L A T E

arc s e n x 1
u = arc s e n x 1
dv = x 2 dx
1 dx
du = v=2 x
1 x x
dx
arc s e n xx 2 dx = 2 x arc s e n x
1

1 x
Sea: w = 1 x, dw = dx
dx
Luego: 2 x arc s e n x + = 2 x arc s e n x + w 2 dw
1

1 x
= 2 x arc s e n x + 2 w + c = 2 x arc s e n x + 2 1 x + c
1
2

81
arcs e n x
Respuesta: dx = 2 x arc s e n x + 2 1 x + c
x
4.13.-Encontrar: x arcs e n 2 x 2 dx
Solucin.- I L A T E

arc s e n 2 x 2 x
u = arc s e n 2 x 2 dv = xdx
4 xdx x2
du = v =
1 4x4 2
2
x x3 dx
x arc s e n 2 x 2 dx = arc s e n 2 x 2 2
2 1 4x4
Sea: w = 1 4 x 4 , dw = 16 x3 dx
x2 2 (16 x3 dx) x 2 1 1
Luego: arc s e n 2 x 2 + = arc s e n 2 x 2 + w 2 dw
2 16 1 4x4 2 8
1
x2 1w2 x2 1 1
= arc s e n 2 x 2 + + c = arc s e n 2 x 2 + w 2 + c
2 8 1 2 4
2
x2 1
= arc s e n 2 x 2 + 1 4 x4 + c
2 4
x2 1
Respuesta: x arcs e n 2 x 2 dx = arc s e n 2 x 2 + 1 4 x4 + c
2 4
4.14.-Encontrar: xe dx
x
a

x dx
Sea: w = , dw =
a a
x x dx
Luego: xe a dx = a 2 e a = a 2 we w dw , integrando por partes se tiene:
x

a a
Solucin.- I L A T E

w ew
u=w dv = e w dw

du = dw v = ew
( )
a 2 we w dw = a 2 we w e w dw = a 2 ( we w e w + c ) = a 2 ( we w e w ) + c
x x x x
= a 2 e a e a + c = a 2 e a ( 1) + c
x

a a
x
Respuesta: xe a dx = a 2 e a ( 1) + c
x x

a
4.15.-Encontrar: x e dx2 3 x

Solucin.- I L A T E

82

x2 e 3 x
dv = e3 x dx
u=x 2
1
du = 2 xdx v = e 3 x
3
1 2
x 2 e 3 x dx = x 2 e3 x + xe3 x dx , integrando por partes la segunda integral:
3 3
I L A T E

x e 3 x
u=x dv = e3 x dx
1
du = dx v = e 3 x
3
1 2 3 x 2 1 3 x 1 3 x x 2 e 3 x 2 3 x 2 3 x
x e dx = x e + xe + e dx =
2 3 x
xe + e dx
3 3 3 3 3 9 9
2 3 x
xe 2 2
= xe 3 x e 3 x + c
3 9 27
e 3 x 2 2 2
Respuesta: x 2 e 3 x dx = x + x+ +c
3 3 9
4.16.-Encontrar: x 3e x dx
2

Solucin.- x 3e x dx = x 2 e x xdx
2 2

Sea: w = x 2 , dw = 2 xdx , adems: x 2 = w


1 1 1
Luego: x 2 e x xdx = x 2 e x x(2 xdx) = we w dw = we w dw , integrando por
2 2

2 2 2
Partes se tiene:
I L A T E

w ew
u=w dv = e w dw

du = dw v = ew
1
(
1
) 1 1 1
we w dw = we w e w dw = we w e w dw = we w e w + c
2 2 2 2 2
1
2
1 2 x2 1 x2 1 x2 2
= x e e + c = e ( x + 1) + c
2 2 2
1 2
Respuesta: x 3e x dx = e x ( x 2 + 1) + c
2

2
4.17.-Encontrar: ( x 2 x + 5)e x dx
2

Solucin.- I L A T E

83
x 2 2 x + 5 e x
u = x2 2x + 5 dv = e x dx

du = (2 x 2)dx v = e x
( x 2 2 x + 5)e x dx = e x ( x 2 2 x + 5) + (2 x 2)e x dx , integrando por partes la
segunda integral:
I L A T E

2 x 2 e x
u = 2x 2 dv = e x dx

du = 2dx v = e x
( x 2 2 x + 5)e x dx = e x ( x 2 2 x + 5) + e x (2 x 2) + 2 e x dx
= e x ( x 2 2 x + 5) e x (2 x 2) + 2 e x dx = e x ( x 2 2 x + 5) e x (2 x 2) 2e x + c
= e x ( x 2 2 x + 5 +2x 2 + 2 ) + c = e x ( x 2 + 5) + c
Respuesta: ( x 2 2 x + 5)e x dx = e x ( x 2 + 5) + c
4.18.-Encontrar: e ax cos bxdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

cos bx e ax
dv = e ax dx
u = cos bx
1 ax
du = b s e n bxdx v= e
a
e ax cos bx b ax
e ax cos bxdx = + e s e n bxdx , Ntese que la segunda integral es
a a
semejante a la primera, salvo en la parte trigonomtrica; integrando por partes la
segunda integral:
I L A T E

s e n bx e ax
dv = e ax dx
u = s e n bx
1
du = b cos bxdx v = e ax
a
e cos bx b e s e n bx b ax
ax ax

= + e cos bxdx
a a a a
e ax cos bx beax s e n bx b 2 ax
= + 2 e cos bxdx , Ntese que:
a a2 a
e cos bx beax s e n bx b 2 ax
ax

= + 2 e cos bxdx , la integral a encontrar


ax
e cos bxdx
a a2 a
aparece con coeficiente 1 en el primer miembro, y en el segundo con coeficiente:

84
b2
. Transponiendo ste trmino al primer miembro y dividiendo por el nuevo
a2
b2 a 2 + b2
coeficiente: 1 + 2 = , se tiene:
a a2
a 2 + b 2 ax ae ax cos bx + beax s e n bx
2 e cos bxdx = +c
a a2
ae ax cos bx + be ax s e n bx
a2 eax (a cos bx + b s e n bx)
e cos bxdx = +c = +c
ax

a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2
2

a
e (a cos bx + b s e n bx)
ax
Respuesta: e ax cos bxdx = +c
a 2 + b2
4.19.-Encontrar: e x cos 2 xdx
Solucin.- Este ejercicio es un caso particular del ejercicio anterior, donde: a = 1 y
b = 2 . Invitamos al lector, resolverlo por partes, an cuando la respuesta es
inmediata.
e x (cos 2 x + 2s e n 2 x)
Respuesta: e x cos 2 xdx = +c
5
4.20.-Encontrar: e ax s e n bxdx
Solucin.- I L A T E

s e n bx e ax
dv = e ax dx
u = s e n bx
1
du = b cos bxdx v = e ax
a
ax
e s e n bx b ax
e ax s e n bxdx = e cos bxdx , integrando por partes la segunda
a a
integral:
I L A T E

ax
cos bx e
dv = e ax dx
u = cos bx
1
du = b s e n bxdx v = e ax
a
e s e n bx b e ax cos bx b ax
ax

e ax s e n bxdx = + e s e n bxdx
a a a a
e ax s e n bx be ax cos bx b 2 ax
= 2 e s e n bxdx ,
a a2 a

85
Como habr notado el lector, la integral a encontrar aparece con coeficiente 1 en
b2
el primer miembro, y en el segundo con coeficiente: 2 . Transponiendo ste
a
b2 a 2 + b2
trmino al primer miembro y dividiendo por el nuevo coeficiente: 1 + 2 = , se
a a2
tiene:
a 2 + b 2 ax ae ax s e n bx be ax cos bx
2 e s e n bxdx = +c
a a2
ae ax s e n bx be ax cos bx
a2 e ax (a s e n bx b cos bx)
e s e n bxdx = + c = e ax s e n bxdx = +c
ax

a 2 + b2 a 2 + b2
2

a
e (a s e n bx b cos bx)
ax
Respuesta: e ax s e n bxdx = +c
a2 + b2
4.21.-Encontrar: x 1 + xdx
Solucin.- Cuando el integrando, est formado por el producto de funciones
algebraicas, es necesario tomar como dv , la parte ms fcil integrable y u como la
parte ms fcil derivable. Sin embargo, la opcin de ms fcil quedar a criterio
del lector.
dv = (1 + x) 2 dx
1

u=x
2
du = dx v = (1 + x) 2
3

3
2 (1 + x) 2
5
2 2 2
x 1 + xdx = x(1 + x) (1 + x) dx = x(1 + x) +c
3 3 3
2 2 2

3 3 3 3 5
2
4(1 + x)
5
2 2

= x(1 + x) 2 +c
3

3 15
4(1 + x) 2
5
2
Respuesta: x 1 + xdx = x(1 + x) +c
3
2

3 15
x 2 dx
4.22.-Encontrar:
1+ x
2
x dx
Solucin.- = x 2 (1 + x) 2 dx
1

1+ x
1
u = x2 dv = (1 + x) 2 dx

du = 2 xdx v = 2(1 + x)
1
2

x 2 dx
= 2 x 2 1 + x 4 x 1 + xdx , integrando por partes la segunda integral:
1+ x

86
dv = (1 + x) 2 dx
1

u=x
2
du = dx v = (1 + x) 2
3

3
x 2 dx 2 2 3

= 2 x2 1 + x 4 x(1 + x) 2 (1 + x) dx
3 2

1+ x 3 3
8 (1 + x) 2
5
8 8 16
= 2 x 1 + x x(1 + x) 2 + + c = 2 x 2 1 + x x(1 + x) 2 + (1 + x) 2 + c
2 3 3 5

3 3 5 3 15
2
x 2 dx 8 16
Respuesta: = 2 x 2 1 + x x(1 + x) 2 + (1 + x) 2 + c
3 5

1+ x 3 15
xdx
4.23.-Encontrar: x
e
xdx
Solucin.- x = xe x dx
e
I L A T E

x e x
u=x dv = e x dx

du = dx v = e x
xe x dx = xe x + e x dx = xe x e x + c = e x ( x 1) + c = e x ( x + 1) + c
xdx
Respuesta: x
= e x ( x + 1) + c
e
4.24.-Encontrar: x 2 1 x dx

u = 1 x dv = x 2 dx
Solucin.- 1 1 1 dx x3
du = (1 x) 2 (1)dx du = v=
1 x 2 2(1 x) 3
x3 1 x3 x3 1 1
x 2 1 x dx = 1 x + dx = 1 x x2 + x + 1 dx
3 6 1 x 3 6 1 x
x3 1 x3 1 x 2 1 1
= 1 x x 1 x + c
3 6 3 6 2 6 6
3 3 2
x 1 x x x
= 1 x 1 x + c
3 6 18 12 6
x3 1 x3 x 2 x
Respuesta: x 2 1 x dx = 1 x 1 x + c
3 6 18 12 6
4.25.-Encontrar: x s e n xdx
2

Solucin.-

87
u=x dv = s e n 2 xdx
1 cos 2 x
1 1 v= dx
du = dx v = x s e n 2x 2
2 4
1 1 1 1
x s e n 2 xdx = x 2 x s e n 2 x xdx + s e n 2 xdx
2 4 2 4
1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1
= x x s e n 2 x x cos 2 x + c = x x s e n 2 x cos 2 x + c
2 4 4 8 4 4 8
2
x x s e n 2 x cos 2 x
Respuesta: x s e n 2 xdx = +c
4 4 8
Otra solucin.-
1 cos 2 x 1 1 1 x2 1
= =
2

2
=
2 2 2

2
x s e n xdx x dx xdx x cos 2 xdx x cos 2 xdx
2
x2 1
= x cos 2 xdx ; integrando por partes, la segunda integral:
4 2
dv = cos 2 xdx
u=x
1
du = dx v = s e n 2x
2
x 1 x
2
1 x
2
x 1
= = s e n 2 x + s e n 2 xdx
2
x s e n xdx s e n 2 x s e n 2 xdx
4 2 2 2 4 4 4
x2 x 1 1 x2 x cos 2 x
= s e n 2 x + ( cos 2 x) + c = s e n 2 x +c
4 4 4 2 4 4 8
x 2 x s e n 2 x cos 2 x
Respuesta: x s e n xdx =
2
+c
4 4 8
4.26.-Encontrar: x(3 x + 1)7 dx
Solucin.-
u=x dv = (3x + 1)7 dx

du = dx 1
v = (3x + 1) 8 (
v = (3x + 1)7 dx )
24
x 1 x 1 1 (3x + 1)9
x(3 x + 1) dx = (3x + 1) (3x + 1) dx = (3 x + 1)
7 8 8 8
+c
24 24 24 24 3 9
x (3x + 1)9
= (3 x + 1)
8
+c
24 648
x (3x + 1)9
Respuesta: x(3x + 1) dx = (3x + 1)
7 8
+c
24 648

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS

Usando esencialmente el mecanismo presentado, encontrar las integrales


siguientes:

88
4.27.- x(2 x + 5)10 dx 4.28.- arcs e n xdx 4.29.- x s e n xdx
4.30.- x cos 3 xdx 4.31.- x 2 x dx 4.32.- x 2 e3 x dx
4.33.- x3e 3 dx 4.34.- x s e n x cos xdx 4.35.- x 2 xdx
x

x x 4.38.- x arc gxdx


4.36.- 3
dx 4.37.- dx
x x
4.39.- x arcs e n xdx 4.40.-
xdx 4.41.- e x s e n xdx
s e n2 x
4.42.- 3x cos xdx 4.43.- s e n( x)dx 4.44.- ( x 2 2 x + 3) xdx
1 x 2x 4.47.- x 2 arc g 3 xdx
4.45.- x dx 4.46.- dx
1+ x x2
4.48.- x(arc gx) 2 dx 4.49.- (arcs e n x) 2 dx 4.50.-
arcs e n x
dx
x2
arcs e n x s e n2 x 4.53.- g 2 x sec3 xdx
4.51.- dx 4.52.- dx
1 x ex
4.54.- x3 2 xdx 4.55.- x (9 + x 2 )dx 4.56.- arcs e n xdx
4.57.- x arc g (2 x + 3)dx 4.58.- e x dx 4.59.- cos 2 ( x)dx
( x) 4.61.- x + 1 dx 4.62.- x 2 e x dx
4.60.- dx
x
4.63.- cos xdx n
4.64.- s e n n xdx 4.65.- x m ( x) n dx
4.66.- x3 ( x) 2 dx 4.67.- x n e x dx 4.68.- x3e x dx
4.69.- sec n xdx 4.70.- sec3 xdx 4.71.- x xdx
4.72.- x n ax dx, n 1 4.73.- arcs e n axdx 4.74.- x s e n axdx
4.75.- x 2 cos axdx 4.76.- x sec 2 axdx 4.77.- cos( x)dx
4.78.- (9 + x 2 )dx 4.79.- x cos(2 x + 1)dx 4.80.- x arc sec xdx
4.81.- arc sec xdx 4.82.- a 2 x 2 dx 4.83.- 1 x dx
4.84.- ( x 2 + 1)dx 4.85.- arc g xdx 4.86.-
x arcs e n x
dx
1 x2
4.87.- x arc g x 2 1dx x arc gx xdx
4.88.- dx 4.89.- arcs e n x
( x 2 + 1) 2 (1 x 2 )3
4.90.- x 2 1 xdx

RESPUESTAS
4.27.- x(2 x + 5)10 dx
Solucin.-

89
dv = (2 x + 5)10 dx
u=x
(2 x + 5)11
du = dx v=
22
x 1 x 1
x(2 x + 5) dx = 22 (2 x + 5) 22 (2 x + 5) dx = 22 (2 x + 5) 44 (2 x + 5) + c
10 11 11 11 12

x 1
= (2 x + 5)11 (2 x + 5)12 + c
22 528
4.28.- arcs e n xdx
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n x
dv = dx
dx Adems: w = 1 x 2 , dw = 2 xdx
du = v=x
1 x2
xdx 1 dw
arcs e n xdx = x arcs e n x 1 x 2
= x arcs e n x +
2w 2
1 = x arcs e n x + 1 x 2 + c

4.29.- x s e n xdx
Solucin.-
u=x dv = s e n xdx

du = dx v = cos x
x s e n xdx = x cos x + cos xdx = x cos x + s e n x + c
4.30.- x cos 3 xdx
Solucin.-
dv = cos 3xdx
u=x
1
du = dx v = s e n 3x
3
x 1 x cos 3 x
x cos 3xdx = 3 s e n 3x 3 s e n 3xdx = 3 s e n 3x + 9 + c
4.31.- x 2 x dx
Solucin.-
dv = 2 x dx
u=x
2 x
du = dx v=
2
x 2 x 1 x 2 x 1 2 x x 1
x2 dx =
x x
+ 2 dx = + +c = x x 2 + c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
4.32.- x 2 e3 x dx
Solucin.-

90
dv = e3 x dx
u=x 2
1
du = 2 xdx v = e3 x
3
x2 3x 2
x e dx = e xe3 x dx , integral la cual se desarrolla nuevamente por partes,
2 3x

3 3
u=x dv = e3 x dx
esto es: 1
du = dx v = e3 x
3
x 2
2 x 1 x
2
2 2 x2 2x 2
= e3 x e3 x e3 x dx = e3 x xe3 x + e3 x dx = e3 x e3 x + e3 x + c
3 33 3 3 9 9 3 9 27
4.33.- x3e 3 dx
x

Solucin.-
u = x3 dv = e 3 dx
x

du = 3x 2 dx v = 3e 3
x

x e 3 dx = 3x e 3 + 9 x e 3 dx , integral la cual se desarrolla nuevamente por


3 x 3 x 2 x

u = x2 dv = e 3 dx
x

partes, esto es:


du = 2 xdx v = 3e 3
x

(
= 3x3e 3 + 9 3 x 2 e
x x
3
x
)
+ 6 xe 3 dx = 3 x3e 3 27 x 2 e 3 + 54 xe 3 dx
x x x

, la nueva integral se desarrolla por partes, esto es:


u=x dv = e 3 dx
x

du = dx v = 3e 3
x

=
3x 3 27 x 2
e
x
3

e
x
3
+ (
54 3 xe x3
+ 3 e x3
dx = )

3 x 3 27 x 2 162 x
e
x
3
e 3
e 3
x
x x + 162(3e 3 ) + c
3 2
3 x 27 x 162 x 486
= x x x x +c
e3 e3 e3 e3
4.34.- x s e n x cos xdx
Solucin.-
dv = s e n 2 xdx
u=x
cos 2 x
du = dx v=
2
1 1 x 1
x s e n x cos xdx = 2 x s e n 2 xdx = 2 2 cos 2 x + 2 cos 2 xdx
x 1 x 1
= cos 2 x + cos 2 xdx = cos 2 x + s e n 2 x + c
4 4 4 8
4.35.- x xdx
2

Solucin.-

91
u = x dv = x 2 dx
dx x3
du = v=
x 3
x x 1 2
3
x x x3
3

=
3
= +c
2
x xdx x dx
3 3 9
x
4.36.- 3 dx
x
Solucin.-
u = x dv = x 3 dx
dx 1
du = v= 2
x 2x
x x 1 x 1
x3 dx = x xdx = 2 x2 + 2 x dx = 2 x 2 4 x 2 + c
3 3

x
4.37.- dx
x
Solucin.-
u = x
dv = x 2 dx
1

dx
du = v=2 x
x
x
x dx = x 2 xdx = 2 x x 2 x 2 dx = 2 x x 4 x + c
1 1

4.38.- x arc gxdx


Solucin.-
u = arc gx dv = xdx
dx x2
du = v=
1 + x2 2
x 2
1 x dx x 2
2
1 1
x arc gxdx =
2
arc gx
2 1+ x 2
= arc gx 1
2
dx
2 1 + x2
x2 1 1 dx x2 1 arc gx
= arc gx dx + = arc gx x + +c
2 2 2 1+ x 2
2 2 2
4.39.- x arcs e n xdx
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n x dv = xdx
dx x2
du = v =
1 + x2 2
x2 1 x 2 dx
x arcs e n xdx = 2 arcs e n x 2 1 + x2 , integral para la cual se sugiere la
x = s e n
sustitucin siguiente:
dx = cos d

92
x2 1 s e n 2 cos d
= arcs e n x
2 2 cos
x2 1 1 cos 2
x2 1 1
= arcs e n x d = arcs e n x d + cos 2 d
2 2
2 2 4 4
x 2
1 1 x 2
1 2s e n cos
= arcs e n x + s e n 2 + c = arcs e n x arcs e n x + +c
2 4 8 2 4 8
Como: s e n = x, cos = 1 x 2 ; luego:
x2 1 1
= arcs e n x arcs e n x + x 1 x 2 + c
2 4 4
xdx
4.40.-
s e n2 x
Solucin.-
u=x dv = cos ec 2 xdx

du = dx v = co gx
xdx
s e n 2 x = x cos ec xdx = x co gx + co gxdx = x co gx + s e n x + c
2

4.41.- e x s e n xdx
Solucin.-
u = sen x dv = e x dx

du = cos xdx v = ex
e s e n xdx = e s e n x e cos xdx , integral la cual se desarrolla por partes, esto es:
x x x

u = cos x dv = e x dx

du = s e n xdx v = ex
( )
= e x s e n x e x cos x + e x s e n xdx = e x s e n x e x cos x e x s e n xdx
Luego se tiene: e x s e n xdx = e x s e n x e x cos x e x s e n xdx , de donde es inmediato:
2 e x s e n xdx = e x (s e n x cos x) + c
ex
e s e n xdx = (s e n x cos x) + c
x

2
4.42.- 3x cos xdx
Solucin.-
dv = 3x dx
u = cos x
3x
du = s e n xdx v=
3

93
3x 1
3 cos xdx = cos x +
3
x x
3 s e n xdx , integral la cual se desarrolla por partes,
3
dv = 3x dx
u = sen x
esto es: 3x
du = cos xdx v=
3
3x 1 3x 1
= cos x
3
+
3 3
sen x
3 3x cos xdx

3x 3x s e n x 1
= cos x + 2 3x cos xdx ,luego:
3 32
3
3x sen x 1
= 3x cos xdx = cos x + 2 3 cos xdx , de donde es inmediato:
x

3 3
1 3x sen x
= (1 + 2 ) 3x cos xdx = cos x + +c
3 3 3
23 +1 x 3x sen x
=(
3
2
) 3 cos xdx =
3
cos x +
3
+c

3x 3 sen x
= 3x cos xdx = 2 cos x + +c
3 +1 3
4.43.- s e n( x)dx
Solucin.-
u = s e n( x)
dv = dx
cos( x)
du = dx v=x
x
s e n( x)dx = x s e n( x) cos( x)dx , integral la cual se desarrolla por partes,
esto es:
u = cos( x)
dv = dx
s e n( x)
du = dx v=x
x
= x s e n( x) x cos( x) + s e n( x)dx = x s e n( x) x cos( x) s e n( x)dx
Se tiene por tanto:
s e n( x)dx = x [s e n( x) cos( x)] s e n( x)dx , de donde es inmediato:
x
2 s e n( x)dx = x [s e n( x) cos( x) ] + c s e n( x)dx = [s e n( x) cos( x)] + c
2
4.44.- ( x 2 2 x + 3) xdx
Solucin.-

94
u = x dv = ( x 2 2 x + 3)dx
dx x3
du = v= x 2 + 3x
x 3
x3 x2
( x 2 x + 3) xdx = ( x 2 + 3 x) x ( x + 3)dx
2

3 3
3 2
x x x3 x3 x2
= ( x 2 + 3x) x dx xdx + 3 dx = ( x 2 + 3 x) x + 3 x + c
3 3 3 9 2
1 x
4.45.- x dx
1+ x
Solucin.-
1 x
u= dv = xdx
1+ x
x2
2dx v=
du = 2 2
x 1
1 x x2 1 x x 2 dx x 2 1 x 1
1+ x
x dx =
2

1+ x
x 1 2
2
=
1+ x
(1 + 2 )dx
x 1
x2 1 x dx x2 1 x 1 x 1
= dx 2 = x +c
2 1+ x x 1 2 1+ x 2 x +1
2x
4.46.- dx
x2
Solucin.-
u = 2x dv = x 2 dx
2 x 1
du = dx v=
x x
x
2
x
2
x 2x
x2 dx =
x
+ 2 x 2
dx =
x
+ 2 x 2 xdx , integral la cual se desarrolla
por partes, esto es:
u = x dv = x 2 dx
dx 1
du = v=
x x
x
2
x dx 2
x 2 x dx 2x 2 x 2
= + 2 + 2 = + 2 2 = +c
x x x x x x x x x
4.47.- x 2 arc g 3 xdx
Solucin.-
u = arc g 3x dv = x 2 dx
3dx x3
du = v=
1 + 9x2 3

95
x3 x3dx x3 1 x3 dx
x arc g 3xdx = arc g 3x =
9 1 + x2
2
arc g 3 x
3 1 + 9 x2 3
9
x3
x3 1 1 x
dx = arc g 3 x 1 x + 1
2
xdx
= arc g 3x x 2 9
3 9 x +1 3 9 2 81 x 2 + 1
9 9
3 2
x x 1 1
= arc g 3x + x2 + + c
3 18 162 9
4.48.- x(arc gx) 2 dx
Solucin.-
u = (arc gx) 2 dv = xdx
2 arc gxdx x2
du = v =
1 + x2 2
2
x x 2 dx
=
2 2
x (arc gx ) dx (arc gx ) (arc gx ) , integral la cual se desarrolla por
2 1 + x2
partes, esto es:
u = arc gx x 2 dx
dv =
dx 1 + x2
du =
1 + x2 v = x arc gx
( x arc gx) dx
2
= ( x arc gx) arc gx ( x arc gx)
2 1 + x 2
( x arc gx) arc gxdx
2
xdx
= x arc gx + (arc gx) 2 +
2 1+ x 2
1 + x2
( x arc gx) (arc gx)
2 2
1
= x arc gx + (arc gx) + (1 + x )
2 2
+c
2 2 2
4.49.- (arcs e n x) 2 dx
Solucin.-
u = (arc s e n x) 2
dv = dx
2 arc s e n xdx
du = v=x
1 x2
xdx
(arcs e n x) dx = x(arcs e n x) 2 arcs e n x
2 2
, integral la cual se desarrolla por
1 x2
u = arcs e n x xdx
dv =
partes, esto es: dx 1 x2
du =
1 x2 v = 1 x2
= x(arcs e n x) 2 2 1 x 2 arcs e n x + dx

= x(arcs e n x) 2 + 2 1 x 2 arcs e n x 2 x + c

96
arcs e n x
4.50.- dx
x2
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n x dv = x 2 dx
dx
du = v=
1
1 x 2
x
arcs e n x arcs e n x dx
x2 dx = x arcs e n xdx = x + x 1 x2
2

arcs e n x x
= + +c
x 1 + 1 x2
arcs e n x
4.51.- dx
1 x
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n x dv =
dx
dx 1 1 x
du =
1 x 2 x v = 2 1 x
arcs e n x dx
1 x
dx = 2 1 x arcs e n x +
x
= 2 1 x arcs e n x + 2 x + c

s e n2 x
4.52.- dx
ex
Solucin.-
u = s e n2 x dv = e x dx

du = 2s e n x cos x v = e x
s e n2 x
e x dx = s e n xe dx = e s e n x + 2 s e n x cos xe dx
2 x x 2 x

s e n 2x x
= e x s e n 2 x + 2 e dx , Integral la cual se desarrolla por partes, esto es:
2
u = s e n 2x dv = e x dx

du = 2 cos 2 xdx v = e x
= e x s e n 2 x + 2 cos 2 xe x dx , Integral la cual se desarrolla por partes, esto es:
u = cos 2 x dv = e x dx

du = 2s e n 2 xdx v = e x
s e n 2 xe dx = e s e n 2 x + 2 ( e cos 2 x 2 s e n 2 xe dx )
x x x x

s e n 2 xe dx = e s e n 2 x 2e cos 2 x 4 s e n 2 xe dx , de donde:
x x x x

5 s e n 2 xe dx = e (s e n 2 x + 2 cos 2 x) + c
x x

97
e x
s e n 2 xe dx =
x
(s e n 2 x + 2 cos 2 x) + c , Sustituyendo en:
5
s e n 2 xdx 2e x
ex
x
= e s e n 2
x (s e n 2 x + 2 cos 2 x) + c
5
4.53.- g 2 x sec3 xdx = (sec 2 x 1) sec3 xdx = sec5 xdx() sec3 xdx()
Solucin.-
u = sec3 x dv = sec 2 xdx
sec xdx ,5
Sea:
du = 3sec3 x gxdx v = gx

sec xdx = sec3 x sec2 xdx = sec3 x gx 3 sec3 x g 2 xdx


5

u = sec x dv = sec 2 xdx


sec3 xdx , Sea:
du = sec x gxdx v = gx
sec xdx = sec x sec xdx = sec x gx sec x g xdx = sec x gx sec x(sec x 2 1)dx
3 2 2

= sec x gx sec3 xdx + sec xdx , luego: 2 sec3 xdx = sec x gx + sec xdx
1
Esto es: sec3 xdx = (sec x gx + n sec x gx ) + c , ahora bien:
2
g x sec xdx = sec xdx sec xdx , con ( y )
2 3 5 3

1
g x sec3 xdx = sec3 x gx 3 sec3 x g 2 xdx (sec x gx + n sec x gx ) + c
2

2
1
De lo anterior: 4 g 2 x sec3 xdx = sec3 x gx (sec x gx + n sec x gx ) + c
2
1 1
Esto es: g 2 x sec3 xdx = sec3 x gx (sec x gx + n sec x gx ) + c
4 8
4.54.- x xdx
3 2

Solucin.-
u = 2x dv = x3 dx
2 x x4
du = dx v=
x 4
4
x 1 3
x xdx = 4 x 2 x xdx , integral la cual se desarrolla por partes, esto es:
3 2 2

u = x dv = x3 dx
dx x4
du = v=
x 4
x 4
1 x 4
1 x4 2 1 4 1 x4
= 2x x x 3dx = x x x + +c
4 2 4 4 4 8 8 4
x4 2 1 4 x4
= x x x + + c
4 8 32

98
4.55.- x (9 + x 2 )dx
Solucin.-
u = (9 + x 2 ) dv = xdx
2 xdx x2
du = v =
9 + x2 2
9x
2 3
x x x2
+ = + = (9 + x 2 ) x 2
2 2
x (9 x ) dx (9 x ) dx dx
2 9+ x 2
2 x +9
x2 xdx x2 x2 9
= (9 + x 2 ) xdx + 9 = (9 + x 2
) + ( x 2 + 9) + c
2 9 + x2 2 2 2
x2 9
= (9 + x 2 ) 1 + ( x 2 + 9) + c
2 2
4.56.- arcs e n xdx
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n xdx
dv = dx
dx 1
du = v=x
1 x 2 x
2

xdx 1 1 xdx
arcs e n xdx = x arcs e n x
1 x 2 x
= x arcs e n x
2 1 x
Para la integral resultante, se recomienda la siguiente sustitucin:
1 x = t , de donde: x = 1 t 2 , y dx = 2tdt ( ver capitulo 9)
1 1 t 2 (2 t dt )dx
= x arcs e n x = x arcs e n x + 1 t 2 dt , Se recomienda la
2 t
sustitucin: t = s e n , de donde: 1 t 2 = cos , y dt = cos d . Esto es:
1
= x arcs e n x + cos 2 d = x arcs e n x + (1 + cos 2 )d
2
1 1 1 1
= x arcs e n x + + s e n 2 + c = x arcs e n x + + s e n cos + c
2 4 2 2
arcs e n t t arcs e n 1 x 1 x
= x arcs e n x + + 1 t 2 + c = x arcs e n x + + x +c
2 2 2 2
4.57.- x arc g (2 x + 3)dx
Solucin.-
u = arc g (2 x + 3) dv = xdx
2dx x2
du = v=
1 + (2 x + 3) 2 2
x2 x 2 dx
x arc g (2 x + 3)dx = 2
arc g (2 x + 3)
1 + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 9

99
x2 x 2 dx x2 1 3x + 5
= arc g (2 x + 3) 2 = arc g (2 x + 3) 2 2 dx
2 4 x + 12 x + 10 2 4 4 x + 12 x + 10

x2 1 3x + 5
= arc g (2 x + 3) dx + 2 2 dx
2 4 4 x + 12 x + 10
x2 1 x+ 5
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 3 2 6 dx
2 4 4 x + 12 x + 10
x2 1 3 8 x + 40
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 2 6 dx
2 4 8 4 x + 12 x + 10
3 8 x + 12 6
32
x2 1
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 2 dx
2 4 8 4 x + 12 x + 10
x2 1 3 (8 x + 12)dx 3 32 dx
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 2
2 4 8 4 x + 12 x + 10 8 6 4 x + 12 x + 10
2

2
x 1 3 dx
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 10 2 2
2 4 8 4 x + 12 x + 10
2
x 1 3 dx
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 10 2
2 4 8 (2 x + 3) 2 + 1
x2 1 3 2 2dx
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 10
2 4 8 2 (2 x + 3) 2 + 1
x2 1 3
= arc g (2 x + 3) x + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 10 arc g (2 x + 3) + c
2 4 8
1 1 3
= ( x 2 2) arc g (2 x + 3) x + 4 x 2 + 12 x + 10 + c
2 2 4
4.58.- e x dx
Solucin.-
u=e x
dv = dx
e x dx
du = v=x
2 x
1 xe x dx dx
e dx = xe , Se recomienda la sustitucin: z = x , dz =
x x

2 2 x 2 x
1 2 z
2
= xe x

z e dz , Esta integral resultante, se desarrolla por partes:

u = z2 dv = e z dz

du = 2 zdz v = ez
1
( )
= xe x z 2 e z 2 ze z dz = xe x
2
z 2e z
2
+ ze z dz , integral que se desarrolla por
partes:

100
u=z dv = e z dz

du = dz v = ez
z 2e z z 2e z xe x
= xe x
+ ze z e z dz = xe x
+ ze z e z + c = xe x
+ xe x
e x
+c
2 2 2
x
= e x + x 1 + c
2
4.59.- cos ( x)dx
2

Solucin.-
u = cos(2 x)
dv = dx

du =
[ s e n(2 x) ] 2dx
v=x
x
1 + cos(2 x) 1 1
cos ( x)dx = dx = dx + cos(2 x)dx
2

2 2 2
1 1 x x
= x + x cos(2 x) + 2 s e n(2 x)dx = + cos(2 x) + s e n(2 x)dx
2 2 2 2
Integral que se desarrolla por partes:
u = s e n(2 x)
dv = dx

du =
[ cos(2 x) ] 2dx
v=x
x
x x
= + cos(2 x) + x s e n(2 x) 2 cos(2 x)dx ,
2 2
Dado que apareci nuevamente: cos(2 x)dx , igualamos:
x 1 x x
+ cos(2 x)dx = + cos(2 x) + x s e n(2 x) 2 cos(2 x)dx , de donde:
2 2 2 2
5 x
2 cos(2 x)dx = cos(2 x) + x s e n(2 x) + c
2
1 x x
2 cos(2 x)dx = cos(2 x) + s e n(2 x) + c , Por tanto:
10 5
x x x
cos ( x)dx = 2 + 10 cos(2 x) + 5 s e n(2 x) + c
2

( x) dx
4.60.- dx , Sustituyendo por: w = x, dw = , Se tiene:
x x
Solucin.-
( x)
x dx = wdw , Esta integral se desarrolla por partes:
u = w
dv = dw
dw
du = v=w
w
= w w dw = w w w + c = w( w 1) + c = x [ ( x) 1] + c

101
4.61.- x + 1 dx
Solucin.-
u = x +1
dv = dx
dx
du = v=x
x +1
xdx 1
x + 1 dx = x x + 1
x +1
= x x + 1 1 dx
x +1
= x x +1 x + x +1 + c
4.62.- x 2 e x dx
Solucin.-
u = x2 dv = e x dx

du = 2 xdx v = ex
x e dx = x e 2 xe dx
2 x 2 x x

Integral que se desarrolla nuevamente por partes:


u=x dv = e x dx

du = dx v = ex
= x 2 e x 2 xe x e x dx = x 2 e x 2 xe x + 2e x + c
4.63.- cos n xdx = cos n 1 x cos xdx
Solucin.-
u = cos n 1 x dv = cos xdx

du = (n 1) cos n 2 x( s e n x)dx v = sen x


= cos n 1 x s e n x + (n 1) s e n 2 x cos n 2 xdx
= cos n 1 x s e n x + (n 1) (1 cos 2 x) cos n 2 xdx
= cos n 1 x s e n x + (n 1) cos n 2 xdx (n 1) cos n xdx , Se tiene:

cos xdx = cos x s e n x + (n 1) cos n 2 xdx (n 1) cos n xdx , Esto es:


n n 1

n cos xdx = cos


n n 1
x s e n x + (n 1) cos n 2 xdx
cos n 1 x s e n x (n 1)
cos xdx = + cos n 2 xdx
n

n n
4.64.- s e n xdx = s e n x s e n xdx
n n 1

Solucin.-
u = s e n n 1 x dv = s e n xdx

du = (n 1) s e n n 2 x(cos x)dx v = cos x


= s e n n 1 x cos x + (n 1) cos 2 x s e n n 2 xdx
= s e n n 1 x cos x + (n 1) (1 s e n 2 x) s e n n 2 xdx

102
= s e n n 1 x cos x + (n 1) s e n n 2 xdx (n 1) s e n n xdx , Se tiene:

s e n xdx = s e n x cos x + (n 1) s e n n 2 xdx (n 1) s e n n xdx


n n 1

n s e n xdx = s e n
n n 1
x cos x + (n 1) s e n n 2 xdx
s e n n 1 x cos x (n 1)
s e n xdx = +
n
s e n n 2 xdx
n

n
4.65.- x m ( x)n dx = x m +1 ( x)n n x m ( x)n 1 dx m x m ( x)n dx
Solucin.-
u = x m ( x)n
dv = dx
n 1 dx
du = x n( x)
m
+ mx ( x) dx
m 1 n
v=x
x
Se tiene: (m + 1) x m ( x) n dx = x m +1 ( x) n n x m ( x) n 1 dx
x m +1 ( x) n n
x ( x) dx =
(m + 1)
x m ( x) n 1 dx
m n

