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Physics for Scientists and Engineers 1


By
Raymond A. Serway & John W. Jewett
6th Edition
: 2
:
/. 3
4
5
6
7
2008-12-25 11

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Oscillations and Mechanical Waves
.periodic motion
.
.
.oscillations simple harmonic
motion .

.

.mechanical waves
.
.

.

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.

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.
.

.
. .
.

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:
:
Motion of an Object Attached to a
Spring
Mathematical Representation of Simple
Harmonic Motion
Energy of the Simple Harmonic
Oscillator
Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion
with Uniform Circular Motion

The Pendulum
Damped Oscillations
Forced Oscillations

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.
.


.
simple harmonic motion .

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1.15 Motion of an object attached to a spring

m
.1.15
.x=0
.

1.15
restoring force .
.Hookes law

1.15 (a) .
) (x<0 (b) . )(x=0
(c) . ) (x<0
.

1.15
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Fs = - kx )(15.1

restoring force
. x=0
(a) 1.15 . 0=x
(c) 1.15 .

Fx=max 1.15 x
:

kx = ma x

k
ax = x
m )(15.2


.simple harmonic motion

.

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1.15 A .kA/m
x=0
)( .
x=-A +kA/m .

x=0 .
x=A
.
.6.15


.x=0
. xs
xs=-(mg/k)+x ) (mg/k x
.

Fs-Fg=-k(-(mg/k)+x)-mg=-kx
kx.

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.1.15

1.15

x=A .
.(a) A/2, (b) A, (c) 2A, (d) 4A .

2.15 Mathematical representation of simple


harmonic oscillator

. 1.15
.x
a :

dv d 2 x
=a =
dt dt 2

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2.15 :

d 2x k
2
= x )(15.3
dt m

k
) 2 2
m
(

k
= 2 )(15.4
m

3.15 :

d 2x
2
= 2 x )(15.5
dt

) (5.15 ) x(t
. ) x(t
.2 sin

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cos ) .(5.15
.

)x(t) = A cos (t+ )(15.6

A . ) (6.15 ) (5.15

dx d
) = A cos(t + ) = A sin(t + )(15.7
dt dt

d 2x d
2
) = A sin(t + ) = 2 A cos(t + )(15.8
dt dt

) (8.15 ) (5.15 ) (6.15


.

A .
x .a2.15 A amplitude
. angular

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frequency .rad/s
. 4.15 :

k
= )(15.9
m

phase constant initial phase


angle A .t=0
=0 .b2.15 )(t+
x=A t=0 =0
.phase of motion ) x(t
.t+2

(a) 2.15 x t . A
T (b) . x t x=A
.=0

2.15
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1.15 5.15 6.15 .


1.15 6.15
5.15
. 6.15 .

2.15

4.15 .6.15
A ) (a ) (b
) (c (d) (e) 15.3
. m
) (f
.

.15.6

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4.15 . A
.

3.15

5.15 .
B ) (a (b) A A
) (c (d) A .A

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5.15 x-t .

. T
) .(a2.15 x v t
x v .t+T
2 :T

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[ (t + T) + ] (t + )) = 22

T = 2,

2
=T )(15.10

frequency .
.

1
= f = )(15.11
T 2

f hertz .Hz 11.15

2
= = 2 f )(15.12
T

9.15 10.15 11.15


m .k

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2 m
=T = 2 )(15.3
k

1 1 k
= f = )(15.4
T 2 m


A . k
.

7.15
:8.15

dx
=v ) = A sin(t + )(15.15
dt

d 2x
=a ) = 2 A cos(t + )(15.16
dt 2

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5.15 1
.A 6.15 a .2A

k
= v max = A A )(15.17
m

k
= a max = 2 A A )(15.18
m

a6.15 .
b6.15 .c6.15
90o ./2 x .
x .
180o . x
.

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6.15
(a) .
(b) . .
) (c .
90o

.180o

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4.15

4.15 .6.15
A ) (a (b)
) (c (d) (e) (f)
.

5.15

m . .T m
.2m 2m )(d) T (c) 2T (b) 2T (a
.T/2 (e) T/ 2

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6.15 .
.9.15 A .t=0

A t=0
.7.15

7.15 x=A t=0 =0


x=Acost

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(a) 8.15
( (b) .v
t=0 x(0) =A v(0)=0
t=0 x(0) =A .v(0)=vi

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) x(t )) v(t 6.15 (5.15 x(0) = A


:v(0)=0

x (0) = A cos = A
v(0) = A sin = 0

=0 initial phase x=A cost .


x(0)=A .cos0=1

a8.15 .
2A .A
A .x=0 .

t=0
.9.15 ) x(t
) v(t x(0)=0 :v(0)=vi

x (0) = A cos = 0
v(0) = A sin = vi

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.=/2 A=vi/
. = -/2
:

vi
=x cos t
2

t=0 .b8.15
b8.15 .
=- .2
/2 phase constant

9.15 t=0
x=0 .vi
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1.15
.x :


x = ( 4 .00 m ) cos t
4

t (A) .rad (B) .


(C) .t ) (B
(D) .t=1s (E) . t=0 .t=1

: 15.6
)x(t) = A cos ((t+
) (A A=4.00m = rad/s f=/2=/2= 0.5Hz T=1/f=2sec

) (B v x .t
dx d
=v ) = ( 4 .00 m / s ) sin t + (t
dt 4 dt

v = ( 4 .00 m / s ) sin t +
4

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v :
dv d
=a ) = ( 4 .00m / s ) cos t + (t
dt 4 dt

a = ( 4 .00 2 m / s 2 ) cos t +
4

) (C t=1s .

5
x = ( 4 .00 m ) cos + = ( 4 .00 m ) cos = ( 4 .00 m )( 0 .707 ) = 2 .83 m
4 4
5
v = ( 4 .00m / s ) sin = ( 4 .00m / s )( 0 .707 ) = 8 .89 m / s
4
5
a = ( 4 .00 2 m / s 2 ) cos = ( 4 .00 m / s )( 0 .707 ) = 27 .9 m / s
2 2 2

4
) (D ) (B
. v 4.00m/s a .4.002m/s2

vmax = 4.00 m/s


m/s = 12.6m/s

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amax = 4.002m/s2 = 39.5m/s2


vmax=A amax=2A A=4.00m = rad/s

) (E t=0

xi = ( 4.00m) cos 0 + = 2.83m
t

-2.83m t=0 t=1 :


) (C t=1 2.83m

x = x f xi = 2.83m 2.83m = 5.66m

2.15
1300kg . .20,000N/m 160kg
.

:
.

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. 4
x :
Ftotal = ( kx ) = ( k ) x

x .

k eff = k = 4 20,000 N / m = 80,000 N / m

15.14

1 k eff 1 80,000 N / m
= f = = 1.18 Hz
2 m 2 1460kg

+ m .

1 k eff 1 80,000 N / m
= f = = 1.25 Hz
2 m 2 1300kg

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3.15
200g ) (k=5.00N/m . 5.00cm
(A) 7.15 (B) (C)
) (D .

(A) : 9.15 10.15 :

k 1 5.00 N / m
= = = 5.00rad / sec
m 2 200 10 3 kg


2 2
=T = = 1.26 sec
5.00rad / sec
) (B 17.15
vmax = A
A = (5.00 rad/s)(5.00x10-2m)=0.250 m/s
) (C 18.15
amax = 2A = (5.00 rad/s)2 (5.00x10-2m)=1.25 m/s2
) (D phase constant x=A t=0

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x(0) = A cos = A
.x=Acos
.=0 x=Acost
:
x = A cos tt = (0.0500m) cos 5.00 t
v = A sin t = - (0.250m/s) sin 5.00t
a = -2A cos t = - (1.25m/s2) cos 5.00t
xi = 5.00cm vi = -0.1m/s ) (A
. ) (B ) (C ) (D :
)(1 x(0) = A cos = xi
)(2 v(0) = - A sin = vi
) (2 ) (1
A sin vi
=
A cos xi
vi 0.100m
tan = = = 0.400
xi )(5.00rad / s)(0.0500m
= 0.21

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) (1 A
xi 0.0500m
=A = = 0.0539m
) cos cos(0.12


vmax = A
A = (5.00rad/s)(5.39x10-2m) = 0.269 m/s

amax = 2A = (5.00rad/s)2 (5.39x10-2m) = 1.35 m/s2
:
x = (0.0539m) cos (5.00 t+0.12
)t+0.12
v = - (0.269m/s) sin (5.00 t+0.12
)t+0.12
a = - (1.35m/s2) cos (5.00 t+0.12
)t+0.12

: .
.