(m + 1)
4.66.- x3 ( x) 2 dx
Solucin.-
Puede desarrollarse como caso particular del ejercicio anterior, haciendo:
m = 3, n = 2
x3+1 ( x) 2 2 x 4 ( x) 2 1 3
x ( x) dx = 3 + 1 3 + 1 x ( x) dx = 4 2 x ( x)dx
3 2 3 2 1

Para la integral resultante: x3 ( x)dx


x 4 ( x) 1 3 x 4 ( x) x 4
x ( x)dx = x dx = + c , introduciendo en:
3

4 4 4 16
x ( x)
4 2
x 4
x 4

x ( x) dx = 4 8 ( x) + 32 + c
3 2

4.67.- x n e x dx
Solucin.-
u = xn dv = e x dx

du = nx n 1dx v = ex
x e dx = x e n x e dx
n x n x n 1 x

4.68.- x3e x dx
Solucin.-
u = x3 dv = e x dx

du = 3x 2 dx v = ex

Puede desarrollarse como el ejercicio anterior, haciendo: n = 3


x e dx = x e 3 x e dx , Adems:
3 x 3 x 2 x

103
x 2 e x dx = x 2 e x 2 xe x dx , Adems: xe x dx = xe x e x dx = xe x e x + c
Reemplazando en y luego en :
x e dx = x e 3 x e 2( xe e ) + c
3 x 3 x 2 x x x

x e dx = e ( x 3x + 6 x 6) + c
3 x x 3 2

4.69.- sec xdx = sec x sec xdx


n n2 2

Solucin.-
u = sec n 2 x dv = sec 2 xdx

du = (n 2) secn 3 x sec x gxdx v = gx


= sec n2
x gx (n 2) g x sec
2 n2
xdx = sec n2
x gx (n 2) (sec 2 x 1) sec n 2 xdx
= sec n 2 x gx (n 2) secn xdx +(n 2) secn 2 xdx , Se tiene:

sec xdx = sec n 2 x gx (n 2) sec n xdx + (n 2) sec n 2 xdx


n

(n 1) sec n xdx = sec n 2 x gx + (n 2) sec n 2 xdx


secn 2 x gx (n 2)
sec xdx = (n 1) + (n 1) sec xdx
n n2

4.70.- sec3 xdx


Solucin.-
Puede desarrollarse como caso particular del ejercicio anterior, haciendo:
n=3
sec3 2 x gx 3 2 sec x gx 1
= + sec3 2 xdx = + sec xdx
3
sec xdx
3 1 3 1 2 2
sec x gx 1
= + sec x gx + c
2 2
4.71.- x xdx
Solucin.-
u = x dv = xdx
dx x2
du = v=
x 2
2
x xdx x2 1
x xdx = 2 x 2 = 2
x x2 + c
4
4.72.- x n ax dx, n 1
Solucin.-
u = ax dv = xdx
dx x n +1
du = v=
x n +1
n +1
x 1 x n +1 x n +1
=
n +1
= +c
n n
x ax dx ax x dx ax
n +1 n +1 (n + 1) 2

104
4.73.- arcs e n axdx
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n ax
dv = dx
adx
du = v=x
1 a2 x2
axdx 1 (2a 2 x)dx
arcs e n axdx = x arcs e n ax 1 a2 x2
= x arcs e n ax +
2a 1 a 2 x 2
1 (1 a 2 x 2 ) 2
1
1
= x arcs e n ax + + c = x arcs e n ax + 1 a2 x2 + c
2a 1 a
2
4.74.- x s e n axdx
Solucin.-
dv = s e n axdx
u=x
1
du = dx v = cos ax
a
x 1 x 1
x s e n axdx = a cos ax + a cos axdx = a cos ax + a 2
s e n ax + c
1 x
= 2
s e n ax cos ax + c
a a
4.75.- x cos axdx
2

Solucin.-
dv = cos axdx
u = x2
1
du = 2 xdx v = s e n ax
a
x2 2
x cos axdx = s e n ax x s e n axdx , aprovechando el ejercicio anterior:
2

a a
x 2
2 1 x x2 2 2x
= s e n ax 2 s e n ax cos ax + c = s e n ax 3 s e n ax 2 cos ax + c
a aa a a a a
4.76.- x sec 2 axdx
Solucin.-
u=x dv = sec 2 axdx
1
du = dx v = gax
a
x 1 x 11
x sec axdx = a gax a gaxdx = a gax a a sec ax + c
2

x 1
= gax 2 sec ax + c
a a
4.77.- cos( x)dx
Solucin.-

105
u = cos( x)
dv = dx
s e n( x)
du = dx v=x
x
cos( x)dx = x cos( x) + s e n( x)dx , aprovechando el ejercicio:4.43
x
s e n( x)dx = 2 [s e n( x) cos( x)] + c , Luego:
x x x
= x cos( x) + [s e n( x) cos( x)] + c = x cos( x) + s e n( x) cos( x) + c
2 2 2
x
= [ cos( x) + s e n( x)] + c
2
4.78.- (9 + x 2 )dx
Solucin.-
u = (9 + x 2 )
dv = dx
2 xdx
du = v=x
9 + x2
x 2 dx 9
(9 + x 2 )dx = x (9 + x 2 ) 2
9+ x 2
= x (9 + x 2 ) 2 1 2
9+ x
dx

dx
= x (9 + x 2 ) 2 dx + 18 =x (9 + x 2 ) 2 x + 6 arc g x + c
9+ x 2 3
4.79.- x cos(2 x + 1)dx
Solucin.-
dv = cos(2 x + 1)dx
u=x
1
du = dx v = s e n(2 x + 1)
2
x 1
x cos(2 x + 1)dx = 2 s e n(2 x + 1) 2 s e n(2 x + 1)dx
x 1
= s e n(2 x + 1) + cos(2 x + 1) + c
2 4
4.80.- x arc sec xdx
Solucin.-
u = arc sec x dv = xdx
dx x2
du = v=
x x2 1 2
2
x 1 xdx x2 1 2
x arc sec xdx = 2 arc sec x 2 x 2 1 = 2 arc sec x 2 x 1 + c
4.81.- arc sec xdx
Solucin.-

106
u = arc sec x
dv = dx
1 dx
du = v=x
2 x x 1
1 dx
arc sec xdx = x arc sec x
2 x 1
= x arc sec x x 1 + c

a2 x2 dx x 2 dx
4.82.- a 2 x 2 dx = dx = a 2
a2 x2 a2 x2 a2 x2
x xdx
= a 2 arcs e n x , integral que se desarrolla por partes:
a a2 x2
Solucin.-
xdx
u=x dv =
a2 x2
du = dx
v = a2 x2
x
( )
= a 2 arcs e n x a 2 x 2 + a 2 x 2 dx , Se tiene que:
a
x
a x dx = a arcs e n a + x a x a x dx , De donde:
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x
2 a 2 x 2 dx = a 2 arcs e n + x a 2 x 2 + c
a
2
a x x 2
a x dx = 2 arcs e n a + 2 a x + c
2 2 2

4.83.- 1 x dx
Solucin.-
u = 1 x
dv = dx
dx
du = v=x
1 x
xdx 1
1 x dx = x 1 x
x 1
= x 1 x 1 + dx
x 1
dx
= x 1 x dx = x 1 x x x 1 + c
x 1
4.84.- ( x 2 + 1)dx
Solucin.-
u = ( x 2 + 1)
dv = dx
2 xdx
du = 2 v=x
x +1
x 2 dx 1
( x 2 + 1)dx = x ( x 2 + 1) 2
x +1
2
= x ( x 2 + 1) 2 1 2 dx
x +1
= x ( x 2 + 1) 2 x + 2 arc gx + c

107
4.85.- arc g xdx
Solucin.-
u = arc g x
dv = dx
dx 1
du = v=x
1+ x 2 x
1 xdx
arc g xdx = x arc g x
2 1+ x
En la integral resultante, se recomienda la

sustitucin: x = t , esto es x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt


1 t 2 tdt t 2 dt 1
= x arc g x
2 1 + t 2 = x arc g x 1 + t 2 = x arc g x 1 1 + t 2 dt
dt
= x arc g x dt + = x arc g x t + arc gt + c
1+ t2
= x arc g x x + arc g x + c
x arcs e n x
4.86.- dx
1 x2
Solucin.-
u = arcs e n x xdx
dv =
dx 1 x2
du =
1 x2 v = 1 x2
x arcs e n x
1 x 2 dx = 1 x arcs e n x + dx = 1 x arcs e n x + x + c
2 2

4.87.- x arc g x 2 1dx


Solucin.-
u = arc g x 2 1 dv = xdx
dx x2
du = v=
x x2 1 2
x2 1 xdx x2 1 2
x arc g x 1dx = arc g x 2 1 = arc g x 2 1 x 1 + c
2

2 2 x 1 2
2 2
x arc gx
4.88.- dx
( x 2 + 1) 2
Solucin.-
xdx
u = arc gx dv =
( x + 1) 2
2

dx
du = 2 1
x +1 v=
2( x 2 + 1)
x arc gx arc gx 1 dx
( x2 + 1)2 dx = 2( x 2 + 1) + 2 ( x 2 + 1)2 , Se recomienda la siguiente sustitucin:

108
x = g , de donde: dx = sec 2 d ; x 2 + 1 = sec 2
arc gx 1 sec 2 d arc gx 1 arc gx 1 1 + cos 2 d
+ + cos 2 d =
2( x 2 + 1) 2
= = +
2( x + 1) 2 sec
2 4
2( x + 1) 2
2
2
arc gx 1 1 arc gx 1 1
= + + s e n 2 + c = + arc gx + s e n cos + c
2( x + 1) 4
2
8 2( x + 1) 4
2
4
arc gx 1 1 x 1
= + arc gx + +c
2( x + 1) 4
2
4 x2 + 1 x2 + 1
arc gx 1 x
= + arc gx + +c
2( x + 1) 4
2
4( x + 1)
2

xdx
4.89.- arcs e n x
(1 x 2 )3
Solucin.-
xdx
u = arcs e n x dv =
(1 x 2 ) 2
3

dx
du = 1
1 x2 v=
1 x2
xdx arcs e n x dx arcs e n x 1 1 x
arcs e n x (1 x 2 )3 = 1 x 2 1 x2 = 1 x 2 + 2 1 + x + c
4.90.- x 2 1 xdx
Solucin.-
u = 1 x dv = x 2 dx
dx x3
du = v=
2 1 x 3
3 3
x 1 x dx
x 1 xdx = 3 1 x + 6 1 x , Se recomienda
2
usar la siguiente

sustitucin: 1 x = t , o sea: x = 1 t 2 , De donde: dx = 2tdt


x3 1 (1 t 2 )3 ( 2 t dt ) x3 1
= 1 x + = 1 x (1 t 2 )3 dt
3 6 t 3 3
x3 1 x3 1 3t 5 t 7
= 1 x (1 3t 2 + 3t 4 t 6 )dt = 1 x (t t 3 + )+c
3 3 3 3 5 7
x3 1 3 3
= 1 x 1 x (1 x) 1 x + (1 x) 2 1 x (1 x)3 1 x + c
3 3 5 7
1 x 3 3 1 3
= x 1 (1 x) + 5 (1 x) 7 (1 x) + c
2

109
IMPORTANTE: En este captulo ningn resultado, o casi ninguno, se presentaron
en su forma ms reducida. Esto es intencional. Una de las causas del fracaso en
stos tpicos, a veces est en el mal uso del lgebra elemental.
He aqu una oportunidad para mejorar tal eficiencia. Exprese cada resultado en su
forma ms reducida.

110
CAPITULO 5

INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES CUADRATICAS

Una funcin cuadrtica, es de la forma: ax 2 + bx + c y si sta aparece en el


denominador, la integral que la contiene se hace fcil de encontrar, para la cual
conviene diferenciar dos tipos esenciales en lo que se refiere al numerador.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

dx
5.1.-Encontrar:
x + 2x + 5
2

Solucin.- Completando cuadrados, se tiene:


x 2 + 2 x + 5 = ( x 2 + 2 x + __) + 5 __ = ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 5 1 = ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 4
x 2 + 2 x + 5 = ( x + 1) 2 + 22 , luego se tiene:
dx dx
x2 + 2 x + 5 = ( x + 1)2 + 22 . Sea: w = x + 1, dw = dx; a = 2
dx dw 1 w 1 x +1
( x + 1)2 + 22 = w2 + 22 = 2 arc g a + c = 2 arc g 2 + c
dx 1 x +1
Respuesta: 2 = arc g +c
x + 2x + 5 2 2
dx
5.2.-Encontrar: 2
4x + 4x + 2
dx dx 1 dx
Solucin.- 2 = = 2
4x + 4x + 2 4( x + x + 1 ) 4 x + x + 1
2
2 2
Completando cuadrados:
1 1 1 1 1 1
x 2 + x + 1 = ( x 2 + x + __) + __ = ( x 2 + x + ) + = ( x 2 + x + ) +
2 2 4 2 4 4 4
1 1 1
( x 2 + x + ) = ( x + )2 + ( )2 , luego se tiene:
2 2 2
1 dx 1 dx

4 x +x+ 1
2
=
4 ( x + 1 )2 + ( 1 )2
, Sea: w = x + 1 , dw = dx; a = 1
2 2
2 2 2
1 dx 1 dw 11 w 1 1 x+ 1
= = = arc g + c = arc g 2 +c
4 (x + ) + ( )
1 2 1 2
4 w +a 2 2
4a a 4 1 1
2 2 2 2
2x + 1
1 2 1
= arc g + c = arc g (2 x + 1) + c
2 1 2
2

111
dx 1
Respuesta: = arc g (2 x + 1) + c
4x + 4x + 2 2
2

2 xdx
5.3.-Encontrar: 2
x x +1
Solucin.- u = x x + 1, du = (2 x 1)dx
2

2 xdx (2 x 1 + 1)dx (2 x 1)dx dx du dx


x2 x + 1 = x2 x + 1 = x2 x + 1 + x2 x + 1 = u + x2 x + 1
Completando cuadrados:
1 1
x 2 x + 1 = ( x 2 x + __) + 1__ = ( x 2 x + ) + 1
4 4
3
x 2 x + 1 = ( x 2 1 ) 2 + , Luego se tiene:
2 4
du dx du du du dx
u + x2 x + 1 = u + 1 2 3 = u + 1 2 3 2
(x ) + (x ) + ( )
2 4 2 2
1 3
w = x , dw = dx; a = , luego:
2 2
du dx du dw 1 w
u + 1 2 3 2 = u + w2 + a 2 = u + a arc g a + c
(x ) + ( )
2 2
1 2x 1
x
1 2 3 2
= x2 x + 1 + arc g 2 + c = x2 x + 1 + arc g +c
3 3 3 3
2 2
2
2 xdx 2 3 2x 1
Respuesta: 2 = x2 x + 1 + arc g +c
x x +1 3 3
x 2 dx
5.4.-Encontrar: 2
x + 2x + 5
Solucin.-
x 2 dx 2x + 5 2x + 5
x2 + 2 x + 5 = 1 x2 + 2 x + 5 dx = dx x 2 + 2 x + 5 dx ,
Sea: u = x 2 + 2 x + 5, du = (2 x + 2)dx
Ya se habr dado cuenta el lector que tiene que construir en el numerador, la
expresin: (2 x + 2)dx . Luego se tiene:
(2 x + 2 + 3) (2 x + 2)dx dx
= dx 2 dx = dx 2 + 3 2 ,
x + 2x + 5 x + 2x + 5 x + 2x + 5
Completando cuadrados, se tiene:
x 2 + 2 x + 5 = ( x 2 + 2 x + __) + 5 __ = ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 5 1 = ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 4 = ( x + 1) 2 + 22
Luego se admite como forma equivalente a la anterior:
du dx
dx u 3 ( x + 1)2 + 22 , Sea: w = x + 1, dw = dx; a = 2 , luego:

112
du dw 1 w
= dx 3 2 = x u 3 arc g + c
u w +a 2
a a
3 x + 1
= x x 2 + 2 x + 5 arc g +c
2 2
x 2 dx 3 x +1
Respuesta: 2 = x x 2 + 2 x + 5 arc g +c
x + 2x + 5 2 2
2x 3
5.5.-Encontrar: 2 dx
x + 2x + 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 2 x + 2, du = (2 x + 2)dx
2x 3 2x + 2 5 2x + 2 dx
x2 + 2 x + 2dx = x 2 + 2 x + 2dx = x 2 + 2 x + 2dx 5 x 2 + 2 x + 2
du dx
= dx 5 2 , Completando cuadrados:
u x + 2x + 2
x 2 + 2 x + 2 = ( x + 1) 2 + 12 . Luego:
du dx
= dx 5 , Sea: w = x + 1, du = dx; a = 1 . Entonces se tiene:
u ( x + 1) 2 + 12
du dx 1 w
= dx 5 2 = u 5 arc g + c = x 2 + 2 x + 5 5arc g ( x + 1) + c
u w +a 2
a a
2x 3
Respuesta: 2 dx = x 2 + 2 x + 5 5arc g ( x + 1) + c
x + 2x + 2
dx
5.6.-Encontrar:
x 2x 8
2

Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene: x 2 2 x 8 = ( x 1) 2 32


dx dx
x 2 2 x 8 = ( x 1)2 32 , Sea: w = x 1, dw = dx; a = 3
dw
= = w + w2 a 2 + c = x 1 + x 2 2 x 8 + c
w a
2 2

dx
Respuesta: = x 1 + x2 2 x 8 + c
x 2x 8
2

xdx
5.7.-Encontrar:
x2 2 x + 5
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 2 x + 5, du = (2 x 2)dx . Luego:
xdx 1 2 xdx 1 2x 2 + 2
x 2 2 x + 5 = 2 x 2 2 x + 5 = 2 x 2 2 x + 5 dx
1 (2 x 2)dx 2 dx 1 du dx
= + = +
2 x2 2 x + 5 2 x2 2 x + 5 2 u x2 2x + 5
Completando cuadrados se tiene: x + 2 x + 5 = ( x 1) 2 + 22 . Por lo tanto:
2

113
1 1 2 dx
=
2 u du +
( x 1) 2 + 22
. Sea: w = x 1, du = dx; a = 2
1
1 1 dw 1 u2
= u 2 du + = + w + w2 + a 2 + c = u 2 + w + w 2 + a 2 + c
1

2 w +a
2 2 2 1
2
= x2 + 2x + 5 + x 1 + x2 2x + 5 + c
xdx
Respuesta: = x2 2x + 5 + x 1 + x2 2x + 5 + c
x 2x + 5
2

( x + 1)dx
5.8.-Encontrar:
2 x x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 2 x x 2 , du = (2 2 x)dx .Luego:
( x + 1)dx 1 2( x + 1)dx 1 (2 x 2)dx 1 (2 x + 2 4)dx
2 x x2 = 2 2 x x2 = 2 2 x x2 = 2 2 x x2
1 (2 2 x)dx 4 dx 1 du dx
= + = + 2
2 2 x x2 2 2x x2 2 u 2x x2
Completando cuadrados: 2 x x = ( x 2 x) = ( x 2 2 x + 1 1) = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 1
2 2

= ( x 1) 2 + 1 = 1 ( x 1) 2 . Luego la expresin anterior es equivalente a:


1 1 dx
= u 2 du + 2 . Sea: w = x 1, dw = dx; a = 1 . Entonces:
2 1 ( x 1) 2
1
1 u2 dw w
= 1 du + 2 a 2 w2 = u 2 + 2 arcs e n a + c = 2 x x + 2 arcs e n( x 1) + c
1 2

2
2
( x + 1)dx
Respuesta: = 2 x x 2 + 2 arcs e n( x 1) + c
2x x 2

xdx
5.9.-Encontrar:
5x2 2 x + 1
Solucin.- Sea: u = 5 x 2 2 x + 1, du = (10 x 2)dx . Luego:
xdx 1 10 xdx 1 (10 x 2 + 2)dx
5 x2 2 x + 1 = 10 5 x 2 2 x + 1 = 10 5 x2 2 x + 1
1 (10 x 2)dx 2 dx 1 du 1 dx
= + = +
10 5 x 2 x + 1 10
2
5 x 2 x + 1 10
2
u 5 5x 2 x + 1
2

1 du 1 dx 1 1 dx
= + = u 2 du +
1

10 u 5 5( x 2 2 x + 1 ) 10 5 5 ( x2 2 x + 1 )
5 5 5 5
2 1 2 1
Completando cuadrados: x 2 x + = ( x 2 x + __) + __
5 5 5 5
2 1 1 1
= ( x2 x + ) + = ( x 1 ) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 , Luego es equivalente:
5 25 5 25 5 5

114
1 1 dx

1
= u 2 du + , Sea: w = x 1 , dw = dx; a = 2 ,
10 5 5
5 5 (x ) + ( )
1 2 2 2
5 5
1
1 1 dw 1 u2 1
Entonces: = u du + w + w2 + a 2 + c
1
2
= +
10 5 5 w +a
2 2 10 1 5 5
2
5x2 2 x + 1 1 1 5x2 2 x + 1
= + x + +c
5 5 5 5 5

xdx 5x2 2 x + 1 5 1 5x2 2x + 1


Respuesta: = + x + +c
5x2 2 x + 1 5 25 5 5
xdx
5.10.-Encontrar:
5 + 4 x x2
Solucin.- u = 5 + 4 x x 2 , du = (4 2 x)dx . Luego:
xdx 1 2 xdx 1 (2 x + 4 4)dx
5 + 4 x x2 = 2 5 + 4 x x2 = 2 5 + 4 x x2
1 (4 2 x)dx 4 dx 1 du dx
= + = + 2
2 5 + 4x x 2 2 5 + 4x x 2 2 u 5 + 4 x x2
Completando cuadrados: 5 + 4 x x 2 = ( x 2 4 x 5) = ( x 2 4 x + 4 4 5)
= ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 9 = 9 ( x 2) 2 = 32 ( x 2) 2 . Equivalente a:
1 1 dx
= u 2 du + 2 . Sea: w = x 2, dw = dx; a = 3 . Entonces:
2 3 ( x 2) 2
2

1
1 1 dw 1 u2 w
= u 2 du + 2 = + 2 arcs e n + c
2 a 2 w2 2 1 a
2
x2
= 5 + 4 x x 2 + 2 arcs e n +c
3
xdx x2
Respuesta: = 5 + 4 x x 2 + 2 arcs e n +c
5 + 4x x 2 3
dx
5.11.-Encontrar:
2 + 3x 2 x 2
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
3 9 25
2 + 3x 2 x 2 = (2 x 2 3 x 2) = 2( x 2 3 x 1) = 2( x 2 x + )
2 2 16 16
3 9 25
= 2 ( x 2 x + ) = 2 ( x 3 ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 = 2 ( 5 ) 2 ( x 3 ) 2 , luego:
2 16 16 4 4 4 4
dx dx 1 dx
2 + 3x 2 x 2 = 5 2 =
2 ( ) ( x 3 )2 2 ( 5 ) ( x 3 )2
2
4 4 4 4
Sea: w = x 3 , dw = dx, a = 5 . Luego:
4 4

115
1 dx 1 dw 1 w 1 x 3
= = a w
= arcs e n
a
+ c = arcs e n
5
4 +c
(5 ) (x 3 )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
4 4 4
2 4x 3
= arcs e n +c
2 5
dx 2 4x 3
Respuesta: = arcs e n +c
2 + 3x 2 x 2 2 5
dx
5.12.-Encontrar: 2
3 x + 12 x + 42
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 dx 1 dx
3x 2 + 12 x + 42 = 3( x 2 + 4 x + 14) = 3 ( x2 + 4 x + 14) = 3 ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 + 10) =
1 dx 1 dx 1 1 x+2
= = = arc g +c
3 ( x + 2) + 10 3 ( x + 2) + ( 10)
2 2 2
3 10 10
dx 10 x+2
Respuesta: = arc g +c
3x + 12 x + 42 30
2
10
3x 2
5.13.-Encontrar: 2 dx
x 4x + 5
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 4 x + 5, du = (2 x 4)dx , Luego:
3x 2 xdx dx ( x 2) + 2 dx
x2 4 x + 5dx = 3 x 2 4 x + 5 2 x2 4 x + 5 = 3 x2 4 x + 5 2 x 2 4 x + 5
( x 2) dx dx 3 du dx
= 3 2 + 6 2 2 2 = + 4 2
x 4x + 5 x 4x + 5 x 4x + 5 2 u x 4x + 5
3 du dx 3 dx
= + 4 2 = x 2 4 x + 5 + 4
2 u ( x 4 x + 4) + 1 2 ( x 2) 2 + 1
3
= x 2 4 x + 5 + 4 arc g ( x 2) + c
2
3x 2 3
Respuesta: 2 dx = x 2 4 x + 5 + 4 arc g ( x 2) + c
x 4x + 5 2

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS

Usando Esencialmente la tcnica tratada, encontrar las integrales siguientes:

5.14.- x 2 + 2 x 3dx 5.15.- 12 + 4x x 2 dx 5.16.- x 2 + 4 xdx

5.17.- x 2 8 xdx 5.18.- 6x x 2 dx (5 4 x)dx


5.19.-
12 x 4 x 2 8

116
xdx ( x 1)dx (2 x 3)dx
5.20.- 5.21.- 5.22.-
27 + 6 x x 2 3x 2 4 x + 3 x 2 + 6 x + 15
dx (2 x + 2)dx (2 x + 4)dx
5.23.- 2 5.24.- 2 5.25.-
4 x + 4 x + 10 x 4x + 9 4 x x2
( x + 6)dx
2 ( x + 2 )dx
3 dx
5.27.- 5.28.- 2
5.26.- 2 5 4x x2 2 x + 20 x + 60
3 9 x 12 x + 8
3dx dx 5dx
5.29.- 5.30.- 5.31.-
80 + 32 x 4 x 2 12 x 4 x 2 8 28 12 x x 2
5.32.- 12 8 x 4 x 2 dx 5.33.- x 2 x + 5 dx 5.34.- 2
dx
4 x 2x + 5
(1 x)dx xdx (2 x + 3)dx
5.35.- 5.36.- 5.37.- 2
8 + 2x x 2 x + 4x + 5
2
4x + 4x + 5
( x + 2)dx (2 x + 1)dx dx
5.38.- 2 5.39.- 2 5.40.-
x + 2x + 2 x + 8x 2 x2 6 x
( x 1)dx
5.41.- 2
x + 2x + 2

RESPUESTAS
5.14.- x 2 2 x 3dx
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 2 x 3 = ( x 2 2 x + 1) 3 1 = ( x 1) 2 4 = ( x 1) 2 22
Haciendo: u = x 1, du = dx; a = 2 , se tiene:

x 2 2 x 3dx = ( x 1) 2 22 dx = u 2 a 2 du
1 1
= u u2 a2 a2 u + u2 a2 + c
2 2
1 1
= ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 22 22 ( x 1) + ( x 1)2 22 + c
2 2
1
= ( x 1) x 2 2 x 3 2 ( x 1) + x 2 2 x 3 + c
2
5.15.- 12 + 4x x 2 dx
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
12 + 4 x x 2 = ( x 2 4 x 12) = ( x 2 4 x + 4 12 4) = ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 16
= 42 ( x 2) 2
Haciendo: u = x 2, du = dx; a = 4 , se tiene:
1 1 u
12 + 4 x x 2 dx = 42 ( x 2) 2 dx = a 2 u 2 du = u a 2 u 2 + a 2 arcs e n + c
2 2 a

117
1 1 ( x 2)
= ( x 2) 42 ( x 2)2 + 42 arcs e n +c
2 2 4
1 ( x 2)
= ( x 2) 12 + 4 x x 2 + 8arcs e n +c
2 4
5.16.- x 2 + 4 xdx
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 + 4 x = ( x 2 + 4 x + 4) 4 = ( x + 2) 2 22
Haciendo: u = x + 2, du = dx; a = 2 , se tiene:

x 2 + 4 xdx = ( x + 2) 2 22 dx = u 2 a 2 du
1 1
= u u2 a2 a2 u + u2 a2 + c
2 2
1 1
= ( x + 2) ( x + 2) 2 22 22 ( x + 2) + ( x + 2) 2 22 + c
2 2
( x + 2) 2
= x + 4 x 2 ( x + 2) + x 2 + 4 x + c
2
5.17.- x 2 8 xdx
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 8 x = ( x 2 8 x + 16) 16 = ( x 4) 2 42
Haciendo: u = x 4, du = dx; a = 4 , se tiene:
1 1 2
( x 4) 4 dx = u a du = 2 u u a 2 a u + u a + c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1
= ( x 4) ( x 4) 2 42 42 ( x 4) + ( x 4) 2 42 + c
2 2
( x 4) 2
= x 8 x 8 ( x 4) + x 2 8 x + c
2
5.18.- 6x x 2 dx
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
6 x x 2 = ( x 2 6 x) = ( x 2 6 x + 9 9) = ( x 2 6 x + 9) + 9 = 32 ( x 3) 2
Haciendo: u = x 3, du = dx; a = 3 , se tiene:
1 1 2 u
6 x x dx = 3 ( x 3) dx = a u du = 2 u a u + 2 a arcs e n a + c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 x 3
= ( x 3) 32 ( x 3) 2 + 32 arcs e n +c
2 2 3
( x 3) 9 x 3
= 6 x x 2 + arcs e n +c
2 2 3
(5 4 x)dx
5.19.-
12 x 4 x 2 8
Solucin.- Sea: u = 12 x 4 x 2 8, du = (12 8 x)dx

118
(5 4 x)dx (4 x + 5)dx 1 2(4 x + 5)dx 1 (8 x + 10)dx
12 x 4 x 2 8
=
= =
12 x 4 x 2 8 2 12 x 4 x 2 8 2 12 x 4 x 2 8
1 (8 x + 12 2)dx 1 (8 x + 12)dx dx
= =
2 12 x 4 x 8 2 12 x 4 x 8
2 2
12 x 4 x 2 8
1 (8 x + 12)dx dx 1 (8 x + 12)dx 1 dx
= =
2 12 x 4 x 8 2
4(3x x 2) 2 12 x 4 x 8 2
2 2
3x x 2 2
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
9 9 9 9
3 x x 2 2 = ( x 2 3x + 2) = ( x 2 3 x + + 2) = ( x 2 3 x + ) + 2
4 4 4 4
1 1 3
= ( x 3 ) 2 + = ( ) 2 ( x ) 2
2 4 2 2
1 (8 x + 12)dx 1 dx
=
2 12 x 4 x 2 8 2 ( 1 )2 ( x 3 )2
2 2
Haciendo: u = 12 x 4 x 8, du = (12 8 x)dx y w = x 3 , dw = dx , entonces:
2
2
1
1 du 1 dw 1 u 2
1 w
= = arcs e n +c
2 u 2 ( 1 ) 2 w2 2 1 2 1
2 2 2
1 1
= u 2 arcs e n 2 w + c = 12 x 4 x 2 8 arcs e n(2 x 3) + c
1

2 2
xdx
5.20.-
27 + 6 x x 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 27 + 6 x x 2 , du = (6 2 x)dx
xdx 1 2 xdx 1 (2 x + 6 6)dx
27 + 6 x x2 = 2 27 + 6 x x 2 = 2 27 + 6 x x2
1 (2 x + 6)dx dx 1 du dx
= + 3 = + 3
2 27 + 6 x x 2
27 + 6 x x 2 2 u 27 + 6 x x 2
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
27 + 6 x x 2 = ( x 2 6 x 27) = ( x 2 6 x + 9 9 27) = ( x 2 6 x + 9) + 36
= 62 ( x 3) 2 , Luego:
x 3
1
1 1 2 dx 1 u2
=
2 u du + 3
62 ( x 3) 2
=
2 1
+ 3arcs e n
6
+c
2
x 3 x3
= u 2 + 3arcs e n + c = 27 + 6 x x 2 + 3arcs e n +c
1

6 6
( x 1)dx
5.21.- 2
3x 4 x + 3
Solucin.- Sea: u = 3x 2 4 x + 3, du = (6 x 4)dx
( x 1)dx 1 (6 x 6)dx 1 (6 x 4 2)dx 1 (6 x 4)dx 1 dx
3x 2 4 x + 3 = 6 3x 2 4 x + 3 = 6 3x 2 4 x + 3 = 6 3x 2 4 x + 3 3 3x 2 4 x + 3

119
1 du 1 dx 1 du 1 dx
= 2 =
6 u 3 3x 4 x + 3 6 u 3 3( x 2 4 x + 1)
3
1 du 1 dx
= 2
6 u 9 (x 4 x + 1)
3
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
4 4 4 4 4 4 5
x 2 x + 1 = ( x 2 x + ) + 1 = ( x 2 x + ) + = ( x 2 )2 + ( 5 )2
3 3 9 9 3 9 9 3 3

1 du 1 dx 1 1 1 x2
= = u arc g 3 +c
6 u 9 ( x 2 )2 + ( 5 )2 6 9 5 5
3 3 3 3
1 5 3x 2
= 3x 2 4 x + 3 arc g +c
6 15 5
(2 x 3)dx
5.22.- 2
x + 6 x + 15
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 6 x + 15, du = (2 x + 6)dx
(2 x 3)dx (2 x + 6 9)dx (2 x + 6)dx dx
x2 + 6 x + 15 = x 2 + 6 x + 15 = x2 + 6 x + 15 9 x 2 + 6 x + 15
du dx
= 9 2 , Completando cuadrados se tiene:
u x + 6 x + 15
x 2 + 6 x + 15 = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 15 9 = ( x + 3) 2 + 62 = ( x + 3) 2 + ( 6)2
du dx 1 x+3
= 9 = x 2 + 6 x + 15 9 arc g +c
u ( x + 3) + ( 6)
2 2
6 6
3 6 x+3
= x 2 + 6 x + 15 arc g +c
2 6
dx
5.23.-
4 x + 4 x + 10
2

Solucin.-
dx dx 1 dx
4 x 2 + 4 x + 10 = 4( x 2 + x + 5 ) = 4 ( x2 + x + 5 ) , Completando cuadrados:
2 2
5 1 5 1 1 9 1 3
x 2 + x + = ( x 2 + x + ) + = ( x + )2 + = ( x + )2 + ( )2
2 4 2 4 2 4 2 2
x+ 1
=
1 dx
=
1 1
arc g 2 + c = 1 arc g 2 x + 1 + c
1 3
4 ( x + )2 + ( )2 4 3 3 6 3
2 2
2 2
(2 x + 2)dx
5.24.- 2
x 4x + 9
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 4 x + 9, du = (2 x 4)dx

120
(2 x + 2)dx (2 x 4 + 6)dx (2 x 4)dx dx
x 2
4x + 9
= 2
x 4x + 9
= 2
x 4x + 9
+ 6 2
x 4x + 9
du dx
= + 6 2 , Completando cuadrados se tiene:
u x 4x + 9
x 2 4 x + 9 = ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 9 4 = ( x 2) 2 + 5 = ( x 2) 2 + ( 5) 2 ,
du dx 1 x2
= + 6 = u +6 arc g +c
u ( x 2) + ( 5)
2 2
5 5
6 5 x2
= x2 4 x + 9 + arc g +c
5 5
(2 x + 4)dx
5.25.-
4 x x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 4 x x 2 + 9, du = (4 2 x)dx
(2 x + 4)dx (2 x 4)dx (2 x + 4 8)dx (2 x + 4)dx dx
4 x x 2 = 4 x x 2 = 4 x x 2 = 4 x x 2 + 8 4 x x 2
dx
= u 2 du + 8
1
, Completando cuadrados se tiene:
4 x x2
4 x x 2 = ( x 2 4 x) = ( x 2 4 x + 4 4) = ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 4 = 22 ( x 2) 2
dx x2
= u 2 du + 8
1
= 2u 2 + 8arcs e n +c
1

2 ( x 2)
2 2 2
x2
= 2 4 x x 2 + 8arcs e n +c
2
2 ( x + 2 )dx
3
5.26.- 2
3 9 x 12 x + 8
Solucin.- Sea: u = 9 x 2 12 x + 8, du = (18 x 12)dx
2 ( x + 2 )dx
3
2 1 (18 x + 27)dx 1 (18 x + 27)dx 1 (18 x 12 + 39)dx
3 9 x 12 x + 8 3 18 9 x 2 12 x + 8 27 9 x 2 12 x + 8 27 9 x 2 12 x + 8
2
= = =
1 (18 x 12)dx 39 dx 1 du 39 dx
= + 2 = +
27 9 x 12 x + 8 27 9 x 12 x + 8 27 u 27 9( x 2 4 x + 8 )
2

3 9
1 du 39 dx
27 u 27 9 ( x 2 4 x + 8 )
= +

3 9
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
4 8 4 4 8 4
x 2 + = ( x 2 x + ) + = ( x 2 )2 + 4 = ( x 2 )2 + ( 2 )2
3 9 3 9 9 9 3 9 3 3

1 du 39 dx 1 39 1 x2
27 u 27 9 ( x 2 ) 2 + ( 2 ) 2 27
= + = u + arc g 3 +c
27 9 2 2
3 3 3 3

121
1 13 3x 2
= 9 x 2 12 x + 8 arc g +c
27 54 2
( x + 6)dx
5.27.-
5 4 x x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 5 4 x x 2 , du = (4 2 x)dx
( x + 6)dx 1 (2 x 12)dx 1 (2 x 4 8)dx
5 4 x x2 = 2 5 4 x x2 = 2 5 4 x x2
1 (2 x 4)dx dx 1 du dx
= + 4 = + 4
2 5 4x x 2
5 4x x 2 2 u 5 4 x x2
Completando cuadrados se tiene: 5 4 x x 2 = 9 ( x + 2) 2 = 32 ( x + 2) 2
1 du dx x+2
= + 4 = u + 4 arcs e n +c
2 u 3 ( x + 2)
2 2 3
x+2
= 5 4 x x 2 + 4 arcs e n +c
3
dx
5.28.-
2 x + 20 x + 60
2