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3.15 Energy of the simple harmonic oscillator

.1.15

. 15.15 :

1 1
=K ) mv 2 = m 2 A 2 sin 2 (t + )(15.19
2 2

kx2 6.15

1 2 1 2
=U ) kx = kA cos 2 (t + )(15.20
2 2

K U . 2=k/m

= E = K +U
1 2
2
[
) kA sin 2 (t + ) + cos 2 (t + ]

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sin2+cos2=1 ][
:

1 2
=E kA )(15.21
)15.21
2

.
U K .
x=A
. U=0 x=0 .kA2

1 1 1 k 1
=E 2
mv max = m 2 A 2 = m A 2 = kA 2 )(at x=0
2 2 2 m 2

a10.15 .=0

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. kA2 x
.b10.15

(a) 10.15 (b) .=0


. K+U
.

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11.15
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. 11.15
.
. .


.x

1 2 1 2 1 2
= E = K +U mv + kx = kA
2 2 2

k
v= ( A 2 x 2 ) = A 2 x 2
m )(15.22

22.15
x=0 .x=A

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. . a12.15

.
.b12.15
.

(a) 12.15




)
( (b) .

.

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4.15
0.500kg ) (k=20.0N/m (A) .
(B) 3.00cm (C) 2.00cm
.2.00cm

: 21.15
1 2 1
=E kA = ( 20.0 N / m)(3.00 10 2 m) 2 = 9.00 10 3 J
2 2

x=0 U=0
1
=E 2
mv max = 9.00 10 3 J
2

) 2(9.00 10 3 J
= v max = 0.190m / s
0.500kg

) (B 22.15

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k
v= ) ( A2 x 2
m

v=
20,0 N / m
0.500kg
[
) (0.0300 m) 2 (0.0200m) 2 ]
v = 0.141m / s

) (C ) (B
K = mv2 = (0.500kg)(0.141m/s)2 = 5.00x10-3J
U = kx2 = (20.0N/m)(0.0200m)2 = 4.00x10-3J
E K U

x=3.00cm .v=-0.100m/s

3.15 .
t=0

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1 1
=E mv 2 + kx 2
2 2
1 1
= (0.500kg )( 0.100m / s ) 2 + (20.0 N / m)(0.30m) 2
2 2
2
= 1.15 10 J


1 2
=E kA
2
2E ) 2(1.15 10 2 J
=A = = 0.0339m
k 20.0 N / m

.
1 2
=E mv max
2
2E ) 2(1.15 10 2 J
= v max = = 0.214m / s
m 0.500kg

.t=0

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4.15 Comparing simple


harmonic motion with uniform circul
circular motion
.
) (a13.15
. ) .(b13.15

.

(a) 13.15
.
.
(b) .

.

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14.15 .
A .
. .

14.15

15.15 P .Q .



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P A a15.15 OP
x .t=0 P
t=0 . OP
x b15.15 t>0 OP x .=t+
P x Q
x .x=A

P Q .x OPQ x

)x(t) = A cos (t+ )(15.23

6.15 Q x

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P ) y .(b15.15
x y
.90o

P T
= .x P
x=A
) x ( .
OP .x A
.

v=r
A .A c15.15 x
) .-Asin(t+ Q .dx/dt 23.15
Q x .P

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P O .v2/A=2A
d15.15 x ) .-2Acos(t+
Q x .23.15

6.15

16.15 .t=0
.
) 0.50m (a 1.00m (b) 0 0.50m (c) 0 1.00m (d) .

16.15 .

16.15

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5.15
3.00m .8.00rad/s t=0 x
2.00m (A) . x (B) . x
.