Solucin.-
dx 1 dx
2 x 2 + 20 x + 60 = 2 x 2 + 10 x + 30 , Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 + 10 x + 30 = ( x 2 + 10 x + 25) + 5 = ( x + 5) 2 + ( 5) 2
1 dx 1 1 x+5 5 x+5
=
2 ( x + 5) + ( 5)
2 2
=
2 5
arc g
5
+c =
10
arc g
5
+c

3dx
5.29.-
80 + 32 x 4 x 2
Solucin.-
3dx 3dx 3 dx
80 + 32 x 4 x 2 = 4(20 + 8 x x 2 ) = 2 (20 + 8x x2 )
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
20 + 8 x x 2 = ( x 2 8 x 20) = ( x 2 8 x + 16 20 16) = ( x 2 8 x + 16) + 36
= ( x 4) 2 + 62 = 62 ( x 4) 2
3 dx 3 x4
= = arcs e n +c
2 6 ( x 4)
2 2 2 6
dx
5.30.-
12 x 4 x 2 8
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 dx
12 x 4 x 2 8 = 4( x 2 + 3x 2) = 2 ( x 2 + 3x 2)
Completando cuadrados se tiene:

122
9 9 9 1
x 2 + 3x 2 = ( x 2 3 x + 2) = ( x 2 3x + + 2 ) = ( x 2 3x + ) +
4 4 4 4
= ( ) (x )
1 2 3 2
2 2
1 dx 1 x 3
= = arcs e n 2 + c = 1 arcs e n(2 x 3) + c
2 ( 1 ) (x 3 )
2 2 2 1 2
2 2 2
5dx
5.31.-
28 12 x x 2
Solucin.-
5dx dx
28 12 x x2 = 5 28 12 x x 2 , Completando cuadrados se tiene:
28 12 x x 2 = 82 ( x + 6) 2
dx x+6
= 5 = 5arcs e n +c
8 ( x + 6)
2 2 8

5.32.- 12 8 x 4 x 2 dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = x + 1, du = dx; a = 2

12 8 x 4 x 2 dx = 4(3 2 x x 2 )dx = 2 3 2 x x 2 dx
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
3 2 x x 2 = ( x 2 + 2 x 3) = ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 4 = 22 ( x + 1) 2
1 a2 u
2 22 ( x + 1) 2 dx = 2 a 2 u 2 du = 2( u a 2 u 2 + arcs e n ) + c
2 2 a
x + 1
= ( x + 1) x 2 2 x + 3 + 4 arcs e n +c
2
5.33.- x 2 x + 5 dx
4
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 1 , du = dx; a = 1
2
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x2 x + 5 = ( x 1 )2 + 1
4 2
x 2 x + 5 dx = ( x 1 ) 2 + 1dx = u 2 + a 2 du
4 2
1 1
= u u2 + a2 + a2 u + u2 + a2 + c
2 2
1 1
= ( x 1 ) x2 x + 5 + x 1 + x2 x + 5 + c
2 2 4 2 2 4
1 1
= (2 x 1) x 2 x + 5 + x 1 + x 2 x + 5 + c
4 4 2 2 4
dx
5.34.- 2
x 2x + 5

123
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 2 x + 5 = ( x 2 2 x + 4) + 1 = ( x 2) 2 + 1
dx dx
x 2 2 x + 5 = ( x 2)2 + 1 = arc g ( x 2) + c
(1 x)dx
5.35.-
8 + 2 x x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 8 + 2 x x 2 , du = (2 2 x)dx = 2(1 x)dx
(1 x)dx 1 du 1 1
8 + 2 x x 2 = 2 u = 2 u 2 du = u + c = 8 + 2 x x + c
2

xdx
5.36.- 2
x + 4x + 5
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 4 x + 5, du = (2 x + 4)dx
xdx 1 2 xdx 1 (2 x + 4) 4
x2 + 4 x + 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 2 x 2 + 4 x + 5 dx
1 (2 x + 4)dx dx 1 du dx
= 2 2 2 = 2 2 , Completando cuadrados se
2 x + 4x + 5 x + 4x + 5 2 u x + 4x + 5
tiene: x 2 + 4 x + 5 = ( x 2 + 4 x + 4) + 1 = ( x + 2) 2 + 1
1 du dx 1
= 2 = u 2 arc g ( x + 2) + c
2 u ( x + 2) + 1 2
2

1
= x 2 + 4 x + 5 2 arc g ( x + 2) + c
2
(2 x + 3)dx
5.37.- 2
4x + 4x + 5
Solucin.- Sea: u = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 5, du = (8 x + 4)dx
(2 x + 3)dx 1 (8 x + 12)dx 1 (8 x + 4) + 8
4 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 4 4 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 4 4 x 2 + 4 x + 5 dx
1 (8 x + 4)dx dx 1 du dx 1 du dx

4 4x + 4x + 5
2
+ 2 2 =
4x + 4x + 5 4 u
+ 2 2 =
4x + 4x + 5 4 u
+ 2
4( x 2 + x + 5 )
4
1 du 1 dx
= + 2 , Completando cuadrados se tiene:
4 u 2 (x + x + 5 )
4
5 1
x2 + x + = ( x 2 + x + ) + 1 = ( x + 1 )2 + 1
4 4 2
1 du 1 dx 1 1
= + = u + arc g ( x + 1 ) + c
4 u 2 (x + 1 ) +1 4 2
2 2
2
( x + 2)dx
5.38.- 2
x + 2x + 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 2 x + 2, du = (2 x + 2)dx

124
( x + 2)dx 1 (2 x + 4)dx 1 (2 x + 2) + 2 1 (2 x + 2)dx dx
x 2
= 2 = 2
+ 2x + 2 2 x + 2x + 2 2 x + 2x + 2
dx = 2
2 x + 2x + 2
+ 2
x + 2x + 2
1 du dx 1 du dx
=
2 u x 2 + 2 x + 2 2 u ( x + 1) 2 + 1
+ = +

1 1
= u + arc g ( x + 1) + c = x 2 + 2 x + 2 + arc g ( x + 1) + c
2 2
(2 x + 1)dx
5.39.- 2
x + 8x 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 8 x 2, du = (2 x + 8)dx
(2 x + 1)dx (2 x + 8) 7 dx (2 x + 8)dx dx
x2 + 8x 2 = x2 + 8x 2 = x2 + 8x 2 7 x2 + 8x 2
du dx du dx
= 7 2 = 7
u ( x + 8 x + 16) 18 u ( x + 4) (3 2) 2
2

1 ( x + 4) (3 2)
= u 7 +c
2(3 2) ( x + 4) + (3 2)
7 2 ( x + 4) (3 2)
= x2 + 8x 2 +c
12 ( x + 4) + (3 2)
dx
5.40.-
x2 6 x
Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 6 x = ( x 2 + 6 x) = ( x 2 + 6 x + 9) + 9 = 32 ( x + 3) 2
dx x+3
32 ( x + 3)2 = arcs e n 3 + c
( x 1)dx
5.41.-
x2 + 2x + 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 2 x + 2, du = (2 x + 2)dx
( x 1)dx 1 (2 x + 2) 4 1 (2 x + 2)dx dx
x2 + 2 x + 2 = 2 x 2 + 2 x + 2 dx = 2 x 2 + 2 x + 2 2 x 2 + 2 x + 2
1 du dx 1 du dx 1
= 2 2 = 2 = u 2 arc g ( x + 1) + c
2 u x + 2x + 2 2 u ( x + 1) + 1 2
2

1
= x 2 + 2 x + 2 2 arc g ( x + 1) + c
2

125
CAPITULO 6

INTEGRACION POR SUSTITUCION TRIGONOMETRICA

Existen integrales que contienen expresiones de las formas: a 2 x 2 , a 2 + x 2


x 2 a 2 , las que tienen fcil solucin si se hace la sustitucin trigonomtrica
adecuada. A saber, si la expresin es: a 2 x 2 , la sustitucin adecuada es:
x = a s e n x = a cos . Si la expresin es: a 2 + x 2 , entonces: x = a sec

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS
dx
1. Encontrar:
(4 x 2 )3
Solucin.- Dada le expresin: 4 x 2 , la forma es: a 2 x 2 , la sustitucin adecuada
x
es: x = a s e n o sea: x = 2s e n dx = 2 cos d . Adems: s e n = . Una figura
a
auxiliar adecuada para sta situacin, es:

2
x


22 x 2

dx dx 2 cos d 2 cos d
(4 x 2 )3
=
(22 x 2 )3
=
(22 22 s e n 2 )3
=
3
(22 (1 s e n 2 )
2 cos d 2 cos d 2 cos d 1 d 1
= = = 3 = 2 = sec 2 d
(2 cos )
2 2 3 (2 cos ) 3
2 cos 2 cos 4
3 2

1 1
= sec 2 d = g + c . A partir de la figura triangular se tiene:
4 4
x 1 1 x
g = , Luego: g + c = +c
4 x2 4 4 4 x2
dx 1 x
Respuesta: = +c
(4 x 2 )3 4 4 x 2
25 x 2
6.2.-Encontrar: dx
x
Solucin.-

126
25 x 2 52 x 2
x
dx =
x
dx , la forma es: a 2 x 2 , luego:

Sea: x = 5s e n dx = 5 cos d , 52 x 2 = 5cos


x
Adems: s e n =
5
52 x 2 5 cos 5cos d cos 2 d (1 s e n 2 )d
x dx = 5 s e n = 5 s e n = 5 s e n
d
= 5 5 s e n d = 5 cos ec 5 s e n d
s e n 5
x
= 5 cos ec co g + 5cos + c .
De la figura se tiene:
52 x 2
5 25 x 2
cos ec = , co g = , luego:
x x
5 25 x 2 25 x 2 5 25 x 2
=5 +5 +c =5 + 25 x 2 + c
x x 5 x

25 x 2 5 25 x 2
Respuesta: dx = 5 + 25 x 2 + c
x x
dx
6.3.-Encontrar:
(4 x x 2 )3
Solucin.- 4 x x 2 = ( x 2 4 x) = ( x 2 4 x + 4 4) = 4 ( x 2 4 x + 4) = 22 ( x 2) 2
dx dx
(4 x x2 )3 = ( 22 ( x 2)2 )3 , la forma es: a u ,
2 2

Luego: x 2 = 2s e n dx = 2 cos d , 22 ( x 2) 2 = 2 cos


x2
Adems: s e n =
2
dx 2 cos d 1 d 1 1
( 22 ( x 2)2 )3 = 23 cos3 = 4 cos2 = 4 sec d = 4 g + c
2

2
x-2

De la figura se tiene:
4 ( x 2) 2 = 4 x x 2
x2 1 x2
Pero: g = , luego: g + c = +c
4x x2 4 4 4x x2
dx x2
Respuesta: = +c
(4 x x )
2 3
4 4x x2

127
x 2 dx
6.4.-Encontrar:
(a 2 x 2 ) 2
3

Solucin.-
x 2 dx x 2 dx
(a 2 x 2 ) 2 ( a 2 x 2 )3 , la forma es: a x
= 2 2
3

x
Luego: x = a s e n , dx = a cos , a 2 x 2 = a cos , adems: s e n =
a
x 2 dx a 2 s e n 2 a cos d a 3 s e n 2 cos d s e n 2 d
( a 2 x 2 )3
=
(a cos )3
= a3 cos cos2 cos2
=

(1 cos 2 )d d
= = d = s ec 2 d d = g + c
cos
2
cos
2

a
x


De la figura se tiene: a2 x2

x x x
Pero: g = , adems: s e n =
y = arcs e n
a2 x2 a a
x x
Luego: g + c = arcs e n + c
a2 x2 a
2
x dx x x
Respuesta: = arcs e n + c
( a 2 x 2 )3 a2 x2 a
dx
6.5.-Encontrar:
x2 9 x2
Solucin.-
dx dx
x 2
9 x 2
=
x 2
3 x
2 2
, la forma es: a 2 x 2

x
Luego: x = 3s e n , dx = 3cos d , 32 x 2 = 3cos , adems: s e n =
3
dx 3cos d 1 d 1 1
x 2
32 x 2
= 2
2
= 2
= cos ec 2 d = co g + c
3 s e n 3cos 9 s e n 9 9

3
x


De la figura se tiene: 9 x2

128
9 x2 1 9 x2
Pero: co g = , luego: co g + c = +c
x 9 9x
dx 9 x2
Respuesta: = +c
x2 9 x2 9x
x 2 dx
6.6.-Encontrar:
9 x2
Solucin.-
x 2 dx x 2 dx
9 x 2 32 x 2 , la forma es: a x
= 2 2

x
Luego: x = 3s e n , dx = 3cos d , 32 x 2 = 3cos , adems: s e n =
3
Usaremos la misma figura anterior, luego:
x 2 dx 32 s e n 2 3cos d (1 cos 2 )d
32 x 2
=
3cos
= 9 s e n 2 d = 9
2
9 9 9 9 9 9
2 cos 2 d = s e n 2 + c = 2s e n cos + c
2 2 4 2 4
9 9 x 9 x2
= s e n cos + c , de la figura se tiene que: s e n = , cos = y
2 2 3 3
x
= arcs e n , luego es equivalente:
3
9 x 9 x 9 x2 9 x 9 x2
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n +c
2 3 43 3 2 3 9

x 2 dx 9 x 9 x2
Respuesta: = arcs e n +c
9 x 2 2 3 9

6.7.-Encontrar: x 2 4dx
Solucin.-
x 2 4dx = x 2 22 dx , la forma es: x 2 a 2
x
Luego: x = 2sec , dx = 2sec g d , x 2 22 = 2 g , adems: sec =
2
x 2 22 dx = 2 g 2sec g d = 4 sec g 2 d = 4 sec (sec 2 1)d
= 4 sec3 d 4 sec d
sec g 1
Se sabe que: sec3 d = + sec + g + c , luego lo anterior es
2 2
equivalente a:

129
1 1
= 4 sec g + sec + g 4 sec + g + c
2 2
= 2sec g + 2 sec + g 4 sec + g + c
= 2sec g 2 sec + g + c x
x 2 22

De la figura se tiene:
x x 4
2 2
sec = , g = , luego:
2 2
x x2 4 x x2 4 x x2 4 x + x2 4
= 2 2 + +c = 2 +c
2 2 2 2 2 2

x x2 4
= 2 x + x2 4 2 2 + c
2
x x2 4
Respuesta: x 4dx = 2
2 x + x2 4 + c
2
2
x dx
6.8.-Encontrar:
x 2 16
Solucin.-
x 2 dx x 2 dx
x 2 16 x 2 42 , la forma es: x a
= 2 2

x
Luego: x = 4sec t , dx = 4sec t gtdt , x 2 42 = 4 gt , adems: sec t =
4
x 2 dx 42 sec 2 t ( 4 sec t gt dt )
x 42 2
=
4 gt
= 16 sec3 tdt

1 1
= 16 sec t gt + sec t + gt + c = 8sec t gt + 8 sec t + gt + c
2 2

x
x 2 16
De la figura se tiene:

x x 16
2
4
sec t = , gt = , luego equivale a:
4 4
x x 2 16 x x 2 16 x 2 x x 2 16
=8 +8 + +c = x 16 + 8 +c
4 4 4 4 2 4
x 2 x 2
= x 16 + 8 x x 2 16 8 4 + c = x 16 + 8 x x 2 16 + c
2 2

130
x 2 dx x 2
Respuesta: = x 16 + 8 x x 2 16 + c
x 16
2 2
dx
6.9.-Encontrar:
x x2 1
Solucin.-
dx dx
x x2 1 = x x 2 12 , la forma es: x a
2 2

Luego: x = sec t , dx = sec t gtdt , x 2 12 = gt , adems:


dx sec t gt dt
x x2 1
=
sec t gt
= dt = t + c ,

x
x2 1

De la figura se tiene:
Dado que: sec t = x t = arc sec x , luego:
t + c = arc sec x + c
dx
Respuesta: = arc sec x + c
x x2 1
dx
6.10.-Encontrar:
( 4 x 24 x + 27)3
2

Solucin.-
dx dx dx
( 4 x2 24 x + 27)3 = =
( )
3
4( x 6 x +
2 27 ) 3
43 x 2 6 x + 27
4 4
1 dx
=
8 , Se tiene:
( x 2 6 x + 27 )3
4
27 27 27
x2 6 x + = ( x 2 6 x + __) + __ = ( x 2 6 x + 9) + 9
4 4 4
9
= ( x 2 6 x + 9) = ( x 2 6 x + 27 ) = ( x 3) 2 ( 3 ) 2 , la expresin anterior equivale a:
4 4 2
1 dx 1 dx
=
8 3
, siendo la forma: u 2 a 2 , luego:
( x 3) 2 ( 3 ) 2
8 ( x 6 x + 27 )
2 3
4 2
x3
x 3 = 3 sec t , dx = 3 sec t gtdt , adems: sec t =
2 2 3
2 x-3 2
x 6+
27
4


3 131
2
De la figura se tiene:

x x 2 16
sec t = , gt = , luego equivale a:
4 4
1
3 sec t gtdt
1 dx 1 1 1 sec tdt 1 cos t

8 2
3
= 2 2 3 =
8 (3 ) g t 8 32 g 2t 18 s e n 2 t
=
( x 3) ( )
2 3 2
2 22 cos 2 t
1 cos tdt 1 1 (s e n t ) 1 1 1
= = (s e n t ) 2
cos tdt = +c = +c
18 (s e n t ) 182
18 1 18 (s e n t )
1 x3
= cos ect + c , como: cos ect = , entonces:
18 x 2 6 x + 27
4
1 x3 1 x3 1 x3
= +c = +c = +c
18 x 2 6 x + 27 18 4 x 2 24 x + 27 18 4 x 2 24 x + 27
4
4 2
1 x3
= +c
9 4 x 24 x + 27
2

dx 1 x3
Respuesta: = +c
( 4 x 24 x + 27)
2 3 9 4 x 24 x + 27
2

dx
6.11.-Encontrar:
(16 + x 2 ) 4
Solucin.-
dx dx
(16 + x )2 4
=
(4 + x 2 ) 4
2

Luego: x = 4 gt , dx = 4sec 2 tdt , 42 + x 2 = 4sec t , adems: gt = x


4
dx 4sec tdt 12
dt 1 1 (1 + cos 2t )
(42 + x 2 )4 = 44 sec4 t = 64 sec2 t = 64 cos tdt = 64 2 dt
2

1 1 1 1
=
128 dt +
128 cos 2tdt = t+
128 256
s e n 2t + c

Como: gt = x t = arc g x , s e n 2t = 2s e n t cos t ; luego:


4 4
1 1 x 4 8x
t+ s e n 2t + c = 2 = , Se tiene:
128 256 16 + x 16 + x
2 2 16 + x 2
1 1 8x 1 x
arc g x + +c = arc g x + +c
128 4 256 16 + x 2
128 4 32(16 + x 2 )

132
dx 1 x x
Respuesta: = arc g + +c
(16 + x 2 ) 4 128 4 32(16 + x 2 )
x 2 dx
6.12.-Encontrar:
( x 2 + 100) 2
3

Solucin.-
x 2 dx x 2 dx
( x 2 + 100) 2 ( x 2 + 102 )3 ,
3 =

x
se tiene: x = 10 gt , dt = 10sec2 tdt , x 2 + 102 = 10sec t ;adems: gt = , luego:
10
s e n2 t
x 2 dx 102 g 2t (10 sec2 t )dt g 2tdt 2
cos 2 t dt = s e n t dt
( x 2 + 102 )3 (103 sec 3 t )
= = sec t 1
= cos t
cos t
(1 cos t )
2
dt
= dt =
cos t
cos tdt = sec tdt cos tdt = sec t + gt s e n t + c
cos t
100 + x 2 x x
Como: sec t = , gt = , adems: s e n t =
10 10 100 + x 2
100 + x 2 x x 100 + x 2 + x x
= + +c = +c
10 10 x 2 + 100 10 x 2 + 100
x x
= 100 + x 2 + x 10 + c = 100 + x 2 + x +c
x 2 + 100 x 2 + 100
x 2 dx x
Respuesta: 2 = 100 + x 2 + x +c
( x + 100)
3
2
x 2 + 100

Nota: En los ejercicios 6.11 y 6.12 se ha omitido la figura (tringulo rectngulo).


Conviene hacerla y ubicar los datos pertinentes. En adelante se entender que el
estudiante agregar este complemento tan importante.
x 2 dx
6.13.-Encontrar: 2 2 3
(x + 8 ) 2
Solucin.-
x 2 dx x 2 dx
( x 2 + 82 ) 3 2 ( x 2 + 82 ) 3 ,
=

x
se tiene: x = 8 gt , dt = 8sec 2 tdt , x 2 + 82 = 8sec t adems: gt = , luego:
8
x 2 dx 82 g 2t ( 8 sec 2 t ) g 2t
( x 2 + 82 ) 3
=
83 sec 3 t
dt =
sec t
dt = sec tdt cos tdt

133
x 2 + 64 x x
= sec t + gt s e n t + c , como: sec t = , gt = ,s e n t =
8 8 x 2 + 64
Se tiene como expresin equivalente:

x 2 + 64 x x x 2 + 64 + x x
= + +c = +c
8 8 x + 64
2 8 x + 64
2

x
= x 2 + 64 + x +c
x + 64
2

x 2 dx x
Respuesta: 2 2 3 = x 2 + 64 + x +c
(x + 8 ) 2 x 2 + 64
dx
6.14.-Encontrar:
( 3 + x 2 )4
2

Solucin.- se tiene: x = 3 gt , dx = 3sec2 tdt , 32 + x 2 = 3sec t , adems:


x
gt =
3
dx 3 sec2 t dt 1 dt 1 1 1
( 32 + x 2 ) 4
= = 3
3 + sec t 3 sec t 27
4 4 2
= cos 2 tdt = t + cos 2tdt
54 54
1 1 1 1 1 1
= t+ s e n 2t + c1 = t + 2s e n t cos t + c = t + s e n t cos t + c
54 108 54 108 54 54
x x x 3
Como: gt = t = arc g , adems: s e n t = , cos t =
3 3 9 + x2 9 + x2
1 x 1 x 3 1 x x
= arc g + + c = arc g + +c
54 3 54 9 + x 9 + x 2 2 54 3 18(9 + x 2 )
dx 1 x x
Respuesta: = arc g + +c
( 3 +x )
2 2 4 54 3 18(9 + x 2 )
dx
6.15.-Encontrar:
x 4 x + 13
2

Solucin.- Completando cuadrados se tiene:


x 2 4 x + 13 = ( x 2 4 x + __) + 13 __ = ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 13 4 = ( x 2) 2 + 32
Se tiene: x 2 = 3 gt , dx = 3sec 2 tdt , 32 + x 2 = 3sec t
( x 2) 2 + 32 = x 2 4 x + 13 = 3sec t ,
x2
Sea: x 2 = 3 gt , dx = 3sec 2 tdt ;adems: gt = , luego:
3
dx 3 sec 2 tdt
( x 2) 2 + 32
=
3sec t
= sec tdt = sec t + gt + c

134
x 2
4 x + 13
x2
De la figura se tiene:
x 2 4 x + 13 x2
sec t = , gt = , luego:
3 3 3
x 2 4 x + 13 x 2 x 2 4 x + 13 + ( x 2)
= + +c = +c
3 3 3

= x 2 4 x + 13 + ( x 2) + c
dx
Respuesta: = x 2 4 x + 13 + ( x 2) + c
x 4 x + 13
2

6.16.-Encontrar: 1 + 4x 2 dx
Solucin.-
1 + 4 x 2 dx = 12 + (2 x) 2 dx
1 2x
Se tiene: 2 x = gt , 2dx = sec 2 tdt dx = sec 2 tdt , Adems: gt =
2 1
2 1 1 1
1 + (2 x) dx = 1 + g t 2 sec dt = 2 sec t sec tdt = 2 sec tdt
2 2 2 2 2 3

1 1
= sec t gt + sec t gt + c ,
4 4

De la figura se tiene: 1+ 4x 2 2x

1 + 4x2
sec t = , gt = 2 x
1
1 1 1
= 1 + 4x2 2 x + 1 + 4x2 + 2x + c
4 4
1 1
Respuesta: 1 + 4 x 2 dx = 1 + 4x2 2x + 1 + 4 x2 + 2x + c
4 4

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS:

Utilizando esencialmente la tcnica de sustitucin por variables trigonomtricas,


encontrar las integrales siguientes:

6.17.- 4 x 2 6.18.-
dx
6.19.-
dx
a2 x2 x + a2
2

135
dx dx dx
6.20.- 6.21.- 6.22.-
x a2
2
x2 + a2 x2 a2
dx dx dx
6.23.- 6.24.- 6.25.-
x x2 9 x x2 2 x 1 + x2
x 2 dx x3 dx x2 9
6.26.- 6.27.- 6.28.- dx
1 x2 2 x2 x
dx x2 + 1 dx
6.29.- 6.30.- dx 6.31.-
x 4 x 2 16 x x2 4 x2
6.32.- a x 2 dx 6.33.- a 2 x 2 dx 6.34.-
x 2 dx
x2 + a2
dx dx x 2 dx
6.35.- 6.36.- 6.37.-
x +9 5 4 x2 (4 x 2 ) 2
2 2 3
x
6.38.- x 2 5 x 2 dx 6.39.-
dx 6.40.- x3 a 2 x 2 + b 2 dx
xx +3
4 2

6.41.-
dx
6.42.- 2
dx 6.43.- x3 a 2 x 2 b 2 dx
x 2
x +a
2 2 ( x + a 2 )2
dx 2x2 5 x3dx
6.44.- 6.45.- dx 6.46.-
x2 a2 x2 x 3x 2 5
x 2 100 dx dx
6.48.- 6.49.-
6.47.- x
dx
x2 x2 2 x 9 x2
x2 + a2 xdx dx
6.50.- dx 6.51.- 6.52.-
x a2 x2 1 4 x2
dx xdx dx
6.53.- 6.54.- 6.55.-
4 + x2 4 + x2 x a2 + x2
( x + 1)dx dx dx
6.56.- 6.57.- 6.58.- 2
(a x 2 ) 2
3
4 x2 2 5x2
dx x 2 dx x 2 dx
6.59.- 6.60.- 6.61.-
4 ( x 1) 2 2 x x2 17 x 2
x 2 dx dx (2 x + 1)dx
6.62.- 6.63.- 2 6.64.-
( x 2 x + 5) 2
3

21 + 4 x x 2 (4 x 2 2 x + 1)3
dx xdx ( x + 1)dx
6.65.- 6.66.- 6.67.-
( x 1) x 3 x + 2 2
x 2x + 5
2
2 x x2
( x 1)dx dx xdx
6.68.- 6.69.- 6.70.-
x2 4 x + 3 x2 2 x 8 x2 + 4 x + 5

136
RESPUESTAS
6.17.- 4 x 2
Solucin.- 2
x


4 x2
Se tiene: x = 2s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 4 + x 2 = 2 cos

4 x 2 = 2 cos 2 cos d = 4 cos 2 d = 2 + s e n 2 + c = 2 + 2s e n cos + c


x x 4 x2
= 2 arcs e n + +c
2 2
dx
6.18.-
a x2
2

Solucin.- se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a 2 x 2 = a cos


dx a cos d x
a x2 2
=
a cos
= d = + c = arcs e n + c
a
dx
6.19.-
x + a2
2

Solucin.- se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , x 2 + a 2 = a sec


dx dx a sec2 d 1 1 1 x
x2 + a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )2 a 2 sec2 = a d = a + c = a arc g a + c
= =

dx
6.20.- 2
x a2 x
Solucin.- x2 a2

a
Se tiene: x = a sec , dx = a sec g d , x 2 a 2 = a g
dx dx a sec g d 1 sec d 1
x 2
a 2
=
( x a )
2 2 2
=
a 2 g 2
=
a g
= cos ec d
a
1 1 x a
= cos ec co g = +c
a a x2 a2 x2 a2
1 xa 1 ( x a)2 1 xa
= +c = +c = +c
a x2 a2 a x a
2 2
2a x+a
dx
6.21.-
x2 + a2
Solucin.- x 2
+ a 2
x


a
137
Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , x 2 + a 2 = a sec
dx a sec 2 d
x2 + a2
=
a sec
= sec d = sec + g + c

x2 + a2 x x2 + a2 + x
= + +c = + c = x + x2 + a2 a + c
a a a

= x + x2 + a2 + c
dx
6.22.-
x a22
x
Solucin.- x2 a2

a
Se tiene: x = a sec , dx = a sec g d , x 2 + a 2 = a g
dx a sec g d
x2 a2
=
a g
= sec d = sec + g + c

x x2 a2 x + x2 a2
= + +c = + c = x + x2 a2 + c
a a a
dx
6.23.-
x x2 9
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 3sec , dx = 3sec g d , x 2 9 = 3 g
dx 3sec g d 1 1 arc sec x
x =
3
= d = + c = 3 +c
x2 9 3sec 3 g 3 3
dx
6.24.-
x x2 2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 2 sec , dx = 2 sec g d , x 2 2 = 2 g
dx 2 sec g d 2 2 2 2
x x 2
2
=
2 sec 2 g
=
2 d =
2
+c =
2
arc sec
2
x+c

dx
6.25.-
x 1 + x2
Solucin.- 1+ x 2
x


1
138
Se tiene: x = g , dx = sec 2 d , 1 + x 2 = sec
dx sec 2 d d
x 1 + x2
=
g sec
=
s e n
= cos ec d = cos ec co g + c

1 + x2 1 1 + x2 1
= +c = +c
x x x
x 2 dx
6.26.-
1 x2
Solucin.- 1 x


1 x2
Se tiene: x = s e n , dx = cos d , 1 x 2 = cos
x 2 dx s e n 2 cos d 1 1
1 x2 =
cos
= s e n 2 d = s e n 2 + c
2 4
1 1 arcs e n x x
= s e n cos + c = 1 x2 + c
2 2 2 2
x3dx
6.27.-
2 x2 2 x
Solucin.-

2 x2

Se tiene: x = 2 s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 2 x 2 = 2 cos

x3 dx 2 2 s e n 3 2 cos d cos3
2 x2
=
2 cos
= 2 2 s e n 3 d = 2 2( cos +
3
)+c

2 x 2 ( 2 x 2 )3 (2 x 2 ) 2 x 2
= 2 2( + ) + c = 2(2 x 2
) + +c
2 3( 2)3 3
x2 9
6.28.- dx
x
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 3sec , dx = 3sec g d , x 2 9 = 3 g
x2 9 3 g 3sec g d
x dx = 3sec
= 3 g 2 d = 3 (sec 2 1)d

x
= 3 sec 2 d 3 d = 3 g 3 + c = x 2 9 3arc sec + c
3

139
dx
6.29.-
x 4 x 2 16
Solucin.-
x x2
Se tiene: = sec , dx = 2sec g d , 1 = g
2 4
dx 1 dx 1 2sec g d 1 1
x 4 x 2 16 4 x 2
= = 2sec g
= d = + c
x ( ) 1 4 4 4
2
1 x
= arc sec + c
4 2
x2 + 1
6.30.- dx
x
Solucin.- x 2
+ 1 x


Se tiene: x = g , dx = sec d , x + 1 = sec
2 2
1
x +12
sec sec d 2
d 1
x
dx =
g
=
cos s e n
2
= g +
2 cos
+ c , o bien:

1 x2 + 1 1 1
= cos ec co g + +c = + +c
cos x x 1
x2 + 1
x2 + 1 1
= + x2 + 1 + c
x
dx
6.31.-
x2 4 x2
Solucin.- 2
x


4 x2
Se tiene: x = 2s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 4 x 2 = 2 cos
dx 2 cos d 1 1
x 2
4 x 2
= 2
= cos ec 2 d = co g + c
4s e n 2 cos 4 4
4 x2
= +c
4x
6.32.- a x 2 dx
Solucin.- a x


a x2

140
Se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a x 2 = a cos

a x 2 dx = a cos a cos d = a cos 2 d


a a a x x 2
+ s e n cos + c = arcs e n + a x2 + c
2 2 2 a 2
6.33.- a 2 x 2 dx
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a 2 x 2 = a cos

a 2 x 2 dx = a cos a cos d = a 2 cos 2 d


a2 a2 a2 x x 2
+ s e n cos + c = arcs e n + a x2 + c
2 2 2 a 2
x 2 dx
6.34.-
x2 + a2
Solucin.-
x 2
+ a 2
x


a
Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec d , x + a = a sec
2 2 2

x 2 dx a 2 g 2 a sec 2 d s e n2
x2 + a2
=
a sec
= a 2 g 2 sec d = a 2
cos3
d

2 (1 cos )
2
=a d = a 2 sec3 d a 2 sec d
cos
3

sec g 1
= a2 + sec + g a 2 sec + g + c
2 2
a2 a2
= sec g + sec + g a 2 sec + g + c
2 2
a2 a2
= sec g sec + g + c
2 2
a2 x2 + a2 x a2 x2 + a2 x x x2 + a2 a2
= + +c = x2 + a2 + x + c
2 a a 2 a a 2 2
dx
6.35.-
x x2 + 9
2

Solucin.-
x 2
+ 9 x

141
Se tiene: x = 3 g , dx = 3sec 2 d , x 2 + 9 = 3sec
dx 3 sec 2 d 1 sec d 1 cos 1
x 2
x2 + 9
= 2
=
9 g 3sec 9 g 2
=
9 sen
2
d =
9s e n
+c

x2 + 9
= +c
9x
dx
6.36.-
5 4x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 5 s e n , dx = 5 cos d , ( 5 ) 2 x 2 = 5 cos
4 4 4 4
5 cos d
dx 1 dx 1 4 1 1
5 4x 2
=
2 5 x 2
=
2 5 cos
=
2 d = + c
2
4 4
1 x 1 2x
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n +c
2 5 2 5
4
2
x dx
6.37.-
(4 x 2 ) 2
3

Solucin.-
2
x


4 x2
Se tiene: x = 2s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 4 x = 2 cos
2

x 2 dx x 2 dx 4 s e n 2 2 cos d
(4 x 2 ) 32 (4 x 2 )3
= =
8 cos
3
= g 2 d = (sec2 1)d

x x
= g + c = arcs e n + c
4 x2 2
6.38.- x 2 5 x 2 dx
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 5 s e n , dx = 5 cos d , 5 x 2 = 5 cos
25
x 5 x 2 dx = 5s e n 2 5 cos 5 cos d = 25 s e n 2 cos 2 d =
4
s e n 2 2 d
2

25 25 25 25 25
=
8 (1 cos 4 )d = s e n 4 + c = (2s e n 2 cos 2 ) + c
8 32 8 32
25 25
= 2s e n cos 2 (cos 2 s e n 2 ) + c
8 32

142
25 25
= s e n cos3 s e n 3 cos ) + c
8 16
25 x x ( 5 x 2 )3 x 3 5 x 2
= arcs e n + +c
2 5 25 25
dx
6.39.-
x4 x2 + 3
Solucin.- x 2
+ 3 x

Se tiene: x = 3 g , dx = 3 sec 2 d , x 2 + 3 = 3 sec

dx 3 sec 2 d 1 sec d 1 cos3 d 1 (1 s e n 2 ) cos d


x 4
x2 + 3
=
9 g 4 3 sec
=
9 g 4
=
9 s e n4
=
9 s e n4
3
1 cos d 1 cos d 1 1 x2 + 3 x2 + 3
= = cos ec3 + cos ec + c = +c
9 sen 9 sen
4 2
27 9 9x 3x

6.40.- x3 a 2 x 2 + b 2 dx
Solucin.-
Se tiene: ax = b g , adx = b sec 2 d , a 2 x 2 + b 2 = b sec
b3 3 b b5
x a x + b dx = = 4
g 3 sec3 d
3 2 2 2 2
3
g b sec sec d
a a a
5 5
b b
= 4 g 2 sec2 g sec d = 4 (sec 2 1) sec 2 g sec d
a a
b 5
b 5
b5 sec5 b5 sec3
= 4 sec g sec d 4 sec g sec d = 4
4 2
+ 4 +c
a a a 5 a 3
b5 ( a 2 x 2 + b 2 )5 ( a 2 x 2 + b 2 )3 (a 2 x 2 + b 2 ) 2 (a 2 x 2 + b 2 ) 2 b 2
5 3

= 4 + + c = +c
a 5b5 3b3 5a 4 3a 4
dx
6.41.-
x2 x2 + a2
Solucin.-
x2 + a2 x

Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , x 2 + a 2 = a sec

143
dx a sec 2 d 1 sec d 1 cos d
x 2 x 2 + a 2 a 2 g 2 a sec = a 2 g 2 = a 2 s e n 2 d
=

1 cos ec 1
= 2 co g cos ec d = 2
+ c = 2 x2 + a2 + c
a a a x
dx
6.42.- 2
( x + a 2 )2
Solucin.-
x 2
+ a 2
x


a
Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , x 2 + a 2 = a sec

dx dx a sec 2 d 1 1 1 s e n 2
( x 2 + a 2 )2 ( x 2 + a 2 )4 a 4 sec 4 = a3 cos d = 2a3 + 2a3 2 + c
= = 2

1 1 2 s e n cos 1 x 1 x a
= 3
+ 3
+ c = 3
arc g + 3 +c
2a 2a 2 2a a 2a x + a 2
2
x2 + a2
1 x 1 ax
= 3 arc g + 3 +c
2a a 2a x 2 + a 2
6.43.- x3 a 2 x 2 b 2 dx
Solucin.-
Se tiene: ax = b sec , adx = b sec g d , a 2 x 2 b 2 = b g
b3 b b5
x a x b dx = =
a4
sec 4 g 2 d
3 2 2 2 3
sec b g sec g d
a3 a
b5 b5 b5
= =
a4

a4
sec2 sec 2 d
4 2 4 2
sec (sec 1) d sec sec d
a4
b5 b5
= 4 +
a4
(1 + g 2 ) sec 2 d
2 2 2
(1 g ) sec d
a
b5 b5
= 4 + +
a4
(1 + g 2 ) sec 2 d
2 4 2
(1 2 g g ) sec d
a
g 2 sec 2 d + g 4 sec 2 d = b 4 g + g + c
b5 5
3 5

= 4
a a
3 5
3 5

b5 1 a 2 x 2 b 2 1 a 2 x2 b2
= 4 + +c
a 3 b 5
b


dx
6.44.-
x2 a2 x2
Solucin.-

144
Se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a 2 x 2 = a cos
dx a cos d 1 1
x 2
a x 2 2
= 2
= 2 cos ec 2 d = 2 co g + c
a s e n a cos a
2
a
1 cos 1 a2 x2
= + c = +c
a2 s e n a 2 x

2x2 5
6.45.- dx
x
Solucin.-
Se tiene: 2 x = 5 sec , 2dx = 5 sec g d , 2 x 2 5 = 5 g
5
5 g sec g d
2x 52
2
x
dx =
5
= 5 g 2 d = 5 sec2 d 5 d
sec
2
= 5 g 5 + c = 2 x 2 5 5 arc sec 2 x + c
3
3
x dx
6.46.-
3x 2 5
Solucin.-
Se tiene: 3x = 5 sec , 3dx = 5 sec g d , 3 x 2 5 = 5 g

x3dx ( 5 sec )3 5 sec g d 5 5


3 3
3x 2 5 = 5 g
=
9 sec4 d
3
5 5 5 5
=
9 sec 2 sec 2 d =
9
sec 2 (1 + g 2 )d

= 5 5 g + g + c
5 5 3

= +
2 2 2
sec d sec g d
9 9 3
5 ( 3x 2 5)3
= 3x 5 +
2
+c
9 15
x 2 100
6.47.- x dx
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 10sec , dx = 10sec g d , x 2 100 = 10 g
x 2 100 10 g 10sec g d
x dx = 10sec
= 10 g 2 d = 10 sec 2 10 d

x
= 10( g ) + c = x 2 100 10 arcs e n + c
10

145
dx
6.48.-
x2 x2 2
Solucin.- x
x2 2

2

Se tiene: x = 2 sec , dx = 2 sec g d , x 2 2 = 2 g

dx 2 sec g d 1 1 1 x2 2
x 2
x2 2
=
2sec 2 2 g
=
2 cos d = s e n + c =
2 2 x
+c

x2 2
= +c
2x
dx
6.49.-
x 9 x2
Solucin.- 3
x


Se tiene: x = 3s e n , dx = 3cos d , 9 x 2 = 3cos 9 x2
dx 3cos d 1 1
x 9 x 2
= = cos ec d = cos ec co g + c
3s e n 3cos 3 3
1 3 9 x2
= +c
3 x

x2 + a2
6.50.- dx
x
Solucin.- x 2
+ a 2
x


a
Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , x 2 + a 2 = a sec
x2 + a2 a sec sec3 d sec2 sec
x
dx =
a g
a sec 2 d = a
g
= a
g
d

(1 + g 2 ) sec sec
= a d = a d + a sec g d
g g
x2 + a2 a
a cos ec co g + a sec + c = a + x2 + a2 + c
x

146
xdx
6.51.-
a2 x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a 2 x 2 = a cos
xdx a s e n a cos
a x
2 2
=
a cos
d = a s e n d = a cos + c = a 2 x 2 + c

dx
6.52.-
1 4 x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: 2 x = s e n , 2dx = cos d , 1 4 x 2 = cos
dx 1 cos 1 1 1

1 4 x 2 2 cos
d = d = + c = arcs e n 2 x + c
=
2 2 2
dx
6.53.-
4 + x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 2 g , dx = 2sec 2 d , 4 + x 2 = 2 sec
dx 2 sec 2 d
4+ x 2
=
2sec
= sec d = sec + g + c = 4 + x2 + x + c

xdx
6.54.-
4 + x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 2 g , dx = 2sec 2 d , 4 + x 2 = 2sec
xdx 2 g 2 sec 2 d
4 + x2
=
2sec
= 2 g sec d = 2sec + c = 4 + x 2 + c

dx
6.55.-
x a2 + x2
Solucin.- a 2
+ x 2
x


a
Se tiene: x = a g , dx = a sec 2 d , a 2 + x 2 = a sec
dx a sec 2 d 1 sec d 1
x a2 + x2
=
a g a sec a g
= = cosec d
a
1 1 a2 + x2 a 1 a2 + x2 a
= cos ec co g + c = +c = +c
a a x x a x
( x + 1)dx
6.56.-
4 x2
Solucin.-

147
Se tiene: x = 2s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 4 x 2 = 2 cos
( x + 1)dx xdx 2s e n 2 cos d
dx 2 cos d
4 x 2
=
4 x 4 x2
+
2 cos
2
= +
2 cos
x
2 s e n d + d = 2 cos + + c = 4 x 2 + arcs e n + c
2
dx
6.57.-
2 5x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: 5 x = 2 s e n , 5dx = 2 cos d , 2 5 x 2 = 2 cos
2
cos d
dx 5 5 5 5
2 5x2
=
2 cos
=
5 d =
5
+c =
5
arcs e n 5 x + c
2
dx
6.58.-
(a x 2 ) 2
3 2
a
Solucin.- x


a2 x2
Se tiene: x = a s e n , dx = a cos d , a x = a cos 2 2

dx dx a cos d 1 1
(a x )
2 2 32
=
( a 2 x 2 )3
= 3
a cos 3
= 2 sec 2 d = 2 g + c
a a
x
= +c
a2 a2 x2
dx
6.59.-
4 ( x 1) 2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 1 = 2s e n , dx = 2 cos d , 4 ( x 1) 2 = 2 cos
dx 2 cos d x 1
4 ( x 1) 2
=
2 cos
= d = + c = arcs e n
2
+c

x 2 dx
6.60.-
2 x x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 1 = s e n x = s e n + 1, dx = cos d , 1 ( x 1) 2 = cos
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
2 x x 2 = ( x 2 2 x) = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 1 = 1 ( x 1) 2 , luego:
x 2 dx x 2 dx (s e n + 1) 2 cos d
2x x2
=
1 ( x 1) 2
=
cos
= (s e n + 1) 2 d

148
1 1
= s e n 2 d + 2 s e n d + d =
d cos 2 d + 2 s e n d + d
2 2
3 1 3 1
= d cos 2 d + 2 s e n d = s e n 2 2 cos + c
2 2 2 4
3 1 3 1
= s e n cos 2 cos + c = arcs e n( x 1) ( x 1) 2 x x 2 2 2 x x 2 + c
2 2 2 2
2
x dx
6.61.-
17 x 2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x = 17 s e n , dx = 17 cos d , 17 x 2 = 17 cos
x 2 dx 17 s e n 2 17 cos d 17 17
17 x 2
=
17 cos
= 17 s e n 2 d =
2 d cos 2 d
2
17 17 17 17
= s e n 2 + c = s e n cos + c
2 4 2 2
17 x 17 x 17 x 2 17 x 1
= arcs e n +c = arcs e n x 17 x 2 + c
2 17 2 17 17 2 17 2
2
x dx
6.62.-
21 + 4 x x 2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 2 = 5s e n x = 5s e n + 2, dx = 5cos d , 52 ( x 2) 2 = 5cos
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
21 + 4 x x 2 = ( x 2 4 x + 4 4) + 21 = ( x 2 4 x + 4) + 25 = 52 ( x 2) 2 , luego:
x 2 dx x 2 dx (5s e n + 2) 2 5cos d
21 + 4 x x2 = 52 ( x 2)2 = 5cos
= (5s e n + 2) 2 d

1 cos 2
= (25s e n 2 + 20s e n + 4)d = 25 d + 20 s e n d + 4 d
2
25 25 25 25
=
2 d cos 2 d + 20 s e n d = s e n 2 20 cos + 4 + c
2 2 4
33 25
= s e n cos 20 cos + c
2 2
33 x 2 25 x 2 21 + 4 x x 2 21 + 4 x x 2
= arcs e n 20 +c
2 5 2 5 5


5

33 x2 x2
= arcs e n 21 + 4 x x 2 ( + 4) + c
2 5 2
33 x2 x+6
= arcs e n 21 + 4 x x 2 ( )+c
2 5 2

149
dx
6.63.-
( x 2 x + 5) 2
2 3

Solucin.-
x 2
2x + 5 x 1


2
Se tiene: x 1 = 2 g , dx = 2sec2 d , ( x 1) 2 + 22 = 2sec
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 2 x + 5 = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 5 1 = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 4 = ( x 1) 2 + 22 , luego:
dx dx 2sec2 d 1 1
( x2 2 x + 5) 2
3 =
3
= 2 sec
3 3
= cos d = s e n + c
4 4
( x 1) 2 + 22
1 x 1
= +c
4 x 2x + 5
2

(2 x + 1)dx
6.64.-
(4 x 2 2 x + 1)3
1 1
Solucin.- x2 x + 1
2 4 x

4
Sea: u = 4 x 2 x + 1, du = (8 x 2)dx
2

3
4
1 3 3
Se tiene: x = g , dx = sec 2 d , ( x 1 ) 2 + ( 3 ) 2 = 3 sec
4 4 4
4 4 4
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3
x 2 x + = ( x 2 x + ) + = ( x ) 2 + = ( x ) 2 + ( ) 2 , luego:
2 4 2 16 4 16 4 16 4 4
(2 x + 1)dx 1 (8 x + 4)dx 1 (8 x 2 + 6)dx
(4 x 2 2 x + 1)3 = 4 (4 x 2 2 x + 1)3 = 4 (4 x 2 2 x + 1)3
1 (8 x 2)dx 3 dx
=
4 (4 x 2 2 x + 1)3 2
+
(4 x 2 2 x + 1)3
1 du 3 dx 1 31 dx
= = (u ) 2 du +
3
3 +
4 (u ) 2 2 4( x 2 1 x + 1 )3 4 28 ( x 2 1 x + 1 )3
2 4 2 4
3
sec2 d
1 3 dx 1 3
= (u ) 2 du + = (u ) 2 du + 4
3 3

4 16 ( x 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
3 4 16 3
( sec )3
4 4 4

150
d
1
1 1 u 2 1
= (u ) 2 du + + s e n + c = 1 + s e n + c
3
=
4 sec 4 ( 1 ) 2u 2
2
1 x 1 4x 2
= + 4 +c = +c
2 4x 2x +1
2
x
2 1 x+ 1 4 x 2 1 x+ 1
2 4 2 4

dx
6.65.-
( x 1) x 2 3x + 2
Solucin.-

x 3
2 x 2 3x + 2

1
2
3 1 1 1
Se tiene: x = sec x 1 = (sec + 1), dx = sec g d ,
2 2 2 2
( x 3 ) 2 + ( 1 ) 2 = 1 g
2 2 2
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
9 1 3 1
x 2 3 x + 2 = ( x 2 3x + ) = ( x ) 2 ( ) 2 , luego:
4 4 2 2
1 sec g d
dx dx 2
( x 1) x 2 3x + 2 =
3 1
= 1 (sec + 1) 1 g
( x 1) ( x ) 2 ( ) 2 2 2
2 2
sec d sec d sec (sec 1)d sec 2 d sec d
= = 2 = 2 = 2 2
1 (sec + 1) (sec + 1) sec 1
2
g 2
g 2
2
cosec d
= 2 cos ec 2 d 2 = 2 co g + 2 cosec + c
s e n2
1 x 3 2x 4
2 2 +2 2 +c = +c
x 2 3x + 2 x 2 3x + 2 x 2 3x + 2
xdx
6.66.-
x 2x + 5
2

Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 1 = 2 g , dx = 2sec2 d , ( x 1) 2 + (2) 2 = 2sec
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 2 x + 5 = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 4 = ( x 1) 2 22 , luego:

151
xdx xdx (2 g + 1) 2 sec 2 d
x2 2 x + 5
=
( x 1) 2 22
=
2sec
= 2 g sec d + sec d = 2sec + sec + g + c

x2 2 x + 5 + x 1
= x 2x + 5 +
2
+c
2
( x + 1)dx
6.67.-
2 x x2
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 1 = s e n x + 1 = s e n + 2, dx = cos d , 1 ( x 1) 2 = cos
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
2 x x 2 = ( x 2 2 x) = ( x 2 2 x + 1 1) = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 1 = 1 ( x 1) 2 , luego:
( x + 1)dx ( x + 1)dx (s e n + 2) cos d
2 x x 2 = 1 ( x 1)2 = cos
= s e n d + 2 d

= cos + 2 + c = 2 x x 2 + 2 arcs e n( x 1) + c
( x 1)dx
6.68.-
x2 4 x + 3
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 2 = sec x 1 = sec + 1, dx = sec g d , ( x 2)2 1 = g
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 4 x + 3 = x 2 4 x + 4 1 = ( x 2) 2 1 , luego:
( x 1)dx ( x 1)dx (sec + 1) sec g d
x2 4 x + 3
=
( x 2) 2 1
=
g
= sec 2 d + sec d = g + sec + g + c

= x2 4x + 3 + x 2 + x2 4x + 3 + c
dx
6.69.-
x2 2 x 8
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x 1 = 3sec , dx = 3sec g d , ( x 1) 2 32 = 3 g
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 2 x 8 = x 2 2 x + 1 9 = ( x 1) 2 32 , luego:
dx dx 3 sec g d
x 2x 8
2
=
( x 1) 3
2 2
=
3 g
= sec d = sec + g + c

x 1 x2 2 x 8
= + + c = x 1 + x2 2x 8 + c
3 3

152
xdx
6.70.-
x2 + 4 x + 5
Solucin.-
Se tiene: x + 2 = g , dx = sec 2 d , ( x + 2) 2 + 12 = s ec
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
x 2 + 4 x + 5 = ( x 2 + 4 x + 4) + 1 = ( x + 2) 2 + 12 , luego:
xdx xdx ( g 2) sec 2 d
x2 + 4 x + 5
=
( x + 2) 2 + 12
=
sec
= g sec d 2 sec d

= sec 2 sec + g + c = x 2 + 4 x + 5 2 x2 + 4 x + 5 + x + 2 + c

153
CAPITULO 7

INTEGRACIN DE FUNCIONES RACIONALES

Mediante el recurso de la descomposicin en fracciones simples, el proceso de


integracin de funciones racionales se puede simplificar notablemente.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS

dx
7.1.-Encontrar:
x 9
2

Solucin.- Descomponiendo el denominador en factores: x 2 9 = ( x + 3)( x 3) ,


Como los factores son ambos lineales y diferentes se tiene:
1 A B
= + , de donde:
x 9 x +3 x3
2

1 A B
= + 1 = A( x 3) + B ( x + 3)() 1 = ( A + B ) x + (3 A + 3B)
x2 9 x+3 x3

Para calcular las constantes A y B, se pueden identificar los coeficientes de igual


potencia x en la ltima expresin, y se resuelve el sistema de ecuaciones dado;
obteniendo as los valores de las constantes en referencia (mtodo general) luego:

A + B = 0 3 A + 3B = 0
6 B = 1 B = 6 , adems:
1

3 A + 3 B = 1 3 A + 3 B = 1
A + B = 0 A = B = A = 1
6
Tambin es frecuente usar otro mecanismo, que consiste en la expresin ()
Sustituyendo a x por los valores que anulen los denominadores de las fracciones:
x = 3 1 = 6B B = 1
6
x = 3 1 = 6 A A = 1
6
Usando cualquier mtodo de los sealados anteriormente, se establece que:
1 1 1
= 6 + 6 , Luego se tiene:
x2 9 x + 3 x 3
dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 1
x2 9 = 6 x + 3 + 6 x 3 = 6 x + 3 + 6 x 3 + c
= ( x 3 x +3 )+c
1
6

154
dx 1 x3
Respuesta: = +c
2
x 9 6 x+3
dx
7.2.-Encontrar: 2
x + 7x 6
Solucin.- Sea: x + 7 x + 6 = ( x + 6)( x + 1) , factores lineales y diferentes; luego:
2

1 A B
= + ,
x + 7x + 6 x + 6 x +1
2

De donde:
1 = A( x + 1) + B( x + 6)() 1 = ( A + B) x + ( A + 6 B) , calculando las constantes A y B
por el mtodo general, se tiene: 1 = ( A + B) x + ( A + 6 B)
A + B = 0 A B = 0
5B = 1 B = 5 , adems:
1

A + 6 B = 1 A + 6 B = 1
A + B = 0 A = B = A = 1
5
Ahora utilizando el mtodo abreviado se tiene:

x = 1 1 = 5 B B = 1
5
x = 6 1 = 5 A A = 1
5
Usando cualquier mtodo se puede establecer:
1 1 1
= 5 + 5 , Luego se tiene:
x2 + 7 x + 6 x + 6 x + 1
dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 1
x2 + 7 x + 6 = 5 x + 6 + 5 x + 1 = 5 x + 6 + 5 x + 1 + c
= ( x +1 x + 6 ) + c
1
5
dx 1 x +1
Respuesta: 2 = +c
x + 7x + 6 5 x+6
xdx
7.3.-Encontrar: 2
x 4x + 4
Solucin.- Sea: x 4 x + 4 = ( x 2) 2 , factores lineales con repeticin; luego:
2

x A B x A( x 2) + B
= + 2 = ,
x x + 4 x 2 ( x 2)
2 2
x x+4 ( x 2) 2
De donde:
x = A( x 2) + B() , calculando las constantes A y B por el mtodo general, se
tiene: x = Ax + (2 A + B ) , luego:
A = 1
B = 2 A B = 2(1) B = 2
2 A + B = 0

155
Usando el mtodo abreviado, se sustituye en x , el valor que anula el
denominador(o los denominadores), y si este no es suficiente se usan para
sustituir cualquier valor conveniente de x , esto es: x = 0, x = 1 ; luego en ()
x=22= B B =2
x = 0 0 = 2 A + B 2 A + B A = B A = 1
2
Usando cualquier mtodo se establece:
xdx dx dx 2
x2 4 x + 4 = x 2 + 2 ( x 2)2 = x 2 x 2 + c
xdx 2
Respuesta: 2 = x2 +c
x 4x + 4 x2
(2 x 2 + 3)dx
7.4.-Encontrar: 3
x 2x2 + x
Solucin.- Sea: x3 2 x 2 + x = x( x 2 2 x + 1) = x( x 1) 2 , factores lineales:
x, x 1 ; donde este ltimo es con repeticin; luego:
2x2 + 3 A B C 2 x2 + 3 A( x 1) 2 + Bx( x 1) + Cx
= + + 3 =
x3 2 x 2 + x x ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 x 2x2 + x x( x 1) 2
De donde:
2 x 2 + 3 = A( x 1) 2 + Bx( x 1) + Cx() , calculando las constantes A y B por el
mtodo general, se tiene: 2 x 2 + 3 = ( A + B ) x 2 + (2 A B + C ) x + A , de donde
identificando los coeficientes de igual potencia de x se puede obtener el siguiente
sistema de ecuaciones:
A +B =2

2 A B + C = 0 B = 2 A B = 2 3 B = 1 , tomando la segunda ecuacin
A = 3

del sistema: C = 2 A + B C = 2(3) 1 C = 5 ,tambin es posible usar el mtodo
abreviado, utilizando para ello la expresin () en la cual:
x = 1 2(1) + 3 = C C = 5
x =03= A A=3
Usando un valor arbitrario para x , sea este x = 1 :
x = 1 2(1) 2 + 3 = A(2) 2 + B(1)(2) + C (1) 5 = 4 A + 2 B C , luego:
2 B = 5 4 A + C 2 B = 5 4(3) + 5 2 B = 2 B = 1 , S, e establece que:
2 x2 + 3 3 1 5
= + , entonces:
x 2 x + x x x 1 ( x 1) 2
3 2

2x2 + 3 dx dx dx 5
= 3 + 5 = 3 x x 1 +c
x 2x + x
3 2
x x 1 ( x 1) 2
x 1
(2 x 2 + 3)dx x3 5
Respuesta: = +c
x 2x + x
3 2
x 1 x 1

156
dx
7.5.-Encontrar:
x 2x2 + x
3

Solucin.- x3 2 x 2 + x = x( x 1) 2 ,factores lineales:


x, x 1 ; donde este ltimo es con repeticin; luego:
1 A B C 1 A( x 1) 2 + Bx( x 1) + Cx
= + + =
x3 2 x 2 + x x ( x 1) ( x 1) 2 x3 2 x 2 + x x( x 1) 2
De donde:
1 = A( x 1) 2 + Bx( x 1) + Cx() , calculando las constantes A y B por el mtodo
general, se tiene: 1 = ( A + B ) x 2 + (2 A B + C ) x + A , de donde identificando los
coeficientes de igual potencia de x se puede obtener el siguiente sistema de
ecuaciones:
A +B = 0

2 A B + C = 0 B = A B = 1 , tomando la segunda ecuacin del
A = 1

sistema: C = 2 A + B C = 2(1) 1 C = 1 , a partir de lo cual se tiene:


1 1 1 1
= +
x 2 x + x x x 1 ( x 1) 2
3 2

dx dx dx dx 1
x3 2 x 2 + x = x x 1 + ( x 1)2 = x x 1 x 1 + c
dx x 1
Respuesta: 3 = +c
x 2x + x
2
x 1 x 1
x 4 6 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6
7.6.-Encontrar: dx
x3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8
Solucin.- Se sabe que si el grado del polinomio dividendo, es igual o superior al
grado del polinomio divisor, previamente conviene efectuar la divisin de tales
polinomios.
x 4 6 x3 + 12 x 2 + 0 x + 6 x 3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8
x 4 + 6 x3 12 x 2 + 8 x x
8x + 6
x 4 6 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 (8 x + 6)dx
Luego se tiene: dx = xdx + 3
x 6 x + 12 x 8
3 2
x 6 x 2 + 12 x 8
La descomposicin de: x3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8 :
1 6 12 8
2 2 8 8
1 4 4 0 x = 2 ( x 2)

x 2 4 x + 4 = ( x 2) 2
x3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8 = ( x 2)3

157
Esto es factores lineales: [ ( x 2)] con repeticin por tanto:
8x + 6 A B C
= + +
x 6 x + 12 x 8 x 2 ( x 2) ( x 2)3
3 2 2

8x + 6 A( x 2) 2 + B (( x 2) + C
=
x3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8 ( x 2)3
Luego:
8 x + 6 = A( x 2) 2 + B( x 2) + C 8 x + 6 = A( x 2 4 x + 4) + B( x 2) + C
8 x + 6 = Ax 2 + (4 A + B) x + (4 A 2 B + C )

Calculando las constantes A y B por el mtodo general, se tiene:


A = 0

4 A + B = 8 B = 8 + 4 A B = 8 + 4(0) B = 8 ,
+ 4 A 2B + C = 6

Resolviendo el sistema: C = 6 4 A + 2 B C = 6 4(0) + 2(8) C = 22 , luego:
0
8x + 6 0 8 22
= + + , de donde:
x 6 x + 12 x 8 x 2
3 2
( x 1) ( x 1)3
2

(8 x + 6)dx dx dx
x3 6 x 2 + 12 x 8 = 8 ( x 2)2 + 22 ( x 2)3 , o sea:
dx dx
= xdx +8 + 22 = xdx +8 ( x 2) 2 dx + 22 ( x 2) 3 dx
( x 2) 2
( x 2) 3

x2 8 11
+c
2 x 2 ( x 2) 2
x 4 6 x3 + 12 x 2 + 6 x2 8 11
Respuesta: dx = +c
x 6 x + 12 x 8
3 2
2 x 2 ( x 2) 2
x3 + x 2 + x + 3
7.7.-Encontrar: dx
x4 + 4x2 + 3
Solucin.- x 4 + 4 x 2 + 3 = ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 + 1) , la descomposicin es en factores
cuadrticos sin repeticin, por lo tanto:
x3 + x 2 + x + 3 Ax + B Cx + D
= 2 + 2
x4 + 4 x2 + 3 x +3 x +1
x + x + x + 3 ( Ax + B )( x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D)( x 2 + 3)
3 2
=
x4 + 4 x2 + 3 ( x 2 + 3)( x 2 + 1)
x3 + x 2 + x + 3 = A( x3 + x) + B( x 2 + 1) + C ( x3 + 3 x) + D( x 2 + 3)
x3 + x 2 + x + 3 = ( A + C ) x3 + ( B + D) x 2 + ( A + 3C ) x + ( B + 3D) , luego:

158
(1) A + C =1

(2) B + D = 1
(3) A + 3C =1

(4) B + 3D = 3

A + C = 1
Con (1) y (3), se tiene: A = 1, C = 0
A + 3C = 1
B + D = 1
Con (2) y (4), se tiene: B = 0, D = 1
B + 3D = 3
x3 + x 2 + x + 3 x 1
Por lo tanto: = + 2 , o sea:
x + 4x + 3
4 2
x + 3 x +1
x3 + x 2 + x + 3 xdx dx
x4 + 4 x 2 + 3 dx = x + 3 + x2 + 1 , sea: u = x + 3, du = 2 xdx , luego:
2

x3 + x 2 + x + 3 1 2 xdx dx 1 du dx
x4 + 4 x 2 + 3 dx = 2 x + 3 + x 2 + 12 = 2 u + x2 + 12
1 1
= u + arc gx + c = x 2 + 3 + arc gx + c
2 2
x + x + x+3
3 2
1
Respuesta: 4 dx = x 2 + 3 + arc gx + c
x + 4x + 3
2
2
4
x dx
7.8.-Encontrar: 4
x + 2x2 + 1
Solucin.-
x4 x4 + 2 x2 + 1
x4 2x2 1 1

2 x 2 1
x 4 dx 2x2 + 1 2 x2 + 1
Luego
x4 + 2 x2 + 1 x4 + 2 x2 + 1 x 4 + 2 x2 + 1dx
= 1 dx = dx

La descomposicin del denominador es: x 4 + 2 x 2 + 1 = ( x 2 + 1) 2 , entonces:


2x2 + 1 Ax + B Cx + D 2x2 + 1 ( Ax + B )( x 2 + 1)(Cx + D)
= + =
x 4 + 2 x 2 + 1 x 2 + 1 ( x 2 + 1) 2 x4 + 2 x2 + 1 ( x 2 + 1) 2
2 x 2 + 1 = ( Ax + B )( x 2 + 1) + (Cx + D) 2 x 2 + 1 = A( x3 + x) + B( x 2 + 1) + Cx + D
2 x 2 + 1 = Ax3 + Bx 2 + ( A + C ) x + ( B + D)
Calculando las constantes por el mtodo general, se tiene:
A =0

B = 2
A +C =0

B + D =1

159
Resolviendo el sistema: C = A A = 0 C = 0 , B + D = 1 D = 1 B D = 1
luego:
2x2 + 1 2 1
= 2 2 , o sea:
x + 2 x + 1 x + 1 ( x + 1) 2
4 2

2x2 + 1 dx dx dx dx
x4 + 2 x 2 + 1 = 2 x 2 + 12 ( x 2 + 1)2 = 2 x 2 + 12 ( x2 + 1)4
Sea: x = g , dx = sec 2 d ; x 2 + 1 = sec , luego:
sec 2 d
= 2 arc gx d = 2 arc gx = 2 arc gx cos 2
sec
4
sec
2

1 + cos 2 1 1
= 2 arc gx d = 2 arc gx d cos 2 d
2 2 2
1 1 1 1
arc gx s e n 2 + c = 2 arc gx s e n cos + c
2 2 2 2

x 2
+ 1
x


De la figura se tiene que:
x 1 1
g = x, arc g ,s e n = , cos =
x +1
2
x +1
2

1 1 x 1 1 x
Luego: = 2 arc gx arc gx + c = 2 arc gx arc gx +c
2 2 x2 + 1 x2 + 1 2 2( x + 1)
2

Recordando que:
x 4 dx (2 x 2 + 1)dx 1 1 x
x + 2x + 1
4 2
= dx x + 2x +1
4 2
= x 2 arc gx + arc gx +
2 2 ( x + 1)
2
+c

x 4 dx 3 x
Respuesta: = x arc gx + +c
x + 2x + 1
4 2
2 2( x + 1)
2

x 4 dx
7.9.-Encontrar:
x4 1
Solucin.-
x4 x4 1
x4 + 1 1
1
Luego:
x 4 dx 1 dx
x4 1 = 1 + x 4 1 dx = dx + x 4 1
Descomponiendo en factores el denominador:
x 4 1 = ( x 2 1)( x 2 + 1) = ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x 1) , es decir factores lineales y cuadrticos
sin repeticin por tanto:

160
1 Ax + B C D
= 2 + +
x 1 x +1 x + 1 x 1
4

1 ( Ax + B )( x 2 1) + C ( x 2 + 1)( x 1) + D( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)
=
x4 1 ( x 2 + 1)( x + 1)( x + 1)
1 = A( x 3 x) + B( x 2 + 1) + C ( x3 x 2 + x 1) + D( x3 + x 2 + x + 1)
1 = ( A + C + D ) x 3 + ( B C + D ) x 2 + ( A + C + D ) x + ( B C + D )
Luego:
(1) A + C +D = 0

(2) B C + D = 0
(3) A + C + D = 0

(4) B C + D = 1

A+ C + D = 0
Con (1) y (3), se tiene: 2C + 2 D = 0 (5)
A + C + D = 0
B C + D = 0
Con (2) y (4), se tiene: 2C + 2 D = 1 (6)
B C + D = 1
2C + 2 D = 0
C = 4,D = 4
Con (5) y (6), se tiene: 1 1
2C + 2 D = 1
Adems: A = 0, B = 1 , luego:
2
1 1 1 1
= + , con lo cual:
x 1
4
2( x + 1) 4( x + 1) 4( x 1)
2

dx 1 dx 1 dx 1 dx
x4 1 = 2 ( x 2 + 1) 4 ( x + 1) + 4 ( x 1)
= 1 arc gx 1 x + 1 + 1 x 1 + c
2 4 4
4
x dx dx x 1
Dado que: 4 = dx + 4 = x 1 arc gx + 1 + c , entonces:
x 1 x 1 2 4 x +1
1 x 1
Respuesta: 4 = x 1 arc gx + 1 +c
x 1 2 4 x +1
x 4 2 x3 + 3x 2 x + 3
7.10.-Encontrar: dx
x3 2 x 2 + 3x
Solucin.-
x 4 2 x3 + 3x 2 x + 3 x3 2 x 2 + 3x
x 4 + 2 x3 3x 2 x
x + 3
Luego:

161
x 4 2 x3 + 3x 2 x + 3 x3 x3
x3 2 x 2 + 3x dx = x x3 2 x2 + 3x dx = xdx x3 2 x 2 + 3xdx
Descomponiendo en factores el denominador:
x3 2 x 2 + 3x = x( x 2 2 x + 3) , es decir un factor lineal y uno cuadrtico; por lo cual:
x 3 A Bx + C x 3 A( x 2 2 x + 3) + ( Bx + C ) x
= + =
x3 2 x 2 + 3x x x 2 2 x + 3 x3 2 x 2 + 3x x( x 2 2 x + 3)
x 3 = A( x 2 2 x + 3) + ( Bx + C ) x x 3 = ( A + B) x 2 + (2 A + C ) x + 3 A
De donde:
A+ B = 0 A = 1

2 A + C = 1 B = A B = 1
3A
= 3 C = 1 + 2 A C = 1
Luego:
x 3 1 x 1
= + 2 , de donde:
x 2 x + 3x
3 2
x x 2x + 3
x3 dx x 1 x 1
x3 2 x 2 + 3x dx = x + x 2 2 x + 3 dx = x + x 2 2 x + 3 dx
x 4 2 x3 + 3x 2 x + 3 x 1
x3 2 x 2 + 3x dx = xdx + x x2 2 x + 3 dx
x2 x 1 x2 1 2( x 1)dx
= + x 2 dx = + x 2
2 x 2x + 3 2 2 x 2x + 3
Sea: u = x 2 2 x + 3, du = (2 x 2)dx du = 2( x 1)dx
x2 1 du x 2 1
= + x = + x x2 2x + 3 + c
2 2 u 2 2
x 2 x + 3x x + 3
4 3 2
x2 x
Respuesta: dx = + +c
x 2 x + 3x
3 2
2 x2 2 x + 3

EJERCICICOS PROPUESTOS

Usando La tcnica de descomposicin en fracciones simples parciales, calcular


las siguientes integrales:

( x5 + 2)dx 7.12.-
xdx x3 dx
7.11.- 7.13.-
x2 1 ( x + 1) 2 x2 2 x 3
(3 x + 7)dx dx ( x + 5)dx
7.14.- 7.15.- 3 dx 7.16.- 2
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) x +1 x x+6
( x 2 + 1)dx ( x 2 + 6)dx ( x 2 1)dx
7.17.- 7.18.- 7.19.-
x3 + 1 ( x 1) 2 ( x 2) ( x 2 + 1)( x 2)

162
xdx xdx ( x + 1)dx
7.20.- 7.21.- 7.22.-
x 4x 5
2
x 2x 3
2
x2 + 4 x 5
x 2 dx dx dx
7.23.- 2 7.24.- 7.25.-
x + 2x +1 x( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)
7.26.-
dx 2 x2 + 5x 1 ( x 2 + 2 x + 3)dx
7.27.- 3 dx 7.28.-
x( x + x + 1)
2
x + x2 2x ( x 1)( x + 1) 2
3x2 + 2 x 2 x 4 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 2 (2 x 2 7 x 1)dx
7.29.- dx 7.30.- dx 7.31.-
x3 1 ( x 1)( x 2 + 2) 2 x3 + x 2 x 1
3x 2 + 3x + 1 x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5 7.34.- 2
2 xdx
7.32.- dx 7.33.- dx
x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 ( x 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + x + 1) 2
x2 + 2 x + 3 (2 x 2 3x + 5)dx (3x 2 + x 2)dx
7.35.- dx 7.36.- 7.37.-
x3 x ( x + 2)( x 1)( x 3) ( x 1)( x 2 + 1)
( x + 5)dx 2 x3 + 3x 2 + x 1 (2 x + 1)dx
7.38.- 3 7.39.- dx 7.40.- 3
x 3x + 2 ( x + 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2 3x + 2 x 1
(2 x 2 + 3 x 1)dx x4 2 x2 + 3x + 4 et dt
7.41.- 7.42.- dx 7.43.-
x3 + 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2 ( x 1)3 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) e2t + 3et + 2
s e n d 4 x 4 2 x3 x 2 + 3x + 1 3x 4 dx
7.44.- 7.45.- dx 7.46.-
cos + cos 2
2
( x3 + x 2 x 1) ( x 2 + 1) 2
(2 x 2 + 41x 91)dx (2 x 4 + 3x3 x 1)dx 7.49.- 2 x x
dx
7.47.- 7.48.-
x3 2 x 2 11x + 12 ( x 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2 e +e 2

7.50.-
s e n xdx (2 + g 2 ) sec 2 d (5 x3 + 2)dx
7.51.- 7.52.-
cos x(1 + cos 2 x) 1 + g 3 x3 5 x 2 + 4 x
x5 dx
7.53.-
( x3 + 1)( x3 + 8)

RESPUESTAS
( x5 + 2)dx
7.11.-
x2 1
Solucin.-
( x5 + 2)dx 3 x+2 x+2
x 2 1 = x + x + x 2 1 dx = x dx + xdx + x 2 1 dx
3

x4 x2 ( x + 2)dx
= + + () , luego:
4 2 ( x + 1)( x 1)
x+2 A B
= + x + 2 = A( x 1) + B( x + 1)
x 1 x +1 x 1
2

163
x = 1 3 = 2B B = 3
2

x = 1 1 = 2 A A = 1 2
x 4 x 2 1 dx 3 dx x4 x2 1 3
() = + + = + x +1 + x 1 + c
4 2 2 x + 1 2 x 1 4 2 2 2
( x 1)
4 2 3
x x 2

= + + +c
4 2 x +1
xdx
7.12.-
( x + 1) 2
Solucin.-
xdx Adx Bdx
( x + 1)2 = x + 1 + ( x + 1)2 () , luego:
x A B
= + x = A( x + 1) + B
( x + 1) 2
x + 1 ( x + 1) 2
x = 1 1 = B

x = 0 0 = A + B A = B A = 1
dx dx 1
() = x + 1 + ( x + 1) 1 + c = x + 1 + +c
x +1 ( x + 1) 2
x +1
x 3dx
7.13.-
x2 2 x 3
Solucin.-
x3dx 7x + 6 (7 x + 6)dx
x2 2 x 3 = x + 2 + x 2 2 x 3 dx = xdx + 2 dx + x 2 2 x 3
x2 (7 x + 6)dx
= + 2x + () , luego:
2 ( x 3)( x + 1)
(7 x + 6) A B
= + 7 x + 6 = A( x + 1) + B( x 3)
( x 3)( x + 1) x 3 x + 1
x = 3 27 = 4 A A = 27
4

x = 1 1 = 4 B B = 1 4
x2 27 dx 1 dx x2 27 1
() = + 2 x + + = + 2x + x 3 + x +1 + c
2 4 x 3 4 x +1 2 4 4
2
x 1
= + 2 x + ( x 3) 27 ( x + 1) + c
2 4
(3 x + 7)dx
7.14.-
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
Solucin.-
(3x + 7)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) = x 1 + x 2 + x 3 ()