: =8.00rad/s
)x = A cos (t + )) = (3.00m) cos (8.00t +
x=2.00m .t=0
2.00m = (3.00m) cos (0+
)(0+
2.00m
= cos 1
3.00m

= 48.2 o = 0.841rad


)x = (3.00m) cos (8.00t+0.841

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=-0.84 rad
:
x = (3.00m) cos (8.00t
)(8.00t-0.841
.rad

) (B vx
dx
= vx )= ( 3.00m)(8.00rad / s ) sin(8.00t 0.841
dt
)= ( 24.0m / s ) sin(8.00t 0.841

ax
dv
= ax )= ( 24.0m / s )(8.00rad / s ) cos(8.00t 0.841
dt
)= (192m / s 2 ) cos(8.00t 0.841

vmax=24.0m/s .amax=192m/s2

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5.15 The pendulum


. m
L .17.15
. ) (10o
.

T .mg
mgsin =0
. restoring force
17.15
.

d 2s
Ft = mg sin = m .=0 -
dt 2
mgsin
mgsin
s
.
. s=L L :

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d 2 g
2
= sin
dt L

- 3.15
sin
.3.15
sin :

d 2 g
2
=
dt L )(15.24

3.15
. ) =max cos(t+ max
:

g
=
L )(15.25

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2 L
=T = 2
g )(15.26

.

.
.11.15

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7.15


) (a (b) ) (c

8.15

) (a(b)
) (c

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6.15
(1629-1695) Christian Huygens
. 1s

: 26.15
) T 2 g (1.00s ) 2 (9.80m / s 2
=L = = 0.248m
4 2 4 2
.

Huygens .

: 26.15
)4 2 L 4 2 (1.00m
=g 2
= 2
= 4 2 m / s 2 = 39.5m / s 2
T )(1.00

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Physical Pendulum

.
. .
.
.physical pendulum

(Pivot) O d .18.15
torque O mgd
sin 18.15 =I I
moment of inertia O 18.15

d 2 O
mgd sin = I
dt 2

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O .
. sin
:

d 2 mgd
= =
2
)(15.27
I
2
dt

3.15 . 27.15 =max


) cos(t+ max

mgd
=
I

2 I
=T = 2 )(15.28
mgd

.
d .

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28.15 ) (26.15 I=md2


.

7.15
M L
) .(19.15

: .1/3ML2 d
.L/2 15.28

ML2
1
2L
T = 2 3
= 2
)Mg ( L / 2 3g

19.15

d=L/2 I=1/3
ML2

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Torsional Pendulum

20.15 .

:

= -

torsion constant .
. :

d 2
= = I 2 20.15
dt

d 2 .
= )(15.29
dt 2
I OP .max

= / I

I
T = 2 )(15.29

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.torsional pendulum
elastic limit .

6.15 amped oscillations


Damped


.
.
.damped 21.15
. 21.15


.

.

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) R=-bv b (damping coefficient


kx :

F x = kx bv x = ma x

dx d 2x
kx b =m 2 )(15.31
dt dt x


.
b ) (31.15
22.15

b
t
.
x = Ae 2m
) cos(t + )(15.32
.

k b 2
= (15.3
)(15.33
m 2m

32.15 .31.15

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22.15 .

.
.damped oscillator 22.15
) (envelope .32.15
. .

) (33.15 :

b
2
=
2

2m

= k / m ) (
.natural frequency

Rmax=bvmax<kA
underdamped

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.23.15 b . b bc
bc/2m=o .critically damped

.23.15

Rmax=bvmax>kA
b/2m>o .overdamped
. 23.15

.23.15
) (a
32.15 . ) (b
) (c
. .
.

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9.15

.24.15
) (a (b) ) (c

(a) 24.15 .
(b) .
.

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7.15 Forced oscillations

.
.
.
.
.


F(t) = Fo sint w Fo .
o k .m

dx d 2x
F = ma Fo sin t b dt kx = m dt 2 )(15.34

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. .
.

stea .
steady state
34.15 :

) x = A cos(t +
)(15.35

Fo / m
=A
)(15.36
b
2

( 2 o ) 2 +
2

o = k / m ).(b=0

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) (35.15 ) (36.15
.
.o
resonance o
resonance frequency.