164
(3x + 7) A B C
= + +
( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) x 1 x 2 x 3
3 x 7 = A( x 2)( x 3) + B ( x 1)( x 3) + C ( x 1)( x 2) , luego:
x = 1 4 = 2 A A = 2

x = 2 1 = B B = 1
x = 3 2 = 2C C = 1

dx dx dx
() = 2 + + = 2 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + c
x 1 x2 x3
( x 2)( x 3)
= +c
( x 1) 2
dx
7.15.- 3 dx
x +1
Solucin.-
dx dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx
x3 + 1dx = ( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1) = x + 1 + ( x 2 x + 1) () , luego:
1 A ( Bx + C )
= + 2 1 = A( x 2 x + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x + 1)
( x + 1)( x x + 1) x + 1 ( x x + 1)
2

x = 1 1 = 3 A A = 1
3

x = 0 1 = A + C C = 1 A C = 2
3

x = 1 1 = A + ( B + C )2 1 = 3 + 2 B + 2C 1 3 = B + C B = 1 3 C
1

B=1
3
1 dx ( 1 x + 2 )dx 1 1 ( x 2)dx
() = + 3 3 = x +1 2
3 x +1 ( x x + 1)
2
3 3 x x +1
1 1 (2 x 4)dx 1 1 (2 x 1 3)dx
= x +1 2 = x +1
3 6 x x +1 3 6 x2 x + 1
1 1 (2 x 1)dx 1 dx
= x +1 2 + 2
3 6 x x +1 2 x x +1
1 1 1 dx
= x + 1 x2 x + 1 + 2
3 6 2 (x x + 1 ) + 3
4 4
1 1 1 dx
= x + 1 x2 x + 1 +
3 6 2 ( x 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
2 2
1 1 1 1 x 1
= x + 1 x2 x + 1 + arc g 2 +c
3 6 2 3 3
2 2
1 1 3 2x 1
= x + 1 x2 x + 1 + arc g +c
3 6 3 3

165
3
x +1 3 2x 1
= + arc g +c
6
x2 x + 1 3 3
( x + 5)dx
7.16.- 2
x x+6
Solucin.-
( x + 5)dx ( x + 5)dx Adx Bdx
x2 x + 6 = ( x + 3)( x 2) = ( x + 3) + ( x 2) () , luego:
( x + 5) A B
= + x + 5 = A( x 2) + B ( x + 3)
( x + x 6) ( x + 3) ( x 2)
2

x = 2 7 = 5B B = 7
5

x = 3 2 = 5 A A = 2 5
2 dx 7 dx 2 2 1 ( x 2)7
() = + = x+3 + x2 +c = +c
5 x+3 5 x2 5 5 5 ( x + 3) 2
( x 2 + 1)dx
7.17.-
x3 + 1
Solucin.-
( x 2 + 1)dx ( x 2 + 1)dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx
x3 + 1 ( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1) = ( x + 1) + ( x2 x + 1) () , luego:
=

( x 2 + 1) A Bx + C
= + 2 x 2 + 1 = A( x 2 x + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x + 1)
x + 1 ( x + 1) ( x x + 1)
3

x = 1 2 = 3 A A = 2
3

x = 0 1 = A + C C = 1
3

x = 1 2 = A + ( B + C )2 B = 1 3
( x 2 + 1)dx ( x 2 + 1)dx 2 dx 1 ( x + 1)dx
() = = + 2
x +1
3
( x + 1)( x x + 1) 3 ( x + 1) 3 ( x x + 1)
2

1 (2 x 1) + 2 dx
= x +1 + 2 2
2 1 3 = 2 x + 1 + 1 (2 x 1)dx + 1 dx
3 3 ( x x + 1) 3 2
6 ( x x + 1) 2 ( x x + 1)
2

2 1 1 dx
= x + 1 + x2 x + 1 + 2
3 6 2 ( x x + 1)
2 1 1 dx
= x + 1 + x2 x + 1 + 2
3 6 2 (x x + 1 ) + 3
4 4
4 1 1 dx
= x + 1 + x2 x + 1 +
6 6 2 ( x 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
2 2

166
1 1 1 x 1
= ( x + 1) ( x x + 1) +
4 2
arc g 2 +c
6 2 3 3
2 2
1 3 2x 1
= ( x + 1) 4 ( x 2 x + 1) + arc g +c
6 3 3
( x 2 + 6)dx
7.18.-
( x 1) 2 ( x 2)
Solucin.-
( x 2 + 6)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
( x 1)2 ( x 2) = ( x + 1) + ( x 1)2 + ( x + 2) () , luego:
( x 2 + 6) A B C
= + +
( x 1) ( x 2) ( x + 1) ( x 1) ( x + 2)
2 2

x 2 + 6 = A( x + 1) + ( x + 2) + B( x + 2) + C ( x 1) 2
x = 1 7 = 3B B = 7
3

x = 2 10 = 9C C = 10
9

x = 0 6 = 2 A + B + C A = 1 9

1 dx 7 dx 10 dx 1 7 1 10
() = + + = x 1 + x+2 +c
9 ( x + 1) 3 ( x 1) 2
9 ( x + 2) 9 3 x 1 9
1 ( x + 2)10 7
= +c
9 x 1 3( x 1)
( x 2 1)dx
7.19.-
( x 2 + 1)( x 2)
Solucin.-
( x 2 1)dx Ax + B Cdx
( x2 + 1)( x 2) = ( x 2 + 1) dx + ( x 2) () , luego:
( x 2 1) Ax + B C
= 2 + x 2 1 = ( Ax + B)( x 2) + C ( x 2 + 1)
( x + 1)( x 2) ( x + 1) ( x 2)
2

x = 2 3 = 5C C = 3
5

x = 0 1 = 2 B + C B = 4
5

x = 1 0 = ( A + B ) + 2C A = 2 5

( 2 x + 4 )dx 3 dx
1 2 xdx 4 dx 3 dx
() = 5 5 + 5 = 2 + 2 +
( x + 1)
2
( x 2) 5 ( x + 1) 5 ( x + 1) 5 x 2
1 4 3 1 4
= x 2 + 1 + arc x + x 2 + c = ( x 2 + 1)( x 2)3 + arc x + c
5 5 5 5 5

167
xdx
7.20.- 2
x 4x 5
Solucin.-
xdx xdx Adx Bdx
x2 4 x 5 = ( x + 5)( x 1) = ( x + 5) + ( x 1) () , luego:
x A B
= + x = A( x 1) + B( x + 5)
( x + 5)( x 1) ( x + 5) ( x 1)
x = 1 1 = 6B B = 1
6

x = 5 5 = 6 A A = 5 6
5 dx 1 dx 5 1 5
() = + = x + 5 + x 1 + c = ( x + 5)5 ( x 1) + c
6 ( x + 5) 6 ( x 1) 6 6 6
xdx
7.21.- 2
x 2x 3
Solucin.-
xdx xdx Adx Bdx
x2 2 x 3 = ( x 3)( x + 1) = ( x 3) + ( x + 1) () , luego:
x A B
= + x = A( x + 1) + B( x 3)
( x 3)( x + 1) ( x 3) ( x + 1)
x = 1 1 = 4 B B = 1
4

x = 3 3 = 4 A A = 3 4
3 dx 1 B 3 1 1
() = + = x 3 + x + 1 + c = ( x 3)3 ( x + 1) + c
4 ( x 3) 4 ( x + 1) 4 4 4
( x + 1)dx
7.22.- 2
x + 4x 5
Solucin.-
( x + 1)dx ( x + 1)dx Adx Bdx
x2 + 4 x 5 = ( x + 5)( x 1) = ( x + 5) + ( x 1) () , luego:
x +1 A B
= + x + 1 = A( x 1) + B ( x + 5)
( x + 4 x 5) ( x + 5) ( x 1)
2

x = 1 2 = 6B B = 1
3

x = 5 3 = 4 A 6 A = 2 3
2 dx 1 B 2 1 1
() = + = x + 5 + x 1 + c = ( x + 5) 2 ( x 1) + c
3 ( x + 5) 3 ( x 1) 3 3 3
2
x dx
7.23.- 2
x + 2x +1
Solucin.-

168
x 2 dx 2x +1 (2 x + 1)dx (2 x + 1)dx
x2 + 2 x + 1 = 1 x 2 + 2 x + 1 dx = dx x 2 + 2 x + 1 = dx ( x + 1)2
Adx Bdx
= x + () , luego:
( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2
2x +1 A B
= + 2 x + 1 = A( x + 1) + B
( x + 1) 2
( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2
x = 1 1 = B B = 1

x = 0 1 = A + B A = 2
dx dx 1 1
() = x 2 2
= x 2 x + 1 + + c = x 2 x +1 +c
( x + 1) ( x + 1) x + 5 x+5
dx
7.24.-
x( x + 1) 2
Solucin.-
dx Adx Bdx Cdx
x( x + 1)2 = x + ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)2 () , luego:
1 A B C
= + + 1 = A( x + 1) 2 + Bx( x + 1) + Cx
x( x + 1) 2
x ( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2

x = 1 1 = C C = 1

x = 0 1 = A A = 1
x = 1 1 = 4 A + 2 B + C B = 1

dx dx dx 1 x 1
() = = x x +1 + +c = + +c
x ( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2
x +1 x +1 x +1
dx
7.25.-
( x + 1)( x 2 + 1)
Solucin.-
dx Adx Bx + C
( x + 1)( x + 1)2 = x + 1 + ( x2 + 1) dx () , luego:
1 A Bx + C
= + 2 1 = A( x 2 + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x + 1)
( x + 1)( x + 1) x + 1 ( x + 1)
2

x = 1 1 = 2 A A = 1
2

x = 0 1 = A + C C = 1
2

x = 1 1 = 2 A + ( B + C )2 B = 1 2

1 dx (1 x + 1 )dx 1 1 x 1
() = + 2 2 = x +1 2 dx
2 ( x + 1) ( x + 1)
2
2 2 ( x + 1)
1 1 2 xdx 1 dx 1 1 1
= x +1 2 + 2 = x + 1 x 2 + 1 + arc gx + c
2 4 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2 4 2

169
1 ( x + 1) 2 1
= 2 + arc gx + c
4 x +1 2
dx
7.26.-
x( x + x + 1)
2

Solucin.-
dx Adx Bx + C
x( x 2 + x + 1) = x + ( x 2 + x + 1) dx () , luego:
1 A Bx + C
= + 2 1 = A( x 2 + x + 1) + ( Bx + C ) x
x( x + x + 1) x ( x + x + 1)
2

x = 0 1 = A A = 1

x = 1 1 = 3 A + B + C B + C = 2
x = 1 1 = A + B C B C = 0

dx ( x + 1)dx 1 (2 x + 2)dx
() = 2 = x +1 2
x ( x + x + 1) 2 ( x + x + 1)
1 (2 x + 1) + 1 1 (2 x + 1)dx 1 dx
= x 2 dx = x 2 2
2 ( x + x + 1) 2 ( x + x + 1) 2 ( x + x + 1)
1 1 dx
= x x2 + x + 1 2
2 2 (x + x + 1 ) + 3
4 4
1 1 dx
= x x2 + x + 1
2 2 ( x + 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
2 2
1 1 1 x+ 1
= x x2 + x + 1 arc g 2 +c
2 2 3 3
2 2
1 3 2x +1
= x x2 + x + 1 arc g +c
2 3 3
2 x2 + 5x 1
7.27.- 3 dx
x + x2 2 x
Solucin.-
(2 x 2 + 5 x 1)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
( x3 + x 2 2 x) = x + ( x 1) + ( x + 2) () , luego:
2 x2 + 5x 1 A B C
= + +
( x + x 2 x) x ( x 1) ( x + 2)
3 2

2 x 2 + 5 x 1 = A( x 1)( x + 2) + Bx( x + 2) + Cx( x 1)


x = 0 1 = 2 A A = 1
2
x = 1 6 = 3B B = 2

x = 2 3 = 6C C = 2
1

170
1 dx dx 1 dx 1 1
() =
2 x
+ 2 = x + 2 x 1 x + 2 + c
( x 1) 2 ( x + 2) 2 2
x2 + 2 x + 3
7.28.- dx
( x 1)( x + 1) 2
Solucin.-
x2 + 2x + 3 Adx Bdx Cdx
( x 1)( x + 1)2 dx = ( x 1) + ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)2 () , luego:
x2 + 2x + 3 A B C
= + +
( x 1)( x + 1) 2
( x 1) ( x 1) ( x + 1) 2
x 2 + 2 x + 3 = A( x + 1) 2 + B ( x 1)( x + 1) + C ( x 1)
x = 1 6 = 4A A = 3
2
x = 1 2 = 2C C = 1

x = 0 3 = A B C B = 2
1

3 dx 1 dx dx 3 1 1
() = = x 1 x +1 + +c
2 x 1 2 x +1 ( x + 1) 2
2 2 x +1
1 ( x 1)3 1
= + +c
2 x +1 x +1
3x2 + 2 x 2
7.29.- dx
x3 1
Solucin.-
3x 2 + 2 x 2 3x 2 + 2 x 2 Adx ( Bx + C )dx
x3 1 dx = ( x 1)( x2 + x + 1)dx = x 1 + ( x 2 + x + 1) () , luego:
3x 2 + 2 x 2 A Bx + C
= + 2
( x 1)( x + x + 1) x 1 ( x + x + 1)
2

3 x 2 + 2 x 2 = A( x 2 + x + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x 1)
x = 1 3 = 3A A = 1

x = 0 2 = A C C = 3
x = 1 1 = A + ( B + C )(2) B = 2

dx (2 x + 3)dx (2 x + 1) + 2
() = + 2 = x 1 + 2 dx
x 1 ( x + x + 1) ( x + x + 1)
(2 x + 1)dx dx
= x 1 + 2 + 2 2
( x + x + 1) ( x + x + 1)
dx
= x 1 + x 2 + x + 1 + 2
( x + 1 )2 + ( 3 )2
2 2

171
1 x+ 1
= ( x 1)( x + x + 1) + 2
2
arc g 2 +c
3 3
2
4 3 2x +1
= ( x 1)( x 2 + x + 1) + arc g +c
3 3
x 4 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 2
7.30.- dx
( x 1)( x 2 + 2) 2
Solucin.-
x 4 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 2 Adx ( Bx + C )dx ( Dx + E )dx
( x 1)( x 2 + 2)2 dx = x 1 + ( x2 + 2) + ( x 2 + 2)2 () , luego:
x 4 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 2 A Bx + C Dx + E
= + 2 + 2
( x 1)( x + 2)
2 2
x 1 ( x + 2) ( x + 2) 2
x 4 x3 + 2 x 2 x + 2 = A( x 2 + 2) 2 + ( Bx + C )( x 1)( x 2 + 2) + ( Dx + E )( x 1)
= A( x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4) + ( Bx + C )( x3 + 2 x x 2 2) + Dx 2 Dx + Ex E
= Ax 4 + 4 Ax 2 + 4 A + Bx 4 + 2 Bx 2 Bx3 2 Bx + Cx3 + 2Cx Cx 2 2C
+ Dx 2 Dx + Ex E
= ( A + B ) x 4 + (C B ) x3 + (4 A C + 2 B + D) x 2 + (2 B + 2C D + E ) x + (4 A 2C E )
Igualando coeficientes, se tiene:
A+ B =1

B+ C = 1
4 A+ 2 B C + D = 2 A = 1 3 , B = 2 3 , C = 13 , D = 1, E = 0

2 B + 2 C D + E = 1
2C E = 2
4A

1 dx ( 2 x 1 )dx xdx
() = + 3 2 3 2
3 x 1 ( x + 2) ( x + 2)2
1 dx 1 2 xdx 1 dx 1 2 xdx
= + 2 2 2
3 x 1 3 ( x + 2) 3 ( x + 2) 2 ( x + 2) 2
1 1 2 x 1 1
= x 1 + x2 + 2 arc g + +c
2 2 x +2
2
3 3 6
1 2 x 1
= ( x 1)( x 2 + 2) arc g + +c
2 2( x + 2)
2
3 6
2 x2 7 x 1
7.31.- 3 dx
x + x2 x 1
Solucin.-
2x2 7 x 1 2 x2 7 x 1 Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 + x2 x 1 ( x 1)( x + 1)2 dx = x 1 + ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)2 () , luego:
dx =

172
2x2 7 x 1 A B C
= + +
( x + x x 1) x 1 ( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2
3 2

2 x 2 7 x 1 = A( x + 1) 2 + B ( x 1)( x + 1) + C ( x 1)
x = 1 8 = 2C C = 4


x =1 6 = 4 A A = 3
2

x = 0 1 = A B C B = 7 2
3 dx 7 dx dx 3 7 4
() = + 4 = x 1 + x +1 + +c
2 x 1 2 x +1 ( x + 1) 2
2 2 x +1
1 ( x + 1)7 4
= + +c
2 ( x 1) 3
x +1
3x 2 + 3x + 1
7.32.- dx
x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1
Solucin.-
3x 2 + 3x + 1 (3 x 2 + 3x + 1)dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx
x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1 ( x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1) = x + 1 + ( x2 + x + 1) () , luego:
dx =

3x2 + 3x + 1 A Bx + C
= + 2
( x + 1)( x + x + 1) x + 1 ( x + x + 1)
2

3 x 2 + 3 x + 1 = A( x 2 + x + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x + 1)
x = 1 A = 1

x = 0 1 = A + C C = 0
x = 1 7 = 3 A + ( B + C )(2) B = 2

dx 2 xdx (2 x + 1) 1
() = + 2 = x +1 + 2 dx
x +1 ( x + x + 1) ( x + x + 1)
(2 x + 1)dx dx
= x +1 + 2 2
( x + x + 1) ( x + x + 1)
dx
= x + 1 + x2 + x + 1
( x 2 + x + 1 ) + ( 3 )2
4 2
1 x+ 1
= x + 1 + x2 + x + 1 arc g 2 +c
3 3
2 2
2 3 2x +1
= ( x + 1)( x 2 + x + 1) arc g +c
3 3
x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5
7.33.- dx
( x 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2
Solucin.-

173
x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5 Adx Bdx Cdx Ddx Edx
( x 1)2 ( x + 1)3 dx = x 1 + ( x 1)2 + ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)2 + ( x + 1)3 () , luego:
x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5 A B C D E
= + + + +
( x 1) ( x + 1)
2 3
x 1 ( x 1) 2
x + 1 ( x + 1) ( x + 1)3
2

x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5 = A( x 1)( x + 1)3 + B( x + 1)3 + C ( x 1) 2 ( x + 1) 2


+ D( x 1) 2 ( x + 1) + E ( x 1) 2
= Ax 4 + 2 Ax3 2 Ax A + Bx 3 + 3Bx 2 + 3Bx + B + Cx 4 2Cx 2 + C
+ Dx3 Dx 2 Dx + D + Ex 2 2 Ex + E
= ( A + C ) x 4 + (2 A + B + D) x3 + (3B 2C D + E ) x 2
+ (2 A + 3B D 2 E ) x + ( A + B + C + D + E )
Igualando coeficientes, se tiene:
A +C = 0

2A + B +D = 1
+ 3 B 2 C D + E = 7 A = 0, B = 1, C = 0, D = 0, E = 4

2 A + 3 B D 2 E = 5
A + B + C + D + E = 2

dx dx 1 2 x2 4x 1
() = + 4 ( x + 1)3 x 1 ( x + 1)2
= + c = +c
( x 1) 2 ( x 1)( x + 1) 2
2 xdx
7.34.- 2
( x + x + 1) 2
Solucin.-
2 xdx ( Ax + B)dx (Cx + D)dx
( x2 + x + 1)2 = x 2 + x + 1 + ( x 2 + x + 1)2 () , luego:
2x Ax + B Cx + D
= 2 + 2
( x + x + 1)
2 2
x + x + 1 ( x + x + 1) 2
2 x = ( Ax + B)( x 2 + x + 1) + Cx + D 2 x = Ax3 + Ax 2 + Ax + Bx 2 + Bx + B + Cx + D
= Ax3 + ( A + B) x 2 + ( A + B + C ) x + B + D , igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A = 0

A+ B = 0
A+ B +C =2

+ D = 0
A = 0, B = 0, C = 2, D = 0
2 xdx
() = 2 , de donde el mtodo sugerido pierde aplicabilidad; tal como se
( x + x + 1)
haba planteado la tcnica trabajada debe ser sustituida por otra:
2 xdx (2 x + 1)dx dx
( x2 + x + 1) = ( x 2 + x + 1) ( x 2 + x + 1)2

174
(2 x + 1)dx 16 dx
= ()
( x + x + 1) 9
2

2


2 ( x + 1 2) + 1
3
sea: u = 2 ( x + 1 ), dx = 3 du , entonces:
3 2 2
1 16 3 du
()
x + x + 1 9 2 (u + 1) 2
2 2
, trabajando la integral sustituyendo

trigonomtricamente:
1 8 3 sec2 d
= 2
x + x +1

9 sec
4
, ya que: u = g , du = sec 2 d

1 8 3 1 1 u
= 2 arc gu +
x + x +1 9 2 2 (u 2 + 1)
2 (x + 1 )
1 8 3 1 2 3 2
= 2 arc g (x + ) +
1 +c
x + x +1 9 2 3 2 2 4 ( x + 1 ) + 1
2

3 2
x+ 1
1 8 3 1 2
arc g
= 2 (x + ) + 2
1 +c
x + x +1 9 2 3 2 3 4 ( x + 1 ) + 1
2
3 2
1 4 3 2 8 (x + 1 )
= 2 arc g (x + 1 ) 2 +c
x + x +1 9 3 2 9 ( x + ) 2 + 1
4 1
3 2
x + 2x + 3
2
7.35.- dx
x3 x
Solucin.-
x2 + 2 x + 3 x2 + 2 x + 3 Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 x dx = x( x 1)( x + 1)dx = x + ( x 1) + ( x + 1) () , luego:
x2 + 2 x + 3 A B C
= + +
x( x 1)( x + 1) x ( x 1) ( x + 1)
x 2 + 2 x + 3 = A( x 1)( x + 1) + Bx( x + 1) + Cx( x 1)
x = 0 3 = A A = 3

x = 1 2 = 2C C = 1
x = 1 6 = 2B B = 3

dx dx dx
() = 3 + 3 + = 3 x + 3 x 1 + x + 1 + c
x ( x 1) ( x + 1)
( x 1)3 ( x + 1)
= +c
x3

175
(2 x 2 3 x + 5)dx
7.36.-
( x + 2)( x 1)( x 3)
Solucin.-
2 x 2 3x + 5 Adx Bdx Cdx
( x + 2)( x 1)( x 3)dx = ( x + 2) + ( x 1) + ( x 3) () , luego:
2 x 2 3x + 5 A B C
= + +
( x + 2)( x 1)( x 3) x + 2 x 1 x 3
2 x 2 3x + 5 = A( x 1)( x 3) + B ( x + 2)( x 3) + C ( x + 2)( x 1)
x = 1 4 = 6 B B = 2
3

x = 3 14 = 10C C = 7
5

x = 2 19 = 15 A A = 19 15

19 dx 2 dx 7 dx 19 2 7
() = + = x + 2 x 1 + x 3 + c
15 x + 2 3 x 1 5 x 3 15 3 5
3x + x 2
2
7.37.- dx
( x 1)( x 2 + 1)
Solucin.-
3x2 + x 2 Adx ( Bx + C )dx
( x 1)( x 2 + 1)dx = ( x 1) + ( x 2 + 1) () , luego:
3x2 + x 2 A Bx + C
= + 2
( x 1)( x + 1) x 1 x + 1
2

3 x 2 + x 2 = A( x 2 + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x 1)
x = 1 2 = 2A A = 1

x = 0 2 = A C C = 3
x = 2 12 = 5 A + 2 B + C B = 2

dx (2 x + 3)dx dx 2 xdx dx
() = + = + 2 + 3 2
x 1 x +1
2
x 1 x +1 x +1
= x 1 + x + 1 + 3arc gx + c = ( x 1)( x 2 + 1) + 3arc gx + c
2

( x + 5)dx
7.38.-
x3 3x + 2
Solucin.-
( x + 5)dx ( x + 5)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 3x + 2 = ( x 1)2 ( x + 2) = ( x 1) + ( x 1)2 + ( x + 2) () , luego:
x+5 A B C
= + +
x 3 x + 2 x 1 ( x 1) ( x + 2)
3 2

x + 5 = A( x 1)( x + 2) + B( x + 2) + C ( x 1) 2

176
x = 1 6 = 3B B = 2


x = 2 3 = 9C C = 1
3

x = 0 5 = 2 A + B + C A = 1 3
1 dx dx 1 dx 1 2 1
() = + 2 + = x 1 + x+2 +c
3 ( x 1) ( x 1) 3 ( x + 2)
2
3 x 1 3
1 x+2 2
= +c
3 x 1 x 1
2 x3 + 3x 2 + x 1
7.39.- dx
( x + 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2
Solucin.-
(2 x3 + 3 x 2 + x 1)dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx ( Dx + E )dx
( x + 1)( x2 + 2 x + 2)2 = x + 1 + ( x2 + 2 x + 2) + ( x2 + 2 x + 2)2 () , luego:
2 x3 + 3x 2 + x 1 A Bx + C Dx + E
= + 2 + 2
( x + 1)( x + 2 x + 2)
2 2
x + 1 ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
2 x3 + 3x 2 + x 1 = A( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2 + ( Bx + C )( x 2 + 2 x + 2)( x + 1) + ( Dx + E )( x + 1)
= Ax 4 + 4 Ax3 + 8 Ax 2 + 8 Ax + 4 A + Bx 4 + 3Bx 3 + 4 Bx 2 + 2 Bx + Cx3 + 3Cx 2 + 4Cx
+2C + Dx 2 + Dx + Ex + E
= ( A + B ) x 4 + (4 A + 3B + C ) x3 + (+8 A + 4 B + 3C + D) x 2
+ (8 A + 2 B + 4C + D + E ) x + (4 A + 2C + E )
Igualando coeficientes, se tiene:
A + B = 0

4 A +3B + C = 2
8 A + 4 B + 3C + D = 3 A = 1, B = 1, C = 3, D = 2, E = 3

8 A + 2 B + 4C + D + E = 1
4A + 2C + E = 1

dx ( x + 3)dx (2 x + 3)dx
() = + 2 2
x +1 ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
1 (2 x + 6)dx (2 x + 2) + 1dx
= x 1 + 2 2
2 ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
1 (2 x + 2) + 4 (2 x + 2)dx dx
= x 1 + 2 dx 2 2
2 ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
( x + 2 x + 2) 2
1 (2 x + 2)dx dx (2 x + 2)dx dx
= x 1 + 2 + 2 2 2 2
2 ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
( x + 2 x + 2) 2
1 dx 1 1 dx
= x 1 + x2 + 2 x + 2 + 2 +
2 ( x + 1) + 1 2 x + 2 x + 2
2 2
( x + 1) 2 + 1
2

177
1
= x 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 2 + 2 arc g ( x + 1)
2
1 1 1 x +1 1
+ arc g ( x + 1) + c
2 x + 2x + 2 2 x + 2x + 2 2
2 2

x2 + 2x + 2 3 1 x
= + arc g ( x + 1) +c
x +1 2 2 x + 2x + 2
2

(2 x 2 + 3 x 1)dx
7.40.- 3
x + 2x2 + 4x + 2
Solucin.-
(2 x 2 + 3x 1)dx (2 x 2 + 3x 1)dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx
x3 + 2 x 2 + 4 x + 2 ( x + 1)( x2 + 2 x + 2) = ( x + 1) + ( x2 + 2 x + 2) () , luego:
=

(2 x 2 + 3 x 1) A ( Bx + C )
= + 2
( x + 1)( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 1) ( x + 2 x + 2)
2

2 x 2 + 3x 1 = A( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( Bx + C )( x + 1)
x = 1 2 = A A = 2

x = 0 1 = 2 A + C C = 3
x = 1 4 = 5 A + ( B + C )(2) B = 4

dx (4 x + 3)dx (2 x + 2) 1
() = 2 + 2 = 2 x + 1 + 2 2 dx
( x + 1) x + 2x + 2 x + 2x + 2
(2 x + 2)dx dx
= 2 x + 1 + 2 2 2 2
x + 2x + 2 x + 2x + 2
= 2 x + 1 + 2 x + 2 x + 2 2 arc g ( x + 1) + c
2

(2 x + 1)dx
7.41.-
3x3 + 2 x 1
Solucin.-
(2 x + 1)dx (2 x + 1)dx Adx ( Bx + C )dx
3x3 2 x 1 = ( x 1)(3x 2 + 3x + 1) = ( x 1) + (3x2 + 3x + 1) () , luego:
(2 x + 1) A ( Bx + C )
= +
(3 x 2 x 1) ( x 1) (3x 2 + 3x + 1)
3

2 x + 1 = A(3x 2 + 3x + 1) + ( Bx + C )( x 1)
x = 1 3 = 7 A A = 3
7

x = 0 1 = A C C = 4
7

x = 1 1 = A + ( B + C )(2) B = 9 7

1 9 (6 x + 3 3 )dx
1
3 dx 1 (9 x + 4)dx 3
7 ( x 1) 7 3x 2 + 3x + 1 7 7 6 3x2 + 3x + 1
() = = x 1

178
3 3 (6 x + 3)dx 1 dx
= x 1 2 + 2
7 14 3 x + 3 x + 1 14 3x + 3x + 1
3 3 1 dx
= x 1 3x 2 + 3x + 1 +
7 14 14 3( x + 1 ) 2 + 1
2 4
3 3 2 dx
= x 1 3x 2 + 3x + 1 +
7 14 7 12( x + 1 ) 2 + 1
2
3 3 3
= x 1 3x 2 + 3x + 1 + arc g 2 3( x + 1 ) + c
7 14 21 2
x 2 x + 3x + 4
4 2
7.42.- dx
( x 1)3 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
Solucin.-
x 4 2 x 2 + 3x + 4 Adx Bdx Cdx ( Dx + E )dx
( x 1)3 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)dx = ( x 1) + ( x 1)2 + ( x 1)3 + ( x2 + 2 x + 2) () , luego:
x 4 2 x 2 + 3x + 4 A B C Dx + E
= + + + 2
( x 1) ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x 1) ( x + 2 x + 2)
3 2 2 3

x 4 2 x 2 + 3x + 4 = A( x 1) 2 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + B( x 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
+C ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( Dx + E )( x 1)3
x 4 2 x 2 + 3x + 4 = A( x 2 2 x + 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + B( x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x x 2 2 x 2)
+C ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( Dx + E )( x3 3 x 2 + 3x 1)
x 4 2 x 2 + 3x + 4 = Ax 4 Ax 2 2 Ax + 2 A + Bx3 + Bx 2 2 B + Cx 2 + 2Cx + 2C
+ Dx 4 3Dx 3 + 3Dx 2 Dx + Ex3 3Ex 2 + 3Ex E
x 4 2 x 2 + 3 x + 4 = ( A + D ) x 4 + ( B 3 D + E ) x 3 + ( A + B + C + 3 D 3E ) x 2
+ (2 A + 2C D + 3E ) x + (2 A 2 B + 2C E )
Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A +D = 1

B 3 D + E = 0
A + B + C + 3 D 3 E = 2

2 A +2C D +3E = 3
2 A 2 B +2C E = 4

A = 106 ,B = 9 , C = 6 , D = 19 , E = 102
125 25 5 125 125

106 dx 9 dx 6 dx 1 (19 x + 102)dx


125 x + 1 25 ( x 1) 5 ( x 1) 125 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)

() = 2
+ 3
+

19 ( x +
102 )dx
106 9 1 6 1
25 x 1 5 (2)( x 1) 2 125 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
= x 1 + + + 19
125

179
106 9 3 19 (2 x + 2) + 8 14
=
125
x 1 +
25( x 1) 5( x 1) 2
+
250 ( x + 2 x + 2)
2
19
dx

106 9 3 19 19 166 dx
=
125
x 1 +
25( x 1) 5( x 1) 2
+
250
x2 + 2 x + 2 +
250 19 ( x + 2 x + 1) + 1
2

106 9 3 19 166 dx
=
125
x 1 +
25( x 1) 5( x 1) 2
+
250
x2 + 2x + 2 +
250 ( x + 1) 2 + 1
106 9 3 19 166
= x 1 + + x2 + 2 x + 2 + arc g ( x + 1) + c
125 25( x 1) 5( x 1) 2 250 250
et dt
7.43.- 2t
e + 3et + 2
Solucin.-
et dt et dt
e2t + 3et + 2 (et + 2)(et + 2) () , Sea: u = e + 1, du = e dt; e + 2 = u + 1
= t t t

Luego:
du Adu Bdu
() = + ()
(u + 1)u (u + 1) u
1 A B
= + 1 = Au + B (u + 1)
(u + 1)u (u + 1) u
u = 0 1 = B B = 1

u = 1 1 = A A = 1
du du
() = + = u + 1 + u + c = et + 2 + e t + 1 + c
(u + 1) u
et + 1
= +c
et + 2
s e n d
7.44.-
cos + cos 2
2

Solucin.-
s e n d s e n d
cos2 + cos 2 = (cos + 2)(cos 1) () ,
Sea: u = cos 1, du = s e n d , cos + 2 = u + 3
Luego:
du du Adu Bdu
() = = ()
(u + 3)u u (u + 3) u u +3
1 A B
= + 1 = A(u + 3) + Bu
u (u + 3) u u + 3
u = 0 1 = 3 A A = 1
3

u = 3 1 = 3B B = 1 3

180
1 du 1 du 1 1
() = +
3 u 3 (u + 3)
= u + u+3 +c
3 3
1 1
= cos 1 + cos + 2 + c , Como: cos < 1 , se tiene:
3 3
1 1 1 2 + cos
= 1 cos + 2 + cos + c = +c
3 3 3 1 cos
4 x 4 2 x3 x 2 + 3x + 1
7.45.- dx
( x3 + x 2 x 1)
Solucin.-
4 x 4 2 x3 x 2 + 3x + 1 9 x2 + x 5
( x3 + x 2 x 1) dx =
4 x 6 + dx
x3 + x 2 x 1
(9 x 2 + x 5)dx (9 x 2 + x 5)dx
= 4dx 6dx + = 2 x 2
6 x + x3 + x 2 x 1 ()
x3 + x 2 x 1
Trabajando slo la integral resultante:
(9 x 2 + x 5)dx (9 x 2 + x 5)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 + x 2 x 1 ( x + 1)2 ( x 1) = ( x + 1) + ( x + 1)2 + ( x 1) () , luego:
=

(9 x 2 + x 5) A B C
= + +
( x + x x 1) ( x + 1) ( x + 1)
3 2 2
x 1
= 9 x + x 5 = A( x + 1)( x 1) + B( x 1) + C ( x + 1) 2
2

x = 1 5 = 4C C = 5
4

x = 1 3 = 2 B B = 3
2

x = 0 5 = A B + C A = 31 4
31 dx 3 dx 5 dx 31 3 5
() = + = x +1 + + x 1 + c
4 ( x + 1) 2 ( x + 1) 4 ( x 1) 4
2
2( x + 1) 4
31 3 5
() = 2 x 2 6 x + x +1 + + x 1 + c
4 2( x + 1) 4
3 x 4 dx
7.46.- 2
( x + 1) 2
Solucin.-
3 x 4 dx 3 x 4 dx 2 x2 + 1 2 x2 + 1
( x2 + 1)2 = ( x 4 + 2 x2 + 1) = 3 1 ( x 2 + 1)2 dx = 3 dx 3 ( x 2 + 1)2 dx
2 x2 + 1
= 3 x 3 2 dx ()
( x + 1) 2
Trabajando slo la integral resultante:
(2 x 2 + 1)dx ( Ax + B)dx (Cx + D)dx
( x 2 + 1)2 = ( x2 + 1) + ( x 2 + 1)2 () , luego:

181
(2 x 2 + 1) Ax + B Cx + D
= 2 + 2 2 x 2 + 1 = ( Ax + B )( x 2 + 1) + Cx + D
( x + 1)
2 2
( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2

2 x 2 + 1 = Ax3 + Ax + Bx 2 + B + Cx + D 2 x 2 + 1 = Ax3 + Bx 2 + ( A + C ) x + ( B + D)
Igualando coeficientes: A = 0, B = 2, A + C = 0 C = 0, B + D = 1 D = 1
dx dx 1 x
() = 2 2 2 = 2 arc gx arc gx + +c
( x + 1) ( x + 1) 2
2 1 + x2
3 x
= arc gx +c
2 2(1 + x 2 )
9 x
() = 3 x arc gx +c
2 2(1 + x 2 )
(2 x 2 + 41x 91)dx
7.47.-
x3 2 x 2 11x + 12
Solucin.-
(2 x 2 + 41x 91)dx (2 x 2 + 41x 91)dx
x3 2 x 2 11x + 12 = ( x 1)( x + 3)( x 4)
(2 x 2 + 41x 91)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
= = + + ()
( x 1)( x + 3)( x 4) x 1 x+3 x4
(2 x 2 + 41x 91) A B C
= + +
( x 1)( x + 3)( x 4) x 1 x + 3 x 4
(2 x 2 + 41x 91) = A( x + 3)( x 4) + B ( x 1)( x 4) + C ( x 1)( x + 3)
x = 3 18 123 91 = B(4)(7) B = 7

x = 4 32 + 164 91 = C (3)(7) C = 5
x = 1 2 + 41 91 = A(4)(3) A = 4

dx dx dx
() = 4 7 + 5 = 4 x 1 7 x + 3 + 5 x 4 + c
( x 1) ( x + 3) ( x 4)
( x 1) 4 ( x 4)5
= +c
( x + 3)7
(2 x 4 + 3 x 3 x 1)dx
7.48.-
( x 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2
Solucin.-
2 x 4 + 3x3 x 1 Adx ( Bx + C )dx ( Dx + E )dx
( x 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2)2 dx = ( x 1) + ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( x2 + 2 x + 2)2 () , luego:
2 x 4 + 3x 2 x 1 A Bx + C Dx + E
= + 2 + 2
( x 1)( x + 2 x + 2)
2 2
( x 1) ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
2 x 4 + 3 x3 x 1 = A( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2 + ( Bx + C )( x 1)( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( Dx + E )( x 1)
2 x 4 + 3 x3 x 1 = A( x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 + 4 x3 + 4 x 2 + 8 x) + B ( x 4 + 2 x3 + 2 x 2 x3 2 x 2 2 x)
+C ( x3 + 2 x 2 + 2 x x 2 2 x 2) + D( x 2 x) + E ( x 1)

182
2 x 4 + 3 x3 x 1 = ( A + B ) x 4 + (4 A + B + C ) x3 + (8 A + C + D) x 2
+ (8 A 2 B D + E ) x + (4 A 2C E )
Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A + B = 2

4A + B + C = 3
8A + C +D = 0

8A 2B D + E = 1
4A 2C E = 1

A= 3 , B = 47 , C = 16 , D = 8 , E = 1
25 25 25 5 5
3 dx 1 (47 x + 16)dx 1 (8 x 1)dx
() = + 2 2
25 x 1 25 ( x + 2 x + 2) 5 ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
47 ( x + 8 ( x 8 )dx
16 )dx 1
3
= x 1 + 2 47 2
25 25 ( x + 2 x + 2) 5 ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
47 (2 x + 2) 47 4 (2 x + 2) 4
62 9
3
x 1 +
5 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) 2
= dx dx
25 50 ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
3 47 (2 x + 2)dx 62 dx 4 (2 x + 2)dx
= x 1 + 2 2 2
25 50 ( x + 2 x + 2) 50 ( x + 2 x + 2) 5 ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
9 dx
+ 2
5 ( x + 2 x + 2) 2
3 47 62 dx 4 1
= x 1 + x2 + 2 x + 2 + 2
25 50 50 ( x + 1) + 1 5 ( x + 2 x + 2)
2

9 dx
+
5 ( x + 1) 2 + 1 2

3 47 62 4
= x 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 2 arc g ( x + 1) +
25 50 50 5( x + 2 x + 2)
2

9 1 1 x +1
+ arc g ( x + 1) + +c
5 2 2 x + 2 x + 2
2

3 47 17 9 x + 17
= x 1 + x 2 + 2 x + 2 arc g ( x + 1) + +c
25 50 50 10( x 2 + 2 x + 2)
dx
7.49.- 2 x
e + ex 2
Solucin.-
dx dx dx
e 2 x + e x 2 = (e x ) 2 + e x 2 = (e x ) 2 + e x + 1 2 1
4 4

183
dx du
= () , Sea: u = e x + 1 , du = e x dx dx =
2
e x + 1 ( 3 ) 2 2 u 1
2 2 2
Luego:
du
u 1 du Adu Bdu Cdu
() 2 2 =
= + ()
u ( 3 )2 (u 1 )(u + 3 )(u 3 ) u 1 (u + 3 ) (u 3 )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 A B C
= +
(u 1 )(u + 3 )(u 3 ) (u 1 2) (u + 3 ) (u 3 )
2 2 2 2 2
1 = A(u + )(u ) B (u )(u ) + C (u )(u + 3 )
3 3 1 3 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
u = 1 1 = A(2)(1) A = 1
2 2

u = 3 1 = B (2)(3) B = 1
2 6

u = 3 2 1 = C (1)(3) C = 1 3

1 du 1 du 1 du
() = + +
2 (u ) 6 (u + ) 3 (u 3 )
1 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= (u 1 ) + (u + 3 ) + (u 3 ) + c
2 2 6 2 3 2
(u + 3 )(u 3 ) 2
2 + c = 1 (e + 2)(e 1) + c = 1 (e + 2)(e 1) + c
x x 2 x x 2
1
= 2
6 (u 1 )3 6 (e x )3 6 e3 x
2
s e n xdx
7.50.-
cos x(1 + cos 2 x)
Solucin.-
s e n xdx s e n xdx du Adu ( Bu + C )du
cos x(1 + cos2 x) = cos x(1 + cos2 x) = u(1 + u 2 ) = u (1 + u 2 ) ()
Sea: u = cos x, du = s e n xdx
1 A ( Bu + C )
= + 1 = A(1 + u 2 ) + ( Bu + C )u
u (1 + u ) u (1 + u 2 )
2

1 = A + Au 2 + Bu 2 + Cu 1 = ( A + B )u 2 + Cu + A
Igualando Coeficientes se tiene:
A + B = 0 B = A B = (1) B = 1

C = 0,
A =1

du udu
() = + = u + 1 + u 2 + c = cos x + 1 + (cos x) 2 + c
u 1+ u 2

184
1 + (cos x) 2
= +c
cos x
(2 + g 2 ) sec2 d
7.51.-
1 + g 3
Solucin.-
(2 + g 2 ) sec2 d (2 + u 2 )du (2 + u 2 )du
1 + g 3
= (1 + u 3 ) (1 + u)(u 2 u + 1) ()
=

Sea: u = g , du = sec2 d
(2 + u 2 )du Adu Bu + C
(1 + u 3 ) = (1 + u) + (u 2 u + 1) , luego:
(2 + u 2 ) A Bu + C
= + 2 (2 + u 2 ) = A(u 2 u + 1) + ( Bu + C )(1 + u )
(1 + u ) (1 + u ) (u u + 1)
3

(2 + u 2 ) = Au 2 Au + A + Bu 2 + Bu + C + Cu
(2 + u 2 ) = ( A + B)u 2 + ( A + B + C )u + A + C
Igualando Coeficientes se tiene:
A+ B =1

A + B + C = 0 A = 1, B = 0, C = 1
A + C = 2

du du du du
() = + 2 = +
1+ u u u +1 1+ u (u 1 ) 2 + ( 3 ) 2
2 2
u 1
= 1+ u +
1
arc g 2 + c = 1 + u + 2 arc g 2u 1 + c
3 3 3 3
2 2
2 (2 g 1)
= 1 + g + arc g +c
3 3
(5 x 3 + 2)dx
7.52.- 3
x 5x2 + 4 x
Solucin.-

(5 x3 + 2)dx (5 x3 + 2)dx Adx Bdx Cdx


x3 5 x2 + 4 x = x( x 1)( x 4) = x + ( x 1) + ( x 4) ()
(5 x3 + 2) A B C
= + + , Luego:
x( x 1)( x 4) x ( x 1) ( x 4)
(5 x3 + 2) = A( x 1)( x 4) + Bx( x 4) + Cx( x 1)
Igualando Coeficientes se tiene:

185
x = 0 2 = 4A A = 1
2

x = 1 7 = 3B B = 7
3

x = 4 322 = 12C C = 161 6

1 dx 7 dx 161 dx 1 7 161
() = + = x x 1 + x4 +c
2 x 3 x 1 6 x 4 2 3 6
3 14 161 1 x3 ( x 4)161
= x x 1 + x4 +c = +c
6 3 6 6 ( x 1)14
x5 dx
7.53.-
( x3 + 1)( x3 + 8)
Solucin.-
x 5 dx x5 dx
( x3 + 1)( x3 + 8) ( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1)( x + 2)( x2 2 x + 4)
=

Adx Bdx (Cx + D )dx ( Ex + F )dx


= + + 2 + 2 () , luego:
( x + 1) ( x + 2) ( x x + 1) ( x 2 x + 4)
x5 A B Cx + D Ex + F
= + + 2 + 2 , luego:
( x + 1)( x + 8) ( x + 1) ( x + 2) ( x x + 1) ( x 2 x + 4)
3 3

x5 = A( x + 2)( x 2 x + 1)( x 2 2 x + 4) + B( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1)( x 2 2 x + 4)


+ (Cx + D)( x + 1)( x + 2)( x 2 2 x + 4) + ( Ex + F )( x + 1)( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1)
x5 = A( x 5 + 8 x 2 x 4 8 x + x3 + 8) + B ( x5 2 x 4 + 4 x 3 + x 2 2 x + 4)
+ (Cx + D)( x 4 + 8 x + x3 + 8) + ( Ex + F )( x 4 + 2 x3 + x + 2)
x5 = ( A + B + C + E ) x5 + ( A 2 B + C + D + 2 E + F ) x 4 + ( A + 4 B + D + 2 F ) x3
+ (8 A + B + 8C + E ) x 2 + (8 A 2 B + 8C + 8 D + 2 E + F ) x + (8 A + 4 B + 8 D + 2 F )
Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A + B + C + E =1

A 2B + C + D +2E+ F = 0
A +4B + D + 2F = 0

8A + B + 8C + E =0
8A 2B +8 C + 8 D + 2 E + F = 0

8A +4B +8D + 2 F = 0

A= 1 ,B = 8
, C = 2 , D = 1 , E = 16 , F = 16
21 21 21 21 21 21
1 dx 8 dx 1 (2 x 1)dx 16 ( x 1)dx
() =
21 x + 1 21 ( x + 2) 21 ( x 2 x + 1) 21 ( x 2 2 x + 4)
+ +

1 8 1 8 (2 x 2)dx
= x +1 + x+2 x2 x + 1 + 2
21 21 21 21 x 2 x + 4

186
1 8 1 8
= x +1 + x+2 x2 x + 1 x2 2x + 4 + c
21 21 21 21
8
1 ( x + 2)( x 2 2 x + 4)
= +c
21 ( x + 1)( x 2 x + 1)

187
CAPITULO 8

INTEGRACION DE FUNCIONES RACIONALES D SENO Y COSENO


Existen funciones racionales que conllevan formas trigonomtricas, reducibles por
si a: seno y coseno. Lo conveniente en tales casos es usar las siguientes
x 2dz
sustituciones: z = g , de donde: x = 2 arc gz y dx = . Es fcil llegar a verificar
2 1+ z2
2z 1 z2
que de lo anterior se consigue: s e n x = y cos x =
1+ z2 1+ z2

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS
dx
8.1.-Encontrar:
2 cos x
1
Solucin.- La funcin racional con expresin trigonomtrica es: , y su
2 cos x
solucin se hace sencilla, usando sustituciones recomendadas, este es:
x 2dz 1 z2
z = g , x = 2 arc gz , dx = , cos x =
2 1+ z2 1+ z2
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z2 = 1+ z2 2dz 2dz
2 cos x 1 z 2 2 + 2 z 1 + z 2 = 3z 2 + 1 = 3( z 2 + 1 )
=
2 3
1+ z2 1+ z2
2 dz 2 x
= = 3 arc g 3z + c , recordando que: z = g , se tiene:
3 z +( 1 ) 3
2 2 2
3
2 x
= 3 arc g 3 g + c
3 2
dx 2 x
Respuesta: = arc g 3 g + c
2 cos x 3 2
dx
8.2.-Encontrar:
2sen x
1
Solucin.- Forma racional: ,
2sen x
x 2dz 2z
sustituciones: z = g , x = 2 arc gz , dx = ,sen x =
2 1+ z 2
1+ z2
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2 2 dz dz
2 s e n x 2 z 2 + 2 z 2 2 z = 2 (1 + z 2 z ) = ( z 2 z + 1)
= =
2
1+ z2 1+ z2

188
Ahora bien: z 2 z + 1 = ( z 2 z + 1 ) + 1 1 = ( z 1 ) 2 + 3 = ( z 1 ) 2 + ( 3 ) 2
4 4 2 4 2 2
2z 1
dx 1 z 1
= arc g 2 + c = 2 arc g 2 + c
( z 1 )2 + ( 3 )2 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
2 2z 1 x
= arc g + c ,recordando que: z = g , se tiene:
3 3 2
2 3 2 g x 1
= arc g 2 +c
3 3
dx 2 3 2 g x 1
Respuesta: = arc g 2 +c
2sen x 3 3
d
8.3.-Encontrar:
4 5cos
1
Solucin.- Forma racional: ,
4 5cos
2dz 1 z2
sustituciones: z = g , x = 2 arc gz , dx = , cos x =
2 1+ z2 1+ z2
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2 2dz 2dz
= = = 2 =
4 5cos 1 z 2
4 + 4z 5 + 5z
2 2
9z 1 9( z 1 )
2
4 5 2
9
1+ z 1+ z 2

z 1
2
= 2
dz
=
2 1
3 + c = 1 3z 1 + c
9 z ( 1 )2 9 2 ( 1 ) z+ 1 3 3z + 1
3 3 3
1 3 g 1
Recordando que: z = g , se tiene: = 2 +c
2 3 3 g +1
2
d 1 3 g 1
Respuesta: = 2 +c
4 5cos 3 3 g + 1
2
d
8.4.-Encontrar:
3cos + 4s e n
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz 2dz
d 1+ z2 1+ z2
3cos + 4s e n 1 z 2 2 z 3 3z 2 + 8z
= =
3 2
+ 4 2
1+ z 1+ z 1+ z2

189
2dz 2 dz
= = , pero:
3( z 2 8 z 1) 3 z2 8 z 1
3 3
z 2 8 z 1 = ( z 2 8 z + 16 ) 1 16 = ( z 4 ) 2 ( 5 ) 2 , luego:
3 3 9 9 3 3
2 dz
= , sea: w = z 4 , dw = dz ; de donde:
3 ( z 4 )2 ( 5 )2 3
3 3
z4 5
=
2 1
3 3 + c = 1 3z 9 + c , como: z = g , se tiene:
3 2( 5 ) z4 +5 5 3z + 1 2
3 3 3
1 3 g 9
= 2 +c
5 3 g +1
2
d 1 3 g 9
Respuesta: = 2 +c
3cos + 4s e n 5 3 g + 1
2
d
8.5.-Encontrar:
3 + 2 cos + 2s e n
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz 2dz
d
3 + 2 cos + 2s e n = 1 z12+z 2 z = 2 12+z 2z 4 z
2 2

3+ 2 2
+ 2 2
3+ +
1 + z 1 + z 1 + z 2
1+ z2
2dz
1+ z2 2dz 2dz
= = 2 = = 2 arc g ( z + 2) + c
3 + 3z + 2 2 z + 4 z
2 2
z + 4z + 5 ( z + 2) 2 + 1
1+ z2
Como: z = g , se tiene: = 2 arc g ( g + 2) + c
2 2
d
Respuesta: = 2 arc g ( g + 2) + c
3 + 2 cos + 2s e n 2
dx
8.6.-Encontrar:
g s e n
Solucin.- Antes de hacer las sustituciones recomendadas, se buscar la
equivalencia correspondiente a g
2z
s e n 1+ z2 2z
g = = = , procdase ahora como antes:
cos 1 z 2
1 z2
1+ z2

190
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2 2(1 z 2 )dz
g s e n 2 z 2 z 2 z (1 + z 2 ) 2 z (1 z 2 ) 2 z + 2 z 3 2 z + 2z 3
= = =
+
1 z2 1+ z2 (1 z 2 ) (1 + z 2 )
(2 2 z 2 )dz 1 3 1 dz 1 1
= 3
= z dz = 2 z + c
4z 2 2 z 4z 2
Como: z = g , se tiene: = (co g 2 ) g + c
1 1
2 4 2 2 2

= (co g 2 ) g + c
dx 1 1
Respuesta:
g s e n 4 2 2 2
dx
8.7.-Encontrar:
2+sen x
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2 dz dz
2+sen x =
2z
= 2 + 2z + 2z
2
= 2
z + z +1
= 2
(z + z + 1 ) + 3
2+ 4 4
1+ z 2
1+ z 2

(z + 1 )
=
2dz
=
1
arc g 2 + c = 2 arc g 2 z + 1 + c
( z + 1 )2 + ( 3 )2 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
2 2 g x + 1
Como: z = g x , se tiene: = arc g 2 +c
2 3 3
dx 2 2 g x + 1
Respuesta: = arc g 2 +c
2+sen x 3 3
cos xdx
8.8.-Encontrar:
1 + cos x
Solucin.-usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
1 z 2 2dz 1 z 2 2dz
2
1+ z2 1+ z2 1+ z 1+ z 2 (1 z 2 )dz (1 z 2 )dz
2
cos xdx
1 + cos x =
1 z2
= 1 + z 2 + 1 z 2 (1 + z 2 ) 2 (1 + z 2 )
= =
1+
1+ z2 1+ z2
( z 2 + 1)dz 2 dz
= = 1 + 2 dz = dz + 2 2 = z + 2 arc gz + c
( z + 1)
2
z +1 z +1
x x
Como: z = g x , se tiene: = g + 2 arc g ( g ) + c
2 2 2
cos xdx x
Respuesta: = g + x + c
1 + cos x 2

191
dx
8.9.-Encontrar:
1 + s e n x + cos x
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz
dx 1+ z2 2dz
1 + s e n x + cos x 2 z 1 z 2 = 1 + z 2 + 2 z + 1 z 2
=
1+ +
2 2
1+ z 1+ z
2dz dz
= = = z + 1 + c , como: z = g x , se tiene: = g x + 1 + c
2z + 2 z +1 2 2
dx
Respuesta: = g x +1 + c
1 + s e n x + cos x 2
dx
8.10.-Encontrar:
cos x + 2s e n x + 3
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz
dx 1+ z2 2dz 2dz
cos x + 2s e n x + 3 1 z 2 4 z = 1 z 2 + 4 z + 3 + 3z 2 = 2 z 2 + 2 z + 2
=
2
+ 2
+3
1+ z 1+ z
= arc g ( z + 1) + c , como: z = g ,
dz dz
= 2 =
z + 2z + 2 ( z + 1) + 1
2 2
Se tiene: = arc g ( g x + 1) + c
2
dx
Respuesta: = arc g ( g x + 1) + c
cos x + 2s e n x + 3 2
s e n xdx
8.11.-Encontrar:
1+ s e n2 x
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2 z 2dz 4 zdz
2 2
1 + z 1 + z (1 + z ) =
2 2
s e n xdx 4 zdz 4 zdz
1+ s e n2 x =
2z
2 4z 2 (1 + z ) + 4 z
2 2 2
=
1+ 2z + z4 + 4z2
2

1+ 2
1 +
1+ z (1 + z 2 ) 2
4 zdz 4 zdz 4 zdz
= 4 = 4 = 2
z + 6z +12
( z + 6 z + 9) 8
2
( z + 3) 2 ( 8) 2
Sea: w = z 2 + 3, dw = 2 zdz
dw 2 w 8 8 w 8 8 z2 + 3 8
= 2 = + c = + c = +c
w2 ( 8) 2 2 8 w+ 8 8 w+ 8 8 z2 + 3 + 8

z2 + 3 8 g2 x 2 + 3 2 2
Como: z = g , se tiene: =
2
2 +c =
2
2 +c
2 4 z +3+ 8 4 g x2 +3+ 2 2

192
s e n xdx 2 g2 x 2 + 3 2 2
Respuesta: = 2 +c
1+ s e n2 x 4 g x2 +3+ 2 2
d
8.12.-Encontrar:
5 + 4 cos
Solucin.-usando las sustituciones recomendadas:

2dz
dx 1+ z2 2dz 2dz dz
5 + 4 cos = 1 z
2
=
5 + 5z + 4 4 z
2 2
= 2
z +9
= 2 2 2
z +3
5 + 4 2
1+ z
2 z 2 g 2
= arc g + c , como: z = g , se tiene: = arc g +c
3 3 2 3 3
d 2 g 2
Respuesta: = arc g +c
5 + 4 cos 3 3
dx
8.14.-Encontrar:
s e n x + cos x
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz
dx 1+ z2 2dz dz
s e n x + cos x 2 z 1 z 2 = 2 z + 1 z 2 = 2 ( z 2 + 2 z + 1)
=
+
2 2
1+ z 1+ z
dz dz 1 z 1 2
= 2 = 2 =2 +c
( z 2 z + 1) 2
2
( z 1) ( 2)
2 2
2 2 z 1+ 2

2 z 1 2 2 g x 2 1 2
= + c , como: z = g x
2
, se tiene: = +c
2 z 1 + 2 2 g x 2 1+ 2

dx 2 g x 2 1 2
Respuesta: = +c
s e n x + cos x 2 g x 2 1 + 2
sec xdx
8.14.-Encontrar:
sec x + 2 gx 1
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
1 2dz
dx
sec x + 2 gx 1 = 1 cos2sx e n x = 1 + 2s e n x cos x = 4 z1 +z 1 z 2
sec xdx dx 2

+ 1 1+
2 2
cos x cos x 1+ z 1+ z

193
2dz
1+ z2 2dz 2 dz dz
= = 2 = = ()
1 + z + 4 z 1 + z
2 2
2z + 4z 2 ( z + 2 z)
2
z ( z + 2)
1+ z2
1 A B
Ahora bien: = + , de donde:
z ( z + 2) z z + 2
1 A( z + 2) + B ( z )
= 1 = A( z + 2) + B ( z ) , de donde: A = 1 , B = 1
z ( z + 2) z ( z + 2) 2 2
1 dz 1 dz
dz 1 dz 1 dz 1 1
() = 2 2 = = z z+2 +c
z ( z + 2) z z+2 2 z 2 z+2 2 2
1 z 1 g x2
= + c , como: z = g x , se tiene: = +c
2 z+2 2 2 g x2 + 2

sec xdx 1 g x2
Respuesta: = +c
sec x + 2 gx 1 2 g x2 + 2
dx
8.15.-Encontrar:
1 cos x + s e n x
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z2 1+ z2 2dz
1 cos x + s e n x 1 z 2 2 z 1 + z 2 1 + z 2 + 2 z = 2 z 2 + 2 z
= =
1 +
2 2
1+ z 1+ z 1+ z2
2 dz dz
= = ()
2 ( z + z)
2
z ( z + 1)
1 A B
Ahora bien: = + , de donde se tiene:
z ( z + 1) z z + 1
1 A( z + 1) + B ( z )
= 1 = A( z + 1) + B ( z ) , de donde: A = 1, B = 1 , luego:
z ( z + 1) z ( z + 1)
dz dz dz z
z ( z + 1) =
z

z +1
= z z +1 + c =
z +1
+ c , como: z = g x ,
2
g x2
Se tiene: = +c
g x 2 +1

dx g x2
Respuesta: = +c
1 cos x + s e n x g x 2 +1
dx
8.16.-Encontrar:
8 4s e n x + 7 cos x

194
Solucin.- usando las sustituciones recomendadas:
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z2 1+ z2
8 4s e n x + 7 cos x 8 z 1 z 2 8 + 8 z 2 8 z + 7 7 z 2
= =
8 2
+ 7 2
1+ z 1+ z 1+ z2
2dz 2dz
= 2 = ()
z 8 z + 15 ( z 3)( z 5)
2 A B
Ahora bien: = + , de donde se tiene:
( z 3)( z 5) ( z 3) ( z 5)
2 = A( z 5) + B( z 3) , de donde: A = 1, B = 1 , luego:
2dz dz dz z 5
( z 3)( z 5) = z 3 + z 5 = z 3 + z 5 + c = z 3 + c ,
g x2 5
como: z = g x , se tiene: = +c
2 g x2 3

dx g x2 5
Respuesta: = +c
8 4s e n x + 7 cos x g x2 3

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS
dx dx s e n xdx
8.17.- 8.18.- 8.19.-
1 + cos x 1 cos x 1 + cos x
cos xdx d s e n d
8.20.- 8.21.- 8.22.-
2 cos x 5 4 cos cos cos 2
2

8.23.- sec xdx cos d d


8.24.- 8.25.-
5 + 4 cos cos + co g

RESPUESTAS
dx
8.17.-
1 + cos x
Solucin.-
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2
1 + cos x 1 z 2 1 + z 2 + 1 z 2 = dz = z + c = g x 2 + c
= =
1+ 2
1+ z 1+ z2
dx
8.18.-
1 cos x
Solucin.-

195
2dz 2dz
dx 1+ z 2 1+ z2 2 dz 1
1 cos x 1 z 2 1 + z 2 1 z 2 = 2 z 2 = z + c = co g x 2 + c
= =
1 2
1+ z 1+ z2
s e n xdx
8.19.-
1 + cos x
Solucin.-
2 z 2dz 4 zdz
2 2 (1 + z 2 ) 2
s e n xdx 1 + z 1 + z = 4 zdz 2 zdz
1 + cos x =
1 z 2 1+ z +1 z
2 2
=
2(1 + z )
2
=
(1 + z 2 )
1+ 2
1+ z 1+ z2
= 1+ z2 + c = 1+ g 2 x + c
2
cos xdx
8.20.-
2 cos x
Solucin.-
2dz
2
cos xdx 2 dx 1+ z
2 cos x 2 cos x
= 1 + dx = dx + 2 2 cos x
= dx + 2 1 z2
2 2
1+ z
2dz
(1 + z 2 ) 2dz 4 dz
= dx + 2 = dx + 2 = dx + 2
2 + 2z 1 + z
2 2
3z + 1
2
3 (z + 1 )
3
1+ z2
4 dz 1 z 4 3
= dx + = x + 4 arc g + c = x + arc g 3 z + c
3 z +( 1
2
) 2 3 1 1 3
3 3 3
4 3
= x + arc g ( 3 g x ) + c
3 2
d
8.21.-
5 4 cos
Solucin.-
2dz 2dz
d 2 (1 + z 2 )
1+ z = 2dz 2 dz
5 4 cos 1 z 2 5 + 5 z 2 4 + 4 z 2 = 9 z 2 + 1 = 9 ( z 2 + 1)
=
5 4 2
1+ z 1+ z2
2 dz 2 1 z 2 2
= 2 = arc g + c = arc g 3z + c = arc g (3 g x ) + c
9 z +(1 ) 2
9 1 1 3 3 2
3 3 3

196
s e n d
8.22.-
cos cos 2
2

Solucin.-
2 z 2dz 4 zdz
s e n d 2 2 (1 + z 2 ) 2
1 + z 1 + z
cos2 cos 2 1 z 2 2 1 z 2
= = (1 z 2 )2 (1 z 2 )(1 + z 2 ) 2(1 + z 2 )2
2
2
2
1+ z 1+ z (1 + z 2 ) 2
4 zdz 1 2 zdz 1 1
= = 2 = z2 1 + c = g 2 x 1 + c
6 z 2
2
3 (z 1 ) 3 3 3 2 3
3
8.23.- sec xdx
Solucin.-
2dz
dx 1+ z2 2dz 2dz
sec xdx = cos x
=
1 z 2
=
(1 z )
2
=
(1 + z )(1 z )
()

1+ z2
2 A B
Ahora bien: = + , de donde: A = 1, B = 1 , luego:
(1 + z )(1 z ) 1 + z 1 z
2dz dz dz 1+ z
() = = 1+ z 1 z + c = +c
(1 + z )(1 z ) 1+ z 1 z 1 z
1+ g x
Como: z = g x , Se tiene: = 2 +c
2 1 g x
2
cos d
8.24.-
5 + 4 cos
Solucin.-
1 z 2 2dz 2(1 z 2 )dz
2 2
d 1+ z 1+ z = (1 + z 2 ) 2 (2 2 z 2 )dz
5 + 4 cos =
1 z2 (5 + 5 z 2 + 4 4 z 2 ) (1 + z 2 )(9 + z 2 )
=
5 + 4 2
1+ z (1 + z 2 )
2 2z2 Az + B Cz + D
Ahora bien: = 2 + 2 , de donde: A = 0, B = 1 , C = 0, D = 5 ,
( z + 1)( z + 9)
2 2
z +1 z +9 2 2
luego:
(2 2 z 2 ) 1 dz 5 dz 1 5 z
( z 2 + 1)( z 2 + 9) = 2 z 2 + 1 2 z 2 + 9 = 2 arc gz + 2 arc g 3 + c
g 2 5 g 2
= arc g arc g (
1 5
) + c = arc g ( )+c
2 2 6 3 4 6 3
d
8.25.-
cos + co g

197
Solucin.-
2dz 2dz
d (1 + z 2 )
1+ z2
cos + co g = 1 z 2 1 z 2 = 2 z (1 z 2 ) + (1 z 2 )(1 + z 2 )
+
2
1 + z 2z (1 + z 2 )2 z
4 zdz 4 zdz 4 zdz
= = = ()
2 z (1 z ) + (1 z )(1 + z )
2 2 2
(1 z )( z + 2 z + 1)
2 2
(1 + z 3 )(1 z )
4z A B C D
Ahora bien: = + + +
(1 + z )(1 z ) 1 + z (1 + z ) (1 + z ) (1 z )
3 2 3

De donde: A = 1 , B = 1, C = 2, D = 1 , luego:
2 2
4z 1 dz dz dz 1 dz
() = + 2 +
(1 + z )(1 z ) 2 1 + z
3
(1 + z ) 2
(1 + z ) 2 1 z
3

1 1 1 1 1 1+ z 1 1
= 1+ z + 1 z + c = + +c
2 1 + z (1 + z ) 22
2 1 z 1 + z (1 + z ) 2
1 1 + z (1 + z ) + 1 1 1+ z z 1 1+ g g 2
= + +c = +c = 2 +c
2 1 z (1 + z ) 2 2 1 z (1 + z ) 2 2 1 g (1 + g ) 2
2 2

198
CAPITULO 9

INTEGRACION DE FUNCONES IRRACIONALES

En el caso de que el integrando contiene potencias faccionarias de la variable de


integracin, estas se simplifican usando una sustitucin del tipo:
x = t n , n x = t , siendo n el m.c.m de los denominadores de los exponentes.

EJERCICIOS DESARROLLADOS
xdx
9.1.-Encontrar:
1+ x
Solucin.- La nica expresin irracional es x , por lo tanto:
x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt , luego:
xdx t (2tdt ) t 2 dt 1 dt
1+ x
=
1+ t 2
= 2 1+ t 2
= 2 1 2
1+ t
dt = 2 dt 2 2
t +1
= 2t 2 arc gt + c

Dado que: t = x , se tiene: = 2 x 2 arc g x + c


xdx
Respuesta: = 2 x 2 arc g x + c
1+ x
dx
9.2.-Encontrar:
x (1 + x )
Solucin.- Anlogamente al caso anterior: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt , luego:
dx 2 t dt 2dt
x (1 + x )
=
t (1 + t )
=
1+ t
= 2 t +1 + c

Dado que: t = x , se tiene: = 2 x +1 + c


dx
Respuesta: = 2 x +1 + c
x (1 + x )
dx
9.3.-Encontrar:
3+ x + 2
Solucin.- La expresin irracional es ahora x + 2 , por lo tanto:
x + 2 = t x = t 2 2, dx = 2tdt , luego:
dx 2tdt 3 dt
3 + x + 2 = 3 + t = 2 1 t + 3 dt = 2 dt 6 t + 3 = 2t 6 t + 3 + c
Dado que: t = x + 2 , se tiene: = 2 x + 2 6 x+2 +3 +c
dx
Respuesta: = 2 x+2 6 x+2 +3 +c
3+ x + 2

199
1 3x + 2
9.4.-Encontrar: dx
1 + 3x + 2
Solucin.- La expresin irracional es ahora 3x + 2 , por lo tanto:
3x + 2 = t 3 x = t 2 2, dx = 2 tdt , luego:
3
1 3x + 2 1 t 2 2 t t2 2 2
1 + 3x + 2 1 + t 3
dx = tdt =
3 1+ t
dt = t + 2
3
dt
t +1
2 4 4 dt 1 4 4
= tdt + dt = t2 + t t +1 + c
3 3 3 t +1 3 3 3
Dado que: t = 3 x + 2 , se tiene:
1 4 4
= (3x + 2) + 3x + 2 3x + 2 + 1 + c
3 3 3
= x +
2 4
3 3
4
3x + 2 3x + 2 + 1 + c = x +
3
2 4
3 3
(
3x + 2 3x + 2 + 1 + c )
Respuesta:
1 3x + 2
1 + 3x + 2
2 4
dx = x +
3 3
(
3x + 2 3x + 2 + 1 + c )
9.5.- Encontrar: 1 + x dx
Solucin.- La expresin irracional es ahora x , por lo tanto:
x = t x = t , dx = 2tdt ,
2
luego: ( 1 + x )dx = 1 + t 2tdt , como apareci la
expresin: 1 + t ; se procede anlogamente: w = 1 + t t = w2 1, dt = 2wdw , esto
4 w5 4 w3
es: 1 + t 2tdt = w2( w2 1)2 wdw = 4 ( w4 w2 )dw = +c
5 3
4(1 + t ) 2 4(1 + t ) 2
5 3

Dado que: w = 1 + t , se tiene: = +c


5 3
4(1 + x ) 2 4(1 + x ) 2
5 3

Respuesta: 1 + x dx = +c
5 3
dx
9.6.-Encontrar:
x +1 + 4 x +1
Solucin.- Previamente se tiene que el m.c.m. de los ndices de Las races es: 4 ,
por lo cual: x + 1 = t 4 , dx = 4t 3 dt , de donde:
dx 4t 3 dt t dt
x + 1 + 4 x + 1 t 2 + t = 4 t 1 + t 2 + t dt = 4 tdt 4 dt + 4 t + 1
=

= 2t 2 4t + 4 t + 1 + c , dado que: t = 4 x + 1
Se tiene: = 2( x + 1) 2 4( x + 1) 2 + 4 ( x + 1) 2 + 1 + c
1 1 1

dx
Respuesta: = 2( x + 1) 2 4( x + 1) 2 + 4 ( x + 1) 2 + 1 + c
1 1 1

x +1 + x +1
4

200
dx
9.7.-Encontrar:
x+3 x
Solucin.- Previamente se tiene que el m.c.m. de los ndices de Las races es: 6 ,
por lo cual: x = t 6 t = 6 x , dx = 6t 5 dt , de donde:
dx 6t 5 dt t 3 dt 2 1 dt
x + 3 x t 3 + t 2 t + 1 = 6 t t + 1 t + 1 dt = 6 t dt 6 tdt + 6 dt 6 t + 1
= = 2
6

= 2t 3 3t 2 + 6t 6 t + 1 + c
Dado que: t = 6 x
Se tiene: = 2( 6 x )3 3( 6 x ) 2 + 6 6 x 6 6
x +1 + c
dx
Respuesta: = 2 x 33 x + 6 6 x 6 6 x +1 + c
x+ x 3

dx
9.8.-Encontrar:
x + 1 + ( x + 1)3
Solucin.- Previamente se tiene igual ndice por lo
cual: x + 1 = t x = t 1, dx = 2tdt , de donde:
2

dx 2tdt dt
x + 1 + ( x + 1)3 = t + t 3 = 2 1 + t 2 = 2 arc gt + c
Dado que: t = x + 1 , Se tiene: = 2 arc g x + 1 + c
dx
Respuesta: = 2 arc g x + 1 + c
x + 1 + ( x + 1)3
x 1
9.9.-Encontrar: dx
3
x +1
Solucin.- Previamente se tiene que el m.c.m. de los ndices de Las races es: 6 ,
por lo cual: x = t 6 t = 6 x , dx = 6t 5 dt , de donde:
x 1 t3 1 5 t8 t5 t 1
3
x +1
dx = 2
t +1
6t dt = 6 2
t +1
dt = 6 t 6 t 4 t 3 + t 2 + t 1 2 dt
t +1

6 6 3 2t 2
= t 7 t 5 t 4 + 2t 3 + 3t 2 6t + c1 3 2 dt
7 5 2 t +1
6 7 6 5 3 4 2t 2 dt
= t t t + 2t 3 + 3t 2 6t + c1 3 2 dt + 6 2
7 5 2 t +1 t +1
6 6 3
= t 7 t 5 t 4 + 2t 3 + 3t 2 6t 3 t 2 + 1 + 6 arc gt + c
7 5 2
Dado que: t = 6 x , se tiene:
6 6 3
= x 6 x 6 x5 3 x 2 + 2 x + 3 3 x 6 6 x 3 1 + 3 x + 6 arc g 6 x + c
7 5 2

201
Respuesta:
x 1 6 6 66 5 33 2
3 x + 1dx = 7 x x 5 x 2 x + 2 x + 3 x 6 x 3 1 + x + 6 arc g x + c
3 6 3 6

xdx
9.10.-Encontrar:
x+2
Solucin.- La expresin irracional es x , por lo tanto:
x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt ,
xdx t (2tdt ) t 2 dt 2 dt
luego: = 2 = 2 2 = 2 1 2 dt = 2 dt 4 2
x+2 t +2 t +2 t +2 t +2
4 t
= 2t arc g + c , dado que: t = x , se tiene: = 2 x 2 2 arc g x + c
2 2 2
xdx
Respuesta: = 2 x 2 2 arc g x + c
x+2 2
( x + 1 + 2)dx
9.11.-Encontrar:
( x + 1) 2 x + 1
Solucin.- Previamente se tiene igual ndice por lo
cual: x + 1 = t x = t 1, dx = 2tdt , de donde:
2

( x + 1) 2 + 2 dx
1

( x + 1 + 2)dx t+2 (t + 2) t dt
( x + 1)2 x + 1 ( x + 1)2 ( x + 1) 12 = t 4 t 2tdt = 2 t (t 3 1)
=

(t + 2)dt
= 2 () , considerando que:
(t 1)(t 2 + t + 1)
t+2 A Bt + C
= + 2 A = 1, B = 1, C = 1
(t 1)(t + t + 1) (t 1) (t + t + 1)
2

Dado que: t = x + 1 , Se tiene: = 2 arc g x + 1 + c


(t + 2)dt dt t 1 dt t +1
() 2 = 2 + 2 2 dt = 2 2 2 dt
(t 1)(t + t + 1)
2
(t 1) (t + t + 1) (t 1) (t + t + 1)
1 (2t + 1) + 1
= 2
dt
2 2 2 2 dt = 2 dt (2t + 1)dt dt
(t 1) (t + t + 1) (t 1) (t + t + 1)
2 (t + t + 1)
2

dt (2t + 1)dt dt
= 2 2 2
(t 1) (t + t + 1) (t + t + 1 ) + 3
4 4
2 2 t + 1
= 2 t 1 t 2 + t +1 arc g +c
3 3
(t 1) 2 2 2t + 1
= arc g +c
(t + t + 1)
2
3 3
Dado que: t = x + 1 , se tiene

202
( x + 1 + 2)dx ( x + 1 1) 2 2 2 x +1 +1
Respuesta: = arc g +c
( x + 1) x + 1
2
( x + 1 + x + 2) 3 3

EJERCICIOS PROPUESTOS

1+ x 1 x dx
9.12.- dx 9.13.- dx 9.14.-
1+ x 1+ x a+b x
x+a xdx x6 x
9.15.- dx 9.16.- 9.17.- dx
x+a 1+ 4 x 3
x +1
9.18.-
dx 1+ x x+a
dx 9.19.- dx 9.20.- dx
x2 x 1 x x+b
3
x +1 a2 x2 9.23.- x 2 x + adx
9.21.- dx 9.22.- dx
x x3
9.24.-
dx 9.25.- x 3 x 2 + a 2 dx
x + x + 28 x
4