.
x 35.15 .
( sin .
v )sin(t+
F . F
.F.v F v
.

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25.15
.
) (b0 .


. ) (b=0
15.36
.o

)
.(25.15
.

.

1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge


.

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(a) 26.15 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge


(b) . .


.
.

67
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-
. x :
)x(t) = A cos ((t+

A . .

- T :
2
=T


2 m
=T = 2
k
.

- :
dx
=v ) = A sin(t +
dt

68
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:

d 2x
=a ) = 2 A cos(t +
dt 2
v = A 2 x 2

A .2A x=A
.x=0 .
:
1 2 1
=K ) mv = m 2 A 2 sin 2 (t +
2 2
1 2 1 2
) U = kx = kA cos 2 (t +
2 2

:
1 2
=E kA
2
.
.

- L

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:

L
T = 2
g


. :
I
T = 2
mgd
I d .
R=-bv
b
t
x = Ae 2m
) cos(t +

k b 2
=
m 2m
F(t) = Fo sint
.

70
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:


) (1
.
) (2 x=-Acost
t=0
) (3 t=0 t t
.
) (4 (a) : (b)
(c) .
) (5 .
) (6 .A
.
) (7

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) (8 .
) (a (b) (c) .
) (9 .

)(10

b k . )(11
. )(12
. )(13

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1.15
) (1 4.00m .
(a) ) (b (c)
.

2.15
) (2 :

x = (5.00 cm) cos (2t+/6


)/6

x t . t=0 ) (a (b) ) (c
(d) . .

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x = (4.00 cm) cos (3.00t+ x t . )(a


) (3 )t+
(b) (c) ) (d
.t=0.250s
) (4 xi vi ai
(a) :

v
x(t ) = xi cos t + i sin t

v
x(t ) = xi cos t + i sin t

) (b A

v 2 ax = vi a i xi = 2 A 2
2

) (5 12.0s 5 . ) (a (b)
) (c .rad/s
) (6 7kg .2.60s .

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:

) (7 .
5.00cm .3600rev/min
) (8 0.500kg k=8.00N/m
.10.0cm ) (a (b)
6.00cm (c) x=0 .x=8.00cm
) (9 1.00kg . 0.100m
. 0.500s
.
. .v )(10
(a) . (b) . )
(.

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:

3.15
) (K=6.50N/m )(11
.10.0cm
.30.0cm/s ) (a (b) (c) .
200g .0.250s )(12
2.00J ) (a (b) .
1000Kg . )(13
5.00x106N/m 3.16cm
. .
.3.5cm 250N/m )(14
0.500kg ) (a (b) (c) .
50.0g ) (k=35.0N/m )(15
.4.00c, ) (a (b) .1.00cm
) (c (d) .3.00cm

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:

. ) (a (b) )(16
(c) (d) .
.3.00cm )(17
.

4.15
3.00m/s bump )(18
(a) .15.25 (b) 0.300m

.15.26 )(19
.

15.25

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:

15.26

5.15
)(20
(a) .12.0s ) (b
1.67m/s2 .
)(21

= (0.320rad) cos t

rad .=4.43rad/s .

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:

0.250kg .1.00m 15.0o . )(a )(22


(b) (c)
m .R )(23

= g / R

.0.450Hz )(24
2.20kg 0.350m
.
2.00kg . )(25
3.00minutes

79
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:

6.15
)(26

dE
= bv 2
dt

1 1
) . : E = mv 2 + kx 2
2 2
.15.31

1.00m .15.0o 1000s .5.50o )(27


b/2m2
10.6kg ) .(k=2.05x104N/m )(28
(a) .b=3.00N.s/m (b) .
(c) . 5.00%
.

80
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:

7.15
2.00kg )(29
) .F=(3.00N)sin(2t 20.0N/m ) (a ) (b .
) (b=0 35.15 34.15 )(30
.36.15
40.0N .200N/m )(31
10Hz 2.00cm .
0.150kg 6.30N/m )(32
1.70N 0.440m

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