RESPUESTAS
1+ x
9.12.- dx
1+ x
Solucin.- Sea: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt
1+ x 1+ t2 t + t3 2 2
1+ x 1+ t
dx = 2 tdt = 2 1 + t dt = 2 t t + 2 t + 1 dt
dt 2t 3 2 t 2
= 2 t 2 dt 2 tdt + 4 dt 4 = + 4t 4 t + 1 + c
t +1 3 2
2 x3
= x + 4 x 4 x +1 + c
3
1 x
9.13.- dx
1+ x
Solucin.- Sea: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt
1 x 1 t t t2 dt
1+ x 1+ t
= = 1 + t dt = 2 tdt + 4 dt 4 t + 1 = t + 4t 4 t + 1 + c
2
dx 2tdt 2

= x + 4 x 4 x +1 + c
dx
9.14.-
a+b x
Solucin.- Sea: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt

203
dx 2tdt tdt 1 a 1 2 2a bdt
a+b x
=
a + bt
= 2
a + bt
= 2 dt = dt 2
b b a + bt b b a + bt
2 2a 2 2a
= t 2 a + bt + c = x 2 a+b x +c
b b b b
x+a
9.15.- dx
x+a
Solucin.- Sea: x + a = t x = t 2 a, dx = 2tdt
x+a t 2 t dt
x+a
dx =
t2
= 2 dt = 2t + c = 2 x + a + c

xdx
9.16.-
1+ 4 x
Solucin.- m.c.m: 4 ; Sea: 4 x = t x = t 4 , dx = 4t 3 dt
xdx t 2 4t 3 dt t 5 dt 4 3 2 1
1+ 4 x 1+ t
= = 4 1 + t = 4 t t + t t + 1 t + 1 dt
t5 t4 t3 t2 4t 5 4 4t 3
= 4 + + t t +1 + c = t + 2t 2 + 4t 4 t + 1
5 4 3 2 5 3
5 3
4x 4 4x 4
= x+ 2x 2 + 4x 4 4 x 4 + 1
1 1 1

5 3
x x6
9.17.- 3 dx
x +1
Solucin.- m.c.m: 6 ; Sea: 6 x = t x = t 6 , dx = 6t 5 dt
x6 x t3 t 5 (t 8 t 6 )dt dt
3 x +1 = t2 +1 = t 2 + 1 = 6 t dt 2 t dt + 2 t dt 2 dt + 2 1 + t 2
6 4 2
dx 6t dt 6

t 7 2t 5 2t 3 6t 7 12t 5
= 6 + 2t + 2 arc gt + c = + 4t 3 12t + 12 arc gt + c
7 5 3 7 5
7 5
6 x 6 12 x 2
= + 4 x 2 12 x 6 + 12 arc gx 6 + c
1 1 1

7 5
dx
9.18.- dx
x2 x
Solucin.- Sea: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt
dx 2tdt (2t 1) + 1 2t 1 dt
x 2 x dx = t 2 2 t = t 2 t 2 dt = t 2 t 2dt + t 2 t 2
2t 1 dt 1 t3
= 2 dt + = t t 2 +
2
2 +c
t t 2 (t 1 ) 2 9 2 3 t+3
2 4 2 2

204
1 2t 3 1 2 x 3
= t2 t 2 + +c = x x 2 + +c
3 2t + 3 3 2 x +3
1+ x
9.19.- dx
1 x
Solucin.- Notar el lector, que este caso se diferencia de los anteriores, sin
embargo la tcnica que se seguir, tiene la misma fundamentacin y la
informacin que se consiga es valiosa. ()
1+ x 1+ x 2
Sea: =t = t 1 + x = t 2 t 2 x x(1 + t 2 ) = t 2 1
1 x 1 x
t 2 1 4tdt
x= 2 dx = 2 , luego:
t +1 (t + 1) 2
1+ x t 4tdt 4t 2 dt t 2 dt
() 1 x (t 2 + 1)2 (t 2 + 1)2 ( t 2 + 1)4 () , haciendo uso
dx = = = 4 de

sustituciones trigonomtricas convenientes en () , y de la figura se tiene:

t2 + 1
t


Se tiene: t = g , dt = sec d ; t + 1 = sec
2 2
1

t 2 dt 4 g 2 sec 2 d g 2
() 4 = = 4 sec2 d
( t 2 + 1) 4 sec 4
= 4 s e n 2 d = 2 d 2 cos 2 d = 2 s e n 2 + c = 2 2s e n cos + c
1+ x
2
1+ x
1 x + c
t 1 2t
= 2 arc gt 2 + c = 2 arc gt 2 + c = 2 arc g
t +1 t +1
2 2 t + 1 1 x 1+ x
+1
1 x
1+ x 1+ x
= 2 arc g (1 x) +c
1 x 1 x
x+a
9.20.- dx
x+b
Solucin.- Sea: x + a = t x = t 2 a, dx = 2tdt
x+a t 2tdt t 2 dt ba
x+b dx = t 2 a + b t 2 + (b a) = 2 1 t 2 + (b a) dt
= 2

dt 1 t
= 2 dt 2(b a ) 2 = 2t 2(b a) arc g +c
t + (b a ) ba ba

205
x+a
= 2 x + a 2 b a arc g +c
ba
x +1
3
9.21.- dx
x
Solucin.- Sea: 3 x + 1 = t x = t 3 1, dx = 3t 2 dt
x +1
3
t 3t 2 dt t 3 dt 1 dt
x dx = t 3 1 t 3 1 = 3 1 + t 3 1 dt = 3 dt + 3 t 3 1
= 3

dt
= 3 dt + 3 () , por fracciones parciales:
(t 1)(t 2 + t + 1)
3 A Bt + C
= + 2 3 = A(t 2 + t + 1) + ( Bt + C )(t 1) , de donde:
(t 1)(t + t + 1) (t 1) (t + t + 1)
2

A = 1, B = 1, C = 2 , luego:
dt t+2 2t + 1
() = 3 dt + 2 dt = 3t + t 1 1 t 2 + t + 1 3 arc g +c
t 1 t + t +1 2 3
a2 x2
9.22.- dx
x3
Solucin.- Sea: a 2 x 2 = t x 2 = a 2 t 2 , xdx = tdt
a2 x2 a 2 x 2 xdx ttdt t 2 dt t 2 dt
x3 dx = x4
= (a 2 t 2 )2 (a 2 t 2 )2 (a + t )2 (a t )2 ()
= =

Por fracciones parciales:


t 2 A B C D
= + + + , de donde:
(t + a ) (t a)
2 2
(t + a ) (t + a) (t a) (t a) 2
2

A = 1 a, B = 1 , C = 1 a, D = 1 , luego:
4 4 4 4
t dt
2
1 dt 1 dt 1 dt 1 dt
() =
(a + t ) (a t )
2 2
4a (t + a ) 4a (t + a ) 4a (t a) 4a (t a ) 2
2

1 1 1 1
= (t + a) + (t a) + +c
4a 4(t + a ) 4a 4(t a)
1 (t + a ) 1 1
= + + +c
4a (t a) 4(t + a) 4(t a)
1 a2 x2 + a a2 x2 1 a2 x2 + a a2 x2
= + +c = +c
4a a2 x2 a 2( a 2 x 2 a 2 ) 4a a2 x2 a 2 x2

1 ( a 2 x 2 + a)2 a2 x2 1 1 a2 x2
= + c = a2 x2 + a x +c
a 2 x 2 a 2
2
4a 2x 2a 2a 2 x2
9.23.- x 2 x + adx
Solucin.- Sea: x + a = t x = t 2 a, dx = 2tdt

206
x x + adx = (t 2 a) 2 t 2tdt = 2 t 2 (t 2 a )2 dt = 2 (t 6 2at 4 + a 2t 2 )dt
2

2t 7 4at 5 2a 2t 3
= 2 t 6 dt 4a t 4 dt + 2a 2 t 2 dt =
+ +c
7 5 3
2( x + a ) 2 4a ( x + a) 2 2a 2 ( x + a) 2
7 5 3

= + +c
7 5 3
dx
9.24.-
x + x + 28 x
4

Solucin.- Sea: 8 x = t x = t 8 , dx = 8t 7 dt
dx 8t 7 dt t 6 dt 3 t 2 + 4t + 4
x + 4 x + 2 8 x t + t + 2t
= 4 2
= 8 t 3 + t + 2
= 8 t t 2 +
t3 + t + 2
dt

t 2 + 4t + 4 t 4 8t 2 t 2 + 4t + 4
= 8 t 3 8 tdt 16 dt + 8 dt = 8 16t + 8 t 3 + t + 2 dt
t3 + t + 2 4 2
t 2 + 4t + 4
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 8 3 dt () , por fracciones parciales:
t +t +2
t 2 + 4t + 4 t 2 + 4t + 4 A Bt + C
= = + 2 A = 1 , B = 3 , C = 14 , luego:
(t + t + 2) (t + 1)(t t + 2) (t + 1) (t t + 2)
3 2 4 4 4
1 dt 3 t + 14
() = 2t 4t 16t + 8
4 2 4 + 42 4 dt
t +1 t t + 2

1 dt 1 3t + 14 dt 3t + 14
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 8 + 2 dt = 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 + 2 2 dt
4 t +1 4 t t + 2 t +1 t t + 2
3 2t + 3 3 + 3
28 31 31
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 t + 1 + 2 dt
2 t2 t + 2
(2t 1) dt
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 t + 1 + 3 2 dt + 31 2
t t + 2 t t + 2
dt
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 t + 1 + 3 t 2 t + 2 + 31
(t 1 ) 2 + 7
2 4
2 t 1
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 t + 1 + 3 t 2 t + 2 + 31 arc g 2 +c
7 7
2
62 2t 1
= 2t 4 4t 2 16t + 2 t + 1 + 3 t 2 t + 2 + arc g +c
7 7
2x 8 1
1
62
= 2 x 4 x 16 x + 2 x + 1 + 3 x x + 2 + arc g +c
1 1 1 1 1 1
2 4 8 8 4 8

7 7
9.25.- x3 x 2 + a 2 dx
Solucin.- Sea: x 2 + a 2 = t x 2 = t 2 a 2 , xdx = tdt

207
x x 2 + a 2 dx = x 2 x 2 + a 2 xdx = (t 2 a 2 )ttdt = (t 2 a 2 )t 2 dt = (t 4 a 2t 2 )dt
3

( x2 + a2 ) 2 a2 ( x2 + a2 ) 2 3 x + a a2
5 3
t 5 a 2t 3 2 2
= +c = + c = ( x2 + a2 ) 2 +c
5 3 5 3 5 3
3 3 x 2a
2 2
= ( x2 + a2 ) 2 +c
15

EJERCICIOS COMPLEMENTARIOS
A continuacin, se adjunta un listado de ejercicios que se proponen al lector.
Observar que no se indica tcnica alguna solicitada para el desarrollo de los
mismos, y que adems no se han respetado normas relativas a niveles de
dificultad, ni a las tcnicas mismas. Como siempre, se adjuntaran las soluciones
cuyos desarrollos pueden diferir de los aqu presentados. No importa, eso es
posible; adems una consulta con su profesor aclarar cualquier discrepancia.

Encontrar:
1.- t 3es e n t cos t 4 dt
4
d e d
2.- 3.-
(1 + ) 2 (1 + ) 2
4.- e g 3 sec 2 3 d 5.-
xdx x2 1
6.-
3
ax + b x +1
7.-
dx 8.- e 2 x dx e x dx
9.- x
(2 x) 1 x ae b
(t + 1)dt 12.- g d
10.- 2 11.- sec d
t + 2t 5 2
2 14.- sec 2 d 15.-
dx
13.- sen d
a b 5x
16.- sec (1 x)dx
2
17.-
xdx
18.-
dy
16 x 4
1+ 1+ y
20.- cos ec d 21.- t (1 t 2 ) 2 dt
1
dx
19.-
x+4 x+3
22.- t (1 t 2 ) 2 arcs e n tdt
1
1 + cos 2 x x2 + 1
23.- dx 24.- dx
s e n2 2x x3 x
e x dx dx (3 x + 4)dx
25.- 26.- 27.-
9e 2x ( x 1)3 2x + x2
ds dx xdx
28.- 29.- 30.-
4 s2 x2 x2 + e 1+ x

208
y 2 dy y 3 dy d
31.- 32.- 33.-
y +1 y2 1 1 + 2 cos
t 4 t 3 + 4t 2 2t + 1 d 36.- x(10 + 8 x 2 )9 dx
34.- dt 35.-
t3 +1 e
dx x3 dx x3 dx
37.- 38.- 39.-
(16 + x 2 )3 x2 + 4 16 x 2
40.- a ( x 2 + 1) 2 dy
1
dx dx
41.- 42.-
( 6 x 2 )3 x(3 + x)
ex x3 dx
43.- dx 45.-
16 + e 2 x 44.- cos 1 xdx x 1
2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6 47.- s e n x + 1dx 9x2 + 7 x 6
46.- dy 48.- dx
( y 1) 2 ( y 2 + 1) 2 x3 x
5w3 5w2 + 2w 1 50.-
3dx (1 x) 2 dx
49.- dw 51.-
w4 + w2 1 + 2x x
xe 2 x 53.- e 2t cos(et )dt 54.- x ( x 2 4)3 dx
2 3

52.- dx
2
10
s e n xesec x ds 1 1 z2
55.-
cos 2 x
dx 56.- s 13 (1 + s 2 3 ) 57.- 3 2 dz
z z
x (1 + x 2 ) co gxdx ax 2 bx + c
58.- dx 59.- 60.- dx
1 + x2 sen x ax 2 + bx c
61.-
dx
62.-
dx 63.- g16 xdx
cos 2 5 x 12 7 x
64.- g 4 sec 2 4 d xdx 7t 2
65.- 66.- dt
x5 7 2t 2
67.- (1 + x) cos xdx 68.-
dx
69.-
dx
x( 1 + x 1) co g 6 x
70.- co g (2 x 4)dx 71.- (et e 2t ) 2 dt ( x + 1)dx
72.-
( x + 2) 2 ( x + 3)
73.- (co ge x )e x dx s e n + arc gxdx
74.- d 75.-
cos + 1 (1 + x 2 ) 2
3

76.- x co g ( x 77.- x 4 x 2 2dx ( x 2 + 9) 2 dx


2 1

5
)dx 78.-
x4
79.- x 2 s e n 5 x3 cos x 3 dx 80.-
xdx x3 dx
81.- 2
5x2 + 7 x x6
82.- s e n 2 es e n d
2
dx dw
83.- x 84.-
e 9e x 1 + cos w

209
1 s e n 2 x 2
2
x3 dx s e n d



86.- 87.-
85.- e cos 2
3

(cos x s e n x )dx
3 1

2 2 19 x 2
88.- (sec + g ) d
2
89.-
dt 90.- a b 2 c3 d
t (4 + 2t ) 2
1

91.- s e n 2 cos3 d sec 2 d


1
dx
92.- 93.-
9 + g 2 e 16
2x

94.- (e 1)(e + 1)ds


2s 2s
95.- 2
dx x +1
3
96.- 3 dx
5x + 8x + 5 x x
97.- (arcs e n 1 x 2 )0 dx 99.- x(1 + x) 5 dx
1
3dy
98.-
1+ y
d tdt s s ds
100.- 101.- 102.-
a s e n + b 2 cos 2 (2t + 1) 2
2 2 1
(1 s 2 )
1
2

103.- (2 cos s e n s e n 2 )d 104.- t 4 2tdt


11
105.- u 2 (1 + v) dx
( + s e n 3 )d ( y 2 + 1)dy
1
ds
106.- 107.- 1 108.-
3 2 2 cos 3 s ( s 4) 2
3 1
2
y 2 ( y + 1)
109.- u (1 + u 2 ) 2 du ( x3 + x 2 )dx 111- adb
110.-
x2 + x 2
dx ( x + 1)dx 114.- f ( x) f ( x)dx
112.- 113.-
x 2x 82
2x x 2

x + 7 x2 5x + 5
3 1+ x + x 2 ( x 1)dx
115.- dx 116.- e dx 117.-
x2 + 2x 3 x2 4 x + 3
xdx 4dx co gxdx
118.- 119.- 120.-
x2 + 4 x + 5 x + 4x
3
sen x
121.- exp x 1dx 1 + x3 x 1 1
122.- dx 123.- dx
x x +1 x
s e n xdx dx xdx
124.- 125.- 126.-
1 + s e n x + cos x 3 + 2 cos x x2 2 x + 5
(1 + s e n x)dx dx
127.- 128.- 4
s e n x(2 + cos x) x +4

RESPUESTAS
1.- t 3es e n t cos t 4 dt
4

Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n t 4 , du = (cos t 4 )4t 3 dt ; luego:


1 1 u 1 u 1 s e n t4
=
4
=
4
= + = +c
3 sen t4 4 3 s e n t4 4
t e cos t dt 4t e cos t dt e du e c e
4 4

210
d
2.-
(1 + ) 2
Solucin.-
d Ad Bd
(1 + )2 = 1 + + (1 + )2 ()
A B
= + = A(1 + ) + B = A + ( A + B ) , de donde:
(1 + ) 1 + (1 + ) 2
2

d d d 1
A = 1, B = 1 , entonces: () = = 1+ + +c
(1 + ) 2
1+ (1 + ) 2
1+
e d
3.-
(1 + ) 2
Solucin.-
d

dv =
u=e (1 + ) 2
Sea:
du = e d v = 1+ +
1
1+
e d e 1
(1 + )2 ( 1+ +

= e 1 + + ) e d
1+ 1+
e e d
= e 1 + + e 1 + d () , resolviendo por partes la segunda
1+ 1+
d
u = e dv =
integral se tiene: 1+
du = e d v = 1+
e d
Luego: = e 1 + e 1 + d , esto es:
1+
e
() = e 1 + + e 1 + d e 1 + + e 1 + d
1+

e
=
1+
4.- e g 3 sec 2 3 d
Solucin.- Sea: u = g 3 , du = 3sec 2 3 d
1 u 1 u e g 3
e sec 3 d = 3
g 3 2
e du = e + c = +c
3 3
xdx
5.- 3
ax + b
t3 b 3t 2
Solucin.- Sea: ax + b = t 3 x = , dx = dt
a a

211
t 3 b 3t 2
dt
xdx a a 3t (t 3 b) 3 3 t 5 bt 2
= = =
a2
= +c
4
dt (t bt ) dt
3
ax + b t a2 a2 5 2
3(ax + b) 3 3b(ax + b) 3
5 2
3t 5 3bt 2
= 2
2 +c = +c
5a 2a 5a 2 2a 2
3(ax + b) 3 (ax + b) 2 3b 3 (ax + b) 2
= +c
5a 2 2a 2
x2 1
6.- dx
x +1
Solucin.-
x2 1 ( x + 1) ( x 1) ( x 1) 2
3
2( x 1) 2
3

dx = = ( x 1) 2 dx = +c = +c
1

x +1 x +1 3 3
2
2( x 1) x 1
= +c
3
dx
7.-
(2 x) 1 x
Solucin.- Sea: 1 x = t 2 x = 1 t 2 , dx = 2tdt
dx 2tdt dt
(2 x) 1 x = 2 (1 t 2 ) t = 2 1 + t 2 = 2 arc gt + c = 2 arc g 1 x + c

8.- e 2 x dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 2 x, du = dx
e dx = eu du = eu + c = e 2 x + c
2 x

e x dx
9.-
ae x b
Solucin.- Sea: u = ae x b, du = ae x dx
e x dx 1 du 1 1
ae x b = a u = a u + c = a ae b + c
x

(t + 1)dt
10.- 2
t + 2t 5
Solucin.- Sea: u = t 2 + 2t 5, du = 2(t + 1)dt
(t + 1)dt 1 du 1 1
t 2 + 2t 5 = 2 u = 2 u + c = 2 t + 2t 5 + c
2


11.- sec d
2
1
Solucin.- Sea: u = sec + g , du = (sec g + sec 2 )d
2 2 2 2 2 2

212
sec (sec + g ) sec2 + sec g
sec 2
d = 2
sec
2
+ g
2 d =
2
sec + g
2

2 d
2 2 2 2
= 2 u + c = 2 sec + g + c
du
= 2
u 2 2
12.- g d
Solucin.- Sea: u = cos , du = s e n d
s e n du 1
g d = cos d = u = u + c = cos + c = s ec + c
0
= 1 + s ec + c = s ec + c
2
13.- sen d
a b
Solucin.-
2
u= dv = s e n d
a b
Sea:
2 d
du = v = b cos
a b
2
a 2 2b
a s e n b d = b cos b + a cos b d () , resolviendo por partes la segunda

u = dv = cos d
b
integral se tiene:
du = d
v = bsen
b

a 2b
() = 2 cos + b s e n b s e n d
b b a b b
a 2b 2 2b3
= 2 cos + sen + cos + c
b b a b a b
14.- sec d
2

Solucin.-
u = dv = sec 2 d
Sea:
du = d v = g
sec d = g g d = g sec + c
2

dx
15.- x
5
Solucin.- Sea: u = x, du = dx
dx 5u 5 x 1
5x = 5 dx = 5 du = 5 + c = 5 + c = 5x 5 + c
x u

213
16.- sec 2 (1 x)dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 1 x, du = dx
sec (1 x)dx = sec udu = gu + c = g (1 x) + c
2 2

xdx
17.-
16 x 4
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 , du = 2 xdx
xdx xdx 1 2 xdx 1 du 1 u
16 x4 = 42 ( x 2 )2 = 2 42 ( x2 )2 = 2 42 u 2 = 2 arcs e n 4 + c
1 x2
= arcs e n + c
2 4
dy
18.-
1+ 1+ y
1

Solucin.- Sea: t = 1 + (1 + y ) 2 t 2 = 1 + (1 + y ) 2 t 2 1 = (1 + y )
2 1 1 1
2

(t 2 1) 2 = 1 + y y = (t 2 1) 2 1, dy = 4t (t 2 1)dt
dy 4 t (t 2 1)dt t3 t2
1+ 1+ y
=
t
= 4 (t 2 1)dt = 4( t ) + c = 4t ( 1) + c
3 3

1+ 1+ y 4
= 4 1 1+ y ( 1) + c = 1 1 + y ( 1 + y 2) + c
3 3
dx
19.-
x+4 x+3
Solucin.-
( x + 4) 2 + ( x + 3) 2
1 1
dx
x + 4 x + 3 = ( x + 4) ( x + 3) dx = ( x + 4) 2 + ( x + 3) 2 dx
1 1

( x + 4) 2 ( x + 3) 2 2 ( x + 4)3 2 ( x + 3)3
3 3

+ + + = + + = + +c
1 1
( x 4) 2
( x 3) 2
c
3 3 3 3
2 2
=
2
3
( ( x + 4)3 + ( x + 3)3 + c )
20.- cos ec d
Solucin.- Sea: u = cos ec + co g , du = (cos ec co g + cos ec 2 )d
cos ec (cos ec + co g )d cos ec 2 + cos ec co g d
cos ec d = cos ec + co g
=
cos ec + co g
du
= = u + c = (cos ec + co g ) + c
u
21.- t (1 t 2 ) 2 dt
1

Solucin.- Sea: u = 1 t 2 , du = 2tdt

214
3
1 12 1 u2 1 3 1
= = + c = u 2 + c = (1 t 2 ) 2 + c
2 1 3
t (1 t ) dt 2
u du
2 2 3 3 3
2
22.- t (1 t 2 ) 2 arcs e n tdt
1

Solucin.-
u = arcs e n t dv = t (1 t 2 ) 2 dt
1

Sea: dt
du = 1
v = (1 t 2 ) 2
3

1 t 2
3
1 1 dt
t (1 t ) 2 arcs e n tdt = 3 (1 t ) 2 arcs e n t + 3 (1 t ) 1 t
2 1 2 3 2 2

1 t2
(1 t 2 ) 2 (1 t 2 ) 2
3 3
1 1 t3
= arcs e n t + (1 t 2 )dt = arcs e n t + (t ) + c
3 3 3 3 3
1 t
3
= (1 t 2 ) 2 arcs e n t t + + c
3

3 3
1 + cos 2 x
23.- dx
s e n2 2x
Solucin.-
1 + cos 2 x 1 + cos 2 x dx dx 1 dx
s e n 2 2 x dx = 1 cos2 x dx = 1 cos 2 x = 1 cos 2 x = 2 s e n 2 x
2
2
1 1
= cos ec 2 xdx = co gx + c
2 2
x +1
2
24.- 3 dx
x x
Solucin.-
x2 + 1 ( x 2 + 1)dx ( x 2 + 1)dx Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 x x( x2 1) x( x + 1)( x 1) = x + ( x + 1) + ( x 1) ()
dx = =

( x 2 + 1) A B C
= + + ( x 2 + 1) = A( x 2 1) + Bx( x 1) + Cx( x + 1)
x( x + 1)( x 1) x ( x + 1) ( x 1)
x = 0 1 = A A = 1
De donde: x = 1 2 = B(1)(2) B = 1
x = 1 2 = C (1)(2) C = 1
Entonces:
( x 2 + 1)dx dx dx dx
() = + + = x + x +1 + x 1 + c
x( x + 1)( x 1) x ( x + 1) ( x 1)
x2 1
= +c
x

215
e x dx
25.-
9 e2 x
Solucin.- Sea: u = e x , du = e x dx
e x dx e x dx du u ex
9 e2 x
=
32 (e x ) 2
=
32 u 2
= arcs e n + c = arcs e n + c
3 3
dx
26.-
( x 1)3
Solucin.-
dx ( x 1) 2 1
( x 1)3
3
= ( x 1) dx = +c = +c
2 ( x 1) 2
(3x + 4)dx
27.-
2x + x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 2 x + x 2 , du = 2(1 + x)dx
(3 x + 4)dx (3x + 3) + 1 ( x + 1)dx dx 3 du dx
2 x + x2 = 2 x + x2 dx = 3 2 x + x 2 + 2 x + x 2 = 2 u 12 + 2 x + x2
1
3 du dx 3 u2 dx dx
= 1 + = + = 3 2 x + x2 +
2 u2 ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) 1 2 1 ( x + 1) 2 1 ( x + 1) 2 1
2
Sustituyendo por: x + 1 = sec , dx = sec g d , ( x + 1) 2 1 = g
sec g
= 3 2 x + x2 + d = 3 2 x + x 2 + sec d = 3 2 x + x 2 + sec + g + c
g
= 3 2x + x2 + x + 1 + 2 x + x2 + c
ds
28.-
4 s2
Solucin.- Sea: s = 2s e n , ds = 2 cos d , 4 s 2 = 2 cos
ds 2 cos d
4 s2
=
2 cos
= d = = arcs e n s + c
2
dx
29.-
x 2
x2 + e
Solucin.- Sea: x = e g , dx = e sec 2 d , x 2 + e = e sec
1
d
dx e sec d 1 sec d 1 cos
2
1 cos
x2 x 2 + e = e g 2 e sec = e g 2 = e s e n 2 = e s e n 2 ()
cos 2
Sea: u = s e n , du = cos d , luego:

216
1 du 1 2 1 u 1 1 1 1
() =
e u 2
=
e u du =
e 1
+c = +c =
eu e s e n
+c =
x
+c
e
x2 + e
x2 + e
= +c
ex
xdx
30.-
1+ x
Solucin.- Sea: x + 1 = t 2 x = t 2 1, dx = 2tdt
xdx (t 2 1)2 t dt t3 t2
1+ x = = = + = 1) + c
2
2 (t 1) dt 2( t ) c 2t (
t 3 3
x +1 x2
= 2 x + 1( 1) + c = 2 x + 1( )+c
3 3
y 2 dy
31.-
y +1
Solucin.- Sea: y + 1 = t 2 y = t 2 1, dy = 2tdt
y 2 dy (t 2 1) 2 2 t dt t 5 2t 3
y +1 = = = + = +t+c
2 2 4 2
2 (t 1) dt 2 (t 2t 1)dt 2
t 5 3
t 4
2t 2
( y + 1) 2( y + 1)
4 2

= 2t + 1 + c = 2 y + 1 + 1 + c
5 3 5 3

( y + 1) 2 y + 2
2
y + 2 y +1 2 y + 2
2
= 2 y +1 + 1 + c = 2 y + 1 + 1 + c
5 3 5 3
3 y2 4 y + 8
= 2 y +1 +c
15
3
y dy
32.-
y2 1
Solucin.- Sea: u = y 2 1 y 2 = u + 1, dy = 2 ydy
3
1 (u + 1)du 1
1
y 3 dy y 2 ydy 1 u2 u2
y 2 1 = y 2 1 = 2 u 12 = 2 (u + u )du = 2 3 + 1 + c
1 1
2 2

2 2

y2 1 y2 + 2
3
u2
= + u 2 + c = u 2 ( 1 u + 1) + c = y 2 1 + 1 + c = y 2 1 +c
1 1

3
3 3 3
d
33.-
1 + 2 cos
2dz 1 z2
Solucin.- Sea: d = , cos = , = 2 arc gz
1+ z2 1+ z2

217
2dz
d 1+ z2 2dz 2dz 2dz
1 + 2 cos = 2(1 z )
2
=
1 + z + 2(1 z )
2 2
=
1 + z + 2 2z
2 2
=
3 z2
1+
1+ z2
2dz dz dz 1 z 3
= = 2 2 = 2 2 =2 +c
3 z 2
z 3 z ( 3) 2
2 3 z+ 3

1 g 2 3
= +c
3 g 2 + 3
t 4 t 3 + 4t 2 2t + 1
34.- dt
t3 +1
Solucin.-
t 4 t 3 + 4t 2 2t + 1 3t 2 t + 1 3t 2 t + 1
t3 +1
dt = t 1 +
t3 + t
dt = t 3 + t dt
tdt dt +

t2 3t 2 t + 1
= t + 3 dt ()
2 t +t
3t 2 t + 1 A Bt + C
= + 2 3t 2 t + 1 = A(t 2 + 1) + ( Bt + C )t
t (t 2 + 1) t (t + 1)

t = 0 1= A A =1
t =1 3 = 2A + B + C B + C = 1
De donde: B = 2, C = 1
t = 1 5 = 2 A (C B) B C = 3
t 2
Adt Bt + C t2 dt 2t 1
() = t + + 2 dt = t + + 2 dt
2 t t +1 2 t t +1
t2 2tdt dt t2
= t + t + 2 2 = t + t + t 2 + 1 arc gt + c
2 t +1 t +1 2
2
t
= t + t (t 2 + 1) arc gt + c
2
d
35.-
e
Solucin.-
d
e = d = + c
36.- x(10 + 8 x 2 )9 dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 10 + 8 x 2 , du = 16 xdx
1 1 1 u10 u10
x(10 + 8x ) dx = 16
+ =
16
= + = +c
2 9 2 9 9
16 x (10 8 x ) dx u ddu c
16 10 160
(10 + 8 x 2 )10
= +c
160

218
dx
37.-
(16 + x 2 )3
Solucin.- Sea: x = 4 g , dx = 4sec 2 d
dx 4sec 2 d 1 d 1 1 x
(16 + x 2 )3
=
4 sec
3 3
= = cos d = s e n + c =
16 sec 16 16 16 16 + x 2
+c

x3 dx
38.-
x2 + 4
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 + 4 x 2 = u 4, du = 2 xdx
x3 dx x 2 xdx 1 (u 4)du 1 1 1
= = (u 2 4u 2 )du = u 2 du 2 u 2 du
1 1
=
1
1
x2 + 4 x2 + 4 2 u2 2 2
x2 + 4
3 1 3
1 u 2 2u 2 u2 u
= +c = 4u 2 + c = u 2 ( 4) + c = x 2 + 4( 4) + c
1 1

2 3 1 3 3 3
2 2
x2 8
= x 2 + 4( )+c
3
x3 dx
39.-
16 x 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 16 x 2 x 2 = 16 u, du = 2 xdx
x3 dx x 2 xdx 1 (16 u )du 1
= = (16u 2 u 2 )du
1
=
1
1
16 x 2 16 x 2 2 u2 2
1 3 3
1 16u 2 1 u 2 u2 uu u
= + = 16u + + c = 16u 2 + + c = u (16 + ) + c
1 1
2

2 1 2 3 3 3 3
2 2
16 x 2 32 + x 2
= 16 x 2 (16 + ) + c = 16 x 2 ( )+c
3 3
40.- a ( x 2 + 1) 2 dy
1

Solucin.-
a( x + 1) 2 dy = a( x + 1) 2 dy = a( x + 1) 2 y + c
2 1 2 1 2 1

dx
41.-
( 6 x 2 )3
Solucin.- Sea: x = 6 s e n , dx = 6 cos d , 6 x 2 = 6 cos
dx 6 cos d 1 d 1 1 1 x
( 6 x ) 2 3
= 3 3
= 2
= sec 2 d = g + c =
( 6) cos 6 cos 6 6 6 6 x2
+c

dx
42.-
x(3 + x)

219
dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 3 + x, du =
x
dx du
x(3 + x)
=
u
= u + c = 3+ x + c

ex
43.- dx
16 + e 2 x
Solucin.- Sea: u = e x , du = e x dx
ex du 1 u 1 ex
16 + e2 x 42 + u 2 4
dx = = arc g
4
+ c =
4
arc g
4
+c

44.- cos 1 xdx


Solucin.- Sea: 1 x = t 2 x = 1 t 2 , dx = 2tdt
cos 1 xdx = 2 cos tdt () , integrando por partes se tiene:
u =t dv = cos tdt
Sea:
du = dt v = sent
( )
() = 2 t s e n t s e n tdt = 2t s e n t + 2 s e n tdt = 2t s e n t 2 cos t + c
= 2 1 x s e n 1 x 2 cos 1 x + c
x3 dx
45.-
x 1
Solucin.- Sea: x 1 = t 2 x = t 2 + 1, dx = 2tdt
x3 dx (t 2 + 1)3 2 t dt 2t 7 6t 5
x 1 = = + + + = + + 2t 3 + 2t + c
6 4 2
2 (t 3 t 3t 1) dt
t 7 5
2t 6
6t 4
2( x 1) 6( x 1)
3 2

= t( + + 2t 2 + 2) + c = x 1 + + 2( x 1) + 2 + c
7 5 7 5
( x 1)3 3( x 1) 2
= 2 x 1 + + x + c
7 5
2 y 7 y + 7 y 19 y + 7 y 6
5 4 3 2
46.- dy
( y 1) 2 ( y 2 + 1) 2
Solucin.-
2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6
( y 1) 2 ( y 2 + 1) 2
dy ()

2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6 A B Cy + D Ey + F
= + + 2 +
( y 1) ( y + 1)
2 2 2
y 1 ( y 1) ( y + 1) ( y 2 + 1) 2
2

2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6 = A( y 1)( y 2 + 1) 2 + B( y 2 + 1) 2
+ (Cy + D)( y 1) 2 ( y 2 + 1) + ( Ey + F )( y 1) 2 , luego:
2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6 = ( A + C ) y 5 + ( A + B 2C + D) y 4
+ (2 A + 2C 2 D + E ) y 3 + (2 A + 2 B 2C + 2 D 2 E + F ) y 2

220
+ ( A + C 2 D + E 2 F ) y + ( A + B + D + F ) , Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A +C = 2

A + B 2C + D = 7
2A +2C 2 D + E = 7 A = 1, B = 4, C = 1

2 A +2 B 2C +2 D 2 E + F = 19 D = 0, E = 3, F = 1
A + C 2 D + E 2 F = 7

A + B +D +F = 6
2 y 5 7 y 4 + 7 y 3 19 y 2 + 7 y 6 dy dy ydy (3 y 1)dy
() dy = 4 + 2 + 2
( y 1) ( y + 1)
2 2 2
y 1 ( y 1) 2
( y + 1) ( y + 1) 2
4 1 ydy dy
= y 1 + + y 2 + 1 + 3 2 2
y 1 2 ( y + 1) ( y + 1) 2
4 3 1 y 1
= y 1 + + y2 + 1 y2 + 1 + arc gy + c
y 1 2 2 y +1 2
2

4 3 y 1
= ( y 1) y 2 + 1 + y2 +1 arc gy + c
y 1 2 2( y + 1) 2
2

( y 1) 4 y 1
= + arc gy + c
y2 +1 y 1 2( y + 1) 2
2

47.- s e n x + 1dx
Solucin.- Sea: x + 1 = t 2 x = t 2 1, dx = 2tdt
sen x + 1dx = 2 (s e n t )tdt () , trabajando por partes
u =t dv = s e n tdt
Sea:
du = dt v = cos t
( )
()2 (s e n t )tdt = 2 t cos t + cos tdt = 2t cos t + 2s e n t + c
= 2 x + 1 cos x + 1 + 2s e n x + 1 + c
9 x2 + 7 x 6
48.- dx
x3 x
Solucin.-
9x2 + 7 x 6 9x2 + 7 x 6 Adx Bdx Cdx
x3 x dx = x( x + 1)( x 1)dx = x + x + 1 + x 1()
9x2 + 7 x 6 A B C
= + + 9 x 2 + 7 x 6 = A( x + 1)( x 1) + Bx( x 1) + Cx( x + 1)
x x
3
x x +1 x 1
x = 0 6 = A A = 6

De donde: x = 1 10 = 2C C = 5
x = 1 4 = 2 B B = 2

dx dx dx
() = 6 2 + 5 = 6 x 2 x + 1 + 5 x 1 + c
x x +1 x 1

221
x 6 ( x 1)5
= x 6 ( x + 1) 2 + ( x 1)5 + c = +c
( x + 1) 2
5w3 5w2 + 2w 1
49.- dw
w4 + w2
Solucin.-
5w3 5w2 + 2w 1 5w3 5w2 + 2w 1
w4 + w2
dw = w2 (w2 + 1) dw()
5w3 5w2 + 2w 1 Aw + B Cw + D
= + 2
w2 ( w2 + 1) w2 w +1
5w 5w + 2 w 1 = ( Aw + B)( w2 + 1) + (Cw + D) w2
3 2

Aw3 + Aw + Bw2 + B + Cw3 + Dw2 ( A + C ) w3 + ( B + D) w2 + Aw + B


Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A +C = 5

B + D = 5
A = 2, B = 1, C = 3, D = 4
A = 2

B = 1
Aw + B Cw + D 2w 1 3w 4
() dw + 2 dw = dw + 2 dw
w 2
w +1 w 2
w +1
2 wdw 3 2 wdw dw
= w2 dw + 2
2 w + 1 w2 + 1
4
w2
1 1
= w2 + + ( w2 + 1)3 4 arc gw + c = w2 ( w2 + 1)3 + 4 arc gw + c
w w
3dx
50.-
1 + 2x
Solucin.- Sea: u = 1 + 2 x, du = 2dx
3dx dx 3 du 3 3
1 + 2 x = 3 1 + 2 x = 2 u = 2 u + c = 2 1 + 2 x + c = (1 + 2 x) + c
3

(1 x) 2 dx
51.-
x
Solucin.-
(1 x) 2 dx 1 2 x + x 2 dx dx x2
x = x
= x
2 dx + xdx = x 2 x +
2
+c

xe 2 x
2

52.- dx
2
Solucin.- Sea: u = 2 x 2 , du = 4 xdx
xe2 x
2
1 1 u 1 u 1 2 x2
2 dx = 2 xe dx = 8 e du = 8 e + c = 8 e + c
2 x 2

53.- e 2t cos(et )dt

222
Solucin.- Sea: w = et , dw = et dt
e cos(e )e dt = w cos wdw() , trabajando por partes
t t t

u=w dv = cos wdw


Sea:
du = dw v = sen w
() w cos wdw = w s e n w s e n wdw = w s e n w + cos w + c = et s e n(et ) + cos(et ) + c
54.- x ( x 2 4)3 dx
3

3
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 2 4, du =
3
xdx
2
( x 2 4) 4
3
2 3 2 u4 1 4
x ( x 4) dx = 3 u du = 3 4 + c = 6 u + c = 6 + c
3 3
2

s e n xesec x s e n x 1 sec x
55.- 2
dx = e dx = gx sec xesec x dx()
cos x cos x cos
Solucin.- Sea: u = sec x, du = sec x gxdx
() = eu du = eu + c = esec x + c
ds
56.- s 1
3
(1 + s 3 )
2

Solucin.- Sea: t = s 3 s = t 3 , ds = 3t 2 dt
1

ds 3t 2 dt 3tdt tdt 3
s 13 (1 + s 2 3 ) t (1 + t 2 ) = (1 + t 2 ) = 3 (1 + t 2 ) = 2 1 + t + c
= 2

10
1 1 z2
57.- dz
z3 z 2
1 z2 2dz
Solucin.- Sea: u = 2
, du = 3
z z
10 11
1 1 z2 1 10 1 u11 u11 1 1 z2
z 3 z 2 dz =
2
u du =
2 11
+ c =
22
+ c =
22 z 2
+c

x (1 + x 2 )
58.- dx
1 + x2
2 xdx
Solucin.- Sea: u = (1 + x 2 ), du =
1 + x2
2
x (1 + x 2 ) 1 1 u2 u2 (1 + x 2 )
1 + x2 dx = 2 udu = 2 2 + c = 4 + c = 4
+c
co gxdx
59.-
sen x
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n x , du = co gxdx
co gxdx du
sen x
=
u
= u + c = sen x + c

223
ax 2 bx + c
60.- dx
ax 2 + bx c
Solucin.-
ax 2 bx + c ax 2 bx + c ax 2 bx + c
ax 2 + bx c dx =
ax 2 + bx c
dt =
ax 2 + bx c
t+c
dx
61.-
cos 2 5 x
Solucin.- Sea: u = 5 x, du = 5dx
dx 1 1 1
cos2 5x = sec 5xdx = 5 sec udu = 5 gu + c = 5 g 5x + c
2 2

dx
62.-
12 7 x
Solucin.- Sea: u = 12 7 x, du = 7dx
dx 1 du 1 1
12 7 x = 7 u = 7 u + c = 7 12 7 x + c
63.- g16 xdx
Solucin.- Sea: u = cos(16 x), du = 16s e n(16 x)dx
s e n(16 x) 1 du 1 1
g16 xdx = cos(16 x) dx = 16 u = 16 u + c = 16 cos(16 x) + c
64.- g 4 sec 2 4 d
Solucin.- Sea: u = g 4 , du = 4sec2 4 d
1 1 u2 u2 g 2 4
g 4 sec 4 d = 4
= + = + = +c
2
udu c c
4 2 8 8
xdx
65.-
x5
Solucin.- Sea: u = x 5 x = u + 5, du = dx
u+5
3 1 3
xdx u2 u2 2u 2
x 5 = u 12 du = u 2 du + 5 u 2 du = 3 + 5 1 + c = 3 + 10u 2 + c
1 1 1

2 2
2 2 x + 10
= u u + 10 u + c = ( x 5) x 5 + 10 x 5 + c = 2 x 5 +c
3 3 3
7t 2
66.- dt
7 2t 2
Solucin.-
7t 2 7tdt 2dt 7 4tdt dt
7 2t 2 dt = 7 2t 2 7 2t 2 = 4 7 2t 2 2 7 2
t
2
7
= 7 2t 2 2 arcs e n 2 t + c
2 7
67.- (1 + x) cos xdx

224
Solucin.- Sea: x = t x = t 2 , dx = 2tdt
(1 + x) cos xdx = (1 + t 2 )(cos t )2tdt = 2 (t + t 3 )(cos t )dt = 2 t cos tdt + 2 t 3 cos tdt ()
Trabajando por partes: t 3 cos tdt
u = t3 dv = cos tdt
Sea:
du = 3t 2 dt v = sent
t cos tdt = t s e n t 3 t s e n tdt
3 3 2

Trabajando por partes: t 2 s e n tdt


u = t2 dv = s e n tdt
Sea:
du = 2tdt v = cos t
t s e n tdt = t cos t + 2 t cos tdt
2 2

Trabajando por partes: t cos tdt


u =t dv = cos tdt
Sea:
du = dt v = sent
t cos tdt = t s e n t s e n tdt = t s e n t + cos t + c1
(
() 2 t cos tdt + 2 t 3 cos tdt = 2 t cos tdt + 2 t 3 s e n t 3 t 2 s e n tdt )
(
= 2 t cos tdt + 2t 3 s e n t 6 t 2 s e n tdt = 2 t cos tdt + 2t 3 s e n t 6 t 2 cos t + 2 t cos tdt )
= 2 t cos tdt + 2t s e n t + 6t cos t 12 t cos tdt = 2t s e n t + 6t cos t 10 t cos tdt
3 2 3 2

= 2t 3 s e n t + 6t 2 cos t 10(t s e n t + cos t ) + c


= 2t 3 s e n t + 6t 2 cos t 10t s e n t 10 cos t + c
= 2 x 3 s e n x + 6 x cos x 10 x s e n x 10 cos x + c
dx
68.-
x( 1 + x 1)
Solucin.- Sea: (1 + x) 2 = t 1 + x = t 2 x = t 2 1, dx = 2tdt
1

dx 2tdt
x( 1 + x 1) = (t 2 1)(t 1) ()
t A B C
= + + t = A(t 1) 2 + B(t 2 1) + C (t + 1)
(t + 1)(t 1) t + 1 t 1 (t 1)
2 2

t = 1 1 = 2C C = 1
2

De donde: t = 1 1 = 4 A A = 1
4

t = 0 0 = A B + C B = 1 4
Adt Bdt Cdt 1 dt 1 dt 1 dt
() = 2 + + 2
= 2 + + 2
t +1 t 1 (t 1) 4 t + 1 4 t 1 2 (t 1)

225
1 dt 1 dt dt 1 1 1
= +
2 t + 1 2 t 1
+
(t 1) 2
= t +1 + t 1
2 2 t 1
+c

1 t 1 1 1 1+ x 1 1
= +c = +c
2 t + 1 t 1 2 1+ x +1 1 + x 1
dx
69.-
co g 6 x
Solucin.- Sea: u = cos 6 x, du = 6s e n 6 xdx
dx s e n 6x 1 du 1 1
co g 6 x = g 6 xdx = cos 6 x dx = 6 u = 6 u + c = 6 cos 6 x + c
70.- co g (2 x 4)dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n(2 x 4), du = 2 cos(2 x 4)dx
cos(2 x 4) 1 du 1 1
co g (2 x 4)dx = s e n(2 x 4) dx = 2 u = 2 u + c = 2 (2 x 4) + c
71.- (et e 2t ) 2 dt
Solucin.-
(e e ) dt = (e 2e + e )dt = e dt 2 e dt + e dt
t 2 t 2 2t t 2t 4 t 2t t 4 t

1 1
= e 2t + 2e t e 4t + c
2 2
( x + 1)dx
72.-
( x + 2) 2 ( x + 3)
Solucin.-
( x + 1)dx ( x + 1) A B C
( x + 2)2 ( x + 3) ( x + 2)2 ( x + 3) = x + 2 + ( x + 2)2 + x + 3 ()
x + 1 = A( x + 2)( x + 3) + B( x + 3) + C ( x + 2) 2
x = 2 1 = B B = 1

De donde: x = 3 2 = C C = 2
x = 0 1 = 6 A + 3B + 4C A = 2

Adx Bdx Cdx dx dx dx
() x + 2 + ( x + 2) + x + 3 = 2 x + 2 ( x + 2)
2 2
2
x+3
x+2
3
1 1
=2 x+2 + 2 x+3 +c = + +c
x+2 x+3 x+2
73.- (co ge x )e x dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n e x , du = (cos e x )e x dx
(cos e x )e x dx du
(co ge )e dx = s e n e x = u = u + c = s e n e + c
x x x

s e n +
74.- d
cos + 1

226
Solucin.-
s e n + s e n d d s e n d (cos 1)d
cos + 1 d = cos + 1 + cos + 1 = cos + 1 + cos2 + 1
cos d d
= cos + 1 +
sen 2
s e n2
= cos + 1 co g cos ec d + cos ec 2 d ()
Trabajando por partes: co g cos ec d
u = dv = co g cos ec d
Sea:
du = d v = cos ec
co g cos ec d = cos ec + cos ec d = cos ec cos ec co g + c1
Trabajando por partes: cos ec 2 d
u = dv = cos ec 2 d
Sea:
du = d v = t co g
cos ec d = co g + co g d = co g + s e n + c2
2

() = cos + 1 + cos ec + cos ec co g co g + s e n + c


(cos ec co g ) s e n
= + (cos ec co g ) + c
cos + 1
1 cos 1 cos
= + +c
1 + cos s e n
arc gxdx
75.-
(1 + x 2 ) 2
3

Solucin.- Sea: x = g = arc gx, dx = sec 2 d , 1 + x 2 = sec


arc gxdx sec 2 d d
(1 + x 2 ) 2 sec 3 = sec = cos d () , trabajando por partes
3 =

u = dv = cos d
Sea:
du = d v = s e n
x 1
= s e n s e n d = s e n + cos + c = (arc gx) + +c
1+ x 2
1 + x2
1
= ( x arc gx + 1) + c
1 + x2
76.- x co g ( x )dx
2

5
x2 2 x2
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n , du = x cos dx
5 5 5

227
x2
x cos 2
5 dx = 5 du = 5 u + c = 5 s e n x + c
x co g ( x 2 )dx =
5 x2 2 u 2 2 5
sen
5
77.- x 4 x 2 2dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = 4 x 2 2, dx = 8 xdx
(4 x 2 2)3
3 3
1 12 1u 2 u2
=
8
= + = + = +c
2
x 4 x 2 dx u du c c
83 12 12
2
( x + 9) dx
2 1
2

78.-
x4
Solucin.- Sea: x = 3 g , dx = 3sec 2 , x 2 + 9 = 3sec
1
d
( x 2 + 9) 2 dx 3sec 3sec 2 d 1 sec3 d 1 cos3 1 cos d
1

x4 =
3 g
4 4
=
9 g 4
=
9 sen 4
=
9 s e n4
cos 4
1 1 1 1 cos ec3
= + c = + c = +c
9 3 s e n3 27 s e n 3 27
3
1 x2 + 9 x2 + 9 2
= +c = x +9 +c
27 x 27 x3
79.- x 2 s e n 5 x3 cos x 3 dx
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n x3 , du = 3x 2 cos x 3 dx
1 5 1 u6 u6 s e n 6 x3
x s e n x cos x dx = 3
= + = + = +c
2 5 3 3
u du c c
3 6 18 18
xdx
80.-
5x2 + 7
Solucin.- Sea: u = 5 x 2 + 7, du = 10 xdx
(5 x 2 + 7) 2 5x2 + 7
1 1 1
xdx 1 du 1 u 2 u2
5 x2 + 7 10 u 12 10 1
= = + c =
5
+ c =
5
+ c =
5
+c
2
3
x dx
81.- 2
x x6
Solucin.-
x3dx 7x + 6 (7 x + 6)dx
x2 x 6 = x + 1 + x 2 x 6 dx = xdx + dx + ( x 3)( x + 2)
x2 (7 x + 6)dx
= + x+ ()
2 ( x 3)( x + 2)

228
(7 x + 6) A B
= + 7 x + 6 = A( x + 2) + B( x 3)
( x 3)( x + 2) x 3 x + 2
x = 2 8 = 5B B = 8
5
De donde:
x = 3 27 = 5 A A = 27 5
x2 Adx Bdx x 2 27 dx 8 dx
() = + x + + = + x+
5 x 3 5 x + 2
+
2 x3 x+2 2
x2 27 8
= + x+ x3 + x+ 2 +c
2 5 5
82.- s e n 2 e s e n2
d
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n 2 , du = 2s e n cos d

s e n 2 e d = 2s e n cos e d = e du = e + c = e + c
sen 2
sen u u sen
2 2

dx
83.-
e 9e xx

Solucin.- Sea: u = e x , du = e x dx
dx e x dx e x dx du 1 u 3 1 ex 3
e x 9e x e 2 x 9 ( e x ) 2 9 u 2 9 6 u + 3
= = = = + c =
6

ex + 3
+c

dw
84.-
1 + cos w
Solucin.-
dw (1 cos w)dw (1 cos w)dw cos wdw
1 + cos w = 1 cos2 w = s e n 2 w = cos ec wdw s e n 2 w
2

(s e n w) 1 1
= co gw + c = co gw + + c = co gw + cos ecw + c
1 sen w
Nota: Este ejercicio esta desarrollado diferente en el capitulo 8.
2
1s e n 2 x 2


85.- e
3

(cos3 x s e n x )dx
2 2
2
1 s e n2 x 2 2 3 x x
Solucin.- Sea: u = , du = cos s e n dx
3 9 2 2
2
2 1s e n 2 x
1s e n 2 x 2 2

9 2 2 3

e (cos3 x s e n x )dx = eu du = eu + c = e

+c
3
2 2 2 9 9
x3 dx
86.-
19 x 2
Solucin.- Sea: x = 19 s e n , dx = 19 cos d , 19 x 2 = 19 cos
x3 dx ( 19)3 s e n 3 19 cos d
19 x 2
=
19 cos
= 19 19 s e n (1 cos 2 )d

229
19 19
= 19 19 s e n d 19 19 s e n cos 2 d = 19 19 cos + cos3 + c
3
19 x 2 19 19 (19 x 2 )3
= 19 19 + + c = 19 19 x 2 + (19 x 2 )3 + c
19 3 ( 19) 3

s e n d
87.-
cos 2
1

Solucin.- Sea: u = cos , du = s e n d


s e n d
1
du u2
cos 2 u 2 + c = 2u 2 + c = 2 cos + c
1
= = =
1
1 1 u 2
du
1
2
88.- (sec + g ) d
2

Solucin.-
(sec + g ) d = (sec + 2sec g + g )d
2 2 2

= (sec 2 + 2sec g + sec 2 1)d = (2sec 2 + 2sec g 1)d


= 2 sec2 d + 2 sec g d d = 2 g + 2sec + c
dt
89.-
t (4 + 2t )
1
2

dt
Solucin.- Sea: u = t , du = , adems: u = 2 g , du = 2sec 2 d , 4 + u 2 = 2sec
t
dt du 2 sec 2 d
t (4 + 2t )
1
2
=
4 + u2
=
2sec
= sec d = sec + g + c

4 + u2 u 4 + u2 + u 4 + 2t + t
= + +c = +c = +c
2 2 2 2
90.- a b 2 c3 d
Solucin.- Sea: ab 2 c3 = k ,
k (ab 2 c3 )
a b c d = a (b ) (c ) d = (ab c ) d = k d =
2 3 2 3 2 3
+c = +c
k (ab 2 c3 )
91.- s e n 2 cos3 d
1

Solucin.-
s e n 2 cos d = s e n 2 cos cos d = s e n 2 (1 s e n ) cos d
1 3 1 2 1 2

sen 2 sen 2
3 7

= s e n 2 cos d s e n 2 cos d = +c
1 5

3 7
2 2
2s e n 2 2s e n 2
3 7

= +c
3 7

230
sec2 d
92.-
9 + g 2
Solucin.- Sea: u = g , du = sec 2 d
sec2 d du 1 u 1 ( g )
9 + g 2 = 9 + u 2 = 3 arc g 3 + c = 3 arc g 3 + c
dx
93.-
e 16
2x

du
Solucin.-Sea: u = e x , du = e x dx dx =
u
Adems: u = 4sec , du = 4sec g d , u 2 16 = 4 g
du 4sec g d 1
dx du 1
e2 x 16 u 2 16 = u u 2 16 = 4sec 4 g = 4 d = 4 + c
= u

1 u 1 ex
= arc sec + c = arc sec + c
4 4 4 4
94.- (e 1)(e + 1)ds
2s 2s

Solucin.-
1
(e 1)(e 2 s + 1)ds = (e 2 s ) 2 1ds = e 4 s ds ds = e 4 s + s + c
2s

4
dx
95.- 2
5x + 8x + 5
Solucin.-
dx dx 1 dx
5 x 2 + 8 x + 5 = 5( x 2 + 8 x + 1) = 5 x2 + 8 x + 1() , completando cuadrados:
5 5
8 16 16
x2 + 8 x + 1 = ( x2 + x + ) + 1 = ( x + 4 )2 + 9 = ( x + 4 )2 + ( 3 )2
5 5 25 25 5 25 5 5
x+4
() =
1 dx
=
1 1
arc g 5 + c = 1 arc g 5 x + 4 + c
5 (x + 4 ) + ( 3 )
2 2
5 3 3 3 3
5 5 5 5
x3 + 1
96.- dx
x3 x
Solucin.-
x3 + 1 x +1 x +1 ( x + 1)dx
x3 xdx = 1 + x3 x dx = dx + x3 x dx =x + x( x 2 1)
( x + 1) dx dx Adx Bdx
= x+ = x+ = x+ + ()
x ( x + 1) ( x 1) x( x 1) x x 1
1 A B
= + 1 = A( x 1) + Bx
x( x 1) x x 1

231
x = 0 1 = A A = 1
De donde:
x = 1 1 = B B = 1
dx dx x 1
() = x + = x x + x 1 + c = x + +c
x x 1 x
97.- (arcs e n 1 x 2 )0 dx
Solucin.-
(arcs e n 1 x 2 )0 dx = dx = x + c
3dy
98.-
1+ y
Solucin.-Sea: y 2 = t y = t 2 , dy = 2tdt
1

3dy dy 2tdt tdt 1 dt


1 + y = 3 1 + y = 3 1 + t = 6 1 + t = 6 1 1 + t dt = 6 dt 6 1 + t
= 6t 6 1 + t + c = 6 y 6 1 + y + c = 6 ( y 1+ y + c )
99.- x(1 + x) 5 dx
1

Solucin.-Sea: u = 1 + x x = u 1, du = dx
11 6
u 5 u5
+ = = = = +c
1 1 6 1 6 1
x (1 x ) dx
5
(u 1)u du 5
(u u )5
du 5
u du 5
u du 5

11 6
5 5
5u 5u 15
2
5(1 + x) 5(1 + x )
2
= u + c = (1 + x) + c
1
5

11 6 11 6
d
100.- 2
a s e n 2 + b 2 cos 2
Solucin.-Sea: u = g , du = sec2 d
d s e n 4 d s e n 2 d du
a 2 s e n 2 + b2 cos2 =
1
=
(a g + b )
2 2 2
= 2 2
(a u + b 2 )
(a 2 g 2 + b 2 )
cos 2
1 du 1 1 u 1 au 1 a g
= 2 2 = 2 arc g +c = arc g +c = arc g +c
a u + (b ) 2
a b b ab b ab b
a a a
tdt
101.-
(2t + 1) 2
1

Solucin.-
dt
u =t dv =
Sea: 2t + 1
du = dt
v = 2t + 1

232
1 (2t + 1) 2 (2t + 1) 2
3 3
tdt
(2t + 1) 2
1 = t 2t + 1 2t + 1dt = t 2t + 1
2 3
+ c = t 2t + 1
3
+c
2
2t + 1 2t + 1
= 2t + 1 t +c = ( t 1) + c
3 3
s s ds
102.-
(1 s 2 ) 2
1

Solucin.-
u= s dv =
sds
(1 s 2 ) 2 , adems: s = s e n , ds = cos , 1 s 2 = cos
1
Sea: ds
du =
v = (1 s 2 ) 2
1
s
s s ds 1 s2 cos cos d
(1 s 2
)
1
2
= 1 s2 s +
s
ds = 1 s 2 s +
s e n
(1 s e n 2 )d
= 1 s2 s + = 1 s 2 s + cos ec d s e n d
s e n
= 1 s 2 s + cos ec co g + cos + c
1 1 s2
= 1 s2 s + + 1 s2 + c
s
103.- (2 cos s e n s e n )d
Solucin.-
(2 cos s e n s e n 2 )d = (s e n 2 s e n 2 ) d = 0d = c
0

104.- t tdt4 2

u = 2t dv = t 4 dt
Sea: dt t
5
du = 2 t v=
t 5
t5 2 2 4
t tdt = t t tdt () , trabajando por partes nuevamente:
4 2

5 5
u = t dv = t 4 dt
Sea: dt t
5
du = v=
t 5
t5 2 2 t5 1 t 5 2 2t 5 2 t5
() = t t t 4 dt = t t + +c
5 5 5 5 5 25 25 5
t 5 2 2t 5 2t 5
= t t + +c
5 25 125
11
105.- u 2 (1 + v) dx

233
Solucin.-
u (1 + v) dx = u (1 + v) dx = u (1 + v) x + c
2 11 2 11 2 11

( + s e n 3 )d
106.-
3 2 2 cos 3
Solucin.-Sea: u = 3 2 2 cos 3 , du = 6( + s e n 3 )d
( + s e n 3 )d 1 du 1 1
3 2 2 cos 3 = 6 u = 6 u + c = 6 3 2 cos 3 + c
2

( y 2 + 1)dy
1

107.- 1
y 2 ( y + 1)
Solucin.-Sea: y 2 = t y = t 2 , dy = 2tdt
1

( y 2 + 1)dy (t + 1)2 t dt (t + 1)dt


1
2tdt dt
y 12 ( y + 1) = t (t 2 + 1) = 2 (t 2 + 1) = (t 2 + 1) + (t 2 + 1) = t + 1 + 2 arc gt + c
2

= y + 1 + 2 arc g y + c
ds
108.-
s ( s 4) 2
1 3 2

Solucin.-Sea: s = 2sec , ds = 2sec g d


ds 2 sec g d 1 d 1 1
s (s
3 2
4)
1
2
=
8sec 2 g
3
= 2
= cos 2 d = (1 + cos 2 )d
8 sec 8 16
1 1 1 s e n 2 1
= + s e n 2 + c = + + c = ( + s e n cos ) + c
16 32 16 2 16
1 2 s2 4
= arc sec s + +c
16 2 s2

109.- u (1 + u ) du
2 2

Solucin.-
u (1 + u ) du = u (1 + 2u +u )du = u 2 du + 2 u 2 du + u 2 du
2 2 2 4 1 5 9

3 7 11 3 7 11
u2 u2 u 2 2u 2 4u 2 2u 2 2u u 4u 3 u 2u 5 u
= +2 + +c = + + +c = + + +c
3 7 11 3 7 11 3 7 11
2 2 2
2u 4u 2u 5
3
= u + + +c
3 7 11
( x3 + x 2 )dx
110.-
x2 + x 2
Solucin.-
( x3 + x 2 )dx 2x 2 xdx x2 2 xdx
x2 + x 2 x 2 + x 2
= x + dx = xdx + ( x + 2)( x 1) 2 + ( x + 2)( x 1)
=

234
x2 2 xdx x2 Adx Bdx
= + = + + ()
2 ( x + 2)( x 1) 2 x+2 x 1
2x A B
= + 2 x = A( x 1) + B( x + 2)
( x + 2)( x 1) x + 2 x 1
x = 1 2 = 3B B = 2
3
De donde:
x = 2 4 = 3 A A = 4 3
x 2 4 dx 2 dx x2 4 2
() = + + = + x + 2 + x 1 + c
2 3 x + 2 3 x 1 2 3 3
2
x 2
= + ( x + 2) 2 ( x 1) + c
2 3
111- adb
Solucin.-
adb = a db = ab + c
dx
112.-
x2 2 x 8
Solucin.-
Completando cuadrados se tiene: x 2 2 x 8 = ( x 2 2 x + 1) 9 = ( x 1) 2 32
Sea: x 1 = 3sec , dx = 3sec g d , ( x 1) 2 32 = 3 g , luego:
dx dx 3 sec g d
x2 2 x 8
=
( x 1) 2 32
=
3 g
= sec d = sec + g + c

x 1 x2 2x 8
= + +c
3 3
( x + 1)dx
113.-
2 x x2
Solucin.-
Completando cuadrados se tiene:
2 x x 2 = ( x 2 2 x) = ( x 2 2 x + 1 1) = ( x 2 2 x + 1) + 1 = 1 ( x 2 1)
Sea: x 1 = s e n , dx = cos d , 1 ( x 1) 2 = cos , luego:
( x + 1)dx 1 (2 2 x) 4 1 (2 2 x)dx dx
2 x x 2 = 2 2 x x 2 dx = 2 2 x x 2 + 2 2 x x2
dx dx
= 2 x x 2 + 2 = 2 x x 2 + 2
2x x 2
1 ( x 1) 2
cos d
= 2 x x 2 + 2 = 2 x x 2 + 2 + c = 2 x x 2 + 2 arcs e n( x 1) + c
cos
114.- f ( x) f ( x)dx

235
Solucin.- Sea: u = f ( x), du = f ( x)dx
[ f ( x) ] + c
2
u2
f ( x) f ( x)dx = udu =
2
+c =
2

x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5
115.- dx
x2 + 2x 3
Solucin.-
x3 + 7 x 2 5 x + 5 20 12 x (20 12 x)dx
x 2 + 2 x 3 dx = x + 5 + x2 + 2 x 3 dx = xdx + 5 dx + x 2 + 2 x 3
(20 12 x)dx x 2 Adx B
xdx + 5 ( x + 3)( x 1) = 2 + 5 x + x + 3 + x 1()
dx +

20 12 x = A( x 1) + B( x + 3)
x = 1 8 = 4B B = 2
De donde:
x = 3 56 = 4 A A = 14
x2 dx dx x 2
() = + 5 x 14 + 2 = + 5 x + 14 x + 3 + 2 x 1 + c
2 x+3 x 1 2
1+ x + x 2
116.- e dx
Solucin.-
1+ x + x 2 x 2 x3
e dx = (1 + x + x )dx = x + + + c
2

2 3
( x 1)dx
117.-
x2 4 x + 3
Solucin.-
Completando cuadrados se tiene: x 2 4 x + 3 = x 2 4 x + 4 1 = ( x 2) 2 1
Sea: x 2 = sec , dx = sec g d , ( x 2)2 1 = g , luego:
( x 1)dx 1 (2 x 4) + 2 1 (2 x 4)dx dx
x 2 4 x + 3 = 2 x 2 4 x + 3 dx = 2 x 2 4 x + 3 + x 2 4 x + 3
dx dx
= x2 4 x + 3 + = x2 4x + 3 +
x 4x + 3
2
( x 2) 2 1
sec g d
= x2 4x + 3 + = x 2 4 x + 3 + sec d
g
= x 2 4 x + 3 + sec + g + c
= x2 4x + 3 + x 2 + x2 4x + 3 + c
xdx
118.-
x + 4x + 5 2

Solucin.-

236
Completando cuadrados se tiene: x 2 + 4 x + 5 = x 2 + 4 x + 4 + 1 = ( x + 2) 2 + 1
Sea: x + 2 = g , dx = sec2 d , ( x + 2) 2 + 1 = sec , luego:
xdx xdx ( g 2) sec 2 d
x2 + 4 x + 5
=
( x + 2) 2 + 1
=
sec
= g sec d 2 sec d

= sec 2 sec + g + c = x 2 + 4 x + 5 2 x2 + 4 x + 5 + x + 2 + c
4dx
119.-
x + 4x
3

Solucin.-
4dx (3x 2 + 4) 3x 2 (3 x 2 + 4)dx x 2 dx
x3 + 4 x x3 + 4 x
= dx = x3 + 4 x 3 x3 + 4 x
3 2 xdx 3
= x3 + 4 x 2 = x3 + 4 x x 2 + 4 + c
2 x +4 2
x( x + 4)
2
x
= 2 +c = +c
( x + 4)
3
2
x +4
2

co gxdx
120.-
sen x
Solucin.- Sea: u = s e n x , du = co gxdx
co gxdx du
sen x
=
u
= u + c = sen x + c

121.- exp x 1dx


Solucin.-
( x 1) 2 2( x 1) ( x 1)
3

exp x 1dx = x 1dx =


3
+c =
3
+c
2
1 + x3
122.- dx
x
2tdt
Solucin.- Sea: 1 + x3 = t t 2 = 1 + x3 x = 3 t 2 1, dx =
3(t 2 1) 3
2

2tdt
t
1+ x 3(t 2 1) 3 2 t 2 dt 2 1
3 2
2 2 dt
x
dx =
(t 1)
2 1
3
= 2 = 1 + 2 dt = dt + 2
3 t 1 3 t 1 3 3 t 1
2 1 t 1 2 1 1 + x3 1
= t+ +c = 1 + x3 + +c
3 3 t +1 3 3 1 + x3 + 1
x 1 1
123.- dx
x +1 x

237
x 1 x 1 1+ t2 4tdt
Solucin.- Sea: = t t2 = x(1 t 2 ) = t 2 x = , dx =
x +1 x +1 1 t 2
(1 t 2 ) 2
x 1 1 (1 t 2 ) 4tdt t 2 (1 t 2 ) dt t 2 dt
x +1 x
dx = t
(1 + t 2 ) (1 t 2 ) 2
= 4 (1 + t 2 )(1 t 2 ) 2 (1 + t 2 )(1 t 2 )
= 4

t 2 dt Adt Bdt Ct + D
= 4 = 4 + + dt ()
(1 + t )(1 t )(1 + t )
2
1+ t 1 t 1+ t2
t 2
A B Ct + D
= + +
(1 + t )(1 t )(1 + t ) 1 + t 1 t 1 + t 2
2

t 2 = A(1 t )(1 + t 2 ) + B(1 + t )(1 + t 2 ) + (Ct + D)(1 t 2 )


t = 1 1 = 4 B B = 1
4

t = 1 1 = 4 A A = 1 4
De donde:
t = 0 0 = A + B + D D = 1 2
t = 2 4 = 5 A + 15B + (2C + D)(3) C = 0
1 dt 1 dt 1 dt dt dt dt
() = 4 + 2
= 2
4 1+ t 4 1 t 2 1+ t 1+ t t 1 1+ t2
t +1
= t + 1 t 1 2 arc gt + c = 2 arc gt + c
t 1
x +1
+1
x +1 x 1 + x +1 x +1
= x 1 2 arc g +c = 2 arc g +c
x +1 x 1 x 1 x + 1 x 1
1
x 1
s e n xdx
124.-
1 + s e n x + cos x
2z 1 z2 x 2dz
Solucin.- Sea: s e n x = , cos x = , z = g , dx =
1+ z 2
1+ z 2
2 1+ z2
2 z 2 4z
2 2 dz
s e n xdx 1 + z 1 + z dz = 1+ z2
1 + s e n x + cos x 2 z 1 z 2 1 + z 2 + 2 z + 1 z 2
=
1+ 2 2
1+ z 1+ z
4 zdz 2 zdz Adz Bz + C
(1 + z 2 )(2 + 2 z ) = (1 + z )(1 + z 2 ) = 1 + z + 1 + z 2 dz ()
2z A Bz + C
= +
(1 + z )(1 + z ) 1 + z 1 + z 2
2

z = 1 2 = 2 A A = 1

De donde: z = 0 0 = A + C C = 1
z = 1 2 = 2 A + 2 B + 2C B = 1

238
dz z +1 1 2 zdz dz
() = + dz = 1 + z + 2 + 2
1+ z 1+ z 2
2 z +1 z +1
1 z2 +1
= 1+ z + z 2 + 1 + arc gz + c = + arc gz + c
2 z +1

g 2 x 2 +1
= + arc gz + c
g x 2 +1
dx
125.-
3 + 2 cos x
2z 1 z2 x 2dz
Solucin.- Sea: s e n x = , cos x = , z = g , dx =
1+ z 2
1+ z 2
2 1+ z2
2z
dx 1+ z2 2dz dz 2 z
3 + 2 cos x = 1 z
2
dz =
3 + 3z + 2 2 z
2 2
= 2
5+ z 2
=
5
arc g
5
+c
3 + 2 2
1+ z
2 5 5 x
= arc g g + c
5 5 2
xdx
126.-
x 2x + 5
2

Solucin.-
Completando cuadrados se tiene: x 2 2 x + 5 = x 2 2 x + 1 + 4 = ( x 1) 2 + 22 ,
Sea: x 1 = 2 g , dx = 2sec 2 d , ( x 1) 2 + 22 = 2sec ,luego:
xdx 1 (2 x 2 + 2)dx 1 (2 x 2)dx dx
x2 2 x + 5 = 2 x2 2 x + 5 = 2 x2 2 x + 5 + x2 2 x + 5
dx dx
= x2 2x + 5 + = x2 2x + 5 +
x2 2 x + 5 ( x 1) 2 + 22
2 sec 2 d
= x2 2x + 5 + = x 2 2 x + 5 + sec d
2sec
= x 2 2 x + 5 + sec + g + c
(1 + s e n x)dx
127.-
s e n x(2 + cos x)
2z 1 z2 x 2dz
Solucin.- Sea: s e n x = , cos x = , z = g , dx =
1+ z 2
1+ z 2
2 1+ z2

239
2z 2
1 + 2
(1 + s e n x)dx 1+ z 1+ z2 (1 + z 2 + 2 z )dz
s e n x(2 + cos x) 2 z 1 z 2 2 z (1 + z 2 ) + z (1 z 2 )
= dz =
2+ 2
1+ z2 1+ z
( z 2 + 2 z + 1)dz ( z 2 + 2 z + 1)dz Adz Bz + C
= = = + 2 dz () }
z + 3z
3
z ( z + 3)
2
z ( z + 3)
( z 2 + 2 z + 1) A Bz + C
= + 2 z 2 + 2 z + 1 = A( z 2 + 3) + ( Bz + C ) z
z ( z + 3)
2
z ( z + 3)
Az + 3 A + Bz 2 + Cz ( A + B ) z 2 + Cz + 3 A , igualando coeficientes se tiene:
2

A +B =1

C = 2 A = 1 , B = 2 ,C = 2
3 3
3A = 1

2 z+2
1 dz 1 dz 1 2 zdz dz
() = + 32 dz = + 2 + 2 2
3 z ( z + 3) 3 z 3 ( z + 3) ( z + 3)
1 1 2 g x
2

= g x + g2 x + 3 + arc g 2 +c
3 2 3 2 3 3

dx
128.- 4
x +4
Solucin.- Sea: x 4 + 4 = x 4 + 4 x 2 + 4 4 x 2 = ( x 2 + 2) 2 (2 x) 2 = ( x 2 + 2 x + 2)( x 2 2 x + 2)
dx dx ( Ax + B )dx (Cx + D)dx
x4 + 4 = ( x2 + 2 x + 2)( x 2 2 x + 2) = ( x 2 + 2 x + 2) + ( x 2 2 x + 2) ()
1 ( Ax + B ) (Cx + D)
= 2 + 2
( x + 4) ( x + 2 x + 2) ( x 2 x + 2)
4

1 = ( Ax + B)( x 2 2 x + 2) + (Cx + D)( x 2 + 2 x + 2)


1 = ( A + C ) x3 + (2 A + B + 2C + D) x 2 + (2 A 2 B + 2C + 2 D) x + (2 B + 2 D)
Igualando coeficientes se tiene:
A + C =0

2 A + B + 2C + D = 0 A = 1 , B = 1 , C = 1 , D = 1
2 A 2 B + 2C + 2 D = 0 8 4 8 4

2B + 2 D = 1
1 ( x + 2)dx 1 ( x 2)dx
() = 2 2
8 ( x + 2 x + 2) 8 ( x 2 x + 2)
1 ( x + 1)dx 1 dx 1 ( x 1)dx 1 dx
= + +
8 ( x + 1) + 1 8 ( x + 1) + 1 8 ( x 1) + 1 8 ( x 1) 2 + 1
2 2 2

1 1 1 1
= x 2 + 2 x + 2 + arc g ( x + 1) x 2 2 x + 2 + arc g ( x 1) + c
16 8 16 8

240
1 x2 + 2x + 2 1
= 2 + [ arc g ( x + 1) + arc g ( x 1) ] + c
16 x 2x + 2 8

241
BIBLIOGRAFIA

AYRES Frank, Clculo Diferencial e Integral


Ed libros Mac Graw Hill- Colombia 1970

Demidovich B, Ejercicios y problemas de anlisis matemtico


Ed Mir Mosc 1968

Ortiz Hctor, La integral Indefinida y Tcnicas de Integracin


U.N.E.T San Cristbal- Venezuela 1977

Piscunov N, Clculo Diferencial e Integral


Ed Montaner y Simn, S.A Barcelona 1970

Protter Monrey, Clculo y Geometra Analtica- Fondo Educativo Interamericano-


EEUU 1970

Takeuchi yu, Clculo II- Editado por el Autor- Bogota 1969

Thomas G.B, Clculo infinitesimal y Geometra Analtica


Ed.Aguilar-Madrid 1968

